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# PARTICULARS

Name:

Class: XII A

Exam No:

Signature:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

## First of all I would like to express

my sense of gratitude to the school
Principal Dr.Thakur S.
Mulchandani and the Vice
Principal Mrs.Sheela John for
giving me an opportunity to attend
this project.

## Then I would like to express my

earnest appreciation to the Physics
teacher Mrs.Swapna and the lab
assistant Mrs.Usha for their
proper guidance which lead to the
successful completion of this
project.

## Last but not the least I would like to

thank my parents for providing me

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with the required sources for the
accomplishment of this project.

CONTENTS

3. Glass Slab

Concave Mirror

## 5. Identification of Circuit Elements and

Measurement of Resistance from colour
coded Carbon Resistors

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ACTIVITY 1

AIM:

## To assemble an electrical circuit to measure

the EMF and terminal voltage of a cell.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## Voltmeter , battery , one way key , ammeter ,

resistance box ,connecting wires.

THEORY:

## EMF –it is the potential difference when the

cell is not is not in use.

## Terminal Voltage-The potential difference

between the terminals of the circuit when the
current is drawn is drawn from it.

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V = E – IR , where l – Current

R – internal resistance

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

E – Battery
A – Ammeter
R – Resistor
Rh – Rheostat
V – Voltmeter
K – Key

MODEL GRAPH:

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PROCEDURE:

circuit diagram.

## 2. Measure emf of cell using voltmeter in

open circuit mode.

## 3. Introduce resistance of 2 in the

resistance box .Close the circuit and
measure the voltage across the cell.

## 4. Repeat the experiment with different

values of R as 5Ω , 10 Ω , 15 Ω , 100 Ω,
200 Ω , 500 Ω etc.…. and note the
corresponding terminal voltage.

## 5. Plot a graph between R and V as given

in the model graph.

OBSERVATION:
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Least Count of Voltmeter: 0.1 V

## S. EMF of External Terminal

No cell E, resistance Voltage
. (volt) (R)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
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10.

GRAPH:

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RESULT:

## 1. A circuit has been assembled using

given components.
2. As the external resistance is increased,
it is observed that emf of the cell
remains constant but terminal voltage of
cell increases.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

constant.

## 2. The connecting wires may not have

negligible resistance.

PRECAUTIONS:

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1. Use voltmeter, Ammeter, and Rheostat
of suitable range.

ACTIVITY 2

AIM:

## To find the variation in the potential drop with

length of potentiometer wire and to find

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## Potentiometer, battery, key, rheostat,

voltmeter, jockey and connecting wires.

THEORY:
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When the two ends of the wire are kept at
different potentials, a current flows along the
wire. This current causes fall in potential along
the length of the wire. Potential Gradient (V/L)
is a constant for a wire of uniform area of
cross-section.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

MODEL GRAPH:

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Sl
ope = Voltmeter Reading / Length

PROCEDURE:

## 1. Connect the battery to the ends A and

B of the potentiometer wire through a
rheostat and one way key K. Take care
that the positive terminal of the battery
should be connected to terminal A.

## 2. Connect the voltmeter with its positive

terminal to A and connect a jockey J at
the negative terminal.

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3. Plug the key in Km touch the jockey J
near the end B and adjust the rheostat
Rh so that the voltmeter reads the
voltmeter value.

## 4. Divide the total length of the wire into

10 parts. Touch the jockey K at the first
part say 50 cm and record the voltmeter
reading in tabular column. Take care that
the current remains steady in the
ammeter A.

## 5. Repeat step (4) nine times, every time

by lifting jockey J and touching 100 cm
drop at 150 cm, 250 cm, 350 cm, 450 cm
and so on up to 950 cm length of mark of
the wire of the potentiometer.

OBSERVATIONS:

## Least count of Voltmeter: 0.5 V

Range of Voltmeter: 0 – 3

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.
GRAPH:

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RESULT:

## 1. The graph between potential drop and

length of potentiometer wire is a straight
line.
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2. The potential gradient by calculation:

## 3. From graph, it is observed that the

potential drop per cm of the
potentiometer wire is:

PRECAUTIONS:

tight.

## 2. Voltmeter should be of proper range.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

ACTIVITY 3
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GLASS SLAB

AIM:

## To observe refraction and lateral deviation of

a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass
slab.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

## A rectangular glass slab, a sheet of white

paper, fixing pins, drawing pins, meter scale,
protractor and pencil.

THEORY:

## When a ray of light incident obliquely on a

rectangular glass slab, it suffers refraction
through the glass medium and emerges from
the glass slab in the same direction of the
incident ray. It suffers lateral displacement
(d), proportional to thickness (t) of glass slab.

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DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATION:

## S.N Thickne Later <i <r n=

o. ss of al <e Sin i /
slab Shift Sin r
(cm) (cm)
1.

2.

3.

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PROCEDURE:

## 1. Fix a sheet of white paper on the

drawing board with the help of fixing
pins.

## 2. Keep the glass slab at the central

position of the paper and mark its
boundary AB with a sharp pencil.

## 3. Remove the slab from the sheet and

draw a straight line PQ obliquely with the
help of a scale and keep the glass slab
on its drawn boundary.

## 4. Fix two drawing pins on the line PQ had

drawn obliquely at distances 6 cm
between themselves.

## 5. See the images of these pins through

the lower surface CD of the glass slab.

## 6. Fix two more drawing pins at distances

of 6 cm between them such that these
two pins cover the images of first two
pins at the upper surface of the glass
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slab. Take care that there should not be
any parallax between the object pins and
image pins, i.e., all four pins will appear
to lie along a straight line when seen
through the lower surface CD of the
glass slab.

## 7. Mark the position of the image pins by

using a pencil on the lower surface CD of
the glass slab.

## 9. Produce PQ forward to cut DC at T and

draw TU perpendicular to RS.

## 10. Measure the perpendicular distance TU

that will give the lateral displacement.

## 11. Repeat the experiment by placing the

slab of greater thickness. You will
observe that the lateral displacement
(t) is directly proportional to the
thickness (d) of the glass slab.

RESULT:

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1. The emergent ray is parallel to the
incident light and it is laterally
displaced.

## 2. The lateral displacement of the

emergent ray increases with the
increase in thickness of the glass slab.

## 3. The ratio sin i/sin r = constant. This

constant is called refractive index of
material of slab.
ACTIVITY 4

IMAGE FORMATION

AIM:

##  To study nature and size of image formed

by a convex lens on a screen using a
candle and screen for different distances
of candles from the lens.

##  To study the size of image formed by a

concave mirror using candle and screen
for different distances of candle from the
mirror.

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APPARATUS REQUIRED:

##  Convex lens, lens holder, candle, screen,

meter scale, etc…

##  Concave mirror, mirror holder, screen,

candle, meter scale..

THEORY:

## 1/f = 1/u + 1/v or f = (uv) / (u + v)

Where,

u – Object distance
v – Image distance
f – Focal length
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RAY DIAGRAMS: FOR CONVEX LENS

a) Object at Infinity

b) Object beyond 2F

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c) Object at 2F

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e) Object at F

## RAY DIAGRAMS FOR CONCAVE MIRROR:

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a) Object at Infinity

b) Object beyond

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c) Object at C

## d) Object between F and C

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e) Object at F

f) Object within F

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PROCEDURE FOR CONVEX LENS:

## 1. Find the approximate focal length of

the lens by obtaining a sharp and clear
image of the distant object on a white
paper.

spirit level.

## 3. Mount the convex lens in its holder and

keep it on the central upright of the optical
bench.

## 4. Mount the screen on the screen on the

right hand side upright and the burning
candle on another upright on the left of
the lens.

## 5. Keep the candle upright at F on the

optical bench. Try to locate the real
inverted image on the screen by moving

## 6. Now shift the candle position between

F and 2F on the optical bench. Move the
screen to the position beyond 2F.
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7. Now shift the candle to the position at
2F. Obtain the sharpest image by moving
farthest from the lens.

## 8. Shift the candle towards beyond 2F

and locate the sharpest image.

a sharp image.

## 1. Find the approximate focal length of

the given concave mirror by obtaining a
sharp and clear image of a distant object
on a white paper.

## 2. Lift the optical bench. Keep the mirror

on the clamp on one of the three uprights
on the bench and keep one near one end
of the optical bench.

## 3. Look into the mirror keeping your eye

at the height of the pole or vertex of
mirror.

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4. Mount the lighted candle and the
screen on the other two uprights and
adjust their heights in such a manner that
the top of the candle flame, the centre of
the white screen, i.e., the upper edge AB
of the slot in the screen and the pole of
the mirror lay at the same height.

## 5. Now adjust the upright carrying the

candle literally perpendicular to the scale
such that the line joining the pole of the
mirror and tip of the candle flame is
parallel to the length of the bench.

## 6. Find out the approximate position of

the centre of curvature using the relation
R = 2F

## 8. The centre of curvature c lies at a

distance R from the pole of the mirror.

## 9. Displace the candle upright towards the

pole of the mirror so that it lies between
the focus f and centre of curvature c of the
mirror.
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10. Locate the position of the image of the
candle flame on the principal axis of the
mirror. Adjust the position of the screen by
shifting it along the bench such that the
sharper image of the candle flame is
obtained on it. Since, the candle lies
between c and f, you see a real inverted
and magnified image beyond c.

## OBSERVATIONS FOR CONVEX LENS:

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S.N Positio Positio Nature Size of
o. n of n of of the
Object Image Image Image
Forme Forme
d d
1. At At F Real Point
Infinity and sized or
Inverte Highly
d Diminish
ed
2. Beyond Betwee Real Smaller
2F n F and and than
2F Inverte object
d
3. At 2F At 2F Real Same
and size as
Inverte the
d object
4. Betwee Beyond Real Larger
n F and 2F and than
2F Inverte object
d
5. At F At Real Infinitely
Infinity and large
Inverte
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d
6. Between f On the Virtual Larger
and same side
and than
of the
lens as erect object
the object

## OBSERVATIONS FOR CONCAVE MIRROR:

Position Of Position of
S.N Image (cm) Magnif
o. ed Or
Real Erect diminish
Objec Image or or ed
t Virtu Invert
al ed
1. At At F Real Inverte Point
Infinity d Image or
diminishe
d
2. Beyon Betwe Real Inverte Diminish
dC en F d ed
and C
3. At C At C Real Inverte Same
d size
4. Betwe Beyon Real Inverte Magnifie
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en F dC d d
and C
5. At F At Real Inverte Highly
Infinity d Magnifie
d
6. Within Behind Virtu Erect Magnifie
F the al d
mirror
RESULT

CONVEX LENS:

## 1. As the object is moved from infinity to

optic centre of convex lens, size of image

## 2. When the object is beyond 2F, the

image is smaller in size than the object.

## 3. When the object is at 2F, the image is

smaller in size than the object.

## 4. When the object is moved to a position

between F and 2F, the size of the image
becomes larger than the size of the object.

CONCAVE MIRROR:

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1. The size of the image gradually
increases as the object is moved towards
the concave mirror.

## 2. When the object is beyond c the image

is
smaller in size. And formed in between f
and c.

## 3. When the object is at c the image is

also formed at c and the image size
becomes equal to the object.
4. When the object is moved to position c
and f the size of the image becomes larger
and forward beyond c.

## 5. When the object is moved to position

within f the size of the image is highly
magnified and formed behind the mirror.

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ACTIVITY 5

## IDENTIFICATION OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS

AND
MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE

AIM:

## To identify circuit elements such as diode,

LED, transistor, capacitor and IC from a mixed
collection of such items and measurement of
resistance.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

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Battery eliminator, reversing key and mixed
collection of circuit elements.

THEORY:

## For identification, appearance and working of

each item has to be considered.

##  Diode: A diode is a two terminal device. It

conducts when forward biased. It does not
emit light while conducting.

##  Light emitting diode (LED): An LED is also

a two terminal device. It conducts when
forward biased and does not conduct
when reverse biased. It emits light while
conducting.

##  Transistor: A transistor is a three terminal

device. These terminals represent emitter
(E), base (B) and collector (C).

##  Integrated Circuit (IC): An IC is a multi –

terminal device in the form of a chip.

##  Resistor: A resistor is a two terminal

device. It conducts when operated with AC
as well as DC voltages.
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 Capacitor: A capacitor is a two terminal
device. It does not conduct with DC
voltage.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

E – Battery
Rh – Rheostat
Ma – Multiammeter, K – Reversing Key
PROCEDURE:

component.

## 2. If it has four or more terminals and has

the appearance of a chip, i.e., black
rectangular block then it is an AC.

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3. If it has three terminals; the
component in all probability is a transistor.
To confirm, set up the multimeter in
resistance mode.

## 4. Connect the black terminal or

common terminal of the multimeter to one
of the extreme legs of the component and
the second red terminal or positive
terminal of the multimeter to the central
leg of the component. Check the
multimeter deflection. f the deflection is
observed, interchange the multimeter
terminals. If no deflection is observed, the
component is a transistor. Repeat this test
by connecting the multimeter terminals to
the central leg of the transistor; if similar
behavior is observed, the component is a
transistor.

## 5. If the component has two terminals, it

could be a resistor, a capacitor, a diode or
LED.

## 6. Look for colour bands, if it has a typical

set of three colour bands followed by a
silver or gold band, the component is a
resistor.
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7. Connect the multimeter terminals to the
component terminals and watch for
multimeter deflection keeping the
multimeter knob in resistance mode.

## 8. If the multimeter shows a deflection,

the component could be a resistor, a diode
or LED.

## 9. If the deflection is accompanied with

an emission of light, the component is a
LED.

## 10. If no light is emitted then interchange

the multimeter terminals connected to
the component.

## 11. If the component still gives deflection

in a multimeter, then the component is a
resistor.

## 12. If the pointer of the multimeter show

deflection when its terminals are
connected across the component in one
direction and does not show deflection
when the terminal, of the multimeter in
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opposite direction and also there is no
emission of light, then the component is a
diode.

## 13. If the multimeter does not show any

deflection on connecting its terminals
either way to component, then it is a
capacitor.

OBSERVATION:

o. of current
leg
s

## 1. Resistor 2 The conduction

in both the
sides i.e.,
Bi - Directional
2. pn 2 Unidirectional
junction current without
diode emission of
light
3. LED 2 Unidirectional
conduction
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with emission
of light
4. Capacito 2 Momentarily
r deflection
5. Transisto 3 It consists of three
terminals known
r
as base, emitter
and collector
6. Integrat Mult Consisting of
ed i passive
Circuit legs elements like
(IC) resistors and
active
elements like
diodes and
transistors.

N tance mete nce
o. r
ng
1.

2.

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3.

4.

5.

RESULT:

##  A diode, an LED, a transistor, an IC, a

resistor, and a capacitor are identified
from a mixed collection.
 Resistance of carbon resistor were noted
with a multimeter and compared with the
calculated value.

PRECAUTIONS:

## 1. High voltage should not be applied as

it may damage circuit elements.
2. Current in circuit should be constant.

SOURCES OF ERROR:
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1. Current in circuit may not be constant.
2. Circuit elements may be damaged due
to supply of high voltage.

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