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Literature review on the Internet of Things

and it’s applications

Iot encompass every aspect of our lives, and its foundation is the intelligence that embedded
processing provides. The IoT is comprised of smart machines interacting and communicating with
other machines, objects, environments and infrastructures. As a result, huge volumes of data are
being generated, and that data is being processed into useful actions that can “command and
control” things to make our lives much easier and safer and to
reduce our impact on the environment.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects like devices, vehicles,
buildings and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and
network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data. The
IoT allows objects to be sensed and controlled remotely across existing network
infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world
into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and
economic benefit. When IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology
becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which
also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, smart homes, intelligent
transportation and smart cities.

 Intelligence: IoT comes with the combination of algorithms and computation, software
and hardware that makes it smart. IoT enhances its capabilities which facilitate the things
to respond in an intelligent way to a particular situation and supports them in carrying out
specific tasks.

 Connectivity: Connectivity empowers Internet of Things by bringing together everyday

objects. It enables network accessibility and compatibility in the things. With this
connectivity, new market opportunities for Internet of things can be created by the
networking of smart things and applications.
 Dynamic Nature: The primary activity of Internet of Things is to collect data from its
environment, this is achieved with the dynamic changes that take place around the devices.
The state of these devices change dynamically, example sleeping and waking up, connected
and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including temperature, location and
speed. In addition to the state of the device, the number of devices also changes
dynamically with a person, place and time.

 Enormous Scale: The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate
with each other will be much larger than the devices connected to the current Internet. The
management of data generated from these devices and their interpretation for application
purposes becomes more critical.

 Sensing: IoT wouldn’t be possible without sensors which will detect or measure any
changes in the environment to generate data that can report on their status or even interact
with the environment. Sensing technologies provide the means to create capabilities that
reflect a true awareness of the physical world and the people in it. The sensing information
is simply the analogue input from the physical world, but it can provide the rich
understanding of our complex world.

 Heterogeneity: Heterogeneity in Internet of Things as one of the key characteristics.

Devices in IoT are based on different hardware platforms and networks and can interact
with other devices or service platforms through different networks. IoT architecture should
support direct network connectivity between heterogeneous networks.

 Security: IoT devices are naturally vulnerable to security threats. There is a high level of
transparency and privacy issues with IoT. It is important to secure the endpoints, the
networks, and the data that is transferred across all of it means creating a security paradigm.

 Traffic Management: As populations grow, the number of vehicles on roads increase as
well, leading to traffic jams that pose major problems for commuters. IoT solutions that
connect devices, such as smartphones, traffic signals, cameras and vehicles, can be used to
create a smart transportation grid wherein information collected by each device can be used
to prevent traffic jams. Data collected from devices can be used to inform drivers of
congestions and monitor overall traffic patterns.

 Energy Conservation: With the deterioration of the environment and global warming,
energy management and conservation is of vital importance. A lot of this starts within our
own homes, where regulation of electricity and water consumption can save both money
and resources. Smart meters, which are connected to lights, fans and other electrical
appliances can let owners monitor energy usage. Automatic sensors and controllers that
switch off lights and air-conditioners when the home is empty can help limit the usage of
 Agricultural Problems: Farming and agriculture form the basis of economies in several
developing countries and are critical areas of development for governments. Since both
these activities rely heavily on natural occurrences, environments, and conditions,
predictive technologies become an essential tool for planning. Agricultural IoT solutions
can provide farmers with invaluable data about soil conditions, crop yields and rainfall, to
help them predict and plan activities accordingly. Data collecting software can be
synchronized with machines used in fields to completely automate the farming process,
reducing the dependency on manual labour.

 Enviornmental monitoring: Environmental monitoring applications of the IoT typically

use sensors to assist in environmental protection by monitoring air or water quality,
atmospheric or soil conditions, and can even include areas like monitoring the movements
of wildlife and their habitats.

 Infrastructure management: Monitoring and controlling operations of urban and rural

infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks, on- and offshore- wind-farms is a key
application of the IoT. The IoT infrastructure can be used for monitoring any events or
changes in structural conditions that can compromise safety and increase risk.

 Manufacturing: Network control and management of manufacturing equipment, asset and

situation management, or manufacturing process control bring the IoT within the
realm on industrial applications and smart manufacturing as well.

 Medical and healthcare systems: IoT devices can be used to enable remote health
monitoring and emergency notification systems. These health monitoring devices can
range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices capable of
monitoring specialized implants, such as pacemakers or advanced hearing aids.

 Building and home automation: IoT devices can be used to monitor and control the
mechanical, electrical and electronic systems used in various types of buildings (e.g.,
public and private, industrial, institutions, or residential) in home automation and building
automation systems.

Embedded processing is already happening everywhere around us. At home, appliances as
mundane as your basic toaster now come with an embedded MCU that not only sets the darkness
of the piece of toast to your preference, but also adds functional safety to the device. Your
refrigerator has started talking to you and keeping track of what you put in it. There are energy-
aware HVAC systems that can now generate a report on the activity in your house and recommend
ways to reduce your energy consumption. The electrification of vehicles has already started
happening, and in just a few years from now, each car will contain > 50 percent more electronics
than it did just five years ago. The cars of the future will indeed be able to drive themselves. Similar
changes are also happening in other aspects of our lives, in factories, transportation, school
systems, stadiums and other public venues. Embedded processing is everywhere. The pieces of the
technology puzzle are coming together to accommodate the Internet of Things sooner than most
people expect. Just as the Internet phenomenon happened not so long ago and caught like a
wildfire, the Internet of Things will touch every aspect of our lives in less than a decade.


1. Friedemann Mattern and Christian Floerkemeier: From the Internet of Computers to the
Internet of Things (2015).
2. Ashton, K.: That ‘Internet of Things’ Thing. RFID Journal,
print/4986 (2009).
3. Internet of Things Architecture (2015).
4. The Internet of Things: How the Next Evolution of the internet Is Changing Everything
5. Fleisch, E.: What is the Internet of Things? When Things Add Value. Auto-ID Labs White
Paper WP-BIZAPP-053, Auto-ID Lab St. Gallen, Switzerland (2010)
6. Internet of Things Architecture (2015).