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dings of
o the 15th
1 E
Europe ean
onferennce on
n Soil Mecha
M anics aand
Geootechniical En
Geottechnics off Hard Soilss – Weak Rocks

Compttes Ren
ndus duu 15ème Cong grès Eurropéenn
de Mécaniq
M que dess Sols & de Gééotechnnique
La Gééotechnique des Sols Induréés – Roches T

Part 1, 2 and 3

Edited by
Andreas Anagnosstopoulos
National Tech
hnical University of Athens

hael Pach
nsulting Eng
gineers SA
Christtos Tsatssanifos
Consulting En
ngineers LTD

Amstterdam • Berrlin • Tokyo • Washington, DC

© 2011 The authors and IOS Press.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without prior written permission from the publisher.

ISBN 978-1-60750-800-7 (print)

ISBN 978-1-60750-801-4 (online)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011934720

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Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering v
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Part 1
1.1. Field Investigations / Investigations In situ 1

L’HyperPac 25 MPa comble le vide entre le pressiomètre Ménard et le dilatomètre flexible 3

HyperPac 25 MPa Fills the Gap Between the Ménard Pressuremeter and the Flexible Dilatometer
G. Arsonnet, J.-P. Baud, M. Gambin and R. Heintz
Hydraulic Properties of Upper Eocene Flysch, at Papadates, Preveza Province, Greece 9
Les propriétés hydrauliques du haut-éocene flysch, au Papadates, Preveza province, de la Grèce
N. Barounis, A. Barounis, K. Karadima and P.H. McMahon
Laboratory and Field Investigation in Porto Romano Durres 15
Investigations en laboratoire et in situ dans Porto Romano Durres
L. Bozo, S. Allkja and L. Harizaj
Mechanical Properties of Low Plasticity Clayey Soil of the Embedded Daugava Ancient River
Channel in the Foundation of Plavinas Dam, Latvia 21
Propriétés mécaniques des sols argileux de faible plasticité du chenal ancienne de la rivière Daugava
enchâssé à la Fondation de Plavinas barrage, Lettonie
S. Dišlere and D. Pāruma
Landslide Stabilization Along a National Road 25
Stabilisation d’un glissement de terre sur une route nationale
V. Farcas, N. Ilies, A. Popa, C. Gherman, O. Muresan and I. Molnar
Intesa-San Paolo Tower in Turin – Geotechnical Issues 31
Intesa San Paolo Tour en Turin – Geotechniques probleme
A. Gasparre, H.D. St. John, M. Jamiolkowski and G. Rocchi
Investigations and Interpretation of Results from Dynamic Probing DPH from the N10*-Values
of an Data Acquisition 37
Exploration et interprétation des résultats de la pénétration dynamique de la N10*-valeurs d’une acquisition
des données
R.A. Herrmann and T. Lauber
Mechanical Properties of Semi-Rocks Soils and Methods of Their Determination 43
Propriétés de mécaniques de la pierre calcaive et méthods pour la détermination de leurs
N.V. Kornienko, A.V. Novskiy, V.A. Novskiy, A.P. Tkalich and Y.F. Tugaenko
Development of an Instrumented Subassembly for Energy Measurements in SPT Tests 49
Développement d’une tige instrumenté pour mesurer l’énergie d’essai de pénétration standard (SPT)
J.A. Lukiantchuki, L.P.R. de Oliveira and E.R. Esquivel
Geotechnical Conditions for the Construction of Tunnel “Progon” on the Dimitrovgrad Bypass
in Serbia 55
Conditions géotechniques pour la construction du tunnel « Progon » sur la rocade Dimitrovgrad en Serbie
S. Milenkovic, B. Jelisavac, V. Vujanic and M. Jotic

Empirical Determination of the Undrained Shear Strength of Very Stiff to (Very) Hard
Cohesive Soils from SPT Tests 61
Détermination empirique de la cohésion non drainée des argiles très raides a très dures, a partir des
essais de Pénétration Standard
C. Plytas, A. Baltzoglou, G. Chlimintzas, G. Anagnostopoulos, A. Kozompolis and
Ch. Koutalia
Facteur d’influence des paramètres de forage 67
Influence Factors of Measuring While Drilling Method
Ph. Reiffsteck
Geophysical Site Characterization of a Volcanic Massif with Combined Surface and Borehole
Seismic Methods 73
Caractérisation géophysiques du site, d’un massif volcanique avec la combinaison des méthodes sismiques
de surface et celle réaliser dans un trou de forage
R. Rocha, N. Cruz, C. Rodrigues and F. Almeida
Investigation of Interdependence of Map and Distract Represented on It at Engineering –
Geological Researches in Construction 79
L’investigation de l’interdépendance de la carte et la localité représenté sur elle aux reconnaissance
du sol de fondation dans la construction
V.S. Shokarev, A.S. Shokarev, A.K Solonetz and A. Zhusupbekov
Stabilization of Gravel Deposits Using Microorganisms 85
La stabilisation des dépôts de gravier à l’aide des microorganismes
W.R.L. van der Star, W.K. van Wijngaarden-van Rossum, L.A. van Paassen,
L.R. van Baalen and G. van Zwieten
Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods for Identification of Subsoil Stratigraphy 91
Efficacité des méthodes de classification basées sur le CPT pour l’identification de la stratigraphie des sols
M.T. Tumay, Y.H. Karasulu, Z. Młynarek and J. Wierzbicki
Problems Caused by the Presence of Hard Concretions and Lithified Beds in the Subsoil
on the Realisation of Geotechnical Investigations and Infrastructure Projects 99
Problèmes causés par la présence de concrétions dures et d’horizons lithifiés dans le sol lors de
l’exécution de projets d’infrastructure
G. van Alboom, I. Vergauwen, J. Maertens and W. Maekelberg

1.2. Laboratory Testing / Essais en laboratoire 105

Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviour of a Saturated Compacted Scaly Clay 107

Microstructure et comportement mécanique d’une argile écailleuse compactée et saturée
C. Airò Farulla and M. Rosone
Dynamic Poisson Ratio Analysis 115
Analyse du coefficient de Poisson dynamique
M.F. Amaral, A. Viana da Fonseca, J. Carvalho and N.C. Consoli
Estimation of UCS from PLT for Sedimentary Rocks, with Emphasis to Conglomerate and
Breccias 121
Estimation de la résistance á la compression de l’essai ponctuel, avec emphases á conglomérâtes et breccia
A.A. Antoniou

Experimental Evaluation of Free Swell Method to Measure Swelling Pressure of Expansive

Soil 127
Évaluation expérimentale de méthode swell libre pour mesurer la pression de gonflement du sol gonflant
M.F. Attom and M.M. El-Emam
Compression Index Cc and Recompression Index Cr of Zagreb Area Clays 133
Indice de compression, Cc, et indice de recompression, Cr, des argiles de Zagreb
I. Bradvica and G. Mitrović
Measuring the Static and Dynamic Small Strain Stiffness of UK Mudrocks 137
La caractérisation de la rigidité aux petites deformations d’argilites anglaises par méthodes statiques
et dynamiques
A. Brosse, R. Hosseini Kamal, R. Jardine and M.R. Coop
Effects of Structure Changes in the Stress-Strain Strength Behaviour of a Sienitic Residual
Soil 143
Effets des changements de structure dans le comportement contrainte-déformation résistance d’un sol
sienitic résiduelle
T.M.O. Carvalho, T.M.P. de Campos and F.S. Antunes
Grain Size Distribution and Particle Shape Effects on Shear Strength of Sand – Gravel
Mixtures 149
Effets dus à la granulométrie et à la forme des particules sur la résistance au cisaillement du sable –
mélanges de gravier
F. Casini, S. Brauchli, R. Herzog and S.M. Springman
Un nouvel essai d’émiettage pour mieux caractériser l’effet de l’eau sur les sols 155
An “Enhanced Crumb Test” for Better Characterizing Water Effects on Soils
C. Chevalier, I. Haghighi, T. Martin and P. Reiffsteck
Influence of Fibre Inclusion on Crack Propagation 161
L’influence d’inclusion de fibre sur la propagation de première
A. Chegenizadeh and H. Nikraz
Validation of a Methodology for Reconstituting Weakly Cemented Sandstones 167
Validation d’une méthodologie pour la reconstitution de grès faiblement cimenté
P.A.L.F. Coelho, V.D. Marques, P.S. Andrade and P.P. Cunha
The Influence of Microfabrics in Bonded Soils Behaviour, Based in Laboratorial Comparison
of Artificially and Naturally Cemented Specimens 173
L’influence des microstructures dans le comportement des sols collés, basée sur la comparaison,
en laboratoire, de spécimens artificiellement et naturellement cimentés
N. Cruz, C. Rodrigues and A. Viana da Fonseca
Determination of the Small-Strain Stiffness of Hard Soils by Means of Bender Elements and
Accelerometers 179
Détermination de la rigidité à petite déformation des sols indurés par bender elements et accéléromètres
C. Ferreira, J.P. Martins and A. Gomes Correia
Measurement of Stiffness of Greek Stiff Soils 185
Mesures de rigidité des argiles raides en Grèce
V.N. Georgiannou, P. Ferreira and F. Altuhafi
Laboratory Measurement of Shear Stiffness of Decomposed Granite 191
Mesures en laboratoire de la rigidité de cisaillement d’un granite décomposé
X.Q. Gu and J. Yang

Rapid Estimation of Residual Shear Strength by Ring Shear Test 197

Estimation rapide de la résistance au cisaillement résiduelle par l’essai de cisaillement annulaire
R. Iyisan, G. Cevikbilen and M. Hatipoglu
Laterally Cyclic Loading of Monopile in Dense Sand 203
Chargement lateral cyclique de monopile dens le sable dense
R.T. Klinkvort, O. Hededal and M. Svensson
Evaluation of Initial Stiffness of Natural Overconsolidated Cohesive Soils 209
Evaluation de la rigidité initiale des sols naturels, preconsolidés, cohérents
M.J. Lipiński and W. Tymiński
Some Comments on the Grading Entropy Variation and Crushing of Various Sands 215
Quelques comments au variation d’entropie granulométrique et rupture des carbonate sable
J. Lorincz, L. Kárpáti, P.Q. Trang, E. Imre and S. Fityus
Effectiveness of Microfine Cement Suspension Grouting 223
Efficacité des ciments très fins en suspension d’injections
I.N. Markou and A.I. Droudakis
Reflections on Primary and Secondary Consolidation 229
Réflexions sur la consolidation primaire et secondaire
N. Mortensen
UCS Estimation for Maastricht Limestones by Needle Penetration Testing 235
Estimation de la resistance à la compression simple des calcaires Maastrichtians par le test de
resistance à l’enfoncement d’une aiguille
D.J.M. Ngan-Tillard, H.K. Engin, W. Verwaal and A. Mulder
Mechanical Behavior of Microfine Cement Grouted Sands 241
Comportement mécanique des sables injectés par coulis de micro ciment
I.A. Pantazopoulos and D.K. Atmatzidis
Essais de cisaillement direct sur interfaces sol granulaire-structure chargées à très grand nombre
de cycles et interprétation préliminaire 247
Direct shear tests on granular soil-structure interfaces involving a large number of cycles and preliminary
S. Pra-Ai and M. Boulon
The Performance of Prefabricated Vertical Drain (PVD) Preloading with and Without Vacuum
and Heat 253
Le Comportement du Drain Verticale Prefabriquee (PVD) prechargee et non precharge avec Vacuum et
J. Saowapakpiboon, D.T. Bergado, N. Teerachaikulpanich and P. Voottipruex
Compaction and Liquefaction of Sand Caused by a Large Number of Loading Cycles 261
Densification et liquefaction du sable chargé par un grand nombre des cycles
A. Sawicki, W. Świdziński and J. Mierczyński
The Instrumentation of Parameters of Thermal Radiation and of Acoustic Emission as a
Source of Information Concerning the Processes of Deformation of Soft Rock Specimens 267
L’instrumentation des paramètres du rayonnement thermique et de l’émission acoustique en tant que
source d’information concernant le processus de déformation des échantillons de roche molle
V.I. Sheinin, D.I. Blokhin and A.V. Favorov

Cyclic Behaviour of Saturated Sands Subject to Previous Horizontal Shear Stresses 275
Comportement cyclique des sables saturés soumis à des contraintes précédentes de cisaillement horizontal
A. Soriano, H. Patiño, J. González and M. Valderrama
The Effect of Mechanical Remoulding on the Compression and Strength Characteristics of a
Mercia Mudstone 281
L’effet de remaniement mécanique sur les caractéristiques de compression et la force d’un mudstone
S.E. Stallebrass and L.J. Seward
An Investigation of the Long-Term Engineering Response of Intact Chalk 287
Étude de l’influence d’un ouvrage de génie civil à long terme sur un calcaire intact
K.J.L. Stone and K.I. Katsaros
Statistical Evaluation of Geotechnical Laboratory Round Robin Tests in Hungary 293
Evaluation statistique des resultats des tests de plusieurs laboratoires géotechniques de la Hongrie
A. Takács and A. Mahler
Engineering Properties of Marls from Small to Large Strains 299
Propriétés mécaniques des marnes de petites à grandes déformations
Th. Tika, P. Kallioglou and St. Elpekos
An Integrated Geotechnical Study of UK Mudrocks 305
Une étude géotechnique intégrée des argilites du Royaume-Uni
S. Wilkinson, A. Brosse, C.H. Fenton, R. Hosseini Kamal, R.J. Jardine and M.R. Coop
The Transitional Behavior of Loosely Compacted Completely Decomposed Granite 311
Le comportement transitoire de granit faiblement compacté complètement décomposé
J.J. Zhang and C.Y. Cheuk
Adhesion Measurements on Conditioned Clays 317
Mesure d’adhésion d’argiles traitées
R. Zumsteg, M. Plötze, A.M. Puzrin, H. Egli and A. Walliser

1.3. Classification / Classification 323

Classification des sols et des roches à partir d’essais d’expansion cylindrique en haute pression 325
Soil and Rock Classification Based on High Pressure Borehole Expansion Tests
J.P. Baud and M. Gambin
Rock Mass Characterization for Tunnels in Limestone in Copenhagen and Malmö Area 331
Caractérisation de Massifs Rocheux Calcaires pour de Tunnels à Copenhague et dans la Région de Malmö
N. Foged, S. Stabell and B. Foged
Specific Features of Weak Rock Laboratory Testing 337
Les caractèristiques spéciales des essais de laboratoire des roches faibles
J. Frankovská and T. Durmeková
Classification et caractérisation d’une craie blanche sénonienne pour la réalisation de deux
tranchées de grande profondeur 343
Classification and Characterization of an Upper White Chalk for the Construction of Two Deep Railway
M. Haghgou

Some Basic Trends on the Geotechnical Characteristics of Lisbon Miocene Clays 351
Certaines tendances de base sur les caractéristiques géotechniques des argiles du Miocène de Lisbonne
M. Lopes Laranjo, M. Matos Fernandes and J. Almeida e Sousa
Geotechnical Properties of the Chalk in East London and the Thames Gateway 357
Les propriétés mécaniques de la Craie dans l’est de Londres et la région de Thames Gateway
C.O. Menkiti, A.S. Merritt, C.K. Choy, R.N. Mortimore and M. Black
On the Properties of Cambrian Clay and Sandstones 363
Les caractèristiques de l’argile Cambrien et les pierres calcaires poreuses
M. Mets, J. Miljan and R. Raudsepp
Les “Terres Noires” du Dauphiné, un cas de roche très sensible aux variations climatiques 369
The Dauphiné “Black Marls”: A Very Sensitive Weak Rock
J. Monnet, D. Fabre and M. Zielinski
The Relevance of Lithostratigraphy in the Assessment and Investigation of Engineering Ground
Conditions in UK Mudstones 375
La pertinence du lithostratigraphy dans l’évaluation et la recherche sur les conditions au sol de technologie
en argilite UK
K.J. Northmore, D.C. Entwisle, H.J. Reeves, P.R.N. Hobbs and M.G. Culshaw
A New Concept to Identify and Characterize Active Clays 381
Un concept nouveau d’identifier et caracteriser les argiles actives
A. Stanciu, I. Lungu, L. Ciobanita and M. Aniculaesi

2.1. Selection of Parameters / Sélection des paramètres 387

Foundation of a Gravity Dam on Layered Soft Rock. Shear Strength of Bedding Planes in
Laboratory and Large “in situ” Tests 389
Fondations d’un barrage en arc sur des bancs de roc tendre. Resistance en cisaillement des plans de
stratification en laboratoire et essais in situ à grande échelle
E.E. Alonso, N.M. Pinyol and J.A. Pineda
Deformation of Cylindrical Cavities in Cross-Anisotropic Rock 395
Déformation de cavités cylindriques dans la roche anisotrope transverse
A. Blioumi and D. Kolymbas
Re-Assessment of the Shear Strength of the Oligocene Clay from the Buda Area Based on the
Site Investigation of the Metro Line 4 401
Re-évaluation de la résistance au cisaillement de l’argile oligocène de la région de Buda basée sur l’étude
du ligne 4 du métro
Gy. Horváth and B. Móczár
Advances in Tunneling Simulation – A Probabilistic Approach 407
Des progrès dans la simulation des tunnels – une approche probabilistique
M. Huber, P.A. Vermeer, P.M. Stroehle and C. Moormann
Mechanical Behaviour of Disintegrated Rockfill 413
Comportement mécanique d’enrochement désagrégé
K. Kast

Vibrational Reliability of Rigid Structures on Soil with Random Elastic Parameters 419
La fiabilité de vibration de structures rigides sur le sol avec paramètres élastiques aléatoire
M.L. Kholmyansky
Triaxial, DSS, CRS Tests and Numerical Simulations of Soft Soils at River Dike 427
Essais triaxiaux, essais de cisaillement direct, essais de cisaillement à taux constant de déformation,
et simulations numériques de sols mous pour une digue fluviale
H.J. Lengkeek and R. Bouw
Estimation of Geotechnical Properties and Classification of Geotechnical Behaviour in
Tunnelling for Flysch Rock Masses 435
Estimation des propriétés géotechniques et classification du comportement des massifs rocheux du
flysch aux tunnels
V. Marinos, P. Fortsakis and G. Prountzopoulos
Determination of the Physical Parameters of Soil from Pressuremeter Tests 441
Calcul des paramètres physiques des sols à partir des résultats des essais préssiométriques
J. Mecsi
Geotechnical Mapping of the SGGW Campus in Warsaw Applying the Bayesian Approach 447
La cartes géotechniques du Campus SGGW à Varsovie en appliquant de l’approche bayésienne
S. Rabarijoely, K. Garbulewski, J. Rajtar and S. Jabłonowski
Aspects on the Laboratory Frost Heave Testing Procedure 453
Aspects sur la procédure d’essai de laboratoire de soulèvement dû au gel
S. Saarelainen, H. Gustavsson and T. Ono
Propriétés mécaniques d’une marne 459
Mechanical Properties of a Marl
J.F. Serratrice
Stiffness of the Soil Determined from in Situ Testing 465
La raideur du sol déterminé sur des essais en place
Z. Skutnik, M. Bajda and M. Lech
Stiffness of Overconsolidated Hard Sandy Clay Soils 471
La rigidité des argiles dures, sablonneux et surconsolidées
R.P. Thompson, J.M. Belton and A.F. Booer
On the Shear Strength of Weak Rocks 477
Sur la résistance de cisaillement des roches tendres
E. Togrol and F. Kıran
Geotechnical Experiences with Most Clay 481
Expérience de Géotechnique avec Most argile
I. Vaníček
Predicting Shear Strength Mobilization of London Clay 487
Prévision de la mobilization de résistance au cisaillement d’argile de Londres
P.J. Vardanega and M.D. Bolton
Petrographic and Textural Characteristics and Mechanical Behaviour of Sicilian Calcarenites 493
Caractéristiques pétrographiques et structurelles et comportement mécanique des calcarénites de Sicile
M. Zimbardo, N. Nocilla and L. Ercoli

2.2. Modelling / Modélisation 499

A Soft Rock Model for Cement Improved Clays 501

Un modèle de roche tendre pour des argiles traitées avec du ciment
M. Arroyo, M. Ciantia, R. Castellanza and A. Gens
Application of a Constitutive Model for Structured Soils in Hard Soils 507
Application d’un modèle de comportement pour les sols structurés dans les sols durs
G. Belokas and M. Kavvadas
Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing in Clay, Sand and Rock 513
Mécanismes de fracturation hydraulique dans l’argile, le sable et la roche
A. Bezuijen and A.F. van Tol
Use of a Damage Parameter to Model the Mechanical Behavior of Marls 519
Utilisation d’un paramètre de dommage pour modeler le comportement mécanique des marnes
L. Caldeira, E. Maranha das Neves and R. Cardoso
On the Model Requirements to Predict the Behaviour of Fissured Clays 525
Sur les ingrédients pour la modélisation du comportement des argiles fissures
F. Cotecchia and C. Vitone
Stiffness Parameters for a Deep Tunnel – Developing a Robust Parameter Selection Framework 531
Paramètres de rigidité pour un tunnel profond – Développement d’un cadre robuste pour la
sélection des parameters
J. Eadington and A.S. O’Brien
An Extended Drucker-Prager Hardening Model for Cross-Anisotropy of Soft Rocks 537
Un modèle de comportement à écrouissage de type Drucker-Prager pour roches tendres à anisotropie
B. François, F. Collin, A. Dizier and R. Charlier
Long Term Accumulation of Deformation in Granular Soils Under Multi-Axial Cyclic Loading 541
Accumulation de déformation à long terme dans les sols granulaires sous chargement cyclique multi-axiale
S. François, P. Franken, G. Degrande and W. Haegeman
The Influence of Stiffness Anisotropy on the Behaviour of a Stiff Natural Clay 545
L’influence de l’anisotropie de déformation sur la réponse d’une argile rigide naturelle
A. Grammatikopoulou, F.C. Schroeder, N. Kovacevic, V. Germano and A. Gasparre
Elasto-Viscoplastic Modeling of Soft Rock Time Dependent Behavior 551
Modelisation elasto-viscoplastique du comportement dependent du temps de rocher mou
F.E. Karaoulanis and Th. Chatzigogos
Analysis of the Behavior of Massive Plate Foundations on Viscoelastic Base 557
Analyse du comportement des massifs plaque fondations sur la base viscoélastique
Y. Kirichek
Elasto-Viscoplastic Constitutive Modeling of Soft Sedimentary Rocks 563
Elasto-viscoplastic modelage constitutif de pierres sédimentaires douces
F. Oka, S. Kimoto and Q.H. Nguyen
A Multilaminate Soil Model for Highly Overconsolidated Clays 569
Un modèle de sol multi-plan pour les argiles fortement surconsolidées
B. Schädlich and H.F. Schweiger

Research on Hydraulic Heaves at Excavations with Surcharge Filters 575

Recherche sur la stabilité contre des soulèvements d’eau les de l’excavation avec un filtre de surcharge
P. Schober, C. Boley and B. Odenwald
Triaxial Test Simulation on Erksak Sand Using Hardening Soil Model 581
Simulation des essais triaxiaux sur le sable Erksak avec le modèle Hardening Soil
I. Sokolić and Ž. Skazlić
Cemented Soil Modelling Based on the Principles of Thermodynamics and the Critical State
Theory 587
Modèle de comportement des sols cimentés fondé sur les principes de la thermodynamique et la théorie
d’Etat Critique
R. Tamagnini, M. Mavroulidou and M.J. Gunn
Specifics of Behavior of Subsoils Consisting of Hard Proterozoic Deposits 593
Spécifités du travail de sous-sol de dépôts protérozoïques durs
V.M. Ulitsky, V.A. Vasenin, A.G. Shashkin and C.G. Shashkin
Neural Modelling of the Fly Ash Compaction Curve 601
Modélisation neuronale de courbe de compactage des cendres volantes
K. Zabielska-Adamska and M.J. Sulewska

2.3. Unsaturated Hard Soils – Weak Rocks / Sols indurés non saturés – Roches tendres 607

Measuring the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve of Structured and Recomposed Soils 609
Mesure de la courbe caractéristique sol-eau des sols structurés et recomposés
M. Bardanis and S. Grifiza
Modeling the Oedometric Behavior of an Evolving Marl Under Stress and Suction Cycles 615
Modulation du comportement oedometrique de une marne évolutive sur cycles de contrainte et succion
R. Cardoso and E.E. Alonso
Etude experimentale du comportement des sols gonflants sur le site de Ouarzazate. Maroc 621
Experimental Studies in the Behavior of Swelling Soil in Ouarzazate. Morocco
H. Ejjaaouani, V. Shakhirev and J.P. Magnan
A Contribution to Improve the Understanding of Softening in Stiff Overconsolidated Clays and
Marls 629
Une contribution à améliorer la compréhension d’adoucissement dans les argiles surconsolidées rigides et
M. Maček, B. Pulko and A. Petkovšek
Structure and Collapsibility of Loess Soils in Middle Asia 635
Structure et dégradation des sols de lœss en Asie Moyenne
C. Meier, C. Boley and Y. Zou
In-situ and Laboratory Water Retention Characteristics in a Silty Sand Dyke 641
Détermination in situ et en laboratoire des caractéristiques de rétention en eau d’un sable limoneux
W.F. Morales, P.A. Mayor, S.M. Springman and A. Vogel
Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of Jurassic Marls to Study Load Degradation 647
Caractérisation hydro-mécanique de marnes du Jurassique pour étudier la dégradation résultante du
J. Muralha, L. Caldeira, R. Cardoso and E. Maranha das Neves

Retaining Structures in Expansive Clays 653

Les structures de soutien dans les argile expansifs
A.T. Papagiannakis, S. Bin-Shafique and R.L. Lytton
Study of Swelling and Strength Characteristics of Expansive Soil Treated with Stone Dust and
Flyash 659
Etude du gonflement et de caractéristiques de résistance du sol expansif traités avec de la poussière de
pierre et des cendres volantes
T.L. Ramadas, N. Darga Kumar and G. Yesuratnam
Modelling the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve of Structured and Recomposed Hard Soils –
Weak Rocks 665
Modélisation de la courbe caractéristique sol-eau des sols durs – roches tendres structurés et recomposés
P. Sitarenios, M. Bardanis and M. Kavvadas
Impact de cycles hydriques sur le comportement hydromécanique d’un sol argileux gonflant
traité à la chaux 671
Influence of Wetting and Drying Cycles on the Hydromechanical Behaviour of a Lime Treated Expansive
Clayey Soil
G. Stoltz, O. Cuisinier and F. Masrouri
Unsaturated Behaviour of a Cemented Sand 677
Comportement non saturés d’un sable cimenté
D.G. Toll and Z. Ali Rahman
Model Piles Behaviour in a Compacted Fine-Grained Unsaturated Soil 683
Comportement de pieux à échelle réduite dans un sol fin non-saturé compacté
S.K. Vanapalli and Z. Nil Taylan
Subject Index I
Author Index XV

Part 2
3.1. Shallow Foundations / Fondations superficielles 689

Foundation of a Heavy Loaded Stockyard on Problematic Subsoil: Experience and Two Years
of Measurements 691
Stabilisation d’une aire de stockage sur un sol problématique: retour d’expérience et deux années
D. Alexiew, C. Moormann and A. Glockner
Strip Footing Behavior on Geotextile Reinforced and Soil Nailing-Stabilized Sand Slope 697
Comportement d’une semelle filante sur une pente de sable renforcée avec géotextile et stabilisée par
E.A.O. Belqasem Altalhe
An Investigation of a Rock Socketed Pile with an Integral Bearing Plate Founded over Weak
Rock 705
Étude d’une pile avec une plaque encastrée dans une roche molle
S. Arshi and K.J.L. Stone
Comportement d’un matelas de répartition au-dessus d’inclusions rigides et supportant, ou non,
une structure en béton: Méthode analytique de cal-cul 711
Behaviour of a Spreading Layer Above Rigid Inclusions and Supporting, or Not, a Concrete Structure:
Analytical Method of Calcul
P. Berthelot, F. Durand and M. Glandy
Foundation of the Arch Bridge in the Landslide Area of Tsakona, Greece 717
Fondation du pont en arc dans la zone de glissement de terrain de Tsakona, en Grèce
I.F. Fikiris, L. Sotiropoulos and G.T. Dounias
Seismic Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings on Clay Slopes 723
La force portante sismique des semelles filantes sur un talus argileux
K. Georgiadis and E. Chrysouli
Experience of the Unique Building Foundation Design in Conditions of Combined Karst and
Landslide Risk 729
Problèmes du pratique et de la théorie du projet des fondements sur le terrain avec le danger combiné de
karst et de glissement de terre
A.L. Gotman and N.Z. Gotman
Laboratory Tests and Field Measurements Investigating the Stress Strain Behaviour of
Foundations on Hard Soil and Weak Rock 737
Recherche sur le comportement contrainte-déformation de fondations sur le sol dur et rock doux utilisant
des essais de laboratoire et des mesures sur le terrain
E.-D. Hornig and H. Klapperich
Capacité portante des fondations superficielles avec et sans l’hypothèse de superposition 743
Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations with and Without the Superposition Assumption
A. Mabrouki, D. Benmeddour, M. Mellas and R. Frank
Experimentally Observed Settlements Beneath Shallow Foundations on Sand 749
Des essais pour observer des tassements sous les fondations superficielles sur du sable
B.T. McMahon and M.D. Bolton

Case Study: The Design & Performance of a Raft Foundation on Mercia Mudstone 755
Etude de cas: l’étude et la performance d’un radier sur un sol de type ‘Mercia Mudstone’
M. Miller, M. Vaziri and R. Miller
Long-Term Settlement Observations of a Bridge Foundation on Clay of Very High Plasticity 761
Observations en matière d'affaissement à long terme de fondations de pont sur un argile de très haute
N. Okkels, L. Bødker and B. Knudsen
Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations Under Highly Eccentric and Inclined Loads 769
La capacité portante des fondations superficielles sous des charges très excentriques et inclinées
V. Papadopoulos and A. Arapakou
Kinematic Interaction Between Retaining Walls and Retained Footings Under Dynamic
Loading 775
Interaction cinématique entre les murs de soutènement et les fondations conservées sous chargement
G. Papazafeiropoulos, Y. Tsompanakis and P.N. Psarropoulos
Back-Analysis of a Basement with a Raft Foundation in Overconsolidated Stiff Clay 781
Back analyse d’un sous sol avec un radier en argile raide surconsolidée
A. Pillai, R. Fuentes, P. Ferreira and A. Swain
Fill of the “Terreiro do Trigo” Dockyard in Lisbon over Alluvial and Hard Soils 787
Remblai de la Dock du “Terreiro do Trigo” à Lisbonne sur des Alluvions et de Sols Durs
A. Pinto, R. Tomásio, J. Ravasco and G. Marques
Foundations Under Seismic Loads 793
Fondations sous charges sismiques
S. Prakash and V.K. Puri
Protection of the Cement Plant Facilities Foundations on the Artificial Firm soil Base Effected
by Dynamic Loading (Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine) 799
Protection de la partie de fondation des unités de l’usine à ciment en République Autonome Crimée
(Ukraine) sur le basement solide artificiel, soumis aux effets dynamiques
G.R. Rozenvasser, V.N. Tokovenko, V.E. Zhigarev, S.V. Malikov and V.E. Symonovych
Execution of Micropiles in an Underground Metro Station Against Buoyancy 805
Exécution des micropieux dans une station de métro dans un cas de sous-pression
R. Thurner, T. Kimpritis and N. Koutavas
Performance Analysis of Piled Raft Foundations in Comparison with Conventional Foundation
Systems by Using Finite Element Method 811
Analyse de la performance des fondations radier sur pieux en comparaison avec les systèmes de bases
classiques en utilisant la méthode des éléments finis
A. Yalcin Dayioglu and M. Incecik

3.2. Deep Foundations / Fondations profondes 817

Étude expérimentale et numérique du comportement d’un pieu isolé sous chargement cyclique
axial 819
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Cyclic Axial Response of a Single Pile
O. Benzaria, A. Le Kouby and A. Puech

A New Assessment of Ultimate Unit Friction for Driven Piles in Low to Medium Density Chalk 825
Une nouvelle évaluation de frottement unité ultime de pieux enfoncés en bas à la craie de densité moyenne
T.M. Carrington, G. Li and M.J. Rattley
Interpretation of Axial Load Tests for Bored Piles Penetrating Soft Rocks 831
L’interprétation des essais de capacité portant pour les pieux penetrant dans les roches degradées
R. Ciortan, S. Manea and G. Tsitsas
A New Method for the Evaluation of the Ultimate Load of Piles by Tests Not Carried to Failure 837
Une nouvelle méthode pour l’évaluation de la charge limite des pieux avec des essais qui n’atteignent pas la
G. Dalerci and R. Bovolenta
A Parametric Study on Pile Drivability for Large Diameter Offshore Monopiles 843
Une étude paramétrique sur la maniabilité de pieux pour de grand diamètre monopiles offshore
P. Doherty, K. Gavin and B. Casey
Barettes Socketed to Bedrock Assesment of Their Load Capacity 849
La capacité verticale de fondations barrette dans les roches
H. Turan Durgunoglu, H. Fatih Kulac, S. Ikiz, M. Sutcuoglu and O. Akcakal
Optimum Loading Specifications for O-cell bi-directional Static Load Testing 855
Caractéristiques optimum pour essai de charge statique bidirectionnel utilisant la cellule d’Osterberg
M.G. England and P.F. Cheesman
Prediction of the Axial Load Response of Open-Ended Pipe Piles in Glacial Soils 861
Prédiction de la réponse de charge axiale des pieux tubulaires ouvertes dans les sols glaciaires
K. Gavin, P. Doherty, J. Bevin and L. Twomey
Bearing Capacity of Piles Based on Static Load Tests and Calculation Principles Provided by
EN 1997-1 867
Capacité portante des pieux à partir des essais de chargement statique et les principes de calcul prévues par
la norme EN 1997-1
K. Gwizdała, A. Krasiński and T. Brzozowski
Flexural Effects in Dynamic Determination of Pile Capacity 873
Effets de flexion dans la détermination dynamique de la capacité portante d’un pieu
A. Holeyman and M. Allani
Offshore Foundation Engineering in Extremely Dense Glacial Tills West of the Shetland Islands 879
Technique de fondations sous-marines pour les tills extrêmement denses situés à l’ouest des Îles de
R.J. Jardine, T.R. Aldridge and T.G. Evans
Piled Bridge Abutments on Soft Soils: Physical and 3D Numerical Modelling 885
Les contreforts de ponts à piles sur les sols mous: modélisation physique et 3D numérique
M.K. Kelesoglu and S.M. Springman
Approach for a Deep Construction Pit and a Piled-Raft Foundation in Urban Environment 891
Procédure de projet une profonde fouille et une fondation profonde dans l’environnement urbain
S. Meissner, H. Quick, J. Michael and U. Arslan
Base Resistance of Large Diameter Bored Piles in Soft Rocks 897
Résistance à base de grand diamètre s’ennuie piles dans les roches tendres
J.R. Omer

Chargement cyclique de pieux-tests instrumentés: le programme SOLCYP 903

Cyclic Loading of Instrumented Test Piles: The SOLCYP Project
A. Puech, S. Po, O. Benzaria F. Rocher-Lacoste and A. Le Kouby
Heave of a Piled Foundation on a Sulphated Claystone 909
Soulèvement d’une fondation avec pieux dans des argillites sulfatèes
A. Ramon and E.E. Alonso
Méthode de dimensionnement directe des pieux basée sur l’essai de chargement de pointe 915
Pile Direct Design Method Based on Cone Loading Test
Ph. Reiffsteck, H. Ali, F. Baguelin, H. Van de Graaf, C. Bacconnet and R. Gourvès
Design, Load Tests & Completion of Bored Piles 80m Depth in Pliocene Clays on a Danube
Bridge 921
Conception, tests de charge et réalisation des pieux forés 80 m de long dans des argiles du Pliocène dans
un pont sur le Danube
F. Rodríguez Ballesteros, G. Gómez Burgaz and J.M. Gutiérrez Manjón
Pile Integrity Testing Developments 927
Développements du contrôle de pieu par les méthodes impulsionelles
A.J.G. Schellingerhout and A.J. van Rietschoten-Rietveld
Capacity of Rock Sockets in Weak Mud/Siltstone 933
La capacité de douilles de roche dans faible mud/siltstone
J.S. Steenfelt and J. Abild
Effects of Crushing on Pile Point Bearing Capacity in Sand Tested in a Geotechnical Centrifuge 939
Les effets de l’écrasement sur la pile dirigent la portance en sable examiné dans une centrifugeuse
R. Stoevelaar, A. Bezuijen, H. van Lottum and A.F. van Tol
Estimating Skin Friction of Large Diameter Drilled Shafts in Weak Rock 945
Estimation de l’adhésion de pieux forés à grand diametre dans des formations rocheuses faibles
K. Syngros, M. Khoury, A. Poeppel, R. Frizzi, K. Fahoum and G. Leventis
Dynamic Axial Response of Drilled Piers in Stiff Sandy Clays 951
Réponse axiale dynamique des puits de soutien dans des argiles sableuses rigides
G. Wang and N. Sitar

3.3. Ground Reinforcement / Renforcements des sols 957

Numerical Back-Analysis of Compaction Grouting with a Hypoplastic Soil Model 959

Analyse numérique pour l’injection solide avec un modèle hypoplastique
A. Anthogalidis, U. Arslan and O. Reul
Réponse dynamique d’un sol après travaux de compactage haute énergie 965
Soil Dynamic Response After Heavy Compaction
S. Brûlé, E.H. Javelaud, Ph. Liausu and A.Bitri
Consolidation of Extremely Soft Mud for the A-380 Factory in Hamburg – Long Time
Experience 971
Consolidation de boue extrêmement molle pour l’usine de montage de l’A-380 à Hambourg – Résultats à
long terme
J.-L. Chaumeny, J. Kirstein and J. Reiner

Soil Mix: Influence of Soil Inclusions on Structural Behaviour 977

Soil mix: influence des inclusions de sol sur le comportement structurel
P. Ganne, N. Denies, N. Huybrechts, A. Vervoort, A. Tavallali, J. Maertens, B. Lameire
and F. De Cock
Durabilité du comportement mécanique d’un limon traité à la chaux soumis à un écoulement
d’eau 983
Long Term Behaviour of Lime-Treated Silty Soil Submitted to a Water Flow
O. Cuisinier, B. Le Runigo, D. Deneele, Y.-J. Cui and V. Ferber
3-D Analysis of Stone Columns to Support a Roadway Embankment on Soft Soil 989
Analyse en 3D de la construction sur pilotis servant de fondations à des ouvrages bâtis sur talus sur sol
E. Koch
Interaction sol-structure: Comparaison entre un renforcement de sol par Colonnes à Module
Mixte CMM® et par Inclusions Rigides INSER® 995
Interaction Soil-Structure: Comparison of Mixed Modulus Columns and Rigid Inclusions
S. Lambert, W. Wehr and M. Bustamante
Behaviour of Load Carrying Capacity for Geogrid Encased Stone Columns Using Field Tests 1001
Comportement en site de la capacité de charge des colonnes ballastées, renforcées par des geogrids à la
partie supérieure
D.Y. Lee and C. Yoo
Behaviour of Stabilized Soft Clay 1007
Comportement de l’argile molle stabilisée
I. Mataic, P. Vepsäläinen, M. Lojander and O. Korhonen
Mechanical Properties of a Saturated Lime Treated Clay 1013
Propriétés mécaniques d’une argile saturée traitée à la chaux
M. Mavroulidou, X. Zhang and M.J. Gunn
A Simplified Pseudo Dynamic Method of Reinforced Retaining Wall Subjected to Seismic
Loads 1019
Une méthode simplifiée pseudo-dynamique de soutènement renforcés mur soumis à des charges
S.N. Moghaddas Tafreshi and M. Rahimi
Laboratory Tests of Footing Supported on Geotextile-Reinforced Sand Under Repeated
Loading 1025
Les tests de laboratoire de pied appuyé sur le sable géotextile renforcé souschargement répété
S.N. Moghaddas Tafreshi and A.R. Dawson
Caractérisation d’un limon traité utilisé comme matelas de transfert de charges dans une
fondation composite 1031
Characterisation of a Treated Silt Used as Load Transfer Platform in a Composite Foundation
U.S. Okyay, R. Manirakiza, G. Rault, L. Thorel, J.P. David, J.C. Auriol and D. Dias
Cutter Soil Mixing Solutions in Portugal on Hard Soils and Weak Rocks 1037
Solutions de Cutter Soil Mixing au Portugal dans des sols indurés et des roches tendres
A. Pinto, R. Tomásio, X. Pita, A. Pereira and A. Peixoto
Investigation of the Compound Behavior of Geogrid Reinforced Soil 1043
Investigation du comportement composé des sols renforcés avec géogrilles
A. Ruiken, M. Ziegler, L. Vollmert and S. Höhny

Experimental Investigation on Durability of a Lime Stabilised Soil 1049

Etude expérimentale sur la durabilité d’un sol stabilisé à la chaux
G. Russo, P. Croce and N. Nocera
Grid Space Optimization of Jet Grouting Columns 1055
Optimisation de la distance entre les colonnes de sols cimentés par injection
E. Saurer, Th. Marcher and M. Lesnik
Application of Soil-Cement Modification in Weathered Shale for Road Construction 1061
Application de la modification du sol-ciment dans les schistes altérés pour la construction routière
J. Sukolrat, B. Ongsuksun, A. Klummeng and M. Dechasakulsom
Comparaison des comportements de matériaux Soil-Mixing réalisés sur chantier et en
laboratoire: étude d’un limon traité au ciment 1067
Comparison of the in situ and Laboratory Behavior of Soil-Mixing: Study of a Cement Treated Silt
F. Szymkiewicz, P. Reiffsteck, A. LeKouby and S. Fanelli
Influence of Geocell Reinforcement on Damping Properties of Trench with Pipe 1073
Influence de la Géocell renfort sur les propriétés d’amortissement de la tranchée avec des tuyaux
Gh. Tavakoli Mehrjardi, S.N. Moghaddas Tafreshi and A.R. Dawson
Preventing Internal Erosion Phenomena with the BioGrout Process 1079
Prévention face aux phénomènes d’érosion interne par la technique de BioGrout
M.A. Van, G.A. van den Ham, M. Blauw, M. Latil, N. Benahmed and P. Philippe
Ground Improvement for Wind Energy Oplants in Germany 1091
Amélioration de sol supportant les éoliennes en Allemagne
J. Wehr
Characteristics of Manmade Stiff Grounds Improved by Drill-Mixing Method 1097
Caractéristiques des sols artificiels durs améliorés par la procédure de forage-mélangeage
M. Zotsenko, Yu. Vynnykov, I. Lartseva, V. Shokarev and V. Krysan

4.1. Embankments and Dams / Remblais et barrages 1103

Construction of Papadia Secant Pile Plastic Concrete Cut-Off Wall 1105

Construction d’un diaphragme de pilotis intersectés en béton plastique à Papadia
K. Anastasopoulos, Ch. Economidis, D.A. Bruce and G. Rizopoulos
Finite Element Analysis of the Saint-Alban Embankment Failure with an Anisotropic
Undrained Strength Model 1111
Analyse par éléments finis de l’échec du remblai Saint-Alban avec un modèle de résistance non drainée
L. Andresen, G. Saygili and G. Grimstad
Barrage de Mahouane: Conditions geologiques et traitement de la fondation 1119
Mahouane Earth-Fill Dam: Geological Conditions and Grouting Foundation Treatment
F. D’Alessandro, C. Bordas and R. Hebbache
Design for Upgrading of Tailing Dam Toranica – Kriva Palanka in Complex Geotechnical and
Hydrological Conditions 1125
Projet pour mise à niveau le barrage de produit de queue Toranica – Kriva Palanka dans conditions
géotechniques et hydrologiques complexes
Lj. Dimitrievski, D. Ilievski, D. Dimitrievski and B. Bogoevski

Use of Site Won Chalk for the Construction of Steep Geogrid Reinforced Soil Embankments
in the South of England, UK 1131
Utilisation de la craie de Site pour la construction de remblais abrupts renforcés par Géogrilles au Sud de
C. Doulala-Rigby and J. Dixon
Load Distribution on the Geosynthetic Reinforcement Within a Piled Embankment 1137
La répartition des charges sur le renfort geosynthetique dans un remblai comprenant des pieux
S.J.M. van Eekelen, H.J. Lodder and A. Bezuijen
Rockfill and Soil-Rock Mixtures in Road Embankments – A Case Study 1143
Enrochements et des mixtures sol-enrochement dans les remblais routiers – une étude de cas
E. Fortunato and L. Caldeira
Studies of Behavior of the Temporary Dam at the Dniester PSPP 1149
Les recherches de la condition de la digue provisoire de Dnestrovsky station électrique hydroaccumulant
V. Galat and V. Taranov
Geotechnical Aspects of Aposelemis Dam in Crete Island 1153
Aspects géotechniques du barrage Aposelemis dans l’île de Crète
I. Karapanagiotis, L. Somakos, A. Gkiolas, S. Lazaridou, Μ. Kavvadas and P. Marinos
Geological and Geotechnical Issues Pertinent to the Construction of Gadouras Dam, Rhodes
Island 1159
Problèmes géologiques et géotechniques pour la construction du barrage Gadouras dans l’île de Rhodes
S. Lazaridou, Μ. Kavvadas, P. Marinos, V. Perleros and L. Somakos
Full Scale Failure Test on a Railway Embankment; Extensive Instrumentation and Real Time
Monitoring 1165
Test de stabilité à pleine échelle sur remblai de chemin de fer; instrumentation extensive et surveillance
en temps reel
J. Mansikkamäki, V. Lehtonen, T. Länsivaara and H. Luomala
Large-Scale Cyclic Triaxial Tests for the Seismic Safety Assessment of a High Earth-Core
Rockfill Dam 1171
Essais triaxiaux cycliques de grand diamètre pour l’évaluation de la sécurité sismique d’une haute digue
en enrochement à noyau d’argile vertical
S. Messerklinger, R. Straubhaar, R.P. Brenner R. Herzog, J. Laue and S.M. Springman
Results of Geotechnical Monitoring for the Erection and Operation of the Tailing Dam at the
Diamond Deposit Named After M.V. Lomonosov 1177
Les résultats du contrôle géotechnique de construction et exploitation de la digue de protection du bassin
à déchets de lavage sur le gisement de diamants nommé après M.V. Lomonosov
A. Nevzorov, V. Koptyev and A. Korshunov
Maximum Relative Density of Clean Sand as a Function of Median Grain Size and
Compaction Energy 1185
Densité relative maximale des sables propres en fonction du diamètre moyen des particules et de l’énergie
de compactage
C.R. Patra, N. Sivakugan, B.M. Das and C. Atalar
Requirements for the Foundation of Gravity Dams in Border-Line Terrains 1191
Réquisits pour les fondations de digues de gravité dans terrains faibles
M. Romana

Analysis of Deformation Course in Problematic Soils Under Embankment 1199

Analyse des cours de déformation dans les sols problématiques sous remblai
W. Sas, A. Szymanski, E. Malinowska, A. Niesiolowska and K. Gabrys
The Dissolution of Gypsum of Disueri Reservoir Left Bank 1205
La dissolution du gypse de la rive gauche du réservoir Disueri
C. Valore, M. Ziccarelli and C. Gambino
Impact of Geosynthetics on Reducing Permanent Deformations on Soil Embankments 1211
Impact des géosynthétiques sur la réduction des déformations permanentes sur remblais
V. Zania, Y. Tsompanakis, P.N. Psarropoulos and G. Bouckovalas

4.2. Slope Stability / Stabilité des pentes 1217

End of Construction Failures of Cuttings in Stiff Clayey Marls – A Case from Central Greece 1219
Glissement des talus artificiels en marnes argileuses, immediatement apres leur construction.
Un example en Grèce Centrale
A. Alexandris, A. Paschalidou, E. Griva and M. Kavvadas
Determination of the Stress Strain State of Soil Base for the Structures at Static and Dynamic
Loads 1225
Détermination de l’état de contrainte-déformation de la base au sol des structures sous l’effet de charges
statiques et dynamiques
O. Areshkovych, I. Boyko and V. Sakharov
Landslide in a Shale Slope in Kabylie 1231
Glissement dans un talus schisteux de Kabylie
H. Bendadouche and S. Lazizi
Le cas du glissement de Boulimat 1237
The Case of Boulimat Slide
H. Bendadouche and S. Lazizi
Station d’essais de chutes de blocs dans les Alpes françaises: premiers retours d’expériences 1243
Rock-Falls Test Site in the French Alps: First Feedback
M. Bost, F. Rocher-Lacoste, Y. Goyat, L. Dubois, M. Feregotto and J. Gineys
Shallow Instabilities in Weathered Slopes. Limit Equilibrium Analysis 1249
Instabilités superficielles des pentes dégradées. Analyse d’équilibre limite
A. Da Costa, C. Sagaseta, J. Cañizal and J. Castro
Static and Seismic Stability Analyses of Retaining Walls for Landslide Rehabilitation in
Mogorce 1255
Statique et séismique analyse de stabilité de mur de soutènement pour réhabilitation d’un glissement à
Lj. Dimitrievski, D. Ilievski, D. Dimitrievski and B. Bogoevski
Renforcement d’une falaise littorale en roches tendres en vue de ralentir son érosion 1261
Reinforcement of a Soft Rock Coastal Cliff in Order to Slow Down Its Erosion
M. Fontanel and B. Mazaré
Technique nouvelle pour la réalisation de talus raidis dans la craie altérée 1269
New Technique for the Performance of Steeped Slope Cuts in Weathered Chalk
M. Haghgou and P. Rossi

Progressive Failure and the Strain Localization Problem 1275

La rupture progressive et le problème de la localisation de la déformation
A. Murianni, A. Federico and C. di Prisco
Slope Stability of Murriz Tunnel Portal 1281
La stabilité des talus de Murriz tunnel entrance
E. Paçi, A. Dervishaj and H. Cullufi
Excess Pore Pressure During Pile Driving in Soft Sensitive Clay 1285
Excès de pression interstitielle au cours de battage de pieux dans l’argile molle et sensible
T. Tefera, G. Tvedt and F. Oset
Slope Stability Analysis Based on Autocorrelated Shear Strength Parameters 1291
La stabilité d’un versant basé sur l’autocorrélation de la résistance de cisaillement
O. Tietje, P. Fitze and H.R. Schneider
Slope Stability Analysis of Volcanosediments Undercut by Cellars with FEM Analyses 1297
Analyse de stabilité des séries sédimentaire volcaniques trouées des caves avec la méthode d’élément
M. Vámos, M. Kozák, T. Léber, P. Görög and Á. Török
Numerical Behavior of a Real Slope Considering Climate Actions and Comparison with in situ
Readings 1303
Simulation du comportement d’un talus réel avec l’action atmosphérique et comparaison avec des lectures
J. Verde, R. Cardoso and J. Barradas
Subject Index I
Author Index XV

Part 3
4.3. Landslides / Glissements de terrains 1311

Landslide Risk and Climate Change – Economic Assessment of Consequences in the Göta
River Valley 1313
Des risques de glissements de terrain et les changements climatiques – évaluation économique des
conséquences dans la vallée de la rivière Göta
Y. Andersson-Sköld, S. Falemo, P. Suer and T. Grahn
Landslide Affected with an Open Pit Excavation in Flysch Deposit 1319
Glissement de terrain causé par l’excavation d’une fouille dans les couches de flysch
Ž. Arbanas, S. Dugonjić, M. Vivoda and V. Jagodnik
Stabilisation of a Deep-Seated Landslide in Order to Protect an Archaeological Site 1325
Stabilisation d’un glissement de terrain profond afin de protéger un site archéologique
M. Bardanis and S. Cavounidis
Comment construire un immeuble dans un glissement de terrain actif à Monaco 1331
How to Construct a New Building in an Active Landslide in Monaco
F. Blondeau and J. Lavisse
Cost Benefit Analysis of Preventive Measures Against Landslides Due to Climate Change 1337
Analyse coût-efficacité de mesures préventives contre les glissements de terrain dus aux changements
J. Fallsvik, V. Svahn, S. Falemo and K. Lundström
Combined Slope Protection Along the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast 1343
Protection combinée des talus le long de la côte bulgare sud de la mer Noire
G. Frangov, H. Zayakova and M. Hamova
A Simplified Numerical Approach for Studying Pile-Landslide Interaction in Hard Soils 1347
Une approche numérique simplifiée pour étudier l’interaction entre pieu et glissements de terrain dans
les sols durs
A. Galli, G. Cocchetti and C. di Prisco
Geotechnical Conditions for E-763 Motorway Construction from Belgrade to South Adriatic
Across the Landslide Umka – Duboko 1353
Conditions géotechniques pour la construction de l’autoroute E-763 de Belgrade jusqu’à l’Adriatique Sud,
à travers le glissement de terrain Umka – Duboko
B. Jelisavac, P. Mitrovic, V. Vujanic, S. Milenkovic and M. Jotic
Scientific Analyses of the Bearing Capacity and the Deformation Behaviour of the
Spinnanchor System for Engineering Practice 1359
Analyse scientifique de la capacité portante et du comportement en déformation du système Spinnanchor
pour sa mise en application
R. Katzenbach and S. Leppla
Investigation and Monitoring of Reactivated Landslides in Flysch 1365
Etude et surveillance des glissements de terrain réactivés dans le flysch
M. Kopecky, M. Ondrasik and M. Sulovska
Landslide Processes in Structurally Unstable Loessial Soils 1371
Les procès d’éboulement sur loess sols instables
S.G. Kushner

Analysis of Sliding Hazard in Wider Area of Brus Landslide 1377

Analyse du risque de glissement dans l’aire de glissements de terrain Brus
S. Mihalić, M. Krkač, Ž. Arbanas and S. Dugonjić
Landslides Triggered in Hard Soils and Soft Rocks in Romania 1383
Glissements de terrain en Roumanie déclenchés en sols durs et en roches douces
A. Rotaru
Correction of a Slope Failure in Clay Shales with a Particular Pattern of Discontinuities 1389
Correction de l’instabilité d’un talus en schistes argileux avec une structure particulière
C. Sagaseta, J. Cañizal, A. Da Costa and J. Castro
Rehabilitation of a Landslide in ΝW Greece – From the Investigation to the Geotechnical
Design 1395
Réhabilitation d’un glissement de terrain au Nord Ouest de la Grèce – De l’enquête à la conception
K. Seferoglou, G. Prountzopoulos, F. Chrysochoidis, P. Fortsakis, I. Vassilopoulou
and V. Perleros
Stabilization of a Creeping Slope Using Deep Drainage Caissons 1401
Stabilisation du glissement de terrain per des caissons de drainage profound
S. Škrabl and L. Trauner
Scottish Road Network Landslides Study: Management and Mitigation 1407
Étude des glissements de terrain sur le réseau routier écossaise: la gestation et l’atténuation
M.G. Winter, F. Macgregor, L. Shackman and G. Edmond

5.1. Excavations and Retaining Structures / Excavations et structures de soutènement 1413

Hydraulic Heave Considering the Geometry of Excavations 1415

Rupture par soulèvement d’eau sous considération de la géométrie des fouilles de construction
B. Aulbach and M. Ziegler
Cylindrical Excavations in Overconsolidated Clays Supported by Jet Grout Walls: Analysis
Considering the Consolidation Effect 1421
Excavations cylindriques dans des argiles surconsolidées soutenues par des murs de jet grout: Analyse
considerant de l’effect de consolidation
J.L. Borges and G.T. Guerra
Design and Construction of a Secant Pile Wall in Glasgow 1427
Conception ét realisation d’une parois en pieux sécants á Glasgow
J.W.R. Brouwer, R.E. van Leeuwen and E.K. Inglis
Different Solutions of Retaining Structures in Stiff Clay 1435
Différents types de structures de soutènement en argile rigides
F. Buselli, A. Di Sotto, S. Miliziano and A. Zechini
Reinforcement of Non Traditional Soil with Geosynthetics – Application to the Walls of the
Saltpans of the Aveiro Lagoon 1441
Renforcement des sols non traditionnels avec des géosynthétiques – application sur les murs des marais
salants de la lagune d’Aveiro
D.M. Carlos and M. Pinho-Lopes

Leakfinder: Infrared Detection of Leaks Through the Walls of Deep Underwater Excavations –
Progresses of an Innovative Detection Method 1447
Leakfinder: Détection par infrarouge de fuites à travers les parois d’une excavation submergée –
Etats d’une méthode de détection innovatrice
G.R.N.G. Colard, O.S. Langhorst and R. Bolhuis
Earth Pressure from the Nearby Buildings on Sheet Pile Walls 1455
Pression des sols provenant des bâtiments voisins sur les murs de palplanches
H. Denver and L. Kellezi
Evaluation of Alternative Methodologies to Minimize Movements of a Diaphragm Wall Close
to Buildings 1461
Évaluation de méthodes alternatives pour minimiser des mouvements d’une paroi moulée près de
C. de Santos, A. Ledesma, A. Lloret and E.E. Alonso
Full-Scale Physical Modeling of Sheet Piles Pressed-in to Hard Soils 1467
Modelage physique en pleine échelle des pilots à rainure enfoncés par impression dans les sols durs
M.P. Doubrovsky, M.B. Poizner and G.N. Meshcheriakov
Soil Nailed Walls – A Parametric Study 1473
Les murs du sol cloué - une étude paramétrique
T.Y. Elkady, A.M. Elleboudy and A.A. Mohamed
Analyse en retour de soutènements butonnés dans les molasses toulousaines 1479
Back-Analysis of Strutted Walls in Toulouse Molasses
F. Emeriault, J. Zghondi and R. Kastner
Deep Excavation with Multi Anchored Diaphragm Wall 1485
Excavation profonde avec un mur de soutènement ancrée plusieurs fois
J. Josifovski, S. Gjorgjevski and M. Jovanovski
Seismic Response of Complex Soil Structure Systems 1491
Réponse sismique de systèmes avec interactions complexes entre sol et structure
S. Kontoe, L. Zdravkovic, D.M. Potts, C.O. Menkiti and R.F. Lennon
Compensation Grouting and Deep Sealing Slabs for the Construction of the New Metro Line
B1 in Rome 1497
Injections de compensation et dalles d’étanchéité profonde pour la construction de la nouvelle ligne B1
de métro à Rome
C. Kummerer, E. Falk, A. Sciotti and G. Saggio
Observations of Anomalies in Diaphragm Walls for Deep Tunnel Excavations 1503
Observations d’anomalies dans des parois moulées utilisées pour la réalisation de tunnels à grande
W. Maekelberg, E. De Clercq and J. Maertens
Modelling of a Deep Excavation in a Silty Clay 1509
Modélisation d’une excavation profonde située dans l’argile limoneuse
D. Mašín, J. Boháč and P. Tůma
Excavation over and Around an Operational Railway Tunnel for the Construction of a New
Station of the Athens Metro 1515
Excavation autour d’un tunnel ferroviaire en exploitation pour la construction d’une nouvelle station du
Metro d’Athenes
C. Mavrommati, F. Nakou, N.Boussoulas, I. Miliotis, G. Dimitriou and A. Chrysikopoulou

Soil Nailing in Dublin Boulder Clay 1521

Renforcement de il Dublin Boulder Clay par clouage
C.O. Menkiti, G.W.E. Milligan, M. Long and P. Higgins
Numerical Analysis of Retaining Wall in Overconsolidated Clay 1529
Analyse numérique du mur de soutènement dans l’environemment des argiles préconsolidées
L. Mica, J. Chalmovsky and V. Racansky
Design of Deep Excavation and Retaining Structures for the Garage House and Sewage Farm
Under the Road from Portorož to the Old Part of the City of Piran – Slovenia 1535
Conception des excavations profondes et des structures de soutènement du parc de stationnement et du
champ d’épandage sous la route de Portorož à la vieille ville de Piran – Slovénie
D. Ocepek and J. Likar
Performance Assessment of Izmirspor Metro Station 1541
Estimation du rendement de la station de métro d’Izmirspor
S.Ü. Oral, K.O. Çetin, O. Erol, G. İnci and M. Delice
Permeable Retaining Wall on a Soft Rock Slope. Case Study 1547
Paroi de soutènement perméable. Etude de cas
H. Popa, E. Olinic, S. Manea, E. Marchidanu and L. Batali
Progressive Failure in Soil-Cable Interaction 1553
Rupture progressive de l’interaction sol-câble
A.M. Puzrin, M. Iten and D. Hauswirth
Case Study of a Dewatering and Recharge System in Weak Chalk Rock 1561
Étude de cas d’un système de rabattement de nappe et de recharge dans la roche calcaire faible
T.O.L. Roberts and G. Holmes
Deep Excavation and Retaining Walls in Weak Rock for Building Pit Tunnel A2 in Maastricht,
Geotechnical Aspects 1567
Excavation profonde et murs de soutènement en roches tendres pour le fouille du tunnel A2 de Maastricht,
aspects géotechniques
J.R. Salazar, J.H. van Dalen, D. Boone and P. Schouten
Analysis of Displacements of Deep Excavation Walls Built in Hard Soils 1573
Analyses des déplacements des soutènements des excavations profondes réalisées dans les sols dûres
A. Siemińska-Lewandowska, M. Mitew-Czajewska and U. Tomczak
HSS Model Adequacy in Performance-Based Seismic Design Approach, Filyos New Port,
Turkey 1579
L’adéquation du modèle HSS dans l’approche de conception sismique, basée sur la performance,
Nouveau Port de Filyos, Turquie
C. Sigarán-Loría and D.J. Jaspers Focks
Special Type Retaining Walls in the Conditions of Weak Rocks 1587
Les contre-murs du type spécial dans les conditions des rochers fragile
Yu.G. Vilcul, R.О. Timchenko, S.O. Popov and D.A. Krishko
Long Term Behaviour of Temporary Prestressed Anchors – “Keramikos” Underground Car
Park Station 1593
Comportement à long terme des ancrages précontraints – La station souterraine de parking “Keramikos”
E. Zampiras and N. Boussoulas

Effect of Wall Stiffness on Ground Deformations Around Deep Excavations in Stiff Clay 1599
Impact de la rigidité des murs sur les déformations du sol aux abord d’une excavation profonde dans de
l’argile raide
L. Zdravkovic, D.M. Potts and S. Kontoe

5.2. Tunneling / Construction des tunnels 1605

Block-in-Matrix Structure – Tunneling in Hard Soil and/or Weak Rock 1607

Structure blocs-en-matrice – construction de tunnels dans les sols indurés et/ou les roches tendres
D. Adam, R. Markiewicz and M. Brunner
Time-Dependent Rock Behaviour in Tunnelling 1615
Dépendance temporal du comportement des roches en creusage des tunnels
S.D. Athanasopoulos, P.P. Nomikos and A.I. Sofianos
Settlements Induced by Tunneling in Clay Shales 1621
Tassements induits par la construction d’un tunnel dans une formation de schistes argileux
P. Croce, G. Russo and R.L. Spacagna
Analysis of Jacking Force Data for Microtunnels in Glacial Till at Kilcock, Ireland 1627
Microtunneliers dans les till de Kilcock, Irlande: Analyse des données d’effort de poussée
B.G. Curran and B.A. McCabe
Evaluation of the Clogging Potential in Mechanical Tunnel Driving with EPB-Shields 1633
Évaluation du potentiel de colmatage dans le tunnelier mécanique à pression de terre
M. Feinendegen, M. Ziegler, G. Spagnoli and T. Fernández-Steeger
Geotechnical Monitoring of a Conduit on the Construction Site of Moscow International
Business Center in “Moscow City” 1639
Monitoring geotechnique de conduit en Chantier de Centre International de Business en “Moscow City”
О.N. Isaev, D.V. Nayatov, R.F. Sharafutdinov and R.R. Ibraev
Use of Face Extrusion Measurements in Assessing Ground Properties During Tunnel
Construction 1647
Utilisation des mesures d’extrusion de la face pour déterminer les propriétés géotechniques pendant la
construction d’un tunnel
M. Kavvadas and I. Spyropoulos
On the Magnitude of Pre-Displacements During Tunnelling in Foliated Soft Rocks 1653
Sur la magnitude des pré-déplacements pendant la construction des tunnels dans les roches tendres foliées
J. Klopčič and J. Logar
Efficient Pre-Processing for Finite Element Analysis of Shallow Tunnelling 1659
Efficace de pré-traitement pour l’analyse par éléments finis de tunnels peu profonds
D.K. Koungelis and C.E. Augarde
Ground Conditions due to Tunnelling in Hard Soils and Weak Rocks 1665
Conditions du sol pendant la construction des tunnels dans les sols dur et les roches tender
R. Lagioia and D.M. Potts
Comparison of Two Different Primary Support Structures in Thirra Tunnel, R. Albania in
Weak Rock Conditions 1671
Comparaison de deux structures différentes de la sub-construction primaire dans le tunnel Thirra, la
République d’Albanie en termes de roche faible
Lj. Lamov

Rock Reinforcement in Squeezing Weak Rocks 1677

Renforcement par serrage des roches faibles
C.C. Li
Crossing of a Public Road in Tunnel Across a Motorway Embankment, with Small Covering
and Without Disturbing Traffic 1683
Faire traverser de la voie publique dans un tunnel à travers un remblai d’autoroute, avec recouvrement
petits, sans perturber le traffic
M. Müller, Z. Czap and A. Mahler
Design and Construction of Double and Triple Track Tunnel, Athens Metro Line 3, Section
Egaleo – Haidari 1687
Design et Construction d’un Tunnel Double et Triple voies pour la Ligne 3 du Metro d’Athènes, Section
Egaleo – Haidari
F. Nakou, C. Mavrommati and N. Boussoulas
Boring of a Tunnel in Overconsolidated Tertiary Soils (Line 2, Madrid Subway) 1693
Exécution d’un tunnel dans des sols tertiaires preconsolitées (Ligne 2, Mètre de Madrid)
C.S. Oteo, F. Díez, J.M. Díaz Retana and P. Jiménez
Geotechnical Design Aspects for the Southern Extension of Athens Metro Line 2, Greece 1699
Aspects géotechniques de l’extension sude de la Ligne 2 du Métro d’Athènes, Grèce
E. Papageorgiou and N. Boussoulas
Experience of Tunnel Collectors Monitoring at Engineering Development of Underground
Face of Megapolis 1705
L’expérience du monitoring des manifolds de tunnel à la mise au point de génie et l’exploitation de
l’espace souterraine de la mégalopole
N.A. Perminov, S.V. Lombas and А.N. Perminov
Investigation Tunnels Aicha-Mauls at Brenner Base Tunnel – Progress of Works and Results 1713
Le tunnel d’enquête Aicha-Mauls au tunnel de Base de Brenner – avancement des travaux et des
H. Quick, J. Michael K. Bergmeister and E. Facchin
Tunneling in Marls. The Case of Melissi Tunnel 1721
Tunneling dans les marnes. Le cas du tunnel Melissi
H. Saroglou, D. Niavis and A. Kapenis
Athens Metro Line 3 – Western Extension – Trumpet Area 1727
Métro d’Athènes ligne 3 – Extension ouest – Région trompette
S. Schina and A. Charalampidou
Assessment of Overbridge Openings on the London Underground Tunnel Network 1733
Evaluation des ouvertures surpont sur le réseau tunnel du métro de Londres
F.C. Schroeder, K.G. Higgins, P. Wright and D.M. Potts
Multi-Utility Tunnels (MUT) in Frankfurt am Main – Technical Challenges and Innovative
Perspectives 1739
Tunnels multi-utilite (MUT) à Francfort sur le main defis techniques et perspectives innovatrices
M. Thaher, W. Siedentopf, J. Becker and T. Lindemann

6.1. Geoenvironmental Issues / Géotechnique de l’environnement 1745

The Environmental Aspects of Utilizing Phosphogypsum in Embankment 1747

Aspects environnementaux de l’utilisation des phosphogypses dans les remblais
E. Dapena, L. Pujol, F. Pardo de Santayana, V. Cuéllar and R. Rodríguez
Impact of Sulfates on the Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of a Cement-Clay Mix 1753
Impact des sulfates sur le comportement mécanique et hydraulique d’un mélange de ciment-argile
G. Di Emidio and R.D. Verástegui Flores
Comportement hydromécanique post-fermeture des cavités remblayées 1757
Post-Closure Hydromechanical Behaviour of Backfilled Cavities
N. Dufour, H. Wong and F. Deleruyelle
Enhanced Geothermal Energy Systems – Energy Supply and Storage for Sustainable
Development 1765
Systèmes améliorés d’énergie géothermique – Approvisionnement énergétique et stockage pour le
développement durable
R. Katzenbach, F. Clauss, T. Waberseck and I. Wagner
Dynamic Behavior of a Softer Layer Overlying Hard Soil / Bedrock and Vibration Reduction 1771
Comportement dynamique d’une couche supérieure constituée d’un sol souple recouvrant un sol
dur/rocheux, et réduction des vibrations
L. Kellezi
Chemical Stabilisation of Closed Landfill Sites Using Chemical Agents 1777
Stabilisation chimique des sites d’enfouissement fermé à l’aide des agents chimiques
H. Khabbaz and B. Fatahi
Deposition Tunnel Backfill Development: ¼-Scale Tests in Riihimäki 1783
Le développement du remblai du tunnel de dépôt: tests ¼-échelle dans Riihimäki
L. Korkiala-Tanttu, R. Nemlander, E. Keski-Kuha, P. Keto and P. Koho
Reclamation of a Slope of the Solid Waste Landfill that Rests Its Foot in the Ussury Bay, the
Japanese Sea 1789
La reconstitution de la pente du placement des déchets solides, tombant en forme de base dans la baie
d’Ussury de la mer du Japon
S.A. Kudryavtsev, T.Y. Valtseva, E.V. Fedorenko, E.D. Goncharova, Y.B. Berestyanyy,
R.G. Mikhaylin and E.V. Berestyanaya
Mechanical Properties of MSWI Bottom Ash in Denmark 1797
Les propriétés mécaniques du mâchefer issue des Usines d’Incinération d’Origines Ménagères au
P. Larsen
Mesures en grand pour essais en faibles perméabilités 1803
Global Measurements for Low Permeability Tests
R. Massonnet
Case History: Influence of Ground Water Level on Vibrations Induced by Heavy Forging
Hammers 1809
Historique de ce cas précis: L’influence du niveau de la nappe phréatique sur la réduction des vibrations
causé par des marteaux de forgeron
S. Quinteros and H.R. Schneider

Tunneling as a contribution to Sustainable Energy 1815

La construction des tunnels – une contribution à la promotion des énergies renouvelables
M. Schneider, P.A. Vermeer and Chr. Moormann
Some Geotechnical Aspects of UK Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal 1821
Aspets geotechniques des déchets radioactifs au Royaume Uni
D.M. Tonks, E.M. Gallagher and N. Shaw
Stability Analysis of Bioreactor Landfill 1827
Analyse de stabilité du bioréacteur de l’enfouissement de dechet
G. Varga
Impact of Seismic Hazards on Waste Landfills 1833
Impact des risques séismiques sur les sites d’enfouissement des déchets
V. Zania, Y. Tsompanakis and P.N. Psarropoulos

6.2. Monuments and Historic Sites / Monuments et Sites Historiques 1839

Back-Analysis Sheds Light on the History of the Acropolis Wall: The Interpretation of a
Permanent Structural Failure 1841
L’analyse rétrograde met en lumière l’histoire du mur de l’Acropole: L’interprétation d’un échec
structurel permanent
D. Egglezos and D. Moullou
In-Situ Tests on the Parthenon Columns for the Assessment of Their Foundation Condition 1847
Essais in-situ sur les colonnes du Parthénon pour l’evaluation de la situation de leurs fondations
D. Egglezos and E.-E. Toumbakari
Dynamic Analysis of San Pedro Cliff at La Alhambra 1853
L’analyse dynamique de la falaise de San Pedro à La Alhambra
J.L. Justo, A. Morales-Esteban, P. Durand, N. Vázquez and E. Justo
Enhanced Geotechnologies for the Protection of World Heritage Properties 1859
Géotechnologies améliorées pour la protection des sites du patrimoine culturel mondial
R. Katzenbach, M. Vogler, S. Kurze and R. Dunaevskiy
Technical Condition of Ukrainian Historical Monument “The Lastochkino Gnezdo” Castle 1865
Conditions techniques de monument historique Ukraine – chateau «Nid d’hirondelle»
P. Kryvosheiev, Iu. Nemchynov, А. Khavkin, Ia. Chervinskiy, А. Bambura, Yu. Kaliukh,
N. Marienkov, I. Zolotariov, V. Kukunaev, B. Popov and M. Rizhiy
Geotechnical Issues of the New Acropolis Museum 1871
Sujets Géotechniques du Nouveau Musée d’Acropole
V. Papadopoulos and A. Anagnostopoulos
Underground Expansion of Drents Museum 1879
Expansion souterrain de Drents Museum
M.G.J.M. Peters and N.P. van Leeuwen
Accurate Monitoring of Displacements by Liquid Level Instrumentation 1887
La mesure précise de déplacements par des capteurs de pression liquide
A.J. van Rietschoten-Rietveld and A.J.G. Schellingerhout
Subject Index I
Author Index XV
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1.1. Field Investigations
Investigations In situ
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Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 3
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

L’HyperPac 25 MPa comble le vide

entre le pressiomètre Ménard et le dilatomètre
HyperPac 25 MPa fills the gap between
the Ménard pressuremeter and the flexible dilatometer
G. Arsonnet
Géomatech, Champlan, France
J.-P. Baud 1
Eurogéo, Avrainville, France
M. Gambin
Apagéo, Magny-les-Hameaux, France
R. Heintz
Eurasol, Luxembourg
The bore hole expansion test can be applied to any ground material, from the softer to the harder ones, so as to obtain their
stress-strain behavior in situ. The authors submit their research on an equipment which permits to extend the use of the Ménard
pressuremeter up to 25 MPa test pressure. They also give the first test diagrams towards this pressure in slightly fractured rocks.
L’essai d’expansion in situ d’une cavité cylindrique peut s’appliquer à tous les types de matériaux, des plus mous aux plus résis-
tants, pour déterminer leurs propriétés mécaniques. Les auteurs présentent un appareil permettant d’étendre le domaine du pres-
siomètre Ménard jusqu’à des pressions d’essai de 25 MPa, ainsi que ses premières utilisations dans des roches peu fracturées.

Keywords: Pressuremeter, flexible dilatometer, rock moduli, rock limit pressure, hard soils.

Mots-clés : Pressiomètre, dilatomètre, modules des roches, pression limite des roches, sols raides.

1 INTRODUCTION calculer toutes sortes de fondations et ouvrages

en terre [1] [2].
Les essais géotechniques in situ par expansion Les mesures de déformation in situ dans les
d’une cavité cylindrique dans les sols meubles et roches franches peu altérées ont connu un déve-
les roches tendres ont été développés sous loppement parallèle. Ainsi s’est développé le di-
l’impulsion de Louis Ménard à partir de 1955. latomètre flexible encore appelé dilatomètre au
Ainsi a été créé un corpus de techniques de réali- rocher, sans toutefois avoir sur l’histoire de la
sation des mesures et de méthodes d’exploitation mécanique des roches un impact comparable à
des résultats obtenus dans le but de concevoir et celui du pressiomètre sur la géotechnique.

Corresponding Author.
4 G. Arsonnet et al. / L’HyperPac 25 MPa comble le vide entre le pressiomètre Ménard

Pressiomètre et dilatomètre poursuivent le 3 AU-DELA DES LIMITES NORMALES

même objectif de mesure de modules par me- DU PRESSIOMETRE
sures de déformations radiales, mais pour des ni-
veaux moyens de déformations comme de con- Le « pressiomètre » Ménard, malgré son nom,
traintes très différents, l’un en gardant l’objectif utilise quasi-systématiquement depuis son ori-
d’obtenir aussi une pression limite pLM des sols, gine l’énergie d’un gaz sous pression pour réali-
l’autre celui de réaliser des mesures précises des ser les paliers égaux de chargement d’un liquide
très faibles déformations des roches [3]. Enfin, le servant à la fois à l’expansion de la sonde et à la
premier reste plus maniable que le second. mesure des volumes déplacés. Les limitations qui
en résultent sont d’une part celle de la pression
de conditionnement des gaz industriels soit
2 BESOINS SPECIFIQUES AUX ROCHES 20 MPa, d’autre part la résistance des sondes,
TENDRES ET ALTEREES dimensionnées pour satisfaire à l’obligation
normative de 5 MPa avec une marge de sécurité
Un hiatus a toujours existé entre les mesures du qui permet d’aller bien au-delà, généralement
pressiomètre dans les sols et celles du dilato- jusqu’à 10 MPa, soit au double de cette limite,
mètre dans les roches. mais de façon exceptionnelle ou du moins avec
La grande précision des dilatomètres type A a un risque d’éclatement systématique croissant
pour contrepartie une course limitée de leurs cap- avec le degré de l’expansion de la sonde.
teurs de déplacement, qui freine considérable-
ment leur utilisation dans les roches trop fissu- 3.1 Au-delà de 10 MPa avec un pressiomètre
rées ou altérées, dans lesquelles le calibrage du type Ménard au gaz comprimé
trou de forage est souvent impossible à l’endroit
Des exemples jalonnent l’utilisation du pressio-
où l’on souhaiterait faire la mesure.
mètre normal, souvent à grande profondeur,
Par ailleurs avec le pressiomètre Ménard,
d’abord avec l’appareil à enregistrement manuel
malgré l’augmentation progressive, réalisée au
dès la fin des années 60, quand Ménard avait dé-
cours de son histoire, de la pression maximale
jà développé des recommandations concernant
utilisable, il n’a pas été possible de rejoindre la
l’utilisation du pressiomètre dans le rocher [6]
gamme des pressions utilisées par le dilatomètre
[7], ou avec un pressiomètre à enregistrement
au rocher. Sur le plan des Normes Françaises ou
numérique, le Géopress dans les années 90 :
Européennes puis ISO, son utilisation reste limi-
 Bologne, Italie, 1986, granite, de 80 m à
tée à 5 MPa [4] [5] et son utilisation au-delà de
190 m, pression d’essai 7 MPa
cette limite, bien que de plus en plus demandée,
ne dépasse guère 10 MPa.  Alise-Sainte-Reine, France, 1991, marnes,
Néanmoins, le besoin de solliciter à des ni- moins de 40 m, pression d’essai 10 MPa
veaux très élevés les sols les plus raides et les  Limoges, France, 2004, gneiss, moins de
terrains situés à la frontière subjective entre sols 20 m, pression d’essai 11 MPa
et roches, amène de plus en plus souvent la de- Ces trois derniers sont représentés graphique-
mande de sondes et contrôleurs pressiométriques ment 2 (figures 1, 2 et 3).
(CPV) utilisables au-delà de 10 MPa. La con-
naissance des modules EM et des pressions li- 2
Les graphes représentent, en échelles arithmétiques :
mites pLM des roches altérées, plus généralement - la courbe pressiométrique, pour laquelle le volume est
du comportement de ces terrains sous une dé- en ordonnée en fonction de la pression en abscisse,
- la courbe des volumes de fluage sur le même graphe,
formation de type expansion radiale, reste un les valeurs de l’échelle de volume, écrites pour la
domaine peu exploré qui correspond à des be- courbe pressiométrique, étant à diviser par 10,
soins croissants en génie civil, comme le rappelle - la courbe des modules sécants à partir du point [P1],
l’objet du colloque Athènes 2011. dont les valeurs sont données en ordonnées sur un axe
secondaire à droite ; sa forme, en cloche ou directement
décroissante est liée à la loi hyperbolique que suit la
courbe pressiométrique elle-même [8].
G. Arsonnet et al. / L’HyperPac 25 MPa comble le vide entre le pressiomètre Ménard 5

Dès 1976, un rapport interne CERCHAR /

Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine relate des es-
sais à 90 MPa avec un prototype de "pressio-
mètre 1000 bars" de Ménard équipé d’une sonde
à embouts rétractables [9] [10]. Avec ce pres-
siomètre remis en service par la société Eurasol
au Luxembourg, une pression de 36 MPa été at-
teinte avant rupture de la sonde d’origine [11].
Une étude récente de sa fiabilité tant pratique que
théorique a été entreprise au LCPC [12].
Enfin, Massonnet [13] a présenté des résultats
d’essais poussés à 12 MPa, effectués avec un
pressiomètre classique pourvu de manomètres
types Bourdon de 16 MPa en pleine échelle, ren-
Figure 1. Un essai haute pression, Poggiolino, province de forcé au niveau des gaines toilées métalliques et
Bologne, 1986, pressiomètre Ménard type GA. de leurs bagues de serrage. Les essais présentés
sont dans les sables du Thanétien de Londres.
L’auteur note la fragilité du voyant de lecture vo-
lumétrique avec fissuration fréquente au-delà de
10 MPa,
Les conclusions de cette pratique d’essais
pressiométriques en très haute pression furent
donc les suivantes :
 Dans des roches dures peu fissurées, dans
lesquelles la pression de fluage n’est pas
obtenue, il est possible d’atteindre 12 MPa
avec un matériel pressiométrique en parfait
état, sans fuites, d’une façon relativement
sure. Les sondes pressiométriques standard
montées avec soin, soit à gaine caoutchouc
Figure 2. Un essai haute pression, marnes du Lias, Alise- directement au contact du sol, soit en tube
Sainte-Reine, 1991, pressiomètre Géopress. fendu, supportent la pression sans risques
de débaguer la gaine dans un forage bien
calibré dont la paroi se déforme peu.
 Lorsque le sol induré présente des pres-
sions de fluage entre 5 MPa et 12 MPa, la
même performance est plus difficile à réali-
ser, et les occasions de le faire au cours
d’une reconnaissance géotechnique sont
plus rares. Les quelques exemples présen-
tés montrent qu’une roche altérée peut pré-
senter le même type de comportement pres-
siométrique qu’un sol, avec une courbe de
forme hyperbolique extrapolable vers des
pressions limites de 12 MPa à 20 MPa.
 Malgré ces tentatives réussies, sporadiques
au cours de l’histoire du pressiomètre, les
Figure 3. Un essai haute pression avec fluage, gneiss alté-
ré, Limoges, 2004, pressiomètre Géopress. donneurs d’ordre sont souvent restés peu
intéressés, soit en raison du manque de pré-
6 G. Arsonnet et al. / L’HyperPac 25 MPa comble le vide entre le pressiomètre Ménard

cision sur le module EM imputé à la mesure nécessitant plus le recours au gaz com-
du déplacement par déformations volumé- primé industriel (azote), qui n’est utilisé
trique, soit également en raison de la diffi- que pour les cellules de garde.
culté d’approcher de façon fiable une pres- Dès la mise au point de ce dispositif pour un
sion limite pLM. appareil standard avec des composants électro-
 De nombreux utilisateurs de résultats pres- mécaniques, et notamment des capteurs de pres-
siométriques restent cependant demandeurs sion, dans une plage de mesures limitée peu au-
d’une extension significative du domaine dessus de la limitation normative de 5 MPa, il est
d’utilisation du pressiomètre. Ceci notam- apparu que le même principe constructif fonc-
ment en raison de la difficulté à trouver, sur tionnerait à des pressions beaucoup plus élevées.
échantillons carottés une mesure équiva- Pour la construction d’un prototype HyperPac,
lente à la pression limite ; les mesures de l’objectif visé a été une pression de 25 MPa, soit
Rc par exemple perdent leur signification 5 fois la limite des essais normaux, qui a le mé-
pour l’ensemble d’un massif en raison de la rite de correspondre à la fois au domaine de me-
fracturation des roches, que la mesure pres- sures à combler entre essais au pressiomètre et
siométrique prend en compte. essais au dilatomètre, et à un dimensionnement
 Des pressiomètres enregistreurs dépourvus des composants mécaniques et électroméca-
du voyant de lecture visuelle (Géospad2 niques industriels éprouvés et fiables.
d’Apagéo) existent maintenant ; ils restent L’utilisation d’un cylindre (fig. 4), celui où
limités à une pression de 15 à 18 MPa, au- circule le piston, largement dimensionné sup-
delà de laquelle la consommation de gaines prime tout risque d’explosion en cas de fuite ou
de sondes standard et surtout de gaz de- rupture d’un composant du système hydraulique,
vient une limitation d’usage. des tubulures ou de la sonde.
La résolution de mesure de déplacement du
3.2 L’apport du pressiomètre automatisé piston motorisé est inférieure à 1 μm, correspon-
(GéoPac) et son évolution en version dant à une mesure théorique de déplacement du
25 MPa (HyperPac) volume de 1.10-3 cm3, soit pour la sonde décrite
(fig. 5) un déplacement moyen de la paroi de
Le principe de ce pressiomètre de génération ré- l’ordre de 3.10-2μm.
cente (article à paraître 3) est d’assurer le pro-
gramme de chargement pressiométrique par un
système volumétrique à piston motorisé, auto-
contrôlé par un dispositif d’asservissement élec-
tronique qui analyse la courbe en cours de cons-
truction, et stabilise les paliers de pression nor-
malisés sans intervention d’un opérateur. Le
pressiomètre est piloté à distance par un ordina-
teur de chantier « durci », la Géobox.
La nécessité de mise en œuvre d’une avance
micrométrique du piston a d’emblée apporté à ce
dispositif :
- une très grande précision des mesures de
volume, déterminées lors des essais pres-
siométriques courants à 2.10-3 cm3
- une stabilisation précise des paliers de
pression du circuit de mesure (selon la
précision des capteurs employés), et ne
G. Arsonnet, J.P. Baud, M. Gambin, W. Youssef, Le Figure 4. Pressiomètre auto-contrôlé HyperPac. Schéma
pressiomètre auto-contrôlé Géopac. de principe du volumètre à piston motorisé asservi.
G. Arsonnet et al. / L’HyperPac 25 MPa comble le vide entre le pressiomètre Ménard 7

C’est sur la sonde de mesure (au contact du  Calcaire de Beauce, carrière de Roncevaux
forage, et au calibrage de celui-ci, que devait être (45).
portée l’attention. Nous avons utilisé une sonde
monocellulaire de 46 mm de diamètre, avec dif-
férents types de gaines, selon une gamme de ré-
sistances (de dureté 40 à 90 Shore), similaires à
celles des sondes dessinées par Ménard pour son
« pressiomètre 1000 bars » [9].

Figure 5. Schéma de la sonde 46 mm THP Géomatech

3.3 Exemples d’essais au pressiomètre

automatique Hyperpac 25 MPa
Les mesures et essais présentés ici apparaissent Figure 6. Grès de Saulx à 25 MPa sans fluage, (expan-
comme une « simple » transposition des opéra- sion et résistance propres de la sonde en grisé).
tions usuelles pour un essai pressiométrique
normal, avec les dispositions propres aux sondes
dilatométriques de type B [14] :
 Le calibrage d’une sonde très haute pres-
sion se fait par paliers de l’ordre de 2 à 3
MPa dans un tube épais d’acier de forte ré-
sistance élastique, avec correction de sa dé-
formation propre, vérifiée soit par le calcul
soit par l’utilisation d’un tube double en
équipression [15].
 L’étalonnage d’une sonde 46 mm très haute
pression amène à des valeurs de la résis-
tance propre des gaines de l’ordre de 0,6 à
1,2 MPa selon la dureté Shore et
l’épaisseur de la gaine utilisée.
Figure 7. Calcaire de Beauce, avec un début de fluage
 La capacité de déformation de ces sondes à 18 MPa (expansion et résistance propres de la sonde
est actuellement limitée à 350 cm3, soit, en grisé).
pour une cellule de mesure (fig. 5), une dé-
formation relative de 50 % en dV/V (23 % On remarquera la pente des courbes de ca-
en dr/r). librage, quasi-rectilignes entre le contact du tube
On retrouve ces deux éléments classiques et 25 MPa, la pente étant ici de l’ordre de 1
de correction sur les pressions et les volumes cm3/MPa en utilisant l’eau comme fluide de
mesurés sur les graphiques d’essais dans des transfert et mesure. La qualité d’ajustement par
roches ci-après, faites dans des forages réalisés une régression linéaire d’une part, à l’aide d’une
avec un carottier de 46 mm à couronne diaman- hyperbole d’autre part, est une mesure indirecte
tée : de la précision atteinte par l’appareil sur les vo-
lumes, ce qui permet de présager une excellente
 Grès de Fontainebleau, anciennes carrières fiabilité des mesures et une diminution drastique
de pavés à Saulx-les-Chartreux (91) et de la pente en utilisant une huile incompressible.
8 G. Arsonnet et al. / L’HyperPac 25 MPa comble le vide entre le pressiomètre Ménard

3.4 Mesures de modules dans la plage 0 – 25 REMERCIEMENTS

MPa et fluage des sols très indurés et des
roches tendres Remerciements à l’équipe technique des sociétés
Géomatech, Apagéo et Cedarnet, qui a fait en
L’interprétation des essais en très haute pression
sorte que le prototype HyperPac soit complète-
peut donner lieu à des estimations de modules
ment opérationnel au cours de l’année 2010. La
variant selon l’intervalle de pression retenu.
première présentation publique de fonctionne-
Sur les exemples présentés, et en considérant
ment à 25 MPa a été faite lors de Journées Tech-
l’intervalle de pression le plus étendu, les mo-
niques Apagéo les 23 et 24 septembre 2010.
dules EM obtenus sont respectivement de 3 200
MPa dans un grès et de 4 900 MPa dans un cal-
caire. Pour ce dernier essai, l’amorce de fluage
permet d’extrapoler une pression limite de 24,2 REFERENCES
MPa, soit un rapport EM/pLM de 200.
[1] M. Cassan, Les essais pressiométriques et leurs applica-
tions en France, rappels historiques et état des connais-
sances, ISP5-PRESSIO 2005 Vol. 2. Gambin, Magnan
4 CONCLUSION. DEVELOPPEMENTS et Mestat (ed.), LCPC, Paris (2006), 125-200.
[2] M. Gambin, Le pressiomètre, in I. Sharour et R. Gour-
FUTURS vès, Reconnaissance des terrains in situ, Hermès
Sciences - Lavoisier Ed. (2005), Chapitre 4, 104-146.
L’appareil présenté, l’HyperPac 25 MPa, com- [3] M. Galera, M. Alvarez, Z.T. Bienawski, Evaluation of
prend un contrôleur pression-volume doté d’un the deformation modulus of rock masses. Comparison
by pressuremeter and dilatometer test, ISP5-PRESSIO
volumètre à piston asservi, les paliers de pression 2005 Vol. 2. Gambin, Magnan et Mestat (ed.), LCPC,
normalisés étant stabilisés sans intervention d’un Paris (2006), 239-256.
opérateur. Cet appareil permettant d’atteindre [4] Norme NF P94-110-1, Afnor (2000).
25MPa et doté d’une capacité de 600 cm3, est [5] Norme EN-ISO 22476-4, CEN, en enquête probatoire.
[6] L. Ménard, Essais pressiométriques dans le rocher, No-
destiné à la mesure pressiométrique des roches tice Etudes Pressiométriques Louis Ménard D21 (1967).
tendres pouvant présenter un début de rupture [7] L. Ménard, Application des essais pressiométriques aux
avant cette pression, et des roches cimentées. études de tunnel en terrain rocheux, Notice Etudes
En vue d’une utilisation courante d’essais Pressiométriques Louis Ménard D36 (1966).
[8] J.-P. Baud et M. Gambin, Homogenising MPM test
pressiométriques à 25 MPa par les bureaux curves by using a hyperbolic model, ISC3 Taïpeï, Geo-
d’études, le développement de l’appareil porte technical and Geophysical Site Characterization –
actuellement sur les points suivants : Huang & Mayne (eds) London (2008), 975-980.
 Elargissement de la gamme des sondes très [9] L. Ménard, Le pressiomètre éclateur de roches, Notice
Etudes Pressiométriques Louis Ménard D23 (1974).
haute pression dont le diamètre pourra être [10] J. Arcamone, R.Poirot et R.Schwartzmann, Utilisation
aussi de 63 mm ou 76 mm selon les normes de la pressiométrie dans les études minières, C.R. Sym-
pressiométriques. posium. Int. Essais en place, Paris (1983), vol. 2, 187-193.
[11] R. Heintz, Rapport national du Grand-Duché du
 Réduction à une valeur minimale du terme Luxembourg, ISP5 – PRESSIO 2005 Vol. 2. Gambin,
de correction de calibrage ; les sondes gar- Magnan et Mestat (ed.), LCPC, Paris (2006), 431-440.
deront par contre, pour une robustesse [12] R. Heintz et P. Reiffsteck, Essais pressiométriques
compatible avec leur utilisation, une valeur haute pression, Rapport de recherche n°11J021, Labo-
ratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris (2003).
de résistance propre élevée (mesurée au [13] R. Massonnet, Le pressiomètre sous haute pression,
cours de l’étalonnage), qui n'est pas préju- ISP5-PRESSIO 2005, Vol. 1. Gambin, Magnan et Mes-
diciable à la précision de la mesure. tat (ed.), Presses ENPC/LCPC, Paris (2005), 81–90.
 Mise à disposition d’une gamme d’outil de [14] Norme EN-ISO 22476-5, CEN, projet.
[15] L. Ménard, Exécution des essais pressiométriques dans
forage calibrés, carottiers et outils destruc- le rocher, Notice Etudes Pressiométriques Louis Mé-
tifs adaptés aux sols et roches visés 4. nard D3 (1966).

Pour les terrains indurés et même pour les roches, les essai reste aussi essentielle à la qualité de la mesure des mo-
auteurs estiment que la minimisation du délai entre forage et dules que dans les sols meubles.
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.



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Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 15
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Laboratory and field investigation in Porto

Romano Durres
Investigations en laboratoire et in situ dans Porto Romano
L. Bozo1
Polytechnic University of Tirana
S.Allkja, L.Harizaj

In the west part of Albania, near the Adriatic Sea there is a large area of very problematic soils as organic cohesive soils and fine
sands under the ground water table. These soils have high porosity and are under consolidated. This region is characterized by a
big development of motor-ways, industries, costal constructions and tourism.
We would like to present in this papers the laboratory and in-situ tests and studies performed by the laboratory
“A.L.T.E.A&GEOSTUDIO2000” for the determination of the behaviour of these soils under static and seismic loads. We will
also give some recommendations about engineering measures that should be taken for the improvement of these characteristics.

En occidental part d’Albanie a proximite de l’Adriatik mer se trouve vaste plaine composant de problematique sols tel com-me
sols argileux organique et sable finne dessous de la nappe del eau. Celle sols ont porosite eleve et ils sont non consolide. Cette
zone est caracterise de grande developpement de le industrie, construction portuel, tourisme et routtes. Nous voulont pre-senter
dans Cette materiau les etudes et investigations dans Porto Romano Durres par les essais execute in laboratoire et in situ de la
“A.L.T.E.A&GEOSTUDIO2000” intentionnellement pour determination de la comportement des sols sous chargement sta-tique
et seismique.

Keywords: Geological, investigation, laboratory test, in situ test, soil improvement

1 INTRODUCTION that the area consists of sands and unconsolidated

clays with a high content of organic matters
In the western Albania, nearby the Adriatic Sea which may cause serious problems concerning
lies the Durres City, one of Albanian biggest ci- specially the Second Limit State (Serviceability
ties and also the Albanian biggest Port. A huge Limit state).
Petroleum Plant, tanks and road infrastructure for We will explain in the following material the
it will be built in the area of Porto Romano, near degree of the phenomena related to soil deforma-
Durres City. For this project realization, a de- tion can reach and how can we interfere in order
tailed geological and geotechnical study was car- to minimize or eliminate these kinds of problems.
ried out because this area is known as very prob-
lematic geologically speaking. The study showed

Corresponding Author.
16 L. Bozo et al. / Laboratory and Field Investigation in Porto Romano Durres

2 GEOLOGICAL, GEOMOPHOLOGIC The description of the layers encountered dur-

AND SEISMIC STUDY ing the drillings is given in Fig.2.

The geological study is based on 12 drillings per-

formed in a depth (20-40) m.
The drillings show that the studied area has:
 Quaternary deposits: Colluviums
represented by deluvial deposits and parts
of weathered bed-rocks; marshy deposits; -
maritime deposits.
 Deposits of Upper Miocene N2: Sand
stone; - Siltstone; - Mudstone
 The ground water table is 0.90m. There are
4 or 5 typical layers encountered in all of
the drillings with a typology almost normal
Geological Section VI - VI
Horizontal Scale 1:200
Vertical Scale 1:200
0.50 0.50
0.50 1 0.50 1 1
2 2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 Fig. 2 BH-1
4 4
5 5
5 5

Fig.1 Geological section VI-VI
The geotechnical study aims to determine a gene-
The geomorphologic study shows that the site ralized geotechnical model. The first step was the
location has flat relief. The most remarkable geo- performance of laboratory tests for the determi-
logical and geodynamic features identified in the nation of physical and mechanical properties of
area are: soils by analyzing undisturbed samples (1st quali-
 Erosion which is visible in the hilly part of ty) taken from the 12 drillings [9], [10], [11],
the zone. [12]. In most of the drillings were encountered 4
 Weathering phenomena which is visible on layers; in 2 of them appeared a fifth layer.
the bed-rock formations composed of Mud- The data analysis produced the following ge-
stone and Sandstone. neralized physical properties of soils:
 The phenomenon of consolidation of the Table 1
marshy deposits.
The seismic study shows that the site location
is situated in a zone of high seismic activity. The
seismic Micro-Division [1],[2] shows that an
earthquake of magnitude M=6.5-7 can occur,
with high accelerations on the free surface: amax =
0.4g in loose deposits (80-100) m of thickness,
high ground water table, with a spreading speed
of the waves Vs=150m/s. Based on this informa-
tion we can conclude that the soil corresponds to And generalized mechanical properties:
the D or E category according to EuroCode-8.
L. Bozo et al. / Laboratory and Field Investigation in Porto Romano Durres 17

Table 2  A high silt content correspondently: 55%

and 56%,
 Similar Sand Content: 28% and 20%,
 Similar NSPT values: 9-10,
 Similar water content: 25.78and 28.38,
 Same unit weight: 1.913 g / cm3,
 Specific Gravities almost equal: 2.662 g /
cm3 and 2.667 g / cm3.
On the other hand, the layer 3 has a limited
Based on the in-situ tests, we notice that there thickness (approximately one fourth of the thick-
is a good correspondence between the SPT tests nesses of layer 4). Based on these facts, we con-
and the properties determined in laboratory (for clude that we can unify the two layers in one.
different layers). Based on the description of the This generalized model is also confirmed by the
layers, laboratory tests and in-situ tests (NSPT), we CPTU tests. The registered data from these tests
can modify the real geotechnical model com- testify clearly the presence of two layers A and
posed from five layers into a generalized model B. (Fig.4)
composed from two layers: A and B (Fig.3).

11 m

21 m


Fig.3The generalized geotechnical model

We base this modification on:

The exception of the first layer of thickness 3
m composed by Silty Clay as inappropriate to
study for the following reasons: Big void ratio e
> 1.4 contains organic matters, it is very com-
pressible [E=(0.5-0.8)*104 KPa ], deformation as
a result of the second consolidation
C =11.5*10-3, it has very small resistive capaci- Fig.4 CPTU Registration Data
ty:   14 , C=(19-20) KPa, Cu = 23.5KPa,

According to the CPTU data, the layer A with
NSPT = 5. a depth (11-12)m has the characteristics:
We think that it’s dangerous to support Petro-
 cone resistance qc = (8-10)MPa
leum Tanks on this layer because the substantial
 sleeve friction f = (70-80)KPa
deformations of the layer (First and Second Con-
 pore pressure Pw = 50KPa
solidation) could cause the Ultimate Limit State.
While from (11-12)m up to 25 m of depth we
The layers 3 and 4 have many similar properties
distinguish the layer B with characteristics:
 cone resistance qc = 2 MPa
18 L. Bozo et al. / Laboratory and Field Investigation in Porto Romano Durres

 sleeve friction f = (40-50)KPa lowable values) is relatively small. These values

 pore pressure Pw = (200-600)KPa are reported in Table 4.

Definitely, the generalized geotechnical model Table 4.

is composed by two layers with the following
characteristics: (Table 3)

Table 3

The allowable pressure of the petroleum tank

applied on the first layer shall not exceed the val-
ue 130KPa.
For this pressure and for plate dimension
D=30m, h=1m, an active zone is created of depth
Ha=20m.The tank settlement results:
From the first consolidation: S1  12 cm, it
ends up after t1=1.36 years.
From the second consolidation: S2  2.4 cm,
it ends up after t2=5 years.
The total settlement is: S  14.4 cm > Slim =
10 cm.
So, the Ultimate Limit State can occur to the
structure. On the other side, in the area near the
edge of the foundation [Z= (0-2) m depth] the
pressure applied will cause shear stresses
  (41  30) KPa while the resistive shear
capacity of soil results
  (36  22) KPa .This means that the first
4 THE EXPECTED PHENOMENA layer is unstable and that the soil will be pushed
under the foundation. This is the reason why the
There are two categories of objects predicted for first layer can’t be used to support the foundation
this area: 1-large petroleum tanks of (20-30)m di- of the Tanks. If we use this layer, the structure
ameter, and 2- roads. will pass through the First Limit State or total
The foundation will undergo settlements dur- loss of stability or in a better case in the Second
ing the first and second consolidation under the Limit State (Serviceability Limit State).
static action of loads (from petroleum tanks). If In the generalized geotechnical model, under
the right solution is not given for the foundation seismic actions can occur the phenomenon of li-
location depth the soils can slide under the foun- quefaction. The data reported from the seismic
dation. study is:
Referred to the real geotechnical model M= (6.5-7), amax= 0.4g, Vs = 150m/sec,
(Fig.3), the calculated bearing capacity for each H  (80  100) m (loose deposits).
layer according the Limit States [3], [7], [8] (al-
L. Bozo et al. / Laboratory and Field Investigation in Porto Romano Durres 19

The laboratory tests produced data for a gene-

ralized particle size analysis of the layer A (Fig. 0 10 20 30 40
6). 0

100 2


h (m)
Passing (%)


50 ( 0.199, 50) 8

30 10


Fig.7   , c and Depth relation
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10
Diameter (mm)

D50=0.199mm According to the calculations, the layer A will be

liquefied in case of an earthquake of magnitude
Fig.6 Generalized particle size analysis of the layer A M=7 and ground acceleration amax=0.4g (Fig.7).
Finally, according to the geological, geotechnic-
We have calculated the values of the Cyclic al, seismic studies and also due calculations [4],
Shear Resistance  c and the shear stresses [5], we conclude:
 The first layer composed by silty clay con-
caused by the seismic action   based on the
taining organic matters, of high porosity,
simplified Seed Method. The data is given in ta- very compressible, low resistant shall not
ble 5. be used to support the foundation.
 The second layer composed by silty sands,
Table 5. with density (Dr = 35-45%), saturated, un-
der the ground water table, can be liquefied
in case of an earthquake and causing col-
lapse to the structures located in this area.
With these premises, we shall take some engi-
neering provisions: [6]



Where: Improvement of the layer of fine silty soils with

dc I cobble or gravel piles of diameter 80cm, length
'0 Cr D 12m placed like a chessboard in a distance of
c = 2 3 D50 2.5m from each other (Fig.8).
h rd
2.5 m

2.5 m

Fig.10 Placement of Gravel Piles on plane

20 L. Bozo et al. / Laboratory and Field Investigation in Porto Romano Durres

act like vertical drains and contribute for the dis-

This reinforcement shall be done under each sipation of the pore water pressure during the
petroleum tank. seismic oscillations can solve the problems.
The second proposal is the use of plate foun-
dation supported by reinforced concrete piles,
which will be embedded into the layer B for at REFERENCES
least (5-6) m. The piles will be pendent and they
will bear the main load of the tanks. (Fig.9) [1] Bozo L., 2004, Dinamika e dherave, Vol 1,2,3, Tirane
[2] Science Academy, 1989, Seismic Micro-Division study
for Albania, Tirane
[3] Lancellota R., Geotechnical Engineering 2006. Turin
[4] Look B., 2006, Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation
and Design Tables, Taylor & Francis
[5] Bell F., 2006, Geological Hazards, Taylor & Francis
A [6] Takahashi T., 2006, Debris Flow Mechanics, Prediction
and Countermeasures Taylor & Francis
[7] Honjo Y. ECT, 2006, Foundation Design Codes and
Soil Investigation Taylor & Francis
[8] Powrie W.,1996, Soil Mechanics: Concepts and Appli-
(5-6) m B cations, London
[9] British Standards (BS1377) 1990.
[10] Code of Practice For Site Investigations (BS 5930:1999)
[11] ASTM Standards 2003.
[12] AASHTO Standards 1990.
Fig. 11 Pile embedded on layer B

The limit friction for the layer A is f1= 25Kpa

while for the layer B f2=(10-11)Kpa
The bearing capacity per pile depends on its


The Porto Romano area, where the Petroleum

Plant will be built, is composed by problematic
soils for different reasons:
 High compressibility,
 Under consolidated soils OCR  (0.4-0.5),
 High porosity e>1.4 and high content of or-
ganic matters,
 Duration of deformation [ >(5-6) years],
 High content of silt and fine sand [(75-
 High ground water table (0.9m from the
ground surface)
 Predisposition for loss of stability.
The choice of Petroleum Tanks foundation is
specific and delicate. This is why it shall be done
very carefully.
Increasing the density of sands by the rein-
forcement with gravel piles which simultaneously
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 21
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Mechanical properties of low plasticity clayey soil

of the embedded Daugava ancient river channel in
the foundation of Plavinas Dam, Latvia
Propriétés mécaniques des sols argileux de faible plasticité du
chenal ancienne de la rivière Daugava enchâssé à la Fondation
de Plavinas barrage, Lettonie
S. Dišlere 1, D. PZruma
University of Latvia, Faculty of Earth Science, Alberta str. 10, Riga Latvia

Daugava River is the largest river in Latvia, and it has been developed for hydropower with the construction of dams at three
sites namely Plavinas, Kegums and Riga HPP. In the 1960s the largest of the three hydroelectric power plants - Plavinas Power
Plant, having a considerably higher head than the other two and a relatively large reservoir, was built up. It is built across an an-
cient pre-glacial river channel, which is filled with glacial deposits up to 137 m or more thick.
Since construction of the power plant the properties of these soils and their behaviour are tested and discussed. During 2009
drilling and sampling were performed close to the Plavinas Dam as a scope of the geotechnical investigation for construction of
the additional spillway on the right side of the power plant. Part of the samples was used for testing of soil clasification and me-
chanical properties in Geotechnical laboratory of the University of Latvia. Based on the testing results soils were classified and
their properties described. Testing results were compared to previous findings and geotechnical properties of the soils tested dur-
ing construction of dam. The tested soils are similar to the soils under Plavinas dam concrete structures and detail analysis of the
soil properties helps to explain the long term behavior of the Plavinas dam structures, the possible changes of the soil properties
as a result of the loading and impact of the artesian groundwater pressure.

Daugava est la plus grande rivière en Lettonie, et il a été développé pour l'hydroélectricité avec la construction de barrages sur
trois sites, à savoir Plavinas, Kegums et Riga PPH. Dans les années 1960, la plus importante des trois centrales hydroélectriques
- Plavinas PPH, ayant une tête considérablement plus élevée que les deux autres et un réservoir relativement important, a été
construite. Il est construit sur un ancien chenal préglaciaires, qui est rempli de dépôts glaciaires jusqu'à 137 m ou plus épais.
Depuis la construction de la centrale électrique, les propriétés de ces sols et leur comportement sont testées et discutées. Au
cours de 2009 de forage et d'échantillonnage ont été réalisés près pour le barrage de Plavinas comme une portée de l'étude
géotechnique pour la construction de l'évacuateur de crues supplémentaire sur le côté droit de la centrale électrique. Partie des
échantillons a été utilisée pour l'essai de classification des sols et des propriétés mécaniques en laboratoire géotechnique de
l'Université de Lettonie. Basé sur les résultats des tests, les sols ont été classés et leurs propriétés décrites. Résultats des tests ont
été comparés aux résultats antérieurs et des propriétés géotechniques des sols testés au cours de la construction du barrage. Les
sols testés sont similaires aux sols sous Plavinas barrage des structures de béton et l'analyse de détail de l'aide les propriétés du
sol pour expliquer le comportement à long terme des structures Plavinas barrage, les éventuelles modifications des propriétés du
sol à la suite du chargement et l'impact de la pression d'eau souterraine artésien.

Keywords: Laboratory testing, clayey soil, plasticity, compressibility

Corresponding Author.
22 S. Dišlere and D. Pāruma / Mechanical Properties of Low Plasticity Clayey Soil


Plavinas HPP is the largest dam in Latvia and The geology and hydrogeology of the Plavinas
Baltic region constructed on Daugava River. The HPP area is complicated. The thickness of the
Daugava River has been developed for hydro- Quaternary deposits is the largest in the buried
power with the construction of the cascade of valley and reaches at least 140 m (the largest re-
dams at three sites upstream Riga City. covered thickness by drill hole is 137 m), while
Plavinas Dam having a head of 40 m was con- smallest thickness is on the slopes of the both
structed 107 km from its entrance to the Baltic banks and in some places of existing Daugava
See. It was designed by Hydroproject Institute, river bed and in reservoir. [1]
Russia. The construction was started on 1961 and The ancient pre-Quaternary river channel is
finished on 1966. There are two dams con- filled by glacial till – soft clayey soil with low
structed downstream of the Plavinas Dam on permeability. It is described in the Russian termi-
Daugava River: Kegums HPP with head of 14 m; nology as high plasticity clayey soil (called
and Riga HPP with head of 18 m (Figure 1).[1] “loam” in some documents) and "low plasticity
clayey soil" (called “sandy loam” in some docu-
ments) (Figure 3).

Figure 1. Scheme of the Daugava dam cascade [1].

Figure 3. Section through powerhouse foundation along

The Plavinas powerhouse is of combined type. downstream toe gallery [2]
The gated spillway is on top of the powerhouse
consisting of two blocks or sections sealed by a It was noted before that in the USC system
special bitumen seal. The hydraulic hill dam is this soil with about 11% gravel, 43% sand, 29%
connected to power plant structure and it crossed silt and 17% clay would be classified as a low
the preconstruction river channel (Figure 2). plastic clayey, silty sand. The liquid limit is
around 21% and the plasticity index 9%. [2]
The excavation for the foundation of the pow-
erhouse was made in the glacial deposits. There
was some hydraulic instability in the floor of this
excavation due to strong upward hydraulic pres-
sure gradients from the rock below, mainly in the
northerly part of the excavation, where the cover
was highest and excavation was deepest. [3]
The dam structures and the area around the
Figure 2. View on Plavinas Dam on Daugava River [1]. dam are equipped by comprehensive monitoring
system. The vertical and lateral displacements of
the concrete and earthfill structures have been
monitored since their construction. It was con-
cluded and pointed out already before [3] that the
soil deformation parameters used in the founda-
S. Dišlere and D. Pāruma / Mechanical Properties of Low Plasticity Clayey Soil 23

tion behavior analyses seem to result in shear dis- (ISO/TS 17892-3:2004), incremental loading oe-
tortion settlements that are too large and volume dometer test (ISO/TS 17892-5:2004).
compression settlements that are too small com- Liquid limit and plasticity limit were tested
pared to observed soil-structure behavior. This and rate of porosity calculated using methodol-
may be the main reason for the differences be- ogy described by Lomtadze. [4]
tween the calculated and the observed behavior Grain size distribution was determined using
of the structure. wet sieving method described in ISO/TS 17892-
It is concluded [2] that the reason for these 4:2004.
non-uniform settlements are the additional
stresses originating from both concrete and earth 3.2 Testing results
structures at both ends of the powerhouse.
However differential settlements under the Following testing results will be discussed:
powerhouse structure could be only partly ex- composition of soil, index tests and physical
plained using uniform soil parameters at the all properties, and deformation parameters.
foundation. As it can be seen from cross-section
and continuously noted by powerhouse designer 3.2.1 Classification of soil
the soil in powerhouse foundation is not homo- Composition of the soil was tested using wet
geneous and the main reason of differential set- sieving method. It was found that soil consists of
tlement is mainly caused by changes of the clay 10% gravel (including particles with size
content in the soils of pre-glacial buried valley. >10mm), 25% sand, 32% silt and 33% clay parti-
cles. Following USC classification system such
soils shall be classified as a silt and clay. This re-
3 TESTING OF SOILS sult contradicts to previous assumptions and
should be investigated more detail in future.
During 2009 drilling and sampling were per- However given result corresponds with soil
formed close to the Plavinas Dam as a scope of description in Russian terminology there it is de-
the geotechnical investigation for construction of scribed as high plasticity and low plasticity
the additional spillway on the right bank of Dau- clayey soil. Plasticity index shall be determined
gava River downstream of the Plavinas Dam. in this case.
Part of the samples was used for testing of soil
for index tests and mechanical properties in Geo- 3.2.2 Index properties of soil
technical laboratory of the University of Latvia. Index properties of the soil were tested using
Following geological structure the tested soils are mainly standard methods and methods described
similar to the soils under Plavinas dam concrete by V.D. Lomtadze [4]. The results obtained are
structures and detail analysis of the soil proper- shown in table 1.
ties helps to explain the long term behavior of the Table 1. Soil characteristics
Plavinas dam structures, the possible changes of Characteristic Average Min Max
the soil properties as a result of the loading and
Water content, % 10 7 17
impact of the artesian groundwater pressure. Liquid limit, % 16 15 19
More than 35 undisturbed samples were used Plasticity index, % 3 2 6
for different tests taken from 13 boreholes in It can be defined that tested soil was low plas-
depth interval between 6 and 30 m. ticity clay. There are not found any clear ten-
dency of the variation of the characteristics with
3.1 Testing methods depth or in the investigation area.
Consistency of the tested samples was hard
Mainly standard testing methods were used for
(plastic limit IL < 0) and only 3 of tested samples
determination of the index properties like deter-
were of plastic consistency.
mination of water content (ISO/TS 17892-
1:2004), determination of particle density
24 S. Dišlere and D. Pāruma / Mechanical Properties of Low Plasticity Clayey Soil

3.2.3 Deformation characteristics soils and possibility of the differential settlement.

For testing of the deformation characteristics The following conclusions can be drawn based
soil samples were tested for consolidation in oe- on the results obtained from laboratory testing of
dometer. Undisturbed samples with natural satu- the soil samples:
ration and initial density were loaded up to 1.4 x Tested soil contains 10% of gravel, 25% of
kg/cm2. sand, 32% of silt and 33% of clay particles.
The average initial rate of porosity was 49.6%. Soil can be classified as a silt or clay by
Rate of porosity reduced due to loading for 12% USC system and as a low plasticity clay by
in average however the significant distribution of Russian soil classification system (SNIP).
results shall be noted (5 to 25%). Final rate of po- x Average water content of tested soil was
rosity due to loading was 43.6% in average. 10%, liquid limit 16% and plasticity index
There is no correlation between initial rate of po- 3%. Tested samples mainly were of hard
rosity and compression (or final rate of porosity). consistency.
It shall be concluded that compression of this
x Coefficient of porosity varies more and it
type of soil depends from another characteristics
was in average 49.6%. After loading of soil
than initial density. An explanation of this is not
coefficient of porosity changed for about
readily available. It is possible therefore that the
reason for the unequal compression due to load-
x There is no correlation between initial den-
ing could be the changes in composition of soil
sity and compression due to loading. The
sample mainly inclusions of the coarse particles –
similar results were obtained using addi-
gravel in tested samples and gravel and boulders
tionally saturated soil samples.
in foundation soils.
Tests with additionally saturated sample were
performed to test compressibility of the soil after
opening of foundation pit during construction of ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Plavinas dam. As it was mentioned before the
soils were unloaded and affected by high pore The authors are grateful for the access to the
pressure during construction and this could sig- Plavinas Dam owner Latvenergo archive and the
nificantly change the soil behavior after loading. use of the samples taken during drilling close to
Water content of the additionally saturated Plavinas Dam.
samples before testing was 12% in average. Test-
ing results were in the range of results obtained
with undisturbed samples and it shows that be- REFERENCES
havior of soil after secondary loading in the
[1] S. Dišlere, Monitoring as a tool of Dam Safety im-
foundation of structure should not be provement at Plavinas HPP. Trans. 22nd Int. Congress
significantly changed. It is important to note that Large Dams, Barcelona, Spain, Vol. 1, pp.611-607
the water content of sample at the end of test (2006)
reduced up to 7% which correspond with the [2] S. Messerklinder, R.P. Brenner, S. Dišlere and Z.
Z[\ele. The long-term behavior of a run-of-river
minimum water content values determined for scheme in Latvia, 8th ICOLD European Club Sympo-
undisturbed samples. sium, Graz, Austria (2010)
[3] S. Dišlere and A.Šnore. The calculated settling by using
2D FE method and actual observations of the Plavinas
HPP structures, Baltic Geotechnics IX, Parnu, Estonia
[4] V.D. Lomtadze, Physical and mechanical properties of
Mechanical properties of the foundation soils un- soils and rocks. Laboratory testing methods (in Rus-
sian), Nedra, Moscow (1999)
der Plavinas HPP structures are discussed since
construction. Dam structures are designed taking
into account the changes of the compressibility of
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 25
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Landslide stabilization along a national road

Stabilisation d’un glissement de terre sur une route nationale
V. Farcas, N. Ilies 1 , A. Popa, C. Gherman, O. Muresan & I. Molnar
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of, Civil Engineering

The paper presents the investigation program and slope stability analysis of an active landslide situated on National road DN 1,
major traffic way in Transylvania, Romania. Slope stability analysis was performed using Geo Fine software, considering circu-
lar or polygonal sliding surfaces and using GFAS software, applying FEM method. The investigation program is continued by a
monitoring program to determine movements on the site and ground water table variation. On the site were placed inclinometers
and piezometers, where the slope stability analysis indicates a lower value of the safety factor than the acceptable one.

Le papier présent le program d’investigations géotechniques et l’analyse de stabilité des pentes pour un glissement de terre actif,
localise sur la route nationale DN1, route très important en Transylvanie. L’analyse de stabilité des pentes a été réalise en utili-
sant le logiciel Géo Fine, pour des surfaces de glissement circulaire ou polygonal et en utilisant le logiciel GFAS, en utilisant la
méthode d’éléments finit. Le program d’investigation a été continu par un program de surveillance pour déterminer les mouve-
ments sur le site et la variation des tableaux d’eaux souterraines. Inclinomètres et piézomètres ont été placés donc sur le site dans
les lieux ou l'analyse de stabilité indique une valeur inférieure du coefficient de sécurité que celui acceptable

Keywords: Geotechnical investigation program, slope stability, FEM, national road, monitoring program

1 INTRODUCTION This is due to the geological and geomorphologic

conditions, the presence of swelling clays (very
Extending and modernization of the roads net- active and quite common in this region), hydro
work in Romania involves serious challenges, geological conditions etc.
during designing and contracting. Among these On the investigated area it was observed the
problems the geotechnical ones belong to the most presence of a new landslide. The investigated site
prominent. The national road affected by the land- is affected by an active landslide having following
slide is connecting southern part of Romania (Bu- dimensions: 160 m length and 160 m width (see
charest - Sibiu) to the northern part – Cluj Napoca Figure 1). The national road is affected, on 120 m
and going to the Hungarian border. total length, mostly on one way and also a parking
Transylvanian depression where the national lot near the road. The landslide is presence can be
road is located has a high potential of landslides. observed by carriage way cracks and scarps, park-

Corresponding Author.
26 V. Farcas et al. / Landslide Stabilization Along a National Road

ing lot collapse and soil mass movements on the covered by a sandy silty clayey complex of
entire area. deluvial origin, Pleistocene as well.
Pleistocene formations are discordant and have
a lower limit consistent with the Pannonian
sedimentary basement up to the base of the slope


In order to determine soil characteristics (stratifi-

cation, geotechnical parameters) five drillings and
Figure 1. General view. five dynamic penetration tests DPSH-B type were
performed on the site (see Figure 2).
Soil fractures created negative slopes, where
water accumulates and infiltrates into the sliding
mass. In the area with negative slopes, it can be
observed some water accumulation spots and ve-
getation specific to the lakes area, proving that
soil mass movement has previous manifested.


Transylvanian depression is located in central part Figure 2. Site map with borehole and DPSH positions.
of Romania. The landslide is located on the east
of Badeni hill, in the western part of Transylva- The analysis regarding the stratification of the
nian Depression. soil, based on laboratory tests, has the following
From geological point of view, the basement results:
of Transylvanian depression is represented by x (1) Top soil - 0.20m depth
metamorphites belonging to the Bihor Nappe, x (2a) Silt with organic materials (organic ma-
overthrusted by ophiolitic rocks, belonging to the terial-layer 3), soft to medium soft - 3.50m
Transylvanian Nappes of South Apuseni thickness for borehole F101, 3.60m thick-
Mountains and intruded by laramian batholiths. ness for F102, 6.00m thickness for F103 and
The post tectonic evolution of Transylvanian 3.80m thickness for F104.
depression is correlated with the evolution of x (2) Brown silt, medium soft to stiff, up to
Paratethys. Post-tectonic cover, is starting with 10.00m depth.
Senonian sandstones and marls on the north and Based on the laboratory tests the following
west side of the depression, followed by Eocene geotechnical parameters were determined (see
detritic deposits and Miocene sandy marls. Table 1 and Table 2).
In the researched area, the Pannonian is The laboratory tests results shows also that the
considered to be the basement of the sedimentary layer of organic silt has a high swelling potential
complex, being represented by compact marls and U> 100% (active).
sandy marls, of marine origin, that develops both
in the whole wide depressions and in its hills
frame. This formation is covered by Pleistocene
coarse fluvial sediments throughout the
depression but the downhill slopes that are
V. Farcas et al. / Landslide Stabilization Along a National Road 27

Table 1. Physical characteristics for main soil layers The underground water level is directly con-
Bore- Thick- Soil type J Ic nected to the water level from a creek in the area
hole ness (defined [kN/m3] [-] which undercross the road and at some point, 30
[m] layer)
F101 3.70 Organic 18.31 meters downstream the road, it infiltrates into the
Silt ground. The same creek is found at the toe of the
6.30 Silty 18.65 slope and is collected by another creek that flows
F102 3.80 Organic 19.21
orthogonal with the possible landslide direction.
0.60-0.70 This fact is considered to be the main disturb-
6.20 Silty 19.50 ing factor by saturating the underground soil at
Clay depths that can cause decreasing of mechanical
F103 6.00 Organic 18.60 characteristics. At the surface of the slope there
4.00 Silty 19.66 are numerous cracks that also allow soil saturation
0.70-0.90 during rainfalls and snow melting.
F104 3.80 Organic 17.23
6.20 Silty 19.61

Table 2. Shear strength parameters obtained for direct shear Based on the in-situ investigations and also on the
C-D(consolidated-drained) laboratory tests laboratory tests results, the following conclusions
Bore- Thickness Soil Ik rez/ck rez Ik’/ck’
hole [m] type
were established:
[0/kPa] [0/kPa]
(defined x The results of the laboratory tests show a
layer) stratification, that from the top up to 3.70-
F101 3.70 Organic 10.43/5 6.00m depth is represented by a layer of or-
6.30 Silty 10.56/-
ganic silt from very soft consistency (F101)
17/79 to medium stiff (F102). The top layers are
F102 3.80 Organic 8.85/6 formed by silty soils with high content of
Silt organic materials, loose, with e>0.7, that
6.20 Silty 9.40/- also present swelling characteristics
F103 6.00 Organic 9.12/6 (U>100%). Due to these properties, infiltra-
- tions from rain waters create a softening
4.00 Silty 10.40/-
phenomenon, which will cause an important
Clay decrease of the shearing strength resistance
F104 3.80 Organic 9.20/6
- values. Dynamic penetration tests (DPSH-B)
6.20 Silty 10.50/- confirm the existence of soft soil layers on
16/85 the top, as shown in the following table:

Table 3. The probable depth of sliding surface

DPSH-B Depth with [m]
Very soft soil Soft soil
DPSH-B1 3.70 4.00
DPSH-B3 3.80 4.00
In the studied area the water table is found at
DPSH-B2 3.80 4.40
depths between -3.20 and -4.00 according to
DPSH-B4 4.20
borehole profiles for F101 (GWT:-3.70, NH:-
DPSH-B5 7.60
0.20), F102 (GWT:-3.20, NH:-0.60), F103 (-4.00,
NH:-0.20), F104 (GWT:-4.00, NH:-0.20) meas-
ured from the ground level. The hydrostatic water Comparing the results obtained from both
level is rising up to -0.6 to -0.2 m from ground investigations (in-situ investigations and
level, and can reach up to the surface level. laboratory tests) was established that the
sliding surface does not have a constant
28 V. Farcas et al. / Landslide Stabilization Along a National Road

depth on the sliding area: upstream, the 6 SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS

sliding surface is found between 7.60m
(DPSH-B5) and 4.40m (DPSH-B2). Slope stability analysis was performed for several
Downstream, the probable sliding depth is at possible sliding surfaces, in order to determine the
5.00m (F103) (see Figure 3). most probable one. The shape and the position of
the most unfavorable sliding surface depend on
soil characteristics, stratigraphy, the slope etc.
Slope stability computation is performed ac-
cording to Romanian norm SR EN 1997 -1: 2006,
using limit state theory – safety factors and finite
element method - MEF.
Slope stability analysis, according to limit state
theory was performed using numerical methods,
admitting circular slip surfaces: Fellenius and Bi-
Figure 3. Main scarp downstream the road. shop, and methods with the admission of polygo-
nal surfaces sliding: Sarma or Spencer. The analy-
x The main cause of this sliding is the sis used Geo Fine software – Slope Stability
pronounced softening of silty soils caused Module.
by the water infiltrations and underground In this particular situation the most suitable
water flow. analysis for the slopes was the one admitting po-
lygonal probable sliding surfaces. The following
x This type of sliding is a plastic yielding figure presents representative results.
sliding with successive mobilizations of
sliding areas starting from downstream to
the upstream. In the affected upstream areas
the silt layer is very soft. Besides the sliding
phenomenon, also the collapse of the former
parking lot occurred (see Figure 4).

Figure 4. Parking lot collapse.

x The risk of a slow or moderate continuous

instability could lead to the closing of the
road. This requires consolidation measures.
V. Farcas et al. / Landslide Stabilization Along a National Road 29

The Factor of Safety (FS) of a soil slope is de-

fined here as the factor by which the original
shear strength parameters must be divided in order
to bring the slope to the point of failure. During
the analysis the program gradually reduces the ba-
sic strength characteristics of the soil mass until
failure occurs. The safety factor (FS) is to be as-
sessed, and this quantity is defined as the propor-
tion by which tan I (friction angle) and c (cohe-
sion) must be reduced in order to cause failure
with the gravity loading kept constant. Gravity
loads are generated automatically and this load is
applied to the slope in a single increment. A trial
strength reduction factor loops gradually weak-
ness the soil parameters until the algorithm fails to
converge. This actually means that no stress dis-
tribution can be achieved to satisfy the failure cri-
terion and global equilibrium.
For analysis it was adopted a mathematical
model of nonlinear behavior of soil type elastic-
plastic - failure criterion Mohr - Coulomb. The
Mohr - Coulomb criterion relates the shear
strength of the material to the cohesion, internal
friction angle and normal stresses of the material.
According to FEM computations the factor of
Figure 5. Slope stability analysis. safety (FS) is lower than acceptable one, proving
the slope instability.
Slope stability study concluded the slope is not
stable, in this area safety factor FS having values
between 0,82...0,97 which is lower that the ac- 7 CONSOLIDATION SOLUTIONS
ceptable value (FS,min=1,50).
According to this initial analysis the slope is Based on the discussed conclusions of the in-situ
not stable, therefore it was performed another tests and laboratory tests the following solutions
analysis using finite element method, to confirm were proposed:
first analysis. x Keeping the slope layers at a constant water
The finite element method represents an alter- content and a stiff consistency, by leveling
native approach for slope stability analysis which the negative slopes and eliminating the
is accurate and requires fewer “a priori” assump- water trough elastic drains,
tions regarding the failure mechanism. The FEM x Supporting the carriage way by counterforts
solution preserves global equilibrium until failure and elastic drains, which allow small strains
is reached and is able to monitor progressive fail- and also the efficient mobilization of the
ure up to and including overall shear failure. shear strength resistance,
In this paper, the numerical computations has x To collect water from the carriage way -
been conducted using GFAS application, a finite horizontal elastic drains shall be installed,
element based system for nonlinear analysis of de- x The torrent must be adjusted with a concrete
formation and stability in geotechnical engineer- gutter and storage tanks with excess hatch.
ing problems in which soil models are used to si- The creek will be collected downstream the
mulate the soil behavior. landslide area,
30 V. Farcas et al. / Landslide Stabilization Along a National Road

x Upstream the road, a longitudinal drain must so to Professor Cosmin Chiorean for providing
be executed to collect the underground wa- GFAS application for slope stability analysis.
ter. A forestation program will help on col- Special acknowledgments to Romanian National
lecting the surface and underground water. Road Companies (CNADNR Bucharest and
DRDP Cluj), for allowing authors to use the in-
formation about the landslide.

In order to detect the movements of the slope in REFERENCES

the respective area, a monitoring program using
inclinometer and piezometric measurements was [1] SR EN 1997-1:2006, Eurocode 7. Geotechnical design –
Part 1. General Rules, 2006
proposed. [2] A. Stanciu, I. Lungu, Foundations – Soil mechanics and
The monitoring program will help on detecting phisycs, Ed. Tehnica, Bucharest, 2006
the real sliding surface and improve the prediction [3] A. Popa, N. Ilies, C. Chiorean – Utilization of analytical
of future slope analysis. methods in slope stability and consolidation, Proceedings
of 14th Danube-European Conference on Geotechnical
Inclinometer measurements represent a major Engineering "From Research to Design in European
monitoring step to provide valuable data about the Practice", June 2-4 2010, Bratislava, Slovakia, ISBN
behavior of the slope after the consolidation 978-80-227-3279-6
works. [4] Geotechnical software suite Geo 5, User’s guide, 2010
[5] Geostru Software, GFAS: Finite element system for geo-
technical applications, Theory manual - Version 2010-7,
Geostru Software, Italy, 2010.
9 CONCLUSIONS [6] BSI 1377 – 1:1990, Methods of test for soils for civil en-
gineering purposes. General requirements and sample
preparation, British Standards Institution, 1990
One of the most important stages for this type of
construction works is soil investigation. This pa-
per proves that an extended investigation program
is not an ignorable issue.
Hydro-geological aspects and surface water
represent an important issue in predicting the haz-
ards in the area therefore all the precaution meas-
ures need to be accomplished.
Underground water has a negative effect on
mechanical characteristic of the soil, by reducing
them, which is increasing soil instability.
Starting from the appropriate test methods, for
in situ and laboratory tests and continuing with
slope stability analysis, all these analysis give an
exhaustive image of the site conditions, retaining
systems and valuable information about future
maintenance of the site.


This study was performed as a part of the road

consolidation technical project. Authors are
thankful to the software providers: Fine Civil En-
gineering Software and Geostru Software, and al-
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 31
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Intesa-San Paolo Tower in Turin - Geotechnical

Intesa San Paolo Tour en Turin – Geotechniques probleme
A. Gasparre1, H.D.St John
Geotechnical Consulting Group
M. Jamiolkowski, G. Rocchi
Studio Geotecnico Italiano

The building comprises a 200 metre tall tower and 20 metre deep basement in a densely developed urban area. The tower has a
steel frame closed by glass panels. The vertical loads are transmitted to the ground by six mega-columns and by a core in the
central area. The lateral load restraint is provided by a permanent slab placed according to the top-down method. This paper dis-
cusses the geotechnical issues associated with the project and the ground investigation carried out to assess both the variability of
the underlying soils and the parameters for design. The large amount of information on ground conditions around the site at
shallow depths was integrated with a site-specific investigation that reached depths of 80 metres. Soil parameters were extrapo-
lated from cross-hole tests, which were carried out with two boreholes and from the measurements of the mechanical energy,
pressures and torque (PAPERO tests) during drilling. The groundwater water level was found at approximately 20 metres depth.
The information provided by the ground investigation allowed the design of the retaining wall and the foundation system and the
selection of a construction technique that accounted for the urban context.

Le bâtiment comprend une tour de 200 mètres de hauteur et une partie enterré de 20 mètres de profondeur dans une zone très ur-
banisée. La tour a une structure à cadres en acier fermés par des baies vitrées. Les charges verticaux sont transmises à travers six
méga-colonnes et par un noyau dans la zone centrale. La condition d’appui latérale est fournie par une dalle permanente installée
selon la méthode ‘tranchée couverte’. Ce document examine les questions géotechniques liées au projet et à la reconnaissance
des sols effectués pour évaluer la variabilité des sols de fondation et les paramètres géotechniques de projet. Le grand nombre
d'information disponibles sur les conditions du sol à faible profondeur autour du site a été intégré avec une campagne de recon-
naissance spécifique atteignant une profondeur de 80 mètres. Les paramètres géotechniques du sol ont été extrapolés à partir des
essais ‘cross-hole’, qui ont été effectués avec deux forages et des mesures d'énergie mécanique, de pression et de couple (essais
PAPERO) pendant le forage. Le niveau de la nappe se trouve à 20 mètres de profondeur environ. L'information obtenue à partir
de la campagne de reconnaissance a été retenue pour le projet du mur de soutènement et du système de fondation et la sélection
d'une technique de construction adaptée au contexte urbain..

Keywords: 200 m high tower ; gravelly soils ; deep excavation ; raft foundation

1 INTRODUCTION tower and 20 m deep basement that is to become

the new headquarters of the Intesa-San Paolo
This paper describes the geotechnical issues bank. The construction site is 44 m by 150 m in
associated with the construction of a 200 m tall plan and is located in a densely developed urban

Corresponding Author.
32 A. Gasparre et al. / Intesa-San Paolo Tower in Turin – Geotechnical Issues

area just outside the historical centre of Turin, It- posits of Pleistocene and Pliocene age that in
aly. The site is bounded by a public park to the turn overlay chalk deposits of Miocene age.
west and roads on the other three sides. Over the
majority of the width of the park there is an un-
derground car park extending to about 7 m below
the level of the surrounding ground. The high
speed railway line (RFI) that connects Turin to
Milan runs in an open cut at about 30 m to the
east of the site (Figure 1).

Figure 1: The site and the surrounding structures

The proposed tower occupies the central part

of the site. It has a steel frame enclosed by glass
panels. The vertical loads from the tower are
transmitted to the ground by six mega-columns Figure 2: Longitudinal cross section (elevation in meters
and by a core in the central area. The lateral load above sea level (m.a.s.l.))
restraint is provided by the combination of
braced bays surrounding the core and bracing be- The large amount of information on ground
tween the mega-columns. The substructure com- conditions around the site at shallow depths was
prises a five level basement that extends over the integrated with a site-specific investigation that
whole plan area of the site. consisted of:
The main challenges for the geotechnical de- x Five boreholes to 80 m depth used to retrieve
sign team were the identification of the appropri- representative samples of the encountered
ate substructure system to retain the ground and soil and to perform seismic cross-hole tests to
transmit the loads from the superstructure and measure the compression (Vp) and shear (Vs)
the choice of a construction sequence for the waves velocities.
deep basement accounting for the urban context x Three boreholes for SPT tests to 30 m depth
at intervals of 1.5 m.
x Twelve drilled holes to 40 m depth to meas-
2 GROUND CONDITIONS ure the five drilling parameters (i.e. rate of
advancement, pressure on the drilling tool,
The site is located on a ground which slopes applied torque to drilling rods string, rotation
gently eastwards from the Rivoli Mountains to- rate and pressure of the drilling fluid). These
wards the Po River, in an area marked by the tests, known as PAPERO, aimed at detection
presence of numerous tributaries of the Po River. and preliminary estimate of the distribution
The geology of the area comprises quaternary and degree of cementation encountered usu-
deposits of varying nature overlying marine de- ally in the gravelly deposits of middle Pleis-
tocene age in central area of Torino.
A. Gasparre et al. / Intesa-San Paolo Tower in Turin – Geotechnical Issues 33

x Six open stand pipe piezometers installed at ity theory and assuming the Poisson’s ratio
the depth around 40 m to monitor the ground ]’=0.15.
water level (G.W.L.) and obtain water sam- Moreover, using the formula by Foti et al [4]
ples for chemical tests. based on Biot [1] poroelasticity theory, the
x One water well to 40m depth used to perform measured Vp and Vs allowed the computation of
short and long term pumping tests. the profile of the in situ void ratio eo. Special at-
tention was devoted to the stiff to very stiff lay-
The design soil profile derived from the site ers of silty clay, encountered within the alluvial
investigation is shown in Figure 2. It includes deposits.
about 2 m of Made Ground, 37 m to 40 m of flu- The oedometer tests carried out on undis-
vial-glacial deposits comprising sandy gravel turbed samples showed that this layer has verti-
with cobbles with different degrees of cementa- cal yield stress ^’vy ranging from 1300 to 1800
tion over alluvial-lacustrine deposits consisting kPa well in excess of the existing overburden ef-
of a succession of dense to very dense layers of fective stress ^’vo. Moreover the oedometer re-
medium to coarse sand and relatively thinner compression curve of this material crossed the
layers of stiff to very stiff silty clays. This last intrinsic compression line ICL as defined by
formation is expected to extend to depths of ap- Burland [2] suggesting that the clay is structured.
proximately 100 m below ground level (bgl).
Based on piezometers readings, the G.W.L.
during the site investigation was encountered at a 3 THE SUBSTRUCTURE SYSTEM
depth of 21 m bgl.

3.1 The foundation solution

Given the ground conditions and the presence of
a strong and stiff cemented layer below the level
of the basement, a 4.5 m raft was chosen to sup-
port the loads from the tower and a 1.2 m thick
diaphragm wall was adopted for the ground re-
taining system. The wall was supported by the
internal floor slabs in the permanent condition
with the upper 9 m cantilevering above the sec-
ond level basement slab, which acted as a thick
plate spanning the entire plan area. The 4.5 m
thick raft spanned between the walls in the area
of the central tower and thinner rafts (1.2 m and
1.6 m) were used for the remainder of the base-
ment where there was no superstructure.

3.2 The construction sequence

Figure 3: Seismic wave velocity from cross hole tests
Having completed an unexploded ordnance
The results of cross-hole tests played a crucial (UXO) search the retaining wall was installed
role in assessing the geotechnical design parame- from 3 m below existing ground level. This ex-
ters. Figure 3 shows the profiles of Vs and Vp tended to the clay layer to form a cut off to water
with. depth measured at two locations. The Vs al- flow into the basement during excavation. The
lowed computing the small strain (H< 10-5) shear first 3 m of ground were retained using a ‘Berlin
modulus Go, from which the small strain Young Wall’ comprised of minipiles along the bounda-
modulus E’o was derived using isotropic elastic- ries with the roads and by the existing diaphragm
wall along the car park side of the site. Following
34 A. Gasparre et al. / Intesa-San Paolo Tower in Turin – Geotechnical Issues

installation of the walls the ground was removed was assumed that the structure applied a uniform
using a top-down method with the permanent pressure to the top of the raft.
second level basement slab, supported on tempo- The results showed that as excavation pro-
rary piles, as propping for the wall. ceeds there is a tendency of the structure to
‘sway’ towards the car park due to the asymmet-
3.3 The retaining wall ric ground level outside the site. This sway in-
creased when the loads from the tower were ap-
The geotechnical design was carried out in ac- plied. The diagram of bending moments and
cordance with the principles of EC7.1 based shear forces derived from the analyses were used
largely on as assessment of the serviceability
for the structural design of the wall in different
conditions using unfactored soil parameters. This
required the temporary state to be modelled in
Seismic load was considered as ultimate state
order to determine the most onerous conditions. condition for the wall, but it did not dictate the
Limit equilibrium calculations were then con- design.
ducted to check ultimate limit state conditions.
Analyses were carried out using the finite
element program ICFEP to determine the behav- 247mOD ~30m
car park services
iour of the retaining system and surrounding 238mOD
ground during the construction of the basement RFI anchors RFI
and during the loading from the superstructure. 4.5m 222mOD
All analyses were undertaken using unfactored
soil parameters derived from the site investiga- 207mOD
tion. A linear elastic soil model was used, al- Alluvial-lacustrine deposits
though the effects of non-linear soil parameters
were also checked. The parameters are summa- Figure 4: Section through the tower area
rised in Table 1.
3.4 The foundation raft
Table 1: Soil parameters for the analyses of the retaining wall
(J=unit weight; c’=cohesion; I’=angle of shearing resistance; The basement rafts rest on the cemented strata of
Ko=coefficient of earth pressure at rest; E’=Young’s fluvioglacial origin. The average pressure (qav)
Modulus) transmitted to the ground by the tower megacol-
soil J c’ I’° Ko E’
umns (including the self weight of the raft) is
kN/m3 kPa MPa about 710 kPa. The average net pressure, equal
1 20 1 30 0.4 160 to qav – ^vo’, where ^vo’ represents the original
2a 20 1 35 0.4 160+187z vertical effective overburden stress at 25m depth
z at 244mOD
2b 22 80 35 0.4 2800
before excavation, is about 710 – 440 = 270 kPa.
2c 22 80 35 0.4 2800-233z The average pressure exerted on the ground by
z at 217mOD the rafts of the podium is about 100 kPa, i.e. sig-
3 20 1 32 0.85 470+3.3z
z at 207
nificantly lower than ^vo’.
The key geotechnical issues were related to
the evaluation of the total and differential settle-
Sections through the middle of the tower, ments of the Tower raft foundation and its ability
where the most onerous conditions occurred, and to redistribute the loads transmitted by the six
through the areas outside the tower were mod- mega-columns and the central core. For these
elled accounting for the presence of the existing purposes, specific analyses were carried out us-
structure for the RFI and the basement under the ing the computer code FOCALS (Foundation on
car park area. Figure 4 shows a sketch of a sec- Cross Anisotropic Layered System); see Wardle
tion though the tower area. The analyses made and Fraser [6]. The code is able to solve the in-
the assumption of plane strain conditions and it teraction problem represented by rafts resting on
layered soils, loaded by both distributed and con-
A. Gasparre et al. / Intesa-San Paolo Tower in Turin – Geotechnical Issues 35

centrated loads. In the code both the raft and the Maximum total settlements were predicted to
layered soils are schematized by elastic constitu- be of the order of 10 cm for long term condi-
tive models. tions. Possible occurrence of creep phenomena
The numerical model was developed taking could lead, after end-of-construction, to maxi-
into account the embedment ratio h/B (where h mum total settlements of the order of 40 mm to
and B represent respectively the height of exca- 50 mm. Maximum induced settlements (long
vation and the short side of the raft), the negligi- term conditions) on the adjacent podium rafts
ble influence of the podium rafts and the retain- could be of the order of 50 to 60 mm on one side
ing walls on the tower foundation, the depth of of the site and 30 to 40 mm on the other side.
the boundary layer, assumed at 65 m below the
raft level and the stress levels induced in the
ground by the tower raft. The latter were signifi- 4 THE EFFECTS OF CONSTRUCTION ON
cantly lower than the gross yield stress of the SURROUNDING GROUND AND
materials (see for example Jardine, [5]), there- STRUCTURES
fore, the soil materials were reasonably repre-
sented by elastic constitutive models. From the Ground movements were expected to occur as a
profile of elastic Young’s moduli, Eo’ opera- result of the installation of the retaining walls,
tional values that accounted for strain levels were the construction of the basement and the applica-
derived. These are shown in Figure 5. tion of load to the tower.
The settlement distribution derived from the Based on observations of ground movements
analyses for the end-of-construction conditions the settlements due to the installation of the ber-
are shown in Figure 6. linese wall and the diaphragm wall were ex-
pected to be confined to a zone approximately
equal to one times the depth of the wall from the
back of the wall and, in granular soils, the maxi-
mum settlements are likely to be around 0.1% of
the wall depth. Movements due to the installation
of the berlin wall were expected to be negligible
assuming that the installation was carefully
planned. No significant movements were ex-
pected to occur below the top of the conglomer-
Each diaphragm wall panel has a width of 2.8
m and was to be constructed between guide
trenches from 3 m below the existing ground sur-
face. General ground movements, although small
were therefore expected to be more concentrated
within the 3m from the back of the wall as a re-
sult of local loss of support. The Berlin wall was
Figure 5: Young’s modulus profile. Stress conditions after also expected to mitigate movements to a depth
excavation and tower construction of 9 m below existing ground level where these
To take into account the possible contribution are present.
given by creep phenomena, settlement distribu- An upper bound of the profiles of horizontal
tion, representative to long term conditions, 50 and vertical movement of the ground adjacent to
years after end of construction, were determined the basement was estimated from the results of
using the empirical approach proposed by Bur- the finite element analyses. From these it was
land and Burbidge [3] for static loading condi- deduced that prior to the application of load to
tions; the results are included in Figure 6. the raft the movements outside a zone around 15
m back form the wall were generally less than 5
36 A. Gasparre et al. / Intesa-San Paolo Tower in Turin – Geotechnical Issues

mm. Within the 15 m zone, which is affected rored by slightly smaller movements on the
principally by the forward rotation of the wall opposite wall.
above the conglomerate, the maximum settle-
ment was around 25 mm and maximum lateral
movement to be 40 mm. The movements were 5 CONCLUSION
smaller on the car park side
The geotechnical design of the proposed project
was carried out taking into account the ground
conditions, the loading conditions and the site
constrains due to the urban context.
A dominant feature for the design was the
presence of the conglomerate material which was
both stiff and with a relatively high strength.
This affected the choice and the design of the
substructure system. Finite element analyses
were carried out to support the structural design
of the wall and the foundation raft. Ground
Figure 6: Predicted settlements of tower raft movements and their effects on surrounding
ground and structures were also estimated.
The application of load to the raft resulted in a
general settlement around 20 mm close to the
walls. This settlement was accompanied by a lat- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
eral movement of less than 10 mm towards the
basement. The Authors express their thankfulness to the
In reality, the effect of the loading of the raft Management of the Banca Intesa-Sanpaolo for
was believed to be confined to a smaller area allowing publishing this paper. Moreover we ac-
than the analyses suggested because of the lim- knowledge the contribution of Dr. Cristina Pepe
ited extent of the raft. Furthermore, conservative of Ingegneria Geotecnica, Torino, during the soil
values of the ground stiffnesses were used in the investigation campaign and during the prepara-
tion of the Soil Mechanics Report.
analyses and therefore the maximum net settle-
ments and lateral movements of the ground out-
side the basement were likely to be exaggerated. REFERENCES
It was concluded that:
x The principal movements occurred in the [1] Biot, M.A, Theory of propagation of elastic waves in a
roadways around the site with largest move- fluid-saturated porous solid. I. Lower frequency range,
Journal of Acoustical Society of America 28 (1956),
ments occurring next to the wall. 168-178.
x There was negligible effect of the construc- [2] Burland, J.B., On the compressibility and shear strength
tion on the car park due to the effects of of natural clays, Géotechnique 40, (1990), 329-378.
basement construction and loading of the raft. [3] Burland J.B., Burbidge M.C., Settlement of foundations
on sand and gravel, Proceedings of the Institution of
Care was required during the construction of Civil Engineers, 78 ,1, (1985) 1325-1381
the diaphragm walls to ensure that significant [4] Foti, S., Lai, C.G., Lancellotta, R, Porosity of fluid
settlements local to the outer wall of the car saturated porous media from measured seismic wave
park did not occur. velocities, Gèotechnique 52, 5, (2002) 359-373.
[5] Jardine, R., Some observations on the kinematic nature
x Other buildings outside the site were unlikely of soil stiffness Soils and Foundations 32, 2, (1992),
to be affected by the construction. 111-124.
x The diaphragm wall to the RFI nearest to the [6] Wardle L.J., Fraser R.A., Finite Element analysis of a
plate on a layered cross-anisotropic foundation, Int.
site could move a maximum of in a range of Conf. on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Pul-
5 mm around its current position. This is mir- mano, V.A.; Kabaila, A.P. Eds, University of N.S.W.,
Australia, 1974.
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 37
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Investigations and interpretation of results from

Dynamic Probing DPH from the N10*-values of an
Data Acquisition
Exploration et interprétation des résultats de la pénétration
dynamique de la N10*-valeurs d´une aquisition des données
R. A. Herrmann1
Geotechnical Institute, University of Siegen
T. Lauber
GEOTECHNIK GmbH, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Herrmann & Partner, Herrieden
Dynamic Probings, whether Heavy, Medium or Light type (DPH, DPM, DPL), are state-of-the art methods for subsoil investiga-
tion used by Geotechnical Engineers in Europe. Dynamic Probings are used worldwide to determine geotechnical design pa-
rameters, and in Europe EC-7-2 (Ground Investigation and Testing) and EC-7-1 (Geotechnical Design) are the-up-to date stan-
dards. The uses of dynamic probings are important since the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is found to be good only in soft to stiff
cohesive soils and loose to medium dense sands.
Since the CPT cannot be used in dense sands, gravel or bedrock due to very high penetration resistances, DPH, DPM and DPL
are mainly used for geotechnical investigations. In this study based on the approach by Zweck, who defined N10* = 10 / e (e =
cm of the probe penetration per blow), the use of an automated data acquisition system was further developed to eliminate the in-
fluence of operators logging the data manually. By using a Field Geo-Measuring system (FGM) for dynamic probings, the qual-
ity, comparability and interpretability of the acquired data can be tremendously increased and, therefore, the automated system
should be incorporated into EC 7-2 as a standard procedure for dynamic probings.

La pénétration dynamique quelque soit de type lourd, moyen ou léger sont des méthodes d´exploration de sol en europe utilisés
par les ingénieurs en géotechnique. Les pénétrations dynamiques s ´utilisent dans tout le monde pour déterminer les paramètres
de calcul géotechnique. L´ EC-7-2 et l´ EC-7-1 sond actuellement les valables normes en europe. Cette étude qui définie N10*=
10/e (e= cm de tronche d´enfoncement par chute) montre que l´automatisation de valeurs aquis est développé pour diminuer le
risque d´erreurs provoqués par les valeurs aquis manuellement. Le système de mesure géotechnique (FGM) pour les pénétrations
dynamiques améliore la qualité, la comparabilité et l´interprétation des valeurs aquis. Pour cela, le sytème automatisé doit être
integré dans l´EC-7-2 comme procédure standard pour les pénétrations dynamiques.

Keywords: EC 7-2, EDAS, Electonic Data Acquisition System, CPT, FGM-System, N10*-values, Definition of shearing and slid-
ing-planes, Correlation of Cu/Ic and N10*-values

1 INTRODUCTION was used as a guideline in the development of

the European Standard DIN EN ISO 22476-2.
Up to the present day in the Federal Republic of Consequently, it became the core of the current
Germany, the procedure for the Dynamic Pene- European (CEN) and International (ISO) stan-
tration Test day was set out in the German Indus- dards, and became merged into EC 7-2 in the
trial Standard DIN 4094 Part 3. This standard

Corresponding Author.
38 R.A. Herrmann and T. Lauber / Investigations and Interpretation of Results

System of Standards for Field Testing according 2 GEOMEASURING SYSTEM DYNAMIC

to DIN ISO 22476-1 to -13. PROBING (DP-SH/-H-M-L)
In the Dynamic Penetration Test a probe is
driven into the ground. The driving force is pro- The Field Geo-Measuring System, FGM re-
duced by dropping a hammering head of speci- cording measurement system EDAS [1], consists
fied mass falling through a predetermined dis- of a rotation transducer, which divides the chain
tance. The number of blows required to penetrate circulation into 1000 impulses. One impulse cor-
10 cm are counted during the test. The various responds, thereby, to a specified chain move-
types of dynamic penetration tests are differenti- ment. In practice the hydraulic chain drive has
ated by the masses of the falling weight, the dis- been justified due to the precision of the chain
tances, and the diameters of the probe as: path. The measured impulses are transmitted
- Dynamic Probing Light (DPL) through a cable to the electronic data-collection
- Dynamic Probing Medium (DPM) unit. The geo-measuring technique consists of a
- Dynamic Probing Heavy (DPH) robust design suitable for on-site operations. The
- Dynamic Probing Super Heavy (DPSH) enclosure for the connections complies with the
- Dynamic Probing Giant (DPG) protection grade IP65 and is thus protected
against muck and water.
The probe DPG is only used in Germany and
serves primarily to determine the boundary layer
The FGM system works by constantly com-
for the top of bedrock, and is dedicated to high
paring the time difference between successive
penetration resistance and greater depths.
impulses of a processor during the sounding.
The choice of type of probe depends on sev-
With the release of the fall-weight by a trip on
eral factors, which are essentially:
the continuously-rotating chain of the automatic
- Condition and composition of the site soils
sounding equipment, the processor sets a point of
- Planned depth of the sounding
reference. Then the impulses are counted up to
- Situation and accessibility of the test site
the next release of the fall-weight and compared
In today's economical environment, the prob-
to the reference point. The difference between
ings must be mobile and fully automated, in par-
the counted impulses is the penetration of the
ticular for the DPM, DPH, DPSH and DPG. The
probe in impulses which are converted through
probings DPH, DPSH and DPG today are usually
calculations into the penetration of the probe per
mounted on a tracked vehicle, as shown in Fig-
blow in mm.
ure 1. Further details of each system can be
found in DIN EN ISO 22476-2.

Figure 2. Portable Control Unit (Electronic Data Acquisition

System - EDAS).

2.1 Calibration
The FGM system EDAS requires calibrations for
each set of sounding equipment. Initially, the
Figure 1. Automatic Dynamic Probing Heavy and FGM-
nominal impulses with the location of the fol-
System EDAS (Geotechnical Institute, University Siegen). lower (fall-weight) correlated with the impulses
R.A. Herrmann and T. Lauber / Investigations and Interpretation of Results 39

of the chain length in mm determine the equip- light sensor or similar) can yield different results,
ment factor. Another factor is specified depend- and a comparison study was carried out [2]. The
ing on the threshold sensitivity determined for presentation in Figure 4 shows the difference be-
the various fall-weights. On the basis of these pa- tween a hand recording and the automatic data
rameters, the equipment is calibrated in tests with collection with EDAS.
no penetration, and in hard soils with only one to
two millimeters penetration per blow. By an ad- Deviation of the results of data acquisition and manual recording

justment of the equipment factor within the 0

-40 -30 -20 -10 0
blow / 10 cm penetration
10 20 30 40

1/1000 millimeter range and comparative meas-

urements between the actual and the measured -2

manual manual
penetration depth, the effect of the chain length, -4 recording recording

+ -
cycle of the chain drive, and other influences can

depth [m]

be eliminated. The accuracy of the FGM measur-


ing system is approximately 2%, which corre-

sponds to an accuracy of 20 cm in an investiga- -10

tion depth of 10 m. This inaccuracy can be -12

reduced through correction software. The results

of the measurements are given in the form of in- Figure 4. Deviation of the results of the data acquisition and
dividual values of the penetration as follows, see manual recording [2]
The collected and documented data for the It can be seen that at shallower depths in sec-
FGM system were used as follows to compute tions with a low number of blowcounts, the de-
the standard dimensionless N10* representation. viation is primarily small at approximately 1
For clarity these were back-calculated into tabu- blow per 10 cm. At greater depths In sections
lar form and presented in DIN ramming dia- with more blowcounts, deviations from up to 10
grams according to DIN EN ISO 22476-2. blows per 10cm can occur. The two large devia-
tions in the diagram result from a shift of the
depth scale in the hand drawing. The small dis-
crepancies in the recording of the blowcounts be-
tween the two different methods of recording are
apparent. In areas with low numbers of blow-
counts, e.g., in cohesive soils, the variations in
consistencies by manual data collection cannot
be differentiated and require more sophisticated
measuring procedures, such as conducting a CPT
according to DIN EN ISO 22476-1. However,
CPT soundings are usually only feasible in very
soft to semi solid cohesive soils. In dense to very
dense mixed gravelly soils with pebbles, and in
Figure 3. Printout of FGM-System
the transition to rock-residual soils, CPT sound-
ings are not applicable due to damage to the
measuring technique of the non replaceable elec-
3 MANUAL AND INSTRUMENTED tronic tip. Therefore, the use of CPT soundings is
COLLECTION OF RAMMING DATA limited predominantly to marine sediments.
The manual data collection by counting the
number of N10 blows by a technician (in accor-
dance with DIN EN ISO 22476) or by a me-
chanical or optical counting device (counter,
40 R.A. Herrmann and T. Lauber / Investigations and Interpretation of Results

4 PRESENTATION OF SOUNDING case of high and very high blowcounts with re-
RESULTS sults as illustrated in Figure 5. However, the re-
sulting inconsistencies are meaningless in prac-
The former German standard for Dynamic Pene- tice, since this is within the Dynamic Penetration
tration Test, DIN 4094, and the recent European Test limiting horizon with N10 S 50 blows.
Standard DIN EN ISO 22476-2, and together
with EC 7-2, all require that the results be pre- R e l a ti o n o f P e n e t r a t i o n a n d N 1 0

10 0
sented in a blowcount diagram (Step Diagram) 90

with N10 (number of blowcounts per 10 cm 80


penetration). 60



4.1 Standardized, Dimensionless N10*-Values




In expectation of an improved field geomeasur- 0

0 ,1 1
P e n e t r a t io n [ c m ]

ing technique, the possibility of measuring the

penetration depth for each individual hammer Figure 5. Relation of Penetration and N10* [2]
impact with the assistance of a geo-measuring
system, with reference to the well-known ram- 4.3 Particularity of the N10*-Relationship
ming interval of 10 cm was foreseen, see For-
mula (1). The particularity of the FGM system, above all,
lies in the fact that very soft to soft grounds can
Formula N10* = 10 / e [1] (1) also be explored with Dynamic Penetration
Tests. In DP results, the influence of the skin
N10* from standard N10, dimensionless penetra- friction from the driving rod was, up to now, not
tion resistance differentiable from the tip resistance in low N10-
e cm of probe penetration into the soil per values. The resolution of penetration resistance
blow into tip resistance and skin friction gives no in-
10 10 cm terpretation for N10 < 3 (3 blows for 10 cm).
Only CPT soundings could be used here. This is
The result is a standardized dimensionless not so with the use of the FGM system. The dif-
blowcount N10* as is N10. This approach has the ferentiation between the tip resistance and skin
benefit (after [3]) that the blowcount diagrams, friction can be made using the "Exploratory
DP and CPT, are affine curves (similar point-to- Probings" procedure after [4].
point translated), although different dimensions The DP results using the FGM system show
are present. This affine curve, thereby, achieves that the penetration per blow is comparable with
among other things, that the formerly considered the results of point resistances from piles or CPT
interval for N10 of 10 cm as a function of the soundings as long as the cohesive soil flows
consistencies of the site soils, is represented by around the probe tip. Thus, the consistencies of
N10* for each blow: Thus, the consistencies of cohesive soils and cU-values can be confidently
the site soils are measured differentially and are correlated as derived values.
also illustrated within the former N10 interval.

4.2 Instrumented Data Collection of N10*- 5 INTERPRETATION OF SOUNDING

The relationship from Formula (1), as a quotient
of the N10 interval and e, results in a boundary-
value problem as the penetration e converges to- 5.1 Affine Relationship to Subsoil Strengths
ward zero. Due to the present instrumented data From the approach after [3], it developed that the
collection of 1 mm, indistinction arises in the penetration diagrams, DP and CPT, point toward
R.A. Herrmann and T. Lauber / Investigations and Interpretation of Results 41

an affine arrangement, translated points although 6 EVALUATION OF FGM SOUNDING

divergent dimensions are present. This affine RESULTS
process is attained partly by the fact that the in-
terval for N10 of 10 cm is represented as a func-
tion of the firmness of the site soils for each 6.1 Affine Relationship to Subsoil Strengths
blow. Thus, the firmness of the site soil is ob-
tained differentially with consideration also of The investigations of the differential site soil
the former N10 interval. firmness with the help of the FGM system show
that both granular layers as well as fine-grained
cohesive layers can be confidently delineated,
see Figure 8. Cohesive soils are marked with
homogeneous linear N10*-values according to
their consistencies.

Figure 6. Relation of CPT (red) and N10* (blue) [2]

5.2 Application with the Determination of

Sliding and Shearing Planes
This method was used (from [1]) for the investi-
gation and exploration of the sliding and shear-
ing planes of slipping masses at Wasserstraßen
(Stichkanal Hildesheim to the Mittellandkanal) Figure 8. Relation of soil layers and N10*
as a substitute for CPT soundings. The results of
the soundings obtained could be substantiated by A further outcome is that granular soil layers
comparison with a concurrent geo-measuring (gravel, sand) and decomposed rock zones (sand-
program for the movement of the sliding mass. stones and clay stones, etc.) can be confidently
delimited. The differentiation is dependant,
thereby, on the range of the N10*-values as well
as the magnitude of N10*. Currently, there is not
sufficient confident data on hand as to the in situ
density, D, and/or the reference density, ID, for
granular soils. Further scientific research is in

6.2 Evaluation and Correlation Relationships

The analysis between measured N10*-values and
the consistencies of cohesive soils produce a
confident correlation. From this, derived values
Figure 7. Definition of shearing and sliding-planes with N10* after EC 7-2 and characteristic values after EC 7-
[2] 1 can be constituted and determined.
42 R.A. Herrmann and T. Lauber / Investigations and Interpretation of Results

relationship fR from the CPT. However, further
16,000 15,846
research is still necessary.
12,000 Apart from the advantage of data transfer by
N10* [1]

10,000 the EDP application, the manual errors (human

factors) are eliminated. The derived N10*-values
6,000 5,973
provide not only confident correlations with con-
2,588 sistencies, but with CU-Values of cohesive soils
0,000 0,526 as well. This is based on the differential data col-
very soft firm stiff very stiff hard lection within the former typical N10 interval, i.e.,
Consistencity / Term with the measurement of the penetration e for
each hammer blow, 100% of the soil mass of the
Figure 9. Correlation of Consistency and N10*-Values of co- sounding is measured with instruments and
hesive Soils
logged. Thereby, with the use of the FGM sys-
tem and interpretation with N10*-values, a new
Term Cu [kPa] Ic [1] N10* [1]
approach regarding the quality and interpretabil-
very soft / < 20 < 0,25 0,5
very low ity of indirect site soil investigations according to
soft / 20-40 0,25-0,50 1,0 EC 7-2 and/or DIN EN 22476-2 is possible. Ac-
low cording to a re-release of DIN EN ISO 22476-2,
firm / 40-75 0,50-0,75 2,6 the FGM-System should be established as a
stiff / 75-150 0,75-1,00 4,4
very stiff / 150-300 > 1,00 6,0
very high REFERENCES
Figure 10. Correlation of Cu and Ic-values (see DIN EN ISO
14688) and N10*-Values of cohesive Soils [1] J. Müller-Weichbrodt, M. Liebrecht, EDAS-Elektro-
nische Datenerfassungen für Rammsondierungen,
Messtechnik im Erd- und Grundbau, Colloquium Insti-
tut für Geotechnik, University Siegen, Siegen, 2001.
7 SUMMARY [2] M. Pietsch, Erfahrungen mit der Rammdatenerfassung
bei Rammsondierungen und deren Interpretation, Er-
kundung und Untersuchungen in der Geotechnik, Col-
The use of the FGM system results in a high
loquium Institut für Geotechnik, University Siegen,
resolution differential for the investigation of site Siegen, 2003.
soil strengths. This is valid for both non-cohesive [3] H. Zweck, „Baugrunduntersuchungen durch Sonden“
and cohesive soils as well as weathered-rock Verlag Wilhelm Ernst und Sohn, Berlin, München
soils (rock residual soils). From the affine ar-
[4] R. A. Herrmann, M. Zimmermann, Untersuchungen
rangement of the penetration blowcount dia- zum Einfluss der Gestängemantelreibung bei Ramm-
grams DP and CPT, sliding planes and shearing sondierungen und deren Bewertung, Erkundung und
surfaces, thin beds, and other discontinuities, can Untersuchungen in der Geotechnik, Colloquium Institut
für Geotechnik, University Siegen, Siegen, 2003.
be discerned. Generally, the impending [5] R. A. Herrmann, Script Geotechnik, University Siegen,
soil/decomposed rock can be identified by the Siegen, 2010
N10* deviations, comparable with the frictional
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 43
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Mechanical properties of semi-rocks soils and

methods of their determination
Propriétés de mécaniques de la pierre calcaive et méthods pour
la détermination de leurs
Kiev National University of Engineering and Architecture, Ukraine
A.V. Novskiy, V.A. Novskiy1, A.P. Tkalich, Y.F. Tugaenko
Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ukraine

In the south-western part of Ukraine Black Sea plateau as a base foundation soils used semi-rock soils presented pontian lime-
stone. In the state standards are no methods for determining their mechanical characteristics needed for the design of foundations
and piles. The article presents the methodology and results of laboratory and field studies of these characteristics.

Dans la zone sud-ouest de l’Ukraine de la mer Noire le terrain de fondation utilisée la pierre calcaire. Dans le standard Ukrainien
n’existe pas de methods pour la détermination de leurs caractéristiques mecaniques. L’article présente la methodologie et les
résultants des tests.

Keywords: limestone, semi-rock, the ultimate strength at uniaxial compression, structural strength, the resistance of the shift,
bored pile, field tests, laboratory tests.

Occurrences of the shell limestone at differ- resulting in three horizons with different charac-
ent depths from the daylight characterize engi- teristics. Limits of averaged coefficients of these
neering and geological structure of the plateau characteristics are listed in table.1
south-west from Black Sea in Ukraine. These
Table 1
biochemical rocks have long been used for wall-
ing for a long time. The development was carried Ultimate Volumetric Porosity, Softening co-
out as open pit and underground, resulting in the stress in uni- weight, n efficient
axial com- a,
production zone remained empty. To assess the pression, Rc, %
construction properties of limestone, its physical _P` kN/m3
properties and ultimate stress in uniaxial com-
pression were studied. Geologists [1, 2] studied 0,6 – 2,5 12,7– 16,0 59 – 43 0,77 – 0,58
these characteristics at a distance of 30 km. from
the modern Black Sea coastline. Shell limestone In order to erect high-rise buildings and to
layers are typical marine sediments that have un- strengthen foundations in reconstruction it’s
dergone considerable changes during diagenesis, necessary to use the limestone as a bases of

Corresponding Author.
44 N.V. Kornienko et al. / Mechanical Properties of Semi-Rocks Soils

foundations and a base layer for the bored piles. elastic deformations at pressures less than struc-
However, the mechanical properties of these tural strength, and the second one - at pressures
rocks are investigated insufficiently. As a rule exceeding the structural strength. Pressure corre-
the bored piles are designed as point-bearing sponding to the point of intersection of the
ones, while the calculated carrying capacity can branches defines the value of the structural
be several times differ from the actual one. The strength, (see fig. 2).
problem is the limestone of south-west region of
Ukraine is not rock. It is semi-rock, and its me-
chanical properties are identical to disperse soils. b) p, MPa
Therefore the study of these properties is a ur-
gent problem.
According to the effective standard in
Ukraine, the rocks with rigid structural connec-
tions are estimated by ultimate strength in uniax-
ial compression at a water-saturated state. How-
ever, this indicator does not permit to estimate a)
other properties of the shell limestone, to which
include: structural strength, modulus of deforma-
tion and shear resistance along the lateral surface
of bored piles.
Structural strength pstr of studied semi-rock is
the limiting value of resistance at which of the
applied load is balanced by the strength of shells s, mm
Fig. 2. Results of laboratory tests of shell limestone
and structural connections to their contacts. samples. a) A test scheme: 1 - extra stamp, 2 - sample. b) A
Meanwhile in the bases of fundamental there are graph of stamp settlement and settlement elastic component
predominantly elastic deformations, disappearing versus the pressure
after removal of the load. Stresses, exceeding the The research has determined that with
structural strength, cause the destruction of shells increasing strength of limestone at uniaxial
and their structural connections, results that the compression the value of structural strength
rock compaction. According to experiments in increases, and the ratio of these indices decreased
the tray with a transparent wall, residual defor- with increasing strength of the rock. Mean values
mations grow within volume of the irreversible of Rc and pstr by results of tests of 55 samples
deformations zone, forming in the bases founda- with different strength at uniaxial compression,
tion. as well as their ratios are shown in table. 2.
Laboratory tests are performed on the samples
of shell limestone of varying strength. For re- Table 2.
search the compression device, in which the load The results of laboratory testing of ultimate strength at
on the sample with area of 60 cm2 is passed by uniaxial compression and structural strength of limestone.
the stamp with area of 15 cm2 was reequipped. Range of values Mean values, _P`
Tests are performed by the technique of cycli- Rc,
Rc pstr pstr/Rc
cally increasing load [3]. Each stage represents _P`
an independent cycle: load application, keeping
0,5-1,0 0,69 1,60 2,32
it till stabilization of settlement and unloading.
The applied method enabled to measure the 1,0-1,3 1,19 2,11 1,77
value of the total settlement and its residual and >2,0 2,19 2,48 1,13
elastic components at each stage.
The graph of the elastic component of settle-
ment versus the pressure consists of two In the field, estimate of indicators of the
branches. The first branch reflects the growth of strength and deformation properties of lime-
N.V. Kornienko et al. / Mechanical Properties of Semi-Rocks Soils 45

stones is performed by results of the testing with

the stamps in the wells at different horizons. Re-
search a performed with 300 mm diameter
stamps in boreholes on four horizons [4, 5].
Abutment of the stamp foot to the bottom surface
is performed by special technology, which in-
cludes cleanup and aligning it with cement mor-
tar of 7 - 10 cm thickness. The load on the stamp
body was phasic. Values of structural strength
and the deformation modulus obtained by results
of the field tests on one of the sites are listed in
table. 3
Table 3.
Values of structural strength and modulus of deformation
of limestone

Depth lower, pstr, b, _P` pv, kN

than the lime- in the pressure range
stone top, _P` Fig. 3. Graphs of total, elastic and residual deformations at
p, _P`
m the pulling test of pile-anchor
1,1 - 1,5 1,5 - 2,5
1,10 1,15 4,0 - 1,7 - The length of the extended section of the pile
3,0 1,35 - 20 - 9
for each stage of the load is determined with the
use of Hooke's law according to (1):
0,8 1,88 - 24 - 6
li = E · Syi / ^cd, i (1)
3,6 1,38 - 30 - 9

where: E - modulus elasticity of reinforcing

steel, equal to 1.9 × 10 5 MPa; Syi - the elastic
Resistance to the limestone shifts along the lat- component of measured strain; ^sr,i - stress aver-
eral surface of the bored piles is determined in age value in the reinforcing bars within the
the laboratory on models of piles, as well as at length of the deformed fragment determined
the test of pile-anchors in the field. from the expression ( 2):
Check tests of natural boring-injection pile-
^cd,i = 0,5 pv,i / As (2)
anchors on pulling was performed using the
technique of cyclically increasing load. Figure 3 where: pv,i - force applied to the anchor; AS -
shows the test results of one of the anchors with cross-section area of reinforcing bar and 0,5 -
diameter of 150 mm and length of 8,0 m. coefficient taking into account a triangular shape
According to this technique after the stabiliza- of the diagrams of stresses arising in the rebar.
tion of the deformation of each stage of the load,
Shear resistance along the lateral surface of
the unload to zero is performed. This character of
piles within any length fragment at each stage of
the load allows to determine total movement and
the load can be determined from the dependence
their elastic and residual components. In the se-
quel, these data allowed to determine the length
of the tension section at the each stage of load- e fi = e Pi /e fv u (3)
ing, as well as resistance along the lateral surface
where: e fi - the average value of friction
of the pile individual sections.
forces along the lateral surface for each frag-
46 N.V. Kornienko et al. / Mechanical Properties of Semi-Rocks Soils

ment of the pile body; e Pi - the load value influ- compression for samples with different strength,
encing the length fragment of the pile body; (see fig. 5).
e fv - the length fragment of the pile body; u -
cross-section perimeter of the pile body. a Rc, MPa
The graph in fig.4 shows that the maximal re-
sistance along lateral surface arises at an area lo-
cated in the limestone.

Fig. 5. Associated graph of structural strength and shear resis-

tance along the lateral surfaces of piles versus the ultimate
strength at uniaxial compression

Thus, knowing the standard characteristic of

limestone - the ultimate strength at uniaxial
compression, and using graphs, drawn by results
Fig. 4. Graph of change of friction forces along the lateral of the presented research one can (without per-
surface at different length fragments of the pile-anchor forming laboratory or field tests) determined
value of structural strength and shear resistance
At laboratory, the shear resistance along
along the lateral surface necessary to design
the lateral surface of the bored piles fc is defined
foundations and bored piles.
on models. The model piles are concreted
thereby that below their feet there is a cavity, and The results of research have been used to
the applied load is transmitted by the lateral sur- strengthen existing foundations and build new
face. In performed research the destruction of ones for some buildings and structures in Odessa.
limestone took place at 0,2-0,4 mm movements
of the pile body along the surface, located from
borehole walls on the hole at a distance of pene- CONCLUSIONS
tration of cement to concrete the pile. At re-
uploading of the pile after "breaking" the resis- 1. As a result of the comprehensive field and
tance along the lateral surface is reduced by 35 - laboratory tests of shell limestone, indices of
40%. This means that the shear resistance after its mechanical characteristics are determined:
breaking of structural connections is transformed ultimate strength at uniaxial compression Rc,
into friction resistance along the damaged sur- structural strength Rstr and shear resistance
face. At determination of carrying capacity of along the lateral surface of the bored piles fc.
bored piles in limestone, it is necessary to take
into account feature of their work determined 2. The values and pattern of shear resistance
experimentally. along the lateral surface of the bored piles in
the field and laboratory environment are de-
According to results of the comprehensive termined. There is specified transformation
studies, there are graphs of shear resistance along phenomenon of ultimate shear resistance of
the lateral surface of the bored piles and struc- limestone with undisturbed structure at fric-
tural strength of the ultimate strength at uniaxial tion resistance, while the structural connec-
tions along the bodies of the bored piles are
N.V. Kornienko et al. / Mechanical Properties of Semi-Rocks Soils 47

destroying during their movement, including

elastic compression.

3. To determine the structural strength there has

been used a new test procedure at absence of
rigid walls of a ring around the compressed

4. Use the test procedure with cyclically incre-

asing load has permitted to determine step-
by-step inclusion in work of bored piles and
anchors, as well as the shear resistance along
the lateral surface, while the load is increas-

5. There are received regional values of the

limestone mechanical characteristics, allow-
ing to determine the bearing capacity of
bored piles at compressing and pulling loads
in semi-rocks.


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@+58A BCDC. ƒrqjci 6. ƒr|`wxrmuwp „r…wcnip}p
jxvwldcruluj. 1972, c. 87-93.
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ƒ._. „`dqŒi, ƒ.. ‡snrtlw, o.. „pxpw`spw.
Žicqldrlxu`snxpl rccsl|pw`xrl xlcjl‚
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8?86+@/J 316/<7FK:<8 :8 84A/:+?:14F. ƒrqjci 29.
g|lc`: g–—. 2008, c. 289-295.
[4] ˆ.‰. Šj}`lxip, .o. Ši`srt, ƒ.. “pwcir‚.
“`qdylxxp |l”pdrdpw`xxpl cpcupyxrl
kjdpx`krwx‘{ cw`‚ r r{ pcxpw`xry, csplxxp}p
qpxurtlcirr r~wlcuxyi`r. L4,3-+@H @+A87F?F
.417:,< F G1768@+7:,=:4,+7F0 < =-,57HA
.417:,<HA 1=-,<F0A. M416H @+561784,67,N
781O7, – :+A7FO+=?,N ?,7G+4+7KFF, P,=<0Q+77,N 50
– -+:FR S8TUVV=:4,0. Šp 1. ˜w`‚x‘l
”jx|`lxu‘. ™”`. 2006, c. 137 - 141.
[5] ˆ.‰. Šj}`lxip. odpmlcc‘ |l”pdrdpw`xry }djxupw
w pcxpw`xry{ ”jx|`lxupw cw`‚ r cw`‚x‘{
”jx|`lxupw. - E6+==8: «;=:4,P4F7:. 2008, 216 c.
This page intentionally left blank
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 49
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Development of an instrumented subassembly for

energy measurements in SPT tests
Développement d’une tige instrumenté pour mesurer l'énergie
d’essai de pénétration standard (SPT)
J. A. Lukiantchuki 1, L. P. R. de Oliveira, E. R. Esquivel
University of Sao Paulo, Department of Geotechnical Engineering

The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is a test which provides assessment of soil properties and foundation design parameters.
The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is the in-situ soil characterization test, which is most widely used in the Americas. The NSPT
index depends not only on the soil properties and on the SPT sampler characteristics, but also on the energy delivered to SPT
sampler during the hammer impact. The amount of energy that is transferred to the sampler depends on many factors, including
the test equipment characteristics, soil conditions, and procedures followed during the test. For this reason, different NSPT index
values can be obtained for the same soil. Thus the NSPT index should be normalized to a standard energy level that is equivalent
to 60% of the nominal SPT hammer energy. Thus, it is of great importance to evaluate the actual energy input. The aim of this
work is to show a suitable instrumented subassembly developed to assess the amount of energy that is effectively delivered to
the sampler during a hammer impact. Results of SPT tests, conducted at the Experimental Research Site of the University of Sao
Paulo (USP), showed the suitability of the instrumented subassembly to measure the amount of the energy that reaches the
sampler, for the particular conditions. However, it should be verified if these conclusions are valid for tests performed in other
situations involving the use of different types of hammer, different soil conditions and different instrumented subassembly

L'essai de pénétration standard (SPT) est un test qui permet d'évaluer les propriétés du sol et les paramètres pour les projets de
fondations. Le SPT est l’essais de caractérisation des sols in-situ plus utilisé aux Amériques. L'indice NSPT ne dépend pas
seulement sur les propriétés du sol et les spécifications de l'échantillonneur, mais aussi l'énergie qui atteint l'échantillonneur
pendant le coup de marteau. La quantité d'énergie transférée à l'échantillonneur dépend de nombreux facteurs comme les
caractéristiques de l'équipement d'essai, les conditions du sol, et les procédures d’essais. Pour cette raison, différentes valeurs de
l'indice NSPT peut être obtenu pour le même sol. Ainsi, l'indice NSPT devrait être normalisé à un niveau d'énergie standard qui est
équivalent à 60% de l’énergie nominale du marteau d’essai SPT. Pour cette raison, il est extrêmement important d’évaluer
l'apport d'énergie réelle. Le but de cet article est de présenter une tige instrumenté développé pour déterminer la quantité
d'énergie nette qui atteint l'échantillonneur pendant le coup de marteau. Les essais ont été réalisés à l'Université de São Paulo et
ont montré la pertinence du sous-ensemble d'instruments pour mesurer la quantité de l'énergie qui atteint l'échantillonneur, pour
des conditions particulières. Toutefois, la pertinence de l'instrumentation doit être vérifiée par des essais réalisés dans d'autres
conditions, avec différents marteaux, conditions du sol et positions de la tige instrumentée.

Keywords: SPT field test, energy, instrumentation, instrumented subassembly, force signal, acceleration signal.

Corresponding Author.
50 J.A. Lukiantchuki et al. / Development of an Instrumented Subassembly for Energy Measurements

1 INTRODUCTION accelerations and normal forces during the

hammer impact. The design of this equipment
The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is a test was based on laboratory dynamic tests which led
which provides assessment of soil properties and to the definition of the best geometry for the
foundation design parameters. Despite problems accelerometer supports and a suitable data
associated with its repeatability and reliability, acquisition system.
the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is the most
popular in-situ test used in the Americas for soil
=42.6 mm
characterization. 26.9 mm
=32.8 mm

The NSPT index is defined as the number of 4.6 mm

blows necessary to cause the sampler, attached to Thread 5/8" - 11
a string of rods, to penetrate 0.3 m into the
105.0 mm
soil. The NSPT index depends not only on the soil
properties and on the SPT sampler Accelerometer

characteristics, but also on the energy delivered

to SPT sampler during the hammer impact. This
delivered energy is only a portion of the nominal 17.0 mm

SPT hammer energy, which is equal to 474.5 J. =33.4 mm

The amount of energy that is transferred to the =24.3 mm

sampler depends on the test equipment, soil 350.0 mm

conditions, and procedures followed during the

test [1]. For this reason, different NSPT index
values can be obtained for the same soil. Thus Strain
the NSPT index should be normalized to an energy
level equivalent to 60% of the nominal SPT
hammer energy: N60 =(E/E60)N, where N60 is the
normalized NSPT index; E is the actual energy
delivered to the rod stem E60 is 60% of 4.6 mm
26.9 mm
the nominal SPT hammer energy; and N is Thread 5/8" - 11
the measured NSPT index. Thus, it is of great
importance to evaluate the actual energy input. =42.6 mm
=32.8 mm

The method of energy measurement consists

of attaching an instrumented subassembly near Figure 1. Instrumented subassembly design.
the top of drill rods and measuring the force and
the acceleration time history during hammer The instrumented subassembly, made of
impact. martensitic stainless steel (VC-150), is similar to
The aim of this work is to show a suitable
the one constructed by Odebrecht [3]. After the
instrumented subassembly developed to measure
the amount of energy that is effectively delivered instrumented subassembly had been machined, it
to the sampler during a hammer impact. In order received a heat treatment to improve its strength
to assess this energy, the instrumented characteristics. This process was performed in
subassembly was placed down the hole, just two steps: quenching and tempering.
above the sampler [2].
2.2 Load cell electrical circuit
The load cell electrical circuit is based on a
Wheatstone bridge, composed of four double
apart. The strain gauges are installed so that one
2.1 Instrumented subassembly
of the grids is parallel to the rod axis and the
In this work, an SPT subassembly instrumented other one normal to the rod axis. The use of four
with two accelerometers and a load cell (Fig. 1) double strain gauges aims at minimizing
was constructed to measure the required temperature and bending effects.
J.A. Lukiantchuki et al. / Development of an Instrumented Subassembly for Energy Measurements 51

2.3 Accelerometers 2.4 Acquisition system

To measure accelerations, a couple of PCB For recording the signal data, an HBM data
Piezotronics piezoelectric accelerometers (model acquisition system, model MX 410, was used.
350B04) were installed on a rod subassembly This four channel portable data acquisition
(Fig. 2). These accelerometers are capable of system is suitable for collecting dynamic event
measuring accelerations up to 5000 g, in the data, at sampling rates up to 96 kHz per channel,
0.4-10000 Hz frequency range. with a resolution of 24 bits. Sampling rates and
filters can be independently adjusted for each
channel. This equipment is able to supply
adjustable transducer excitation (DC) in the
5-24 V range.



Figure 2. Accelerometers (Model 350 B04) mounted on

SP3 supports. 10

2.3.1 Accelerometer supports

To investigate the most appropriate 0 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000
accelerometer support geometry, preliminary Frequency (Hz)
dynamic tests were performed using a shaker Figure 4. Laboratory dynamic test results.
(Fig. 3) and a laser vibrometer. Purpose-designed
accelerometer supports with three different The signals were collected and monitored
geometries were tested (SP1, SP2 and SP3). with the help of the software Catman Easy 3.0.
This software enables to graphically visualize the
collected data in real time. Moreover, captured
data can be analyzed using the software analysis
mode. It was necessary to use special IEPE
(Integral Electronic Piezoelectric) signal
conditioners with the accelerometers, to amplify
the signals during the data acquisition.



Figure 3. Laboratory dynamic tests. 3.1 Characterization of experimental site

Laboratory test results have shown that SP3 Field tests were performed at the University of
accelerometer support (Fig. 4) was the most Sao Paulo Experimental Research Site, in Sao
suitable for field tests. This support has shown Carlos, Brazil. Figure 5 shows a typical
the lowest resonance and anti-resonance effects. geological profile of this site.
It was possible to collect data with frequencies In this area, there exists a 6-m thick lateritic
up to 14000 Hz, with low amplitude variations. clayey sand layer above a pebble line. This layer
is unsaturated, very porous and collapsible,
52 J.A. Lukiantchuki et al. / Development of an Instrumented Subassembly for Energy Measurements

showing low bearing capacity, with a NSPT index redefinition, proposed by Aoki and Cintra (2000)
ranging from 1 to 8 blows. The depth of the [2].
water level varies from 7 to 10 m, depending on
the season of the year. This site has been
extensively investigated for more than 30 years. Instrumented
Alongside the investigation of geotechnical Subassembly
properties, many load tests have been performed
on many different types of foundations.


Figure 6. Instrumented subassembly placed above the


As positioning the instrumentation just above

the sampler leads to extra difficulties, it was
necessary to take some safety measures. First,
the borehole was drilled with a diameter of
100 mm to provide enough room for the
instrumented subassembly. Second, holes were
lined with PVC tubes, to prevent them being
blocked and protect the instrumentation. Finally,
the accelerometers were protected with a thick
silicon rubber layer.

3.3 SPT equipment

The SPT field tests were performed in
Figure 5. Experimental Research Site typical profile accordance with NBR 6484 Brazilian Standard
[4], except for the hammer. A trip hammer
3.2 SPT field test procedures (Fig. 7) with a propylene cushion was used
instead of a pin guided hammer with wood
The SPT field tests were carried out according to cushion.
the NBR 6484 Brazilian Standard [4].
In the conventional method for measuring
energy, an instrumented subassembly is attached
next to the top of the string of rods, allowing
measurements of axial forces and accelerations
during the hammer impact. However, the aim of
this work is to show a suitable instrumented
subassembly, developed to measure the amount
of energy that is effectively delivered to the
sampler during a hammer impact. In order to
assess this amount of energy, the instrumented
subassembly was placed down the hole, just
above the sampler (Fig. 6). The reason for
placing the instrumented subassembly in this
position is based on the SPT efficiency Figure 7. Trip hammer (65 kg).
J.A. Lukiantchuki et al. / Development of an Instrumented Subassembly for Energy Measurements 53

4 RESULTS curves in the 0-2L’/c time interval can be

observed. This curve superposition occurs only
in a short time interval because of the relatively
4.1 Force and acceleration signals short length of L’.
Figure 8 shows the record of force and 120
acceleration signals corresponding to a test v*Z
t= 2L'/c
performed with a 5.35-meters long string of rods. 80

Acceleration signals, obtained with the

Force (kN)
instrumented subassembly placed just above the
sampler, remained within the accelerometer
working range, not exceeding the maximum
allowed value.
Velocity signals were obtained by integrating 199.5 200 200.5 201 201.5 202 202.5 203 203.5 204
Time (ms)
the acceleration signals. In order to verify the Figure 9. Comparison between F and vZ curves.
suitability of the developed equipment, the curve
corresponding to force signals (F) and the curve
corresponding to velocity signals (v) multiplied Displacement signals were obtained through
by the rod impedance (Z) were compared. These the integration of velocity signals. When
comparing the maximum displacement with the
curves should coincide in the time interval
actual sampler penetration a good agreement
between 0 and 2L’/c, where c is the propagation
between these values can be noticed (Figure 10).
velocity and L’ is the distance between the
accelerometer position and the sampler tip. 0.14

Because of wave reflections, this curve 0.12

superposition does not occur again for times 0.1

Field penetration = 0.10 m
Displacement (m)

longer than 2L’/c. 0.08

4 0.06

4 0.04

Acceleration (m/s)


4 0
190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280
4 Time (ms)
Figure 10. Displacement versus time.

4.2 Energy and energy ratio
190 200 210 220 230 240
Time (ms)
250 260 270 280
Figures 11 and 12 show the energy curve and
80 energy ratio curve, respectively. Energy ratio is
defined as the ratio between the actual energy
reaching the sampler and the nominal SPT
hammer energy. At the end of the event, the
Force (kN)


energy reached its maximum value, equal to

390 J. Thus the importance of subsequent
0 impacts in the total amount of the energy that
reaches the sampler can be noticed.
190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280
To take into account the sampler penetration
Time (ms)
and rod weight effects, the energy delivered to
Figure 8. Acceleration and force signals versus time. the sampler had to be corrected [3]. With no
correction, the energy ratio is about 12% higher
Figure 9 shows the F and v.Z curves plotted than the corrected one. This correction is
on the same graph. The close agreement of these fundamental mainly for soils with low
54 J.A. Lukiantchuki et al. / Development of an Instrumented Subassembly for Energy Measurements

penetration resistance and testes performed with 5. Energy correction must be used to
long string of rods. determine the energy ratio, mainly in the case of
soil showing low NSPT index.
However, it is advised to verify if these
conclusions are valid for tests performed in
Maximum Energy = 390 Joules
different situations. This should include the use
Energy (Joules)


of different types of hammer, different soil
conditions and different instrumented
subassembly positions.
100 Performing SPT tests with the instrumented
0 subassembly placed just below the anvil or in
190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280
Time (ms) another intermediate position causes the 0-2L’/c
Figure 11. Energy versus time. time interval to be longer. Consequently, this
enables the verification of the influence of joints
ER= 82%
and connections on wave reflections.
ER= 70%
Energy Ratio (%)


Corrected Energy Ratio
The authors are very thankful to FAPESP (Grant
No. 2008/08268-4) and CNPq (Grant No.
190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280
479001/2009-0) for the financial support.
Time (ms)
Furthermore, the first author is very thankful to
Figure 12. Energy Ratio versus time.
CAPES for the scholarship granted in Brazil and
The suitability of an instrumented subassembly,
to measure energy, was evaluated by carrying out [1] HOWIE, J.A; DANIEL, C.R; JACKSON, R.S;
a series of SPT tests. For the particular case in WALKER, B. Comparison of energy measurement
which the instrumented subassembly was placed methods in the standard penetration test. Reported
just above the sampler and a trip hammer was prepared for the U.S Bureau of Reclamation,
Geotechnical Research Group, Department of Civil
used, the following conclusions can be stated: Engineering, The University of British Columbia,
1. The accelerometers were suitable for Vancouver, Canada, 2003.
measuring the accelerations during the SPT tests. [2] AOKI, N; CINTRA, J.C.A. The application of energy
2. The curves corresponding to force (F) and conservation Hamilton’s principle to the determination
of energy efficiency in SPT tests, In: International
velocity times impedance (v.Z) signals show a conference on the application of stress waves theory to
close agreement in the 0-2L’/c time interval piles 6, v.1, p. 457 – 460, Sao Paulo, 2000.
3. Displacements obtained by integrating [3] ODEBRECHT, E; SCHNAID, F; ROCHA, M.M;
velocity signals were similar to measured BERNARDES, G.P. Energy efficiency for Standard
Penetration Test. Journal of Geotechnical and
sampler penetrations. Geoenvironmental Engineenring ASCE (2005), 1252 –
4. Subsequent impacts were fundamental to 1263.
obtaining the amount of the energy that reaches [4] ABNT (2001) Standard penetration test (SPT). NBR
the sampler. 6484, Rio de Janeiro, 17p. (In Portuguese)
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 55
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Geotechnical conditions for the construction of tunnel

“Progon” on the Dimitrovgrad bypass in Serbia
Conditions géotechniques pour la construction du tunnel
« Progon » sur la rocade Dimitrovgrad en Serbie
S. Milenkovic1, B. Jelisavac, V. Vujanic & M. Jotic
The Highway Institute, Kumodraska 257, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia

Within the designed alignment of E-80 motorway in South East Serbia: Section Dimitrovgrad By-Pass the roadway alignment
for the motorway and respective structures has been adopted. In the area of the abovementioned section it is foreseen to build the
roadway in twin-tube tunnel Progon with total length of 1100 m.
The terrain is composed of clayey-gravely layers which are present in alternating sequence with sections of clay. The transitions
from one into another lithological member are mostly gradual and unclear, seldom sharp, and consequently it is very difficult to
single out the boundary between them.
In the course of analysis pertaining to geotechnical construction conditions, the geotechnical zoning of rock masses was carried
out, i.e. the constraints were set for terrain parts along the designed tunnel alignment inside which there are similar conditions
regarding the tunnel construction. Respecting the previously given criteria, according to geotechnical conditions, in the tunnel
tube all singled-out quasi-homogenous zones can be classified into four significantly different categories of rock masses with
specific conditions for tunnel excavation and support system.
Taking into account geotechnical conditions found on the location, size and shape of future tunnel, as well as advanced trends in
the tunneling, as optimal technical and cost-effective solution, the tunnel construction as per SCL has been adopted. Under spe-
cific conditions, SCL thanks to its flexibility, can fulfill the requirements regarding the costs and construction deadlines, validity
of the technical solution, and security of manpower and equipment.

Dans le cadre de l’alignement projeté de l’autoroute E-80 dans le sud-est de la Serbie : la Section Rocade Dimitrovgrad,
l’alignement de la chaussée pour l’autoroute et les structures respectives a été adopté. Dans la zone de la section susmentionnée,
la construction de l’autoroute dans le tunnel bitube Progon d’une longueur totale de 1100 m a été prévue.
Le terrain est composé de couches argileuses-caillouteuses qui sont présentes dans des séquences alternantes avec des sections
d’argile. Les transitions de l’une à l’autre zone lithologique sont principalement graduelles et peu claires, rarement brusques, et
par conséquence, il est très difficile de les distinguer.
Dans le cadre des analyses afférentes aux conditions géotechniques de la construction, le zonage géotechnique des massifs
rocheux a été effectué, c’est-à-dire que des contraintes ont été fixées sur les portions de terrain le long de l’alignement du tunnel
projeté, à l’intérieur duquel sont présentes des conditions similaires concernant la construction du tunnel. En respectant les
critères donnés antérieurement, selon les conditions géotechniques, dans le tube du tunnel, toutes les zones quasi-homogènes
distinguées peuvent être classifiées en quatre catégories significativement différentes des massifs rocheux aux conditions spéci-
fiques pour l’excavation de tunnel et le système de support.
Vu les conditions géotechniques trouvées sur le site, la taille et la forme du tunnel envisagé, ainsi que les tendances avancées
dans la construction de tunnels, en tant que solution optimale technique et de rentabilité, la construction du tunnel suivant la
méthode SCL (méthode de béton projeté) a été adoptée. Selon les conditions spécifiques, la SCL, grâce à sa flexibilité, peut
satisfaire aux exigences en matière de coût et de délais de construction, de validité de la solution technique, de sécurité de la
main d’œuvre et de l’équipement.
Keywords: tunnel, clay, SCL

Corresponding Author
56 S. Milenkovic et al. / Geotechnical Conditions for the Construction of Tunnel “Progon”

1. INTRODUCTION respective structures has been adopted in Prelimi-

nary Design. In the area of the abovementioned
Within the designed alignment of Paneuropean section, among other things, it is foreseen to build
corridor E-80, Niš – Dimitrovgrad (Bulgarian bor- the roadway in twin-tube tunnel Progon.
der), the roadway alignment for the motorway and

Figure 1. – Geographic location of the area under study

Double-tube tunnel "Progon" is designed in the sandstone cemented with carbonate. Along with
variant of separated tubes with individual length of mutual tectonic contact with this unit there is a
about 1050 m each. Distance of the tubes is con- formation of limestone-carbonate complex of
stant and is about 28 m. The tunnel is with constant differing ages. On the tectonic contact thereof,
downgrade (max.0,75%) towards exit. Daylight large differential movements occurred and the
opening area of one tunnel pipe is about 90 m2. block with carbonate complex is rather elevated,
Maximum overburden from the finished level is 40m. and opposite to it there are Cretaceous flysch like
formations which are lowered and form the part
of asymmetric trench structure.
2. REGIONAL GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE Plioquaternary deposits encompass the thick
AND TECTONIC FRAMEWORK package of heterogeneous formations drilled out
from the depth of 76.9 m up to terrain surface. The
Beside the fact that the terrain was well studied sedimentation cycle encompasses the deposits of
when the Basic Geologic Map was produced, de- diluvial-proluvial sediments accumulated in pre-
tailed additional exploratory works throughout all vailingly on-shore aerobic milieu. There stands out
stages of investigation and design for E-80 mo- the material created by the accumulation of "Terra
torway provided a lot of new data which some- rossa" material (ensuing fromlong-standing processes
how modify previous understanding regarding of physical-chemical weathering in surrounding
geologic evolution of the wider investigation zone. karst-type limestone terrains) which mixed itself
The terrain basis in wider zone of "Progon" with the fragments of Mesozoic limestone and sand-
tunnel is made of marine Mesozoic formation. stone. Alternation of differing lithological mem-
Beside the fact that they have been discovered on bers, from compacted rusty-reddish clays and silts,
open outcrops in wider tunnel zone, they have been gravel-sandy clays to rough clastic proluvial de-
drilled in the borehole P-1 at the interval from the posits made of accumulated fragments and boulders
depth of 89.5 m to approximately 76.9 m of depth, of Mesozoic limestone and sandstone, testifies on
where they have been represented by solid, gray the occurrence of climate change in the sedimen-
S. Milenkovic et al. / Geotechnical Conditions for the Construction of Tunnel “Progon” 57

tation process. The deposit thickness of over 60 m depression and long-standing cyclic process of
testifies on rather fast sedimentation within the deposit formation.

Figure 2. – Schematic regional geologic profile with distorted scale

3. HYDROLOGIC AND HYDROGEOLOGIC tunnel tube. Initial discharges could be rather

PROPERTIES OF THE TERRAIN large, yet they are not long lasting. By recording
the occurrences and with monitoring the ground
Area of the Nisava river basin in the tunnel zone water level changes in the course of exploratory
is large, so the portion of surface waters has pla- boreholes, and by installing standpipes and water
nar flow structure and periodical flows through the pumping, one was in a position to establish that
lateral valleys of the basin towards Nisava river. permeability of rock masses within the tunnel
Part of atmospheric waters infiltrates in wide zone expressed by filtration coefficient amounts
carbonate backing and sinkholes, caverns and less than k < 1 x 10-05 cm/s.
cracks and then seeps into lower parts of the ter-
Within this package of sediments there are more OF THE ROCK MASSES
clayish layers which are in fact hydrogeologic insu-
lator and lenses with considerable content of lime- Complex of Pliocene-Quaternary Sediments
stone and sandstone gravel which represent water- (PI, Q-G, DR)
bearing formation of fully closed ground water stor- Complex of Pliocene-Quaternary Sediments (PI,
age of limited capacity. For this reason one cannot Q-G, DR) within which silty-sandy clays and clayey
consider the storage with continuous spreading, with gravel alternate in layers and lenses. According to
uniform level along the entire tunnel length. The petrographic composition, limestones and sand-
discharge of these storages is carried out towards stones are represented by coarse fraction although
lateral valleys and in the direction of Nisava river. the occurrence of cemented breccia is not rare.
Based on the position of tunnel axis regarding the The clayey-gravely layers take alternating turns
slope and the position of represented milieus, the with the layers of clays. The transitions from one
appearance of smaller ground waters can be ex- into another lithological layer are mostly gradual
pected along the entire tunnel, while larger seep- and unclear, and consequently it is very difficult
age and water will occur in the zone of uphill left to single out the boundary between them.
58 S. Milenkovic et al. / Geotechnical Conditions for the Construction of Tunnel “Progon”

Within the complex, two basic lithological different size, max 10 cm. Milieu is hard,
members are singled out: medium to low compressibility, medium to
- Silty-sandy CLAY (PL, Q-G); with non- low water permeability.
uniform distribution of detritus in the mass. Beside the above mentioned, conditionally
Detritus is intensely altered physically and called "pure types", there are several other singled-
chemically, often disintegrated into sand. Mi- out milieus depending on the content of certain
lieu is generally hard, medium to low com- fractions: Clay with gravel, Gravel with clay,
pressibility, slightly water pervious to water Clays and gravel.
impervious. Parameter ranges which are the results of la-
- Clayey DETRITUS (PL, Q-DR): mostly boratory tests carried out on the samples from
angular gravel is of different petrographic exploratory boreholes within the scope of wider
composition (limestone, sandstone) and of tunnel area are presented on the table 1.
Water Unit Plasticity Shear
Grain-size distribution

content weight characteristics strength

0,002 0,002-0,06 0,06 - 2,0 2,0 - 60.0 > 60.0 w J Jd wL Ip Ic M’ C’
% % kN/m3 (p) KPa













5. GEOTECHNICAL ZONING OF THE Respecting the previously given criteria, ac-

TERRAIN ALONG THE TUNNEL cording to geotechnical conditions, in the tunnel
tubes all singled-out quasi-homogenous zones (8 in
In the course of analysis pertaining to geotechnical total) can be classified into four significantly differ-
construction conditions, the geotechnical zoning ent categories of rock masses with specific con-
of rock masses was carried out, i.e. the constrains ditions for tunnel excavation and support system.
were set for terrain parts along the designed tun-
nel alignment inside which there are similar con- x Category " A "
ditions regarding the tunnel construction. In that
process, total quantity of rock masses from the Category “A” is represented by pliocene-quarte-
geotechnical point of view was taken into account rnary sediments in which there is mostly silty
based on material content, strength, ground water sandy clay with rather small amount of gravel. The
conditions and overburden from the tunnel calotte other very important characteristic of this category
to the terrain surface. is small overburden.

Figure 3. – Geotechnical terrain model - category “A”

S. Milenkovic et al. / Geotechnical Conditions for the Construction of Tunnel “Progon” 59

x Category " B " The clayey - gravely layers take alternating turns
with the layers of clean clays. The transitions from
Category “B” is represented by silty-sandy CLAY; one into another lithological member are mostly
with non-uniform distribution of gravel in the gradual and unclear, seldom sharp, and conse-
mass. Gravel is sometimes intensely altered. Mi- quently it is very difficult to single out the bound-
lieu is generally hard, medium to low compressi- ary between them.
bility, low permeabile to impermeabile. The over-
burden is in the range 30 - 40 m. x Category " D "

x Category " C " This category of rock masses consists of quasi-

homogenous zones, i.e. parts of tunnel excavation
Category “C” is represented mostly by angular which will be done in “cut and cover” and are
clayey gravel of different petrographic compo- represented in diluvial clayey-detritus deposits
sition (limestone, sandstone) and of different size. and pliocene-quarternary clayey materials.

Figure 4. Geotechnical terrain model in the exit porta zone

Recommended values of physical mechanical TABLE 3

and strength-deformability parameters are given EXCAVATION Rock mass Length
in the following table: TYPE category (m)
 388
Tunnel excavation B 445
C 111
CATE- J M’ c’ E
GORY Cut and cover D 162
kN/m3 (o) kPa MPa
Category A 20 23 60 45
Category B 20 24 40 70
Category C 20 26 20 70
Category D 20 24 30 45 Although there is a significant experience in the
world in building tunnels with SCL method in clayey
Presence of soil mass categories in the tunnel materials, the designed diameter of the tunnel "Pro-
tube is given in the following table: gon" multiplies all problems that might appear
during the execution of works. For safety reasons,
excavation phase must be short enough both
concerning excavation dimensions and stoppage.
60 S. Milenkovic et al. / Geotechnical Conditions for the Construction of Tunnel “Progon”

Taking into account geologic and geotechnical 7. CONCLUSION

conditions found on the location, size and shape
of future tunnel, as well as advanced trends in the The forecast of geotechnical conditions for the
tunneling, yet in accordance with TOR, the tunnel construction of "Progon" tunnel was carried out
construction as per SCL has been adopted. Under on the basis of analysis pertaining to existing do-
specific conditions, SCL thanks to its flexibility, cumentation and comprehensive investigation
can fulfill the requirements regarding the costs and and testing meant for different design levels. Level
construction deadlines, validity of the technical of investigation and trustworthiness of recommended
solution, and security of manpower and equipment. geotechnical parameters we consider as reliable
The excavation has to be carried out mechanically, and sufficient for the Main design of tunnel. The
with profiling at several phases, first the calottes and results of additional investigations provide indi-
flanks-side walls, and then the foundation and in- cation for anticipated geologic structure of the
vert. The step of advance heading is proposed to terrain and the characteristics of represented mi-
be from 0.5 to 1.0 m. Maximum length of exca- lieus. In such a way the properties of milieus
vation without support should not be longer than which have been defined in the previous investi-
1 m. The excavation should provided immedi- gation stages have been confirmed. The tunnel will
ately with the support. be built in accordance with the Sprayed Concrete
The recommended lining is taking into account Lining (SCL). On the whole, geotechnical condi-
the systematic anchoring in the vault and on walls tions for the tunnel construction are rather unfa-
with the utilization of steel mesh. Furthermore, vorable, however if the operating technique and
one should anticipate medium to heavy arches at lining system were to be optimized and adapted to
the distance of 0.75 m, with steel lagging and the conditions in the field, then the tunnel could
forepoling in advance on the vault. be completed successfully.
All represented rock masses are sensitive to the
impact of water, and are prone to softening and
degradation of physical-mechanical parameters, REFERENCE
and thus it will be necessary to protect the excava-
tion from water and moisture. First of all, after the [1]. Atkinson, J.H ; Mair, R.J: Soil mechanics aspects of soft
excavation, in order to avoid also the cross-section ground tunnelling. In: Ground Engineering 14 (1981), No.
5, pp. 20-38.
narrowing, the rock masses thereof should be cov- [2]. Baumann, T ; Sternath, R ; Schwarz, J: Face stability of
ered with shortcrete layer, and immediately after- tunnels in soft rock – Possibilities for the computational
wards the remaining elements of the lining sys- analysis. Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found.
tem must be installed. In such a way the protection Engineering, Hamburg, Vol. 3, pp. 1389-1392.
from moisture from the air will be provided and Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema, 1997.
[3]. Clough, G.W. and B.Schmidt: Design and
thus their degradation prevented. In the course of
performance of excavations and tunnels in soft clay. In:
construction it is required that all occurrences of Soft Clay Engineering, Chapter 8, pp. 569-634.
seepage and technical waters are diverted from the Elsevier, Netherlands, 1981.
excavation under control through the drainage [4]. Davis, E.H; Gunn, M.J; Mair, R.J ; Seneviratne,H.N:
channels. The tunnel floor/invert has to be protected The stability of shallow tunnels and underground
particularly, since the clayey materials are prone to openings in cohesive material. In: Géotechnique 30
(1980), No. 4, pp. 397-416
degradation due to unfavorable impact of technical [5]. G.R.Dasari, C.G. Rawlings, Numerical modelling of a
waters and heavy equipment operation. NATM tunnel construction in London Clay, Geotechni-
Minor quantities of water may be expected cal aspects of tunneling in soft ground, Balkema, Roter-
in a form of wetting, dripping, and leakage. Most dam, 1996.
probably, the highest afflux of water will be at
the time of excavation, and then it will reduce as
time goes by.
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 61
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Empirical determination of the undrained shear

strength of very stiff to (very) hard cohesive soils
from SPT tests
Détermination empirique de la cohésion non drainée des argiles
très raides a très dures, a partir des essais de Pénétration
C. Plytas 1, A. Baltzoglou, G. Chlimintzas, G. Anagnostopoulos, A. Kozompolis & Ch. Koutalia
OTM S.A.- Engineering Consulting Co., Athens, Greece

The Standard Penetration Test has become increasingly popular in testing stiff to hard cohesive soils. Several correlations have
been proposed that associate undrained shear strength with SPT blowcount in such soils. These correlations, often produced
through significant data scatter, are typically restricted to specific materials and their main drawback is their not taking into ac-
count physical characteristics, often conveniently reflected in trivial lab processes, e.g. clay mineralogy manifested through At-
terberg limits. A simplified empirical relationship is presented that correlates the undrained shear strength (cu) of cohesive for-
mations and the ‘as-measured’ SPT blowcount (N) attempting to reduce statistical scatter by addressing the important influence
of characteristic physical properties on soil strength. The correlation derives from the statistical processing of data obtained in
three different stiff to very hard cohesive formations in Greece, essentially clays and marls, each exhibiting a consistently identi-
fiable geotechnical behaviour, in which a large number of ‘coupled’ SPT and lab UU triaxial tests were performed. Processing of
the available data supports the common observation that the definition of a constant cu / N ratio (even within the same material)
is unrealistic. The inclusion of both water content (w) and plasticity index (PI) in such correlations is investigated and found to
significantly improve the consistency of correlation results, indicating a linear dependence of the cu / N ratio on (w) and loga-
rithmic dependence on (PI). The identification of additional independent parameters affecting the procedure is also examined
and basic directions for the orientation of future correlations are outlined.

L’essais de Pénétration Standard est devenu récemment très populaire a la détermination des propriétés mécaniques des argiles
raides à dures. Ils existent plusieurs corrélations qui associent la cohésion non drainée avec le nombre SPT. Ces corrélations
sont représentatives pour un nombre des sols limités et présentent une grande dispersion. En général elles ne tiennent pas
compte les propriétés physiques usuelles comme p.e. la minéralogie qui se reflète aux limites d’Atterberg. Une relation empi-
rique simplifiée est proposé, qui relie la cohésion non drainée avec le nombre SPT, mesuré in situ, en essayant de limiter la dis-
persion statistique, en tenant compte l’influence des propriétés physiques caractéristiques. Cette corrélation résulte d’une élabo-
ration statistique d’un grand nombre des données, des trois formations provenant de la Grèce, argiles et marnes, raides jusqu’ a
très dures. Chaque sol cohérent présente un comportement géotechnique unique et distingué. Un grand nombre d’essais couplés
de Pénétration Statique et triaxiaux est réalisé en chaque formation. L’élaboration des données montre que la définition d’un
rapport (cu /N) constant n’est pas réaliste. L’introduction de la teneur en eau (w) en relation avec l’indice des plasticité (PI) a
amélioré efficacement les corrélations montrant une dépendance linéaire du rapport (cu /N) avec la teneur en eau et le logarithme
de l’indice de plasticité.

Keywords: Standard Penetration Test (SPT), undrained shear strength, plasticity (index), water content, hard cohesive soils, clay,
Atttiki Odos, Athens, Greece.

Corresponding Author.
62 C. Plytas et al. / Empirical Determination of the Undrained Shear Strength

1 INTRODUCTION tiki Odos Motorway, traversing the metropolitan

area of Athens, Greece.
SPT is arguably the most popular in situ test used The variation of natural water content (w) was
for the estimation of mechanical properties of incorporated in the correlations and appears to be
coarse grained formations, in which undisturbed a fundamental parameter affecting the values of
sampling is usually difficult. It has been recog- the (cu / N) ratio. So does the plasticity index
nized, however, that SPT can be usefully applied (PI), which has already been considered in re-
on cohesive materials and weak rocks as well, al- lated widely-cited literature [4], [6].
though the interpretation of such results should
be approached with some caution.
Despite inevitable warnings for cautious ap- 2 GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS
plication, the evaluation of the undrained shear
strength (cu) or unconfined compressive strength The following formations encountered during the
(qu) of the above materials from SPT results is design of the new Attiki Odos Motorway are in-
presented in numerous design manuals and vestigated in the present paper:
guidelines publications, e.g. [1], [2], [3]. It is al- (a) Quaternary fluvio-terrestrial formations,
so interesting to note that related research, in- consisting of firm to hard, low to medium plas-
cluding reference work [4] on this subject, has ticity sandy clays of the Chalandri-Marousi Area.
concluded that very stiff to hard cohesive soils They are divided in two categories: the reddish to
and weak rocks are particularly suitable for such reddish-brown sandy clays of Kifissias Ave. and
practice as the results of lab testing or alternative the reddish-brown to yellowish-brown sandy
field tests in these materials are often unrepre- clays of Doukissis Plakentias Ave.
sentative or uneconomical. (b) Neogenic fluviolacustrine and lacustrine-
Numerous correlations connecting SPT results terrestrial deposits. They mainly consist of firm
and undrained shear strength have been proposed to hard, medium to high plasticity, yellowish-
in the literature (e.g. [4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9]). Such brown, green-brown to grayish-brown marls.
correlations, which are not always in accordance Relevant properties of the above materials are
with each other, are strictly valid only for specif- summarized in Table 1. Atterberg limits in par-
ic types of investigated materials and should only ticular are depicted on a Casagrande diagram in
produce qualitative rather than quantitative con- Figures 1.
clusions when applied in engineering practice.
The frequent divergence of results often expe-
Table 1 – Material Properties
rienced when implementing such correlations in
practice seems to be associated, among other fac- Doukissis
Kifissias Marl of
Material properties Plakentias
tors, with existing limitations in our understand- Ave. Clay
Ave. Clay
ing of the complex mechanics of SPT–cu interre- Area
lation in-situ, as well as the inherent difficulty of Rating by AUSCS (CL) (CL) (CL) ÷ (CH)
accounting for all possible parameters involved Mean overconsoli-
~2 ~ 2.2 ~ 1.5
in the actual procedure. dation ratio (OCR)
Natural water con-
In the present study the formulation of an em- tent, w (%)
10.5÷25.5 8.4÷20.6 15.8÷46.5
pirical mathematical relationship is developed, Liquid limit,
24.5÷43.5 21.4÷46.5 33.2÷86.6
attempting to connect undrained shear strength LL (%)
(cu) to SPT blowcount (N) based on statistical Plasticity index,
4.2÷28.8 5.2÷28.1 11.1÷54.9
PI (%)
processing of a large number of corresponding Dry unit weight,
field and lab tests performed in fully saturated 15.5÷20.6 16.8÷21.8 11.9÷17.6
d (kN/m3)
very stiff to very hard soil-like (or very soft rock- Undrained shear
85÷529 91÷710 67÷378
like) cohesive formations. These tests were part strength, cu (kPa)
N-values in SPT,
of a very extensive geotechnical investigation NSPT
16÷65 15÷60 16÷52
programme conducted for the construction of At-
C. Plytas et al. / Empirical Determination of the Undrained Shear Strength 63

Geographical Unities prove such correlations. One such example ([13])
ǹǹǹ $$ &ǾRU2Ǿ
is the work performed for 25 different Japanese
sites with N values mainly between 2 and 30. A
non-linear correlation cu /Pa = 0.29N0.72 was pro-
Plasticity Index, PI (%)


CL or OL duced with reasonably smooth fit to the used da-


MH or OH
ta, although a systematic scatter in the cu values
of almost 1 order of magnitude was not avoided
over the dominant SPT blowcount range of N=3-
10 Kifissias Ave. 10. The assumption of linear variation of cu
Douk. Plakentias I/C
ML or OL Mesogeia Area against N remains, however, the most popular
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 one. An analytical approach is presented in [14]
Liquid limit, LL (%)
that verifies this linear correlation based on ener-
Figure 1. Casagrande A-charts for each of the three gy balance. [14] also gives an example referring
formations. to tests at a particular site in Michigan, USA
producing cu / N = 4.1 KPa. It is a reasonable ar-
gument that meaningful correlations with tight
3 CORRELATIONS FROM THE statistics could only be expected within results of
LITERATURE BETWEEN cu AND N the ‘same’ material encountered in ‘similar’ con-
It has long been a justified assumption that the
produced SPT blowcount in a tested soil should Table 2. Typical range of values of the Cu / N ratio reported
be in proportional relation to its shear strength. in the literature
Terzaghi and Peck’s [5] classification of cohe- Researchers Cu / N range produced (in KPa)
sive soils based on SPT and unconfined com- [6] Sowers (1954) 2.4 – 16.5
pressive strength (qu) implies a linear cu – N cor- [8] De Mello (1971) 0.4 – 20.0
relation of the form cu ! KPa. The latter [10] Djoenaidi (1985) 6.0 – 20.0 (excluding Sowers)
is accompanied by its authors’ warning note re- [11] Behpoor & Gha- 7.5 – 8.4 (tests with N < 25)
hramani (1989)
garding the large scatter existing in the available [12] Edil et al. (2009) 2.4 – 15.7
data. A wide variety of direct linear correlations
co-exist in the literature stated either as generic According to [3], the diversity of cu – N correla-
or as case-specific, all with varied degree of suc- tions in the literature can be associated with dif-
cess regarding statistic consistency over the em- ferences in material plasticity, sensitivity and fis-
ployed database and realistic applicability in soil suring, as well as equipment factors and cu
behaviour prediction. determination methods and sample characteris-
According to [2], poor correlation of cu and N tics, such as fissuring orientation in tested speci-
is attributed to the combined effect of inadequate men. Fissuring and sample disturbance are
SPT standardization, mixing of undrained pointed out by [4] as the most influential scatter-
strength data from different types of tests and the producing factors in such correlations. Fissuring
variable degree of sensitivity of the clays consi- can either artificially increase cu / N ratio as a re-
dered. The confusingly wide scatter appearing in sult of testing unrepresentative intact material
such correlations due to similar factors is illu- specimens in the lab or in other cases reduce cu /
strated by various researchers indicatively N ratio particularly in hard fissured materials,
represented in Table 2. In any case, in the light of where fissuring together with increased sample
current experience, the derivation of universal disturbance tend to produce an overly brittle be-
correlations applicable to different cohesive soils haviour in the lab which is not observed in the
does not seem feasible in the near future. in-situ modes of failure related to SPT. The latter
On the other hand, the use of consistent drill- effect is supported by [3] demonstrating cu / N
ing equipment, SPT procedure and undrained ratio in London Clay rising to a value of about 11
strength determination is generally found to im- when remoulded samples are used for lab testing,
64 C. Plytas et al. / Empirical Determination of the Undrained Shear Strength

compared to values of the order of 4.5 reported i.e. cu / N ratio, PI and w. The resulting correla-
by [4] based on undisturbed sample testing. The tion is produced in the following form:
important effect of sensitivity on cu / N values is
also highlighted by most researchers, including cu
[2], [3], [4] and [8], the latter having examined a  A  B w  C log 10 ( PI ) (1)
wide variety of soils including soft sensitive N
clays. Using Schmertmann’s [15] conclusion that
up to 70% of soil resistance to SPT advancing in which coefficients A, B, and C were deter-
derives from side shearing (reflecting remoulded mined by means of the least squares method and
strength), Clayton [3] estimates that a sensitivity have the dimensions of stress. The results pro-
value of 10 would increase the cu / N ratio by a duced with cu, A, B, and C expressed in KPa and
factor of at least 2.5 compared to a completely w, PI expressed as percentages (%) are presented
insensitive material (of a theoretical sensitivity of in Table 3 and illustrated in Figures 2a, 2b and
1.0). 2c. The present correlation indicates a unique
The work by Stroud [4] has undoubtedly been trend between cu / N, PI for different water con-
very influential in the perception of cu – N corre- tent w. Reducing w corresponds to shifting the
lation. [4] employed an extensive data base of re- (cu / N) vs. (PI) curve upwards, to higher cu / N
sults in London Clay and a wide range of other values and vice versa, which is roughly what
UK overconsolidated insensitive cohesive mate- should be physically expected. For reasons of
rials and weak rocks. The consistency of SPT comparison, plotted in Figure 2 along with the
procedure used, sample diameter (102mm) and current correlations are Stroud’s [4]
triaxial undrained lab testing have all added to w-independent correlation as is Terzaghi-
the close convergence of the results, also verified Peck’s [5] recommended mean cu / N ratio.
by means of plate loading tests where available.
Table 3 – Coefficients in Resulting Empirical Relationships
[4] managed to successfully relate the cu / N ratio
to plasticity index (PI) for the range of examined Regression Kifissias
Marl of
materials (with PI practically between 15% and Parameters Clay
60%). A consistent decrease in the cu / N values Area
with increasing PI was observed, with very li- Coefficient ǹ (kPa) 13.9748 15.4657 11.9424
mited exceptions. The suggested correlation in- Coefficient Ǻ (kPa) -0.2033 -0.4951 -0.0977
dicates that cu / N varies between about 4.2 and 7
KPa. Coefficient C (kPa) -3.1719 -1.6401 -2.0137

Correlation Coeff. r 0.55684 0.55797 0.48096


A large number of SPT and respective lab test The above correlation implies that the main
results have been used in the present investiga- physical characteristics which affect the cu/N ra-
tion. The undrained shear strength of the soil has tio are the plasticity index, PI and natural water
been determined from triaxial UU tests per- content, w. Although this argument is adequately
formed on intact samples retrieved within each supported by the results of the present investiga-
borehole from depths immediately adjacent to tion, significant scattering is still observed in the
the preceding SPT depth. values of the cu/N ratio. Nevertheless, the trend
An empirical mathematical correlation was of the cu/N variation with the physical characte-
derived by performing linear regression analysis ristics appears to be represented satisfactorily.
on the obtained geotechnical investigation data, The scattering in the results can mainly be at-
tributed to the following:
C. Plytas et al. / Empirical Determination of the Undrained Shear Strength 65


7 Terzaghi & Peck (1967) w=12,5%
6 w=17,5%
Stroud (1974)
5 w=22,5%

(a) Kifissias Ave. Red Clay (Area A10) w=25,0%

4 6 8 10 12 14 16 PI (%) 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

(b) D. Plakentias I/C Clay (areas A11-A12) LEGEND


9 w=8,0%
Terzaghi & Peck (1967) w=12,0%
Stroud (1974)
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 PI (%) 18 20 22 24 26 28 30


Terzaghi & Peck (1967)



6 Stroud (1974) w=25%

5 w=35%
4 w=45%
7 11 15 19 23 27 31 PI (%) 35 39 43 47 51 55 59

Figure 2. Presentation of resulting empirical correlations in chart form for: (a) Kifissias Clay, (b)
D.Plakentias Clay and (c) Mesogeia Marl.
ence of the aforementioned parameters. It seems
(a) The intrinsic variation of geotechnical that the phenomenon is also influenced signifi-
behaviour within each formation even when cantly from the development of suction in the
comprehensive criteria have been set as to what soil samples, which increases scattering in the re-
can be described as ‘the same formation.’ sults.
(b) The fact that during the evaluation of the (c) The fact that the adoption of cu/N ratio
results certain parameters were not taken into ac- as a fundamental parameter is rather arbitrary.
count, such as anisotropy, sensitivity, fracturing, The challenge of correlating the cu/N ratio
overconsolidation ratio (OCR) etc. Nevertheless, with the physical characteristics of the soil ele-
the estimation of the plasticity index and the nat- ment remains open and such correlations are ex-
ural water content includes indirectly the influ-
66 C. Plytas et al. / Empirical Determination of the Undrained Shear Strength

pected to be more credible the larger the number REFERENCES

of used lab and field tests becomes.
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Design Manual 7.01, Soil Mechanics, 1986, still valid
as an active part of ‘Unified Facilities Criteria UFC 3-
6 CONCLUSIONS AND 220-10N (Soil Mechanics),’ 2005.
RECOMMENDATIONS [2] F.H. Kulhawy & P.W. Mayne (1990). Manual on Esti-
mating Soil Properties for Foundation Design. EPRI
EL-6800, RP 1493-6, Final Rpt. Aug. 1990, Palo Alto,
Based on the presented analysis of the available CA, USA.
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(a) There seems to be no unified law correlat- Methods and Use”, CIRIA REPORT 143, Construction
ing the cu / N ratio with the index properties of Industry Research Information Association, London,
UK, 1995.
the soil material. [4] M. A. Stroud, “The Standard Penetration Test in Insen-
(b) The proposed relationship in Eq.(1) adopt- sitive Clays and Soft Rocks”. Proc. Eur. Symp. On Pe-
ing both a (PI)- and a (w)- dependent term along netration Testing (ESOPT 1), 1974, pp. 367-75.
with the constant term in the evaluation of [5] K. Terzaghi & R.B. Peck, “Soil Mechanics in Engi-
neering Practice”. 2nd edition, John Wiley, New York,
(cu / N) is an attempt to overcome the existing 1967.
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trend in regards to the cu / N ratio as a function of vestigations, ASCE Journal GE Div., vol. 80 (1954),
PI. The A, B and C parameters differ from one no. 435, p. 11.
[7] E. Schultze & H. Knausenberger, Experiences with Pe-
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ratio drops with increasing Plasticity Index (PI), Vol.1, pp.1-86.
which essentially conforms to the recommenda- [9] A.C. Stamatopoulos & C. Kotzias, Refusal to the SPT
tions previously made by [4] and adopted by [3]. and penetrability, Geotechnical Engineering of Hard
Soils – Soft Rocks (Anagnostopoulos et al. – eds), Bal-
(d) The cu / N ratio also drops with increasing kema, Rotterdam, 1993.
natural water content. This has generally been [10] W. J. Djoenaidi, “A Compendium of Soil Properties
neglected so far in the related literature. and Correlations” M. Eng. Sc. Thesis, University of
(e) The Terzaghi - Peck [5] correlation is Sydney, Sydney, 836 p, 1985.
[11] L. Behpoor and A. Ghahramani, Correlation of SPT to
found to be a satisfactory approximation of the strength and modulus of elasticity of cohesive soils.
mean value of the ratio; [cu / N]  6.5 (KPa). 12th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and
(f) It should be rendered acceptable that clas- Foundation Engineering, ISSMFE, Rio do Janeiro,
sification of cohesive formations as a sole func- Brazil, 1989.
[12] T.B. Edil, C.H. Benson, L. Li, D. Mickelson, &
tion of blowcounts N is not feasible; the reason is F.F. Camargo, Comparison of basic laboratory test re-
that a given N value resembles several values of sults with more sophisticated laboratory and in-situ
the undrained shear strength cu, depending on the tests methods on soils in Southeastern Wisconsin, Uni-
Plasticity Index as well as the natural water con- versity of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin Highway Re-
search Program #0092-06-05 Final Report, 2009.
tent of the soil material. [13] A. Hara, T. Ohta, M. Niwa, S. Tanaha &, T. Banno,
(g) It should be considered that equations sim- “Shear Modular and Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils”.
ilar to Eq.(1) may yield generic guidance on a Soils and Foundations, vol. 14, No. 3, Sept. 1974, pp.
broad spectrum of soil materials. It appears 1-12.
[14] H. Hettiarachchi & T. Brown, Use of SPT Blow Counts
though, that formulas of this type seem to be to Estimate Shear Strength Properties of Soils: Energy
more reliable on cases focusing on particular lo- Balance Approach, ASCE J. of Geotechnical & Geoen-
calized soil formations. vironmental Eng. 135 (2009), No.6, pp.830-834.
[15] J.H. Schmertmann, “Statics of SPT,” Journ. Geot. Div.,
Proc. ASCE, vol.105, GT5, May 1979, pp. 655-670.
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 67
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Facteur d’influence des paramètres de forage

Influence factors of measuring while drilling method
Ph. Reiffsteck 1
Université Paris Est / IFSTTAR-LCPC, Paris, France

This paper will present a detailed study of influencing factors and possible correlations from the technique of drilling parameters.
Operating parameters of instrumented drilling machine provides a fairly precise idea of the position of transition layers of soil or
rocks of different kinds. Similarly, the combination of these parameters allows to approximate the variation of mechanical and
hydraulic parameters of these ground layers. The work program implemented during this study was as follows:
- Establish the methodology to achieve physical quantities correlated to the mechanical parameters,
- Testing on real sites with different test zones conforming to a program to isolate the influence parameters,
- Apply a statistical analysis to data fields to establish empirical and theoretical relationships.
The results are compared to Standard Penetration Test and static penetrometer profiles.
This paper will try to make a statement of present practices and the importance of writing specific protocol for this test to be
considered as a test of its own and must be adapted to the purpose of investigation.

Cette communication présentera une étude approfondie des facteurs d’influence et des corrélations possibles à partir de la tech-
nique des paramètres de forage. Une sondeuse géotechnique hydraulique instrumentée a été utilisée sur des planches expérimen-
tales constituées de différents matériaux et stratification. L’observation de la variation des paramètres de fonctionnement de la
machine permet d’avoir une idée assez précise de la position des transitions des couches de sols ou de roches de natures diffé-
rentes. De même, la combinaison de ces paramètres permet d’approcher la variation de certains paramètres mécaniques et hy-
drauliques de ces terrains. Le programme de travail mis en œuvre lors de l’étude a été le suivant :
- établir la méthodologie pour aboutir à des grandeurs physiques corrélées aux paramètres mécaniques
- tester sur sites réels différentes planches expérimentales avec un programme d’essai visant à isoler les paramètres d’influence,
- appliquer la statistique à ces champs de données pour aboutir à des relations empiriques et théoriques.
Les résultats sont comparés à des essais de pénétration au carottier (SPT) et au pénétromètre statique avec piézocone.
Cette communication s’attachera à faire un état des pratiques et à présenter l’importance de l’écriture de protocole spécifique à
cet essai qui doit être considéré comme un essai à part entière et doit être adapté à l’objectif de la reconnaissance.

Mots clés : reconnaissance géotechnique, paramètres de forage, corrélations

Keywords: situ testing, drilling parameter recording, correlation

Corresponding Author.
68 Ph. Reiffsteck / Facteur d’influence des paramètres de forage


Les enregistrements de paramètres de forage Chaque paramètre enregistré peut se voir attri-
(MWD pour measuring while drilling) ou dia- buer une signification qualitative en terme de ca-
graphies instantanées sont apparus à l'origine ractéristiques du sol foré ou en terme de fonc-
dans le domaine pétrolier qui s’en servait en tionnement du forage. Durant le forage, chaque
grande partie pour gérer les cadences de forage. changement de couche se traduit généralement
En Génie Civil, ils ont pris, depuis les années par la variation d’un ou plusieurs paramètres [8].
1970, une part grandissante dans les études géo- Toutefois, afin de limiter l’influence de la modi-
techniques ([5] ; [11] ; [3] ; [9] ; [10] ; [13]). fication de l'un des paramètres de fonctionne-
Les paramètres de forage sont les paramètres ment sur les autres paramètres et faciliter
enregistrés directement lors du forage et ayant l’exploitation, il est nécessaire de recourir à des
subi un traitement numérique. Des corrections combinaisons de paramètres appelés : paramètres
sont en effet nécessaires pour prendre en compte composés, quasiment indépendants des condi-
certaines spécificités du système hydraulique tions de réalisation.
ainsi que le poids des tiges, l'influence de la co- Les paramètres composés les plus utilisées
lonne de boue dans le forage, etc. Leur nombre sont rassemblées dans le tableau 1 ([2] ; [1]). Ils
dépend des types d’enregistreurs et des types de sont issus de différentes pratiques européennes,
travaux que l’on souhaite réaliser. La plupart du japonaises, anglo-saxonnes ou scandinaves et
temps de 4 paramètres à 9 au maximum sont en- sont le résultat d’années de pratique et de re-
registrés. Couramment, les suivants sont enregis- cherches sur leur territoire national. Ils sont basés
trés (figure 1) : sur des combinaisons des paramètres bruts et
 La vitesse d’avancement (VA), cherchent à représenter une réalité physique du
 Pression de poussée sur outil (PO)et pres- terrain. Lors de l’élaboration de ces combinai-
sion de retenue (PR), sons, leurs auteurs ont choisi deux voies princi-
 Vitesse de rotation (VR), pales :
 Couple de rotation (CR),  empirique pour se rapprocher de para-
 Pression d’injection du fluide de forage mètres mécaniques d’autres essais comme
(PI), le pénétromètre ou le pressiomètre. C’est le
 Débit du fluide de forage (QI). cas des deux premières combinaisons ;
paramètre (-)
 théorique en construisant des combinaisons
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 basés sur l’énergie dépensée pour désagré-
ger le sol avec l’outil (énergie normalisée)
ou sur l’agitation du signal (entropie).
1 Via (m/h)
Ces relations permettent de disposer de profils
Po ( bar )
Vr ( tr/min )
moins bruités et plus proches des paramètres
Cr ( bar ) ayant une signification physique. Toutefois, il est
Pr ( bar )
important de pouvoir cerner l'influence de cer-
z (m)

Pi ( bar )
Débit l/min tains paramètres qui ne sont pas nécessairement
enregistrés. Par exemple, nous n’avons pour le
moment aucun moyen de mesurer de manière
fiable l’énergie du marteau hydraulique, il est
nécessaire de connaître son importance sur les
paramètres de forage et en particulier sur les
énergies. De même, le type d'outil et son usure
Figure 1. : Exemple de résultat de mesure des paramètres de ne sont pas notés ni vraiment étudiés par la bi-
forage bliographie. A ces fins, un plot expérimental
comportant plusieurs sols a été construit [12].
Ph. Reiffsteck / Facteur d’influence des paramètres de forage 69

Pour cela, nous avons comparé graphiquement

Tableau 1. : Tableau récapitulatif des paramètres composés les paramètres composés de chaque forage avec
Nom Formule Unité Ref. et sans utilisation de la frappe (Figure 2).
En observant les courbes, on remarque que les
résistance à la
RP  (t ) dz 0.2 m s/0.2m [13] énergies enregistrées, pour les forages utilisant le
1 marteau hydraulique, sont moins importantes que
indice de Some- V  2
Sd  PE . R   kPa [17] celle enregistrées sur les forages qui ne l’utilisent
pas. Cette différence est encore plus nette sur les
énergie spécifique PE 2. (VR  C R ) passages durs, car c’est là que le marteau apporte
SDE   . kJ/m3 [18]
de forage S0 S0 VA le plus d’énergie. Il ressort aussi que sur les
courbes des forages avec percussion, la sensibili-
énergie spécifique ES  V
R R C .V
N.m/m [15]
té est moins importante. Ceci s’explique par le
A fait que le marteau diminue le besoin en énergie
énergie norma-  .PE .VA   .CR .2. .VR 
.PM .f de rotation et de poussée. Malheureusement, cela
EN  N.m/m [14]
lisée VA
n'est pas enregistré.
 PE V 
indice d’altération I A  1  k0 .  k1. A  Aucune [15] Toutefois, l’enregistrement de l’énergie déve-
 Pmax Vmax 
entropie mathé-
loppée par le marteau n’est pas une chose facile.
matique du signal L(z )   S z  dz   S z  Aucune [6] Nishi et al. [14] avaient équipé avec succès les
S tiges de forage d’accéléromètres pour quantifier
l’énergie, technique difficilement applicable
2.1 Étude de l'influence de la frappe dans la pratique courante.
Afin de vérifier l’importance de l’utilisation du
2.2 Étude des variations dues au changement
marteau hydraulique, nous avons réalisé pour
d’outils de forage
chaque sol un forage sans utiliser le marteau et
un forage en l’utilisant. Le principal but de cette La figure 3 illustre l'influence du changement
étude est de vérifier l’importance de l’énergie d’outil sur les paramètres de forages. On observe
développée par le marteau. des différences notables, toutes choses égales par
EN (N.m/m)
0 2000
RP (s/0,2m)
4000 6000
ailleurs, entre un forage avec un outil à bouton,
0 200000 400000
0 0 un forage avec un outil à lame et un forage à la
tarière hélicoïdale continue (THC).
0,5 0,5
Il faut noter que la comparaison se fait, pour
1 1 la figure 3, sur trois forages en rotation.
Dans les deux cas (massif 1 et massif 2), il
1,5 1,5
semble que l’énergie fournie lors des forages
2 2 avec un outil à lame soit supérieure à celle four-
nie avec l’outil à bouton. Ceci s’explique par le
2,5 2,5
mode de déstructuration du sol de chaque outil.
3 3 Les deux outils destructifs poinçonnent et cisail-
lent le sol. Cependant, le cisaillement des bou-
3,5 3,5
tons nécessite moins de couple que celui des
4 4 lames en raison de la faible surface sollicitée.
Cette tendance dépend tout de même du type
4,5 4,5
z (m) Rotation z (m) Rotation
de sol rencontré. Il ressort que dans les sols mous
a) 5 Rotopercussion
b) 5 Rotopercussion la différence est moins nette. Le signal obtenu
avec la tarière est plus lissé. Ceci peut être expli-
Figure 2.: Comparaison des paramètres de forage en rotation qué par le frottement généré sur l'extérieur de
et rotopercussion
70 Ph. Reiffsteck / Facteur d’influence des paramètres de forage

Il est évident que les résultats issus de la ta- spécifique de forage et l’énergie normalisée ne
rière hélicoïdale continue ne sont pas exploi- donnent pas de relation claire.
tables pour l’exploitation des MWD.
Le choix du type d’outil est donc important et 30 argile
joue un rôle important dans l’étude des enregis- limon
trements de paramètres. Il n’est pas possible pour 25 sable
le moment de mettre au point une relation qui
permettrait de normaliser les énergies en fonction 20
du type d’outil.

qc (MPa)
Indice de Somerton Indice de Somerton
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
0 0

0,5 0,5 10

1 1

1,5 1,5

2 2 0
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
z (m)

2,5 2,5
Rp (s/0,2m)
3 3
Figure 4. : Relation entre qc et la résistance à la pénétration
3,5 3,5 Rp
14 argile
4 4
12 sable
4,5 4,5
Taillant à lame Taillant à bouton grave
Tarrière hélicoïdale continue Tarrière hélicoïdale continue 10
5 5 craie
a) Taillant à bouton
b) Taillant à lame

Figure 3. : Comparaison des paramètres de forage avec diffé-
rents outils (a) massif 1, (b) massif 2













Nous avons cherché à établir des relations entre rapport Rp/qc

les paramètres de forage et certains essais clas- Figure 5. : Histogramme des fréquences
siques de mécanique des sols. Nous nous
sommes appuyés sur les résultats provenant de Les relations entre les paramètres apparaissent
13 sites ayant fait l'objet de reconnaissances dé- de manière plus lisible sur les histogrammes
taillées. Toutefois, tous ne possèdent pas l'en- dressés sur la figure 5. Il semble exister les rela-
semble des méthodes d'essais en place. Ces sites tions suivantes :
balayent la panoplie des textures de sol classique. argile q c  0,00148.R p et q c  0,9.PE VA
La répartition des points en nuages dispersés,
mais avec une certaine fidélité, est visible sur la limon q c  0,0069.R p et qc  1,4. PE VA
figure 4 pour la résistance à la pénétration au
cône en fonction de R p . Le même genre de rela- sable qc  0,0154.R p et qc  8,7. PE VA
tion est obtenu pour PE VA . Malheureuse-
ment, les représentations de la résistance à la pé- craie q c  0,010.R p et q c  1,1.PE VA
nétration au cône en fonction de l’énergie
Ph. Reiffsteck / Facteur d’influence des paramètres de forage 71

Le même genre de relation peut être obtenu si 30 argile

l'on cherche à comparer le nombre SPT et les dif- limon
férents paramètres composés comme la résis- 25 sable
tance à la pénétration (figure 6). La corrélation craie
obtenue entre le nombre SPT et l’énergie spéci- marne

fique de forage et l’énergie normalisée est assez 15

proche respectivement des valeurs proposées par

[14] et [7]. 10

Cela pourrait permettre de proposer (figure 5

7) :

argile NSPT  0,014.R p et NSPT  8.Po VA











rapport Rp/NSPT

limon NSPT  0,025.R p et NSPT  5,5.Po VA Figure 7. : Histogramme des fréquences

sable NSPT  0,019.R p et N SPT  24,5. Po VA Il est possible de représenter le nombre SPT
en fonction de l’énergie spécifique de forage. On
craie NSPT  0,500.R p obtient la relation suivante pour les sables :
SDE  390.NSPT . Relation qui diffère de celles
grave NSPT  0,037.R p
proposées pour les sols sablo-limoneux par [4] :
180 argile
SDE  800.N SPT et par [7] : SDE  1430.N SPT .
Il convient de préciser que les écart-types ob-
140 grave servés sont relativement élevés et que la qualité
craie de ces corrélations ne peut s’améliorer que par la
marne collecte de données supplémentaires et
NSPT (-)

100 l’application d’un mode opératoire robuste per-

80 mettant de canaliser les pratiques ([16] ; [19]).
60 Plusieurs facteurs peuvent influencer les cor-
40 rélations présentées :
20  la non prise en compte de la correction de
0 surface pour le CPT sur certaines données
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 plus ou moins anciennes,
RP (s/0,2m)  les valeurs SPT ont été obtenues avec di-
Figure 6. : Relation entre NSPT et la résistance à la pénétration vers types de matériel (marteau par
Rp exemple) pas toujours connus, donc on ne
compare pas toujours avec la même éner-
gie. De même, on ne tient pas compte de la
contrainte effective verticale. Si toutes les
données étaient ramenées en terme de
(N1)60, de meilleures corrélations seraient
sans doute possibles,
72 Ph. Reiffsteck / Facteur d’influence des paramètres de forage

4 CONCLUSION works: Principles et applications, Proceedings First In-

ternational Conference on Site Characterization, Atlan-
ta, Robertson et Mayne Eds, 1 (1998) 359-364.
On retiendra que l’influence du type d’outil et de [8] Girard H., Morlier P., Puvilland O., Garzon M., The
l’utilisation du marteau n’est pas négligeable digital enpasol method – Exploitation of drilling para-
bien qu’il semble possible d’en faire abstraction meters in civil engineering, Proceeding 39th Canadian
Geotechnical Conference, Ottawa, (1986) 59-68
en les normalisant, tout du moins pour [9] Gui, M.W., Bolton, M.D., Soga, K., Hamelin, J.P, Hass,
l’influence de la percussion qui peut être norma- G, Burgess, N and Butler, A.P. Instrumented borehole
lisée à partir du moment où l’on enregistre drilling using ENPASOL system. 5th International
l’énergie de percussion. Symposium on Field Measurements in Geomechanics,
Singapore, (1999) 577-581.
La corrélation entre les MWD et les essais in [10] Gui M.W., Soga K., Bolton M.D. Hamelin J.P., Instru-
situ laisse présager qu’il est possible d’obtenir mented borehole drilling for subsurface investigation,
des données quantitatives fiables et utilisables Journal of Geotechnical and Environmental Engineer-
pour les études de sols. ing. ASCE, 128(4) (2002) 283-291.
[11] Hamelin J.P., Levallois, J, Pfister, P., Enregistrement
Cette étude nous a donc permis de mettre en des paramètres de forage : nouveaux développements,
évidence la nécessité d'élaborer des documents International symposium on soil and rock investigations
de normalisation adaptés aux diagraphies instan- by in-situ testing, École Nationale des Ponts et Chaus-
tanées. sées, Paris, 1 (1983) 83-88.
[12] Laudansky G., Les diagraphies instantanées sont-elles
la solution pour un modèle géotechnique plus fiable ?,
Master 2 de l’université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI,
[13] Möller B., Bergdahl U., Elmgren K., Soil-rock sound-
ing with MWD – a modern technique to investigate
L'auteur remercie le ministère français du Déve- hard soils and rocks, Proceedings of the 2nd Interna-
loppement durable (MEDTL) pour le finance- tional Conference on Site Characterization (ISC-2),
ment de ces travaux et ses collègues pour leur Porto, 1 (2004) 773-740.
[14] Nishi, K., Suzuki, Y., Sasao, H., Estimation of soil re-
aide dans la réalisation de ce programme : G.
sistance using rotary percussion drill, Proceedings First
Laudansky, J.L. Tacita, G. Desanneaux, E. Haza- International Conference on Site Characterization, At-
Rozier. lanta, Robertson et Mayne Eds, 1 (1998) 393-398.
[15] Pfister P., Drilling Parameter Recording in Soil Engi-
neering. Journal Ground Engineering, 18(3) (1985) 16-
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Géotechnique, Méthode d'essai LCPC, ME79, 2010
[1] Benoît J., Bothner W. A., Escamilla-Casas J., Characte- [17] Somerton A laboratory study of rock breakage by rotary
rization of Fractured-Rock Aquifers Using Drilling Pa- drilling, Petroleum transaction, AIME, 216 (1959) 92-
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2002 Conference, Denver, (2002) [18] Teale R., The concept of specific energy in rock drill-
[2] Bourget M., Rat M., Interprétation semi-automatique ing, International Journal Rock Mechanics and Mining
des enregistrements Des paramètres de forage (son- Science, 2 (1965) 57-73.
deuses hydrauliques en rotation), Revue Française de [19] TC341WG1 Geotechnical investigation and testing —
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[3] Cailleux J.-B., Étude des diagraphies instantanées en 22476-X, CEN, 2010
forage, Rapport des laboratoires, GT12, 1986
[4] Christie K., Introducing new technologies to in situ
geotechnical testing, Heriot-Watt University 5th Year
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Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 73
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Geophysical site characterization of a volcanic

massif with combined surface and borehole seismic
Caractérisation géophysiques du site, d'un massif volcanique
avec la combinaison des méthodes sismiques de surface et celle
réaliser dans un trou de forage
R. Rocha, N. Cruz1, C. Rodrigues
Mota-Engil, Engenharia e Construção S.A., Portugal
F. Almeida
Aveiro University, Aveiro, Portugal
Seismic surface methods are widely recognised has being the most cost effective way of evaluating seismic velocity in large ar-
eas, especially in sedimentary deposits were the soil profile is usually characterized by a seismic velocity increase with depth. In
the case of volcanic massifs, it’s common to have volcanic rock layers enclosed in volcanic sedimentary deposits, and in this
case the isolated use of seismic surface methods can provide multiple models for the same field data. In this paper is going to be
described a case study, of the combined use of various surface and borehole seismic techniques, in the determining of the site P
and S wave seismic velocity profile. The results obtained from this tests, allowed the comparing of results and discussing of the
advantages and limitations in its use.

Les méthodes sismiques de surface sont largement reconnues comme le moyen le plus efficace d’évaluer la vitesse sismique
dans de vastes zones, en particulier dans les dépôts sédimentaires ont le profil du sol est généralement caractérisée par une
augmentation de la vitesse sismiques avec la profondeur. Dans le cas des massifs volcaniques, il est courant d’avoir des couches
de roches volcaniques inclus dans les dépôts sédimentaires, et dans ces cas, l’utilisation isolée des méthodes sismiques de
surface peuvent générer des multiples modèles, pour les mêmes données de terrain. Dans cet article il va être décrit un cas
d’étude, de l’utilisation combinée de différentes techniques sismiques de surface ou réaliser dans un trou de forage, pour la
détermination des profils de vitesse sismique P et S. Les résultats obtenus par ces tests, ont permis la comparaison des ces
résultats et la discussion des avantages et des limitations de l’utilisation de ces méthodes.

Keywords: Volcanic environment, dynamic characterization, seismic refraction, MASW, Crosshole tests

1 INTRODUCTION on the site conditions and project requirements

The most recent advances in geophysical site Even tough borehole (invasive) methods allow
characterization armed geotechnical engineering, determining accurately the velocity profile and
with a large offer of tools to determine in situ P detecting small variations in depth, they involve
and S wave seismic velocity profile [9]. Tradi- a larger cost effort and only allow measurements
tionally surface methods and borehole methods in the near surroundings of the borehole.
have been used to determine subsurface seismic On the other hand, surface methods (non-
profile for geotechnical engineering applications. invasive) are more cost effective, have simpler
The choice of the method to use largely depends field equipment and procedures and allow sam-

Corresponding Author.
74 R. Rocha et al. / Geophysical Site Characterization of a Volcanic Massif

pling larger areas. Nevertheless, some methods ronments, SCPT tests are not a solution due to
are completely blind to velocity reductions with the existence of very stiff layers limiting cone
depth (refraction), are less efficient to shallower penetration.
depths and require a larger processing effort (re- In order to find a cost effective and reliable
flection) and can also present a relatively low way, to determine s-wave velocity profile on an
resolution and in some cases may result in multi- large area situated in a volcanic environment, the
ple models for the same field data (MASW) [5]. authors performed two Crosshole tests (with 23m
In volcanic regions, were soil profile is usu- and 27m depth), and P-wave/S-wave refraction
ally characterized by multiple thin and thick lay- and MASW profile on the surface with the bore-
ers of volcanic sediments and volcanic rock lay- holes positioned on the center. The main idea
ers, the use of isolated seismic surface methods was to use S-waves to determine the velocity and
may not be able to provide reliable data. For this thickness of the shallowest layer, in order to re-
reason borehole methods are preferentially used, fine with this information MASW model, reduc-
since they allow the obtaining of a velocity pro- ing it is uncertainty. Crosshole tests were used
file were all the variations in depth can be deter- for control, since this method is the most reliable
mined. However, having in mind that the vol- way to obtain subsurface S-wave velocities.
canic massifs are characterized by marked
vertical and also horizontal heterogeneities, and
if large areas need to be studied, seismic charac- 3 GEOLOGICAL ENVIROMENT
terization usually presents big cost efforts which
in many cases cannot be supported. The studied area is located in the northern limit
of Angra do Heroísmo (Terceira Island, Azores).
According to the geological map of Terceira,
2 OBJECTIVES (Geological Services of Portugal, 1:50 000), the
area is represented by deposits of the trachytic
The combined use of multiple in situ geotechni- complex, characterized by the presence of fine
cal and geophysical site characterization meth- grained pumice/pyroclastic deposits and trachyt-
ods, to determine mechanical properties of soil ic/andesitic lava flows.
and rock massifs, has been largely used in the At test location level, the boreholes performed
Geotechnical Department of Mota-Engil, S.A. for the Crosshole tests, allowed to differentiate
[4]. In this paper the authors intend to propose a two distinct lithologic horizons. A shallower unit
combined methodology of P-wave and S-wave of pyroclastic deposits mainly composed by:
Seismic Refraction with Multichannel Analyses sands, silts and more rarely clays, varying from
of Surface Waves (MASW) has a way to com- 13.5 m to 19.5 m thickness and overlaying tra-
pensate the limitations of each method on the quytic lava flows. The top of the latter unit is
seismic characterization of a volcanic massif. highly weathered (W5), evolving in depth to
Both S-wave and P-wave seismic refraction moderately to slightly weathered massif (W3-W2,
methods cannot characterize velocity reversal, with RQD varying from 50% to 90 %), as pre-
and thus, whenever there is a seismic profile with sented in Figure 1.
a lower under a higher velocity layer the method
doesn’t work. On the other hand MASW method
may be used to profile S-wave with velocity re- 4 CROSSHOLE TESTS
versal [7], but relying only in MASW data can
generate several models [6]. Although each Although Uphole and Downhole tests were also
available borehole technique is able to character- performed on this site [8], only Crosshole tests
ize accurately subsurface profiles with several results will be treated herein.
velocity reversals [8], the high cost associated to Crosshole tests, were performed as suggested
boreholes execution, limits its application to by ASTM [1]. In the present case, two geotech-
large areas. Also in the case of volcanic envi- nical boreholes with continuous sampling and
R. Rocha et al. / Geophysical Site Characterization of a Volcanic Massif 75

SPT tests and another two auxiliary (4 m apart)

were performed, all cased with 87 mm HDPE
tubes, and then filling with grout the space be-
tween the inner side of the boreholes and the
outer side of the casings. In order to determine
the correct distance between each pair of bore-
holes at the same depth, deviation surveys were
performed. Seismic source was a sparker emit-
ting simultaneously P and SH waves (model BIS-
SH, Geotomographie Inc). The used receiver was
a seven channels borehole geophone (model
BGK7, Geotomographie Inc). S wave data was
recorded with polarity inversion (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Source (left) and receiver (right) used in Crosshole
data acquisition.

Figure 1. Results of the geotechnical boreholes.

Seismic compression and shear wave velocity

profiles, of both Crosshole tests are presented in
Figure 3.
These results illustrate the high heterogeneity
of these materials, were the same lithology (py-
roclastic deposits or traquytic layers) can evi-
dence P and S wave velocities values, varying to
Figure 3. VP and VS results obtained in the Crosshole tests
the double and triple, in short distances. CH1 and CH2.
Also it’s quite clear the existence of both P
and S wave velocity reversal in the profile of
CH2 test.
76 R. Rocha et al. / Geophysical Site Characterization of a Volcanic Massif


The acquisition of both surface wave and P wave

seismic refraction data was performed using the
same resources. To perform S wave refraction
data acquisition, special equipment was used.

5.1 P and S wave seismic refraction data Figure 5. S-wave refraction tomography obtained in SRT1
acquisition and interpretation
In the acquisition of P wave refraction data, an
array of 48 vertical 4.5 Hz geophones, disposed
in line with 1 m spacing, was used. The seismic
source was a sledgehammer and a light weight
aluminum plate fixed to the ground surface. Both
SRT1 and SRT2 were disposed with CH1 and
CH2 in the middle. Another 48 horizontal 28 Hz Figure 6. S-wave refraction tomography obtained in SRT2
geophone line was placed parallel at a distance of
approximately 5 cm from the vertical geophone 5.2 Surface wave data acquisition and
line, to perform S wave data acquisition, using interpretation
the same P-wave sledgehammer to hit laterally a After collecting P-Wave refraction data seismo-
wooden block and create polarized shear waves graph was prepared to obtain surface wave data.
(Figure 4). Data acquisition of both P and S- Record length was enlarged to 1 second, chan-
wave was performed in five shot points loca- nels gain was raised up to 48 dB and sample rate
tions, with 12 m spacing. The field procedure to 0.125 ms. The same source and geophone ar-
followed ASTM [2] procedure. ray of P-wave was used, but in this case posi-
tioned 10 m away from the first geophone.
SurfSeis1.80 software (Kansas Geological
Survey) was used to process MASW data. In
Figure 7 and 8 multichannel records and velocity
spectrums with the best fitting dispersion curves
overlaid are presented.

Figure 4. Details of the P and S wave geophone relative posi-

tioning and of the S-wave source.

P wave first arrival picking was performed di-

rectly, while S-wave first arrival was obtained by
getting together both polarized records obtained
in each shotpoint. Seismic tomography inversion Figure 7. Multichannel record and both velocity spectrum and
dispersion curve, MASW1.
for both P and S-waves was carried out using
Rayfract32 software produced by Intelligent Re- The results of P and S wave seismic refraction
sources Inc. Obtained S-wave seismic refraction tomographies, together with the borehole data,
tomographies are presented in figures 5 and 6. were used as a base for the inverse modeling
process of gathering the best fitting 1D VS layer-
R. Rocha et al. / Geophysical Site Characterization of a Volcanic Massif 77

ing model to each dispersion curve, as shown in obtained directly from seismic refraction tomo-
Figures 9 and 10, with Zmax of 30 m and 20, for graphy SRT1 is consistent with the data ob-
MASW1 and MASW2, respectively. tained, due to the absence of a marked velocity
reversal until its maximum depth. However, P-
wave velocity kept increasing below elevation
149.5m in SRT1, while MASW1 and CH1 re-
vealed convergent results.

Figure 8. Multichannel record and both velocity spectrum and

dispersion curve, MASW2.

Figure 9. VS model obtained for MASW1 with inversion con-

sidering 10 layers.

Figure 11. Projection of VP (right) and VS (left) data obtained

from CH1, SRT1 and MASW1.

Concerning to the deepest layer, MASW1 re-

vealed lower velocities than those obtained in
CH1, which may be due to the heterogeneity in
the volume of soil/rock involved in each method.
On its turn, Crosshole data obtained in CH2
location show a highly marked P-wave and
slightly marked S-wave velocity reversal located
at 8 m depth (elevation 145m). At this depth
Figure 10. VS model obtained for MASW2 with inversion
considering 10 layers.
range both MASW2 and SRT2 exhibited lower
velocities than CH2, either in P or S waves.
Again, these divergences could be related to het-
erogeneity in the soil/rock mass volume involved
in each method. Another explanation may arise
from the different influence induced by the bore-
In figures 11 and 12, P and S velocity profiles
hole preparation (grout concentrations), or to dif-
obtained from each method are plotted. MASW1
ferences in material level of compaction.
results for P and S wave are very close to those
obtained from CH1. In this location even VS data
78 R. Rocha et al. / Geophysical Site Characterization of a Volcanic Massif

of investigation depths, when compared to tradi-

tional seismic refraction tomographies. The prob-
lems of non-uniqueness of solutions may be
largely reduced with the combination of multiple
surface methods. In highly heterogeneous envi-
ronments, such as the case presented on this pa-
per, the combined acquisition of several surface
seismic techniques can be a way to reduce uncer-
tainty and more cost effectiveness characterizing
larger areas. It is important to remind that, even
when using several non destructive techniques
it’s always an advantage to have more geological
and geotechnical data (mechanical boreholes, in
situ tests) to support geophysical data, and help
to reduce the referred non-uniqueness of solu-


Figure 12. Projection of VP (right) and VS (left) data obtained [1] ASTM D4428/D4428M-0, Standard Test Methods for
from CH2, SRT2 and MASW2. Crosshole Seismic Testing, ASTM International, West
Conshohocken, 2007.
Within 10 and 17m depth, both VP and VS da- [2] ASTM D5777 - 00, Standard Guide for Using the
ta of MASW2 are consistent with CH2. From Seismic Refraction Method for Subsurface Investiga-
tion, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2006.
this depth on, VS of MASW2 is slightly lower [3] Anderson, N., Croxton, N., Hoover, R., Sirles P., Geo-
and VP higher than those obtained from CH2. physical Methods Commonly Employed for Geotechni-
This can have several explanation such as, high cal Site Characterization, Transportation Research
variability of the soils/rocks mechanical proper- Board, Washington, D.C., 2008.
[4] Cruz, N.; Tareco, H; Rocha, R.; Andrade, R. e Cruz, J.,
ties (vertical and horizontal heterogeneity), dif- Caracterização Mecânica de Maciços Rochosos com
ferences in the characteristics of each methodol- Base na Combinação de Prospecção Mecânica e
ogy (volume of soil/rock mass involved in the Geofísica. IV Congresso Luso-Brasileiro de Geotecnia,
measurements) and also disturbance induced by Coimbra, (2008), 423-430. (In Portuguese).
[5] Dal Moro, G., Tre divagazioni: Il mito dell’ inversione.
the test preparation (borehole techniques). MASW in Friuli, esemplio di studio congiunto MASW-
Rifrazione, Centro Internazionale di Scienze
Meccaniche (CISM), Udine, 2008. (In Italian).
7 CONCLUSIONS [6] Ivanov, J., Miller R.D., Xia, J. And Steeples, D., The
Inverse Problem of Refraction Traveltimes, Part 1:
The combined acquisition, of both refraction (P Types of Geophysical Nonuniqueness Trough Minimi-
zation, Pure And Applied Geophysics, 2005.
and S) and surface wave data, proved to be use- [7] Park, C. B., Miller, R. D., and Xia, J., Multichannel
ful when compared to the isolated acquisition of Analysis of Surface Waves, Geophysics, (1999), 800-
any of the referred non-invasive methods, both 808.
for interpretation and cost reasons. In fact, instal- [8] Rocha, R., Cruz, N., Almeida, F., Rodrigues C., Cruz,
J., Comparison Between Crosshole, Downhole and Up-
lation of equipments for collecting P-wave ve- hole in Volcanic Massifs, XI Cong. Nacional de
locities can be also used for MASW surveys. Geotecnia, Guimarães, (2008), 101-108. (In
Moreover, with specific S-wave equipments it’s Portuguese).
possible to obtain S-wave refraction data to- [9] Stokoe, K.H. II, John S. and Woods R. D. Some contri-
butions of the in situ geophysical measurements to solv-
gether, allowing for much more useful informa- ing geotechnical engineering problems. Proc of the 2nd
tion at a lower cost. In the first place, MASW International Conference on Geotechnical Site Charac-
method proved to be very useful in the increasing terization. Porto, 2004.
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 79
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Investigation of interdependence of map and dis-

tract represented on it at engineering – geological
researches in construction
L’investigation de l'interdépendance de la carte et la localité
représenté sur elle aux reconnaissance du sol de fondation dans
la construction
V.S. Shokarev1, A.S. Shokarev
Scientific – research institute of building constructions, Zaporozhye, Ukraine
A.K Solonetz
CJS CrimeaSROProject, Sevastopol, Ukraine
A. Zhusupbekov
L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Astan, Kazakhstan

The revealing technique for detecting fractured zones in rocky }djxu`{ is developed. Scheduled positions of fractured zones
marked on map and directly on locality, determined with use of biolocation effect, were identical. Results, which were received
with use of biolocation methods, have confirmed with devices, geophysical researches and scientific experimental works on ce-
mentation detected of fractured zones

Une méthode de découverte des zones rompus craquelées dans une base d’une construit maison d’un centre culturel-touristique
a Zaporigia a ete développée. Avec une utilisation d’un effet bio-localise, les positions planifiées determines de zones rompus et
craquelées sur une carte et directement sur une localité, s’est trouve identique. Les résultats obtenus avec une utilisation des
méthodes bio-localises sont confirmés par un complexe de recherches géophysiques et engineerings et par travaux naturels
expérimentaux en une cimentation de zones rompus craquelées observées.

Keywords: soil-cement, drill-mixing technology, physical and mechanical properties, time of mixture setting, impermeability,
grout curtain, reinforcing the soil massif.

1 INTRODUCTION ple, at diagnostics, search, treatment of the per-

son on distance using image (photo). Such image
Earlier executed researches have shown that each can be protoplast reproduced in brain of the prac-
line, the letter, figure, photo, etc. radiate a physi- ticed person [1, 2].
cal field. Identical or geometrically similar im- Biolocation effect is used for the decision of
ages are united in system inside which all objects similar tasks. Biolocation effect is the act of ra-
connected among themselves by physical beams diation acceptance by men and its indication as
[1]. The given phenomenon is widely distributed formation of ideomotor act causing turn of
in the nature and used by the person, for exam- framework or fluctuation of pendulum, etc. The

Corresponding Author.
80 V.S. Shokarev et al. / Investigation of Interdependence of Map and Distract Represented on It

Phenomenon of the given effect has not satisfac- The complex engineering - geophysical re-
tory theoretical substantiation but there are many searches of fracturing estimation of the given
concepts of work of indicators of effect (a pendu- rocky massif were executed in February …
lum, a framework, a rod, etc.) [3]. The method March 2007 by Zaporozhye branch NIISK. The
based on use of biolocation effect is biolocation primary goal of work was the estimation of frac-
and it is applied for the decision of various tasks turing estimation of rocky massif and elements
including search of deposits and geological map- of an engineering - geological structure of site
ping [4]. taking into account probable natural and tech-
The purpose of the present work is to show an nogenic components.
opportunity of use of biolocation method at work The complex of works including three stages
with a topographical basis, for the decision of has been executed for the decision of tasks.
tasks connected with engineering - geological re- The first stage included performance of engi-
searches in construction. neering - geophysical researches of fracturing es-
timation of rocky massif [5] (fig. 1): remote bio-
location researches on map (a topographical
2 BRIEF CHARACTERISTIC OF INVESTI- basis); direct biolocation researches on locality;
GATION SITE AND TECHNIQUE OF electroprospecting works on locality by method
WORKS PERFORMANCE AND TECH- of vertical sounding (VES); works on locality
NIQUE OF WORKS PERFORMANCE with use of method of passive magnetic- reso-
nant location of subsoil (PMRLS);
The investigation site is located in the central The second stage included experimental re-
part of Zaporozhye on the left coast of Dnepr searches of cracked zones: development of the
valley; this is excavation in rocky massif in project of cementation of the top part of zone
length up to 100m and width up to 30m. The site with increased fracturing of rocky massif [6];
from the north is limited by Tbilisi Street and performance of cementing works on tested site;
from the south borders with the artificial lake lo- cementation of rocky massif; quality assurance
cated on a place of former building quarry with of performance of cementation by direct bioloca-
the water table close to a water level in Dnepr. tion method; additional cementation of rocky
Difference of marks between a water level in massif by results of quality assurance of the exe-
lake and a mark of bottom of excavation makes cuted cementation.
~14m. It is planned to construct a cultural - tour- The third stage included quality assurance of
ist complex on the given site. cementation of cracked zones by carrying out of
seismic prospecting works [7].

Figure 1. The circuit of an arrangement of cracked zones, points of sounding and cementing boreholes on platform of construc-
tion of the cultural - tourist complex in Zaporozhye: I- cracked zones determined with the help of remote and direct biolocation
methods; II-points of electric sounding; III-points of magnetic- resonant sounding; IV-cementing boreholes; V-ledge of quarry;
VI-border of zone with increased fracturing of rocky massif which formed at development of quarry.
V.S. Shokarev et al. / Investigation of Interdependence of Map and Distract Represented on It 81

framework of the š-shaped form was the indica-

tor of effect. The revealed contours of cracked
3 ENGINEERING - GEOPHYSICAL RE- zones were rendered by paint on a surface of
SEARCHES BY FRACTURING ESTIMA- massif. The operator spent 4 hours on revealing
TION OF THE ROCKY MASSIF of cracked zones. Contours of cracked zones and
their scheduled positions which determined by
direct and remote biolocation methods were
3.1 Remote biolocation researches completely identical (fig. 1).
Remote biolocation researches were carried out 3.3 Engineering - geophysical researches
in the building of Zaporozhye branch NIISK to
the address Zaporozhye, Novostroyek 4 Street, The complex of engineering - geophysical works
located on distance 8km from the platform of re- has been executed for the decision of tasks [5]
searches. The topographical survey of site in including:
scale 1:250 was as the basis for performance of x Electroprospecting works by method of
work. The purpose of works was revealing of vertical electric sounding (VES);
cracked zones on topographical survey and draw- x Works by method of passive magnetic- re-
ing of their scheduled arrangement on survey. sonant location of subsoil (PMRLS);
The pendulum of drop-shaped form executed
from rock crystal and suspended on a string in Electric sounding was carried out with use of
length 13 … 14sm was as the indicator of effect. the complete set of the electroprospecting
The technique of work with a pendulum con- equipment of low frequency ELF – 3. Thus the
sists in the following. The operator having taken apparent resistance was measured on earth sur-
in hands a pendulum brings it to a place of re- face at gradual increase of researches depth due
search on map. A method of inquiry receives all to consecutive increase in length of power line
necessary information up to 50m. Works were carried out by symmetric
“Is it cracked zone?” - The pendulum an- Schlumberge installation at maximal spacing of
swers: "No", vibration for example counter- power line above 50m and a receive line 1,0m.
clockwise. The general number of VES points were 19 (fig.
“Is it cracked zone?” - The pendulum an- 1), at a step 7 … 16m and depth of researches up
swers: "Yes", vibration for example clockwise. to 15m. The relative error of individual meas-
Realization of this technique has allowed to urement on VES point did not exceed +\- 5 %.
reveal all existing cracked zones, to define their The received results of electroprospecting
width and length, and to put these zones on a to- works were interpreted in two stages.
pographical basis (fig. 1). Revealed cracked The analysis of VES curves was made at the
zones was located under a corner to a slope; zone first stage of interpretation, qualitative, specific
of increased fracturing which formed at devel- electric resistance (SER) was defined in charac-
opment of quarry with use of explosion energy of teristic points. Basically SER of layers depends
deep charges of explosive was located in parallel on uniformity, a degree of fracturing, minera-
to ledge. logical structure of hollows filling and other pa-
The operator spent 3 hours on remote bioloca- rameters. Presence of humidified filling in frac-
tion researches. turing granitoids results in decrease of SER of
soil and absence of filling - to higher values of
3.2 Direct biolocation researches SER. The second stage of interpretation, quanti-
tative, was characterized by data acquisition
Direct biolocation researches were carried out by
about capacity of layers and their specific elec-
the same operator directly on a platform of re-
tric resistance. The software package of interpre-
searches by the traditional technique [3]. The
82 V.S. Shokarev et al. / Investigation of Interdependence of Map and Distract Represented on It

tation of VES curves was applied to realization ings was executed in not fracturing blocks for
of the second stage in an interactive mode with studying density of granites outside of fractured
the image of interpretive curves on the screen. zones. The arrangement of points of sounding is
The received data of capacities of layers and shown on fig. 1. Results of soundings are pre-
their specific electric resistance were used for sented on schedules of change of density of gran-
construction of geoelectric profiles (fig. 2). ites on depth (fig. 3). Measurements of granite
density were carried out with step 10sm along a
vertical axis at sounding. Thus, according to used
of PMRLS technology, each executed indication
characterizes average density of granite in vol-
ume of the cylinder in diameter 10sm and height
6sm, i.e., if emptiness had been met more than
this size, indication would be zero.

Figure 2. The Geoelectric profile on line -: 1 – VES point

and its number; 2 - SER value of layer in ohm, m; 3 - depth
of geoelectric border in meters; 4 - stratum disagreement of
geoelectric borders.

Deep sounding on technology of PMRLS si-

milarly to standard logging of boreholes allows
to study geological profile in vertical measure-
ment with the help of a measuring complex that
allows to make direct definitions of structure and
the contents of substance [8]. Results of such
soundings are represented as schedules of mass
fractions of the given substance in mass unit of
all soil. The resonant frequency of investigated
substance and conformity of intensity of a meas-
ured signal in accepted units to the contents of
substance is defined for this purpose on artificial
models. The calibration tests are executed for big
amounts of substances and experimental depend- Figure 3. Change of soil density on depth with the data fixed
by method of passive magnetic- resonant location of subsoil
ences of signal strength on the given frequency (PMRLS): `) - point 2; b) point 4; c) - point 6.
from the contents of researched substance were
received. The granites density changes within 2,22-
Deep sounding were carried out on a platform 2,76g/sm3 at average values of 2,49-2,53g/sm3
of researches for studying capacity and condi- according to data of soundings outside of
tions of fractured zones in profile, studying of cracked zones. Constant and unweathered gran-
density change of granites on depth in natural lo- ites have density of 2,58-2,61g/sm3. Their den-
cation. It was 10 sounding up to depth 50m. The sity reduces to 2,2g/sm3 at weathering. Their
points of sounding settled down close to sutural density increases as a result of secondary miner-
line of fracture in its trailing wing for undercut- alization and increase dark-coloured minerals in
ting of fractured zones in profile and studying of structure of granite (migmatites). Therefore the
their conditions of location. The part of sound-
V.S. Shokarev et al. / Investigation of Interdependence of Map and Distract Represented on It 83

presented limits of change of soils density on significant capacity of crushed stone soils in the
PMRLS data in rather monolithic blocks of base of the projected center. Tampons for cemen-
building site are natural and characterize on the tation of boreholes were established directly in
one hand degree of weathering of massif and on concrete preparation.
the other hand – its initial mineralogical hetero- Works of rocky massif fastening were carried
geneity. out in the following sequence:
The granites density changes within 1,80-
2,74g/sm3, at average values of 2,28-2,34g/sm3 A. Preparatory works.
in fractured zones. The change of granites den- x Breakdown and binding of cemented bore-
sity looks as a sawtooth curve with often changes holes (fig. 1);
of the minimal and maximal values of density in x Installation of the process equipment and dis-
fractured zones on schedules of soundings. The tributing of pipelines;
position of fractured zones on schedules is B. Bored works.
shown by additional shading for presentation. x Boring of boreholes ‡ 105mm in depth
Executed instrument geophysical researches 8…11m;
have proved the correctness of drawing of frac- x Boring was carried out with blow of bore-
tured zones on map with use of remote bioloca- holes for removal of sludge with the subse-
tion methods. The specific electric resistance of quent washing by water;
granite is less (110 … 200 Ohm, m) in VES C. Hydraulic sampling.
points located directly in fractured zones, for ex- x serviceability and tightness of cemented sys-
ample ’’ 1,8 … 10, than in points ’’ 4, 5 tem was checked by forcing of water in bore-
(700 … 800 Ohm, m) where fractured zones holes after installation of a tampon in bore-
have not been fixed (fig. 2). hole;
If density of granite changes within1,8 … x Hydraulic sampling was made at pressure
2,74g/sm3 (points PMRLS ’’ 1, 2, 6, 7, 10) in 0.3MPa;
cracked zones, density of granite changes within
x Specific water absorption of rocky soils was
2,22 … 2,76g/sm3 (points PMRLS ’’ 4, 5, 8,
determined by results of sampling;
9) in uncracked zones (fig. 3).
D. Cementation of boreholes.
x The forcing of cement mortal was made by
mortar pump with adjustable drive;
x Cementation of boreholes was carried out by
cement mortal with application of portland
slag cement of 400 mark;
The project of cementation of rocky massif was
x Preparation of mortal was carried out in
developed on the basis of the executed re-
working unit by mixing cement with water
searches [6]. The given project provided fasten-
before reception of homogeneous weight, the
ing of rocky massif by reinforced cementation of
mortal were mixed before receipt in borehole;
granites in fractured zones. Cemented boreholes
were located directly in fractured zones (fig. 1). x Cementation of boreholes was made with the
Works of rocky massif fastening were made following scale of change of the contents of
by Open Company “ZB Hydrospecstroy” from cement in the water-cement relation: 4; 1,33;
July, 25 till September, 5 in 2007, from bottom 0,8; 0,57;
of excavation. x The decrease of the mortal charge to
The work of excavation preparation was be- 5l/minutes at pressure 0,3MPa was accepted
fore cementation of fractured zones which pro- for refusal of mortal absorption.
viding crop of loessial soils, removal of top part
of bark of granite weathering (a disperse zone), Tested cementation was preceded to cementa-
the device of lean concrete. Thickness of lean tion of massif. The tested site settled down in
concrete makes 0,2 … 1,5m. It is connected to axes « 1 … 3 » lines “A...G” (fig. 1). The absorp-
84 V.S. Shokarev et al. / Investigation of Interdependence of Map and Distract Represented on It

tion of cement mortal was insignificant (60l, 20l) CONCLUSIONS

at the maximal charge in 10l/minutes at cementa-
tion of boreholes ’’ 4, 12, located outside of 1. The executed complex of prospecting
fractured zones. The absorption has made 320 … works including remote (on map) and direct (on
546l at the maximal charge 24l in one minute at district) biolocation researches and also electro-
boring of boreholes ’’ 6, 7, 15 in fractured prospecting works by method of vertical electric
zones. sounding, works by method of passive magnetic-
The further cementation of massif was made resonant location of subsoil, cementation of frac-
under the project [6]. Absorption of mortal in bo- tured zones have allowed to establish interde-
reholes was 1000 … 200l at pressure 0,5 … 3,0 pendence of map and the district represented on
atmospheres. it (fig.4).
93 cemented boreholes were bored in the base 2. Remote biolocation method demands the
of the cultural - tourist center at fastening of further development, first of all its theoretical
rocky massif (fig.1). substantiation, and also development of require-
ments to operators who makes the given kind of
Quality assurance of the executed cementation of
the rocky massif was carried out by its seismic [1] Veinik A.I.Thermodynamics of real processes: Mn: Sci-
translucence. 24 - Channel computerized digital ence and technics, 1991. – p. 385-386.
[2] Serdjuk A.A. Deep medicine. Ecology of human body -
seismic station “Laccolite 24 M-2” was used as Donetsk: Nord-pres, 2008. – 284p.
registered equipment. Researches were carried [3] Sochevanov N.N., Stechenko V.S., Chekunov A.Y. Use
out on two structures. The length of arrangement of biolocation method at searches of deposits and geo-
has made 46 meters; a step is 2 meters between logical mapping. - M.: Radio and communication, 1984.
– 56p.
geophones. [4] Puccko L.G.Biolocation for all. - M.: ANS, 2002. –
The analysis of the given geophysical meas- 202p.
urements has shown that the base of builded cul- [5] The report about engineering - geophysical researches
tural - tourist complex is quasi-homogeneous af- according to object « Engineering - geophysical re-
searches by estimation of fracturing of rocky massif on
ter cemented works i.e. zones of fracturing are the site of construction of a cultural - tourist complex on
absent [7]. Tbilisi Street in Zaporozhye », Zaporozhye branch
NIISK, 2007.-48p.
[6] The work design “Cementation of rocky massif in the
base of building of a cultural - tourist complex on Tbilisi
Street in Zaporozhye ». The code 328-1218/07-C_, Za-
porozhye branch NIISK, 2007. – 6p.
[7] The conclusion about results of rocky massif fastening
on the site of construction of a cultural - tourist complex
on Tbilisi Street in Zaporozhye, Zaporozhye branch
NIISK, 2007. – 70p.
[8] Susin O.A., Novik N.N., Shokarev A.S. PMRAM tech-
nology applied to evaluate the geoenvironment pollution
and density when geo-engineering problems are solved //
XIII European conference on soil mechanics and geo-
technical “Geotechnical problems with mam-made and
man influenced grounds”.- Vol.-Praha: The Czech Geo-
technical Society CICE.-2003.-p.481-484.
Figure 4. Work of the operator at remote biolocation re-
searches fractured zone a rocky file on a card (a topographi-
cal basis).
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 85
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Stabilization of gravel deposits using

La stabilisation des dépôts de gravier à l'aide des micro-
W.R.L. van der Star1 & W.K. van Wijngaarden-van Rossum
Deltares, Geo-Engineering, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, NL
L.A. van Paassen
Delft University of Technology, Geotechnology, P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, NL.
L.R. van Baalen
Visser & Smit Hanab, P.O. Box 305, 3350 AH, Papendrecht, NL
G. van Zwieten
Volker Staal en Funderingen, P.O. Box 54548 3008 KA Rotterdam, NL
One of the techniques used for the construction of underground infrastructure is horizontal directional drilling
(HDD). This trenchless method is complicated when crossing gravel deposits as a borehole in coarse gravel tends
to collapse, causing the drill pipe to get stuck or the failure of installation of the product pipeline due to exceeding
pull forces. In order to find a solution for the problem of borehole instability, the Biogrout process was adapted for
borehole stabilization in gravel. In the Biogrout process, loose sand is converted into sandstone by injection of a
dedicated mixture in the underground, which stimulates micro-organisms to catalyze chemical reactions leading to
the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals. These crystals form ‘bridges’ between the grains, increas-
ing the strength and stiffness of the material. After a first successful test on lab scale in 2008 in which gravel was
cemented, a 3 m3 container was treated after which a hole successfully was drilled through it using HDD equip-
ment. Following the success of this container test, two field applications were performed as part of the installation
of two 48 inch steel gas pipelines with a length of 600 and 900 meter near Nijmegen NL. During these field appli-
cations twice a volume of 1.000 m3 gravel was stabilized in only 7 days each time using the Biogrout technique,
after which a HDD was performed successfully.

Une des techniques utilisées pour la construction de l'infrastructure souterraine est le forage horizontal dirigé
(FHD). Cette méthode sans tranchée est compliquée lors du franchissement des dépôts gravier que le fluide de
forage débusque due à une plus grande perméabilité et l'absence de formation de gâteau de filtration. A cause de
l’effondrement du trou de forage, la tige de forage peut se coincer et l'installation de la canalisation peut échouer
en raison du dépassement des forces de traction. Pour trouver une solution pour le problème de l'instabilité de
forage, le processus Biogrout a (spécialement) été adapté pour la stabilisation de forage dans le gravier. Dans le
processus Biogrout, le sable est transformé en grès par l’injection d'un mélange dédié dans le souterrain, ce qui
stimule les micro-organismes afin de catalyser les réactions chimiques conduisant à la précipitation des cristaux
de carbonate de calcium (CaCO3). Ces cristaux forment des «ponts» entre les grains, augmentant la résistance et la
rigidité du matériau. Après un premier test réussi sur l'échelle dans le laboratoire en 2008 dans lequel le gravier a
été cimenté, un conteneur de 3 m3 a été cimenté après lequel un trou a été foré avec succès à l'aide de l’équipement
FHD. Après le succès de cet essai, deux applications sur le terrain ont été effectuées de 600 et 900 mètres dans le
cadre de l'installation d'un gazoduc près de Nimègue NL. Au cours du test sur le terrain, un volume de 1.000 m3 de
gravier a été stabilisée en utilisant la technique Biogrout après quoi un FHD a été effectuée avec succès.

Corresponding Author.
86 W.R.L. van der Star et al. / Stabilization of Gravel Deposits Using Microorganisms

Keywords: Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD), Biogrout process, in situ cementation, biological methods, gravel

1 INTRODUCTION jected in the soil after introduction of a suspen-

sion of the naturally occurring soil bacterium
Horizontal Directional Drilling is a method for Sporosarcina pasteurii [2,3]. This bacterium is
trenchless and steerable installation of under- capable of hydrolysis of urea into carbonate
ground pipelines. It enables passage with mini- (CO32-) and ammonium:
mal disturbance of the surrounding areas and/or
where application of continuous trenches is im- CO(NH2)2 + 2H2O › CO32- + 2NH4+
possible or unpractical (Harke Willoughby,
2005). Since the seventies this techniques has The produced carbonate precipitates with the
been used to install pipelines and cables under calcium ions to form calcium carbonate
rivers, canals and major roads. It is applied both
in rocks and in soils composed of porous mate- Ca2+ + CO32- œ CaCO3(s)
rial. When applied in the latter, the stability of
the bore hole after drilling is maintained by a This precipitation leads to an increase in com-
viscous and high density drilling fluid (i.e. con- pressive strength, stiffness and tensile strength.
taining bentonite or xanthane) which aids in sta- The method has been scaled up from 1 L scale in
bilization of the bore hole during the initial 2004 to 100 m3 scale in 2008 [4]. In sandy soils,
smaller (pilot) drilling and the reaming phase of prevention of internal erosion is one of the envi-
the hole to the final diameter, enabling product sioned applications [5,6].
pipeline passage. The method however is notori-
ously problematic when drilling in gravel, since
coarse gravel tends to collapse, causing the drill
pipe to get stuck or the failure of installation of
the product pipeline due to exceeding pull forces.

In this paper we describe the adjustment of bio-

logical sand-strengthening method –the Biogrout
process– as an alternative procedure for the
achievement of bore hole stability in gravel. Af-
ter evaluation of proof of principal, the method
was optimized for application of the crossing of Figure 1 Cementation of 100 m3 sand with the Biogrout
gravel deposits near a river in the Netherlands. process [4].
The procedure was applied in practice prior to
the crossing of two 48 inch steel gas pipelines
with a length of 600 and 900 meter under the 3 BIOGROUT FOR GRAVEL: PROOF OF
river Waal in Summer 2010. PRINCIPLE

2 THE BIOGROUT PROCESS FOR SAND 3.1 Laboratory tests

It was not immediately evident whether the Bio-
The Biogrout process has been developed as a grout process could be adapted for application in
method to strengthen sand through in situ pre- gravel as well. With much less contact points be-
cipitation of calcium carbonate. In the form most tween the individual grains than sand, it was un-
employed, a calcium chloride/urea mixture is in-
W.R.L. van der Star et al. / Stabilization of Gravel Deposits Using Microorganisms 87

clear to what extent calcite precipitation would uniform medium-grained gravel (D50=10 mm,
aid the strength. A preliminary laboratory pro- originating from the Moese river near Maastricht
gram was therefore executed in which 18 kg of (NL)) and the second one containing the same
gravel was treated with the Biogrout process in gravel, mixed with coarse gravel (D50=40 mm).
wooden boxes. After placement of one pore vol- as well as with cobble stones up to 300 mm. The
ume bacteria and subsequent fixation with tests were performed in Papendrecht (NL) using
50 mM calcium chloride, five respectively nine the same on site produced bacteria and cementa-
treatments with 1 mol/L urea/calcium chloride tion solutions as in the 100 m3 sand cementation
solution (the cementation solution) were applied tests performed on the same site [4].
to induce calcium carbonate precipitation. In the
test with nine flushes of the cementation solu-
tion, a second batch of bacterial suspension was
added after the first five treatments with
urea/calcium chloride mixture. In addition, the
test with five treatments of cementation fluid was
also performed in a system where the gravel was
mixed with 1.5 kg coarse sand. After treatment,
the boxes were opened on one side and visually
inspected (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Gravel after application of the Biogrout process for

five (left and middle) and nine (right) flushes. The box in the Figure 3 Drilling tests in a 3 m3 cemented gravel container.
middle also contained 7% sand.
Finally, the containers were put in front of a 100
Calcium carbonate precipitation was visible as ton drilling rig, which drilled through the entire
a white precipitate on the gravel. It was more containers using a 97/8” tri-cone rollerbit. This
abundant on top of the gravel particles than be- resulted in a stable bore hole inside both contain-
low it, indicating that reaction had taken place ers (Figure 3).
mainly within the pore space and the formed cal-
cium carbonate had sedimented by gravity on the
gravel particles. The cemented gravel was strong 4 FIELD APPLICATION
enough to keep its form for several months after
draining of the water and removal of one side (as The tests performed at 3 m3 constituted suffi-
is shown in Figure 2). The absence of a flat top cient proof of principle for the application of the
surface and the strong cementation in the bottom Biogrout process in gravel to proceed with the
rendered the parts however unsuitable for uncon- design and application in the field.
fined compressive strength (UCS) tests.
4.1 Optimization tests
3.2 “Container test”
The number of flushes used for the cementa-
The procedure was subsequently tested on tion is directly correlated to the amount of cal-
3 m3 scale. In this test, two containers were filled cium carbonate precipitation, and therefore to the
with gravel. The first container was filled with a
88 W.R.L. van der Star et al. / Stabilization of Gravel Deposits Using Microorganisms

increase in strength and stiffness. Operationally

it is however also correlated to mobilization time
as well as materials and operational cost. Fur-
thermore, a too much cemented system will lead
to extra power required during drilling, which is
not desirable. It is therefore important to find the
minimum amount of cementation that will lead
to a stable borehole. To that effect tests were per-
formed in boxes with circa 8 kg gravel treated
with only one or two flushes cementation solu-
4 flush
tion at concentrations of 0.7 and 1 mol/L. Also in 30

these tests cementation could be observed. 25

Shear stress [kPa]

3 flush

20 2 flush
1 flush


0 5 10 15 20 25
Displacement [mm]

Figure 5 Shear-box tests of Biogrouted gravel (top) treated

with various amounts of cementation solution resulted in in-
creased maximum shear stress (bottom).
Figure 4 Gravel treated with one or two flushes of
urea/calcium chloride in optimization tests.
4.3 Mathematical modelling
4.2 Shear box tests Another optimization method was the design of
In order to assess whether a physical effect of the liquid injection and extraction system. The
a low number of flushes with cementation solu- form of the treated area could not be estimated
tion was quantifiable, test boxes of 7 kg were straightforwardly using Darcy’s law analytically
produced (similar to those described in 4.1) with because of the threedimensional grid of injection
1, 2, 3 or 4 flushes. After cutting (only the and extraction wells and the potential of gravity
wooden box, Figure 5, top), a shear test was per- driven flow due to the higher density of the in-
formed at a displacement rate of 1 mm/min. The jected solution (circa 1050 kg/m3) compared to
resulting shear stresses were higher with increas- the surrounding groundwater. Mathematical
ing number of flushes, although the residual modeling was used to evaluate how different in-
shear stress seemed to be similar. None-treated jection/extraction strategies and geometries con-
gravel resulted in a lower maximum shear stress tributed to the shape of the area where cementa-
showing the effect of the process (details in [7]). tion took place (Figure 6).
W.R.L. van der Star et al. / Stabilization of Gravel Deposits Using Microorganisms 89

4.5 Biogrout procedure and HDD

At two different locations along the river Waal, a
volume of circa 1000 m3 was treated with the
Biogrout process. In these areas, a single flush of
bacteria solution was followed by a single flush
6h 12
A h of cementation solution. The bacteria suspension
(Sporosarcina pasteurii DSM33) was obtained
from a commercial supplier, as were brines of
urea and calcium chloride, which were diluted
and mixed on site using a concrete mixer. Injec-
tion took place in several injection wells, in-
16 h 24 h stalled directly above the projected pathway of
the pipeline (Figure 8). Extraction wells were
Figure 6 2D model of the treated area during 24 hours. Injec- placed lower and to the sides. The extraction
tion took place at the top and the extraction was performed wells were placed for two reasons:
using the extraction wells placed below the injection wells to x to direct the flow most efficiently –and
both sides.
thus economically– to the location
where the Biogrout process should take
4.4 Site description of field application
place, and
The HDDs at which the Biogrout process was x to remove the residual product of the
applied were part of the construction of a 48” process: ammonium chloride.
steel gas pipeline in the east of the Netherlands The removal of the residual product was
from Groningen to Maastricht (north-south achieved by extracting 3 days longer than the
route). The gas pipeline is part of a program of time needed for the injection of the cementation
Gasunie which will improve the capability of the solution and by extraction at higher flow rates.
Dutch transmission network to increase gas ex- The extracted water was sent directly to the local
port at several border crossings. At Beunin- wastewater treatment plant, which was able to
gen/Slijk Ewijk (near Nijmegen), the river Waal take the water in its normal operation without
is crossed by means of HDD and when descend- further treatment or buffering. The total time in-
ing during that crossing, several gravel lenses or volved in stabilizing the gravel layers at one site
layers needed to be crossed. At this area these took about 7 days.
gravel layers were improved with the Biogrout
process after which the HDD was executed.

Figure 8 Application of the Biogrout process prior to the

HDD: A) the field with injection (middle) and extraction
wells; B) mobilization of tanks for calcium chloride, urea and
mixing equipment; C) monitoring of the effluent prior to
Figure 7 Location of the Biogrouted areas (continuous lines) sending to the wastewater treatment; D) An injec-
to enable passing of the river Waal (dashed line). tion/monitoring well.
90 W.R.L. van der Star et al. / Stabilization of Gravel Deposits Using Microorganisms

During drilling and reaming of both HDDs the 5 CONCLUSIONS

gravel turned out to be stable and the installation
of the two 48-inch gas pipelines using a 450 ton With the successful application of the Biogrout
drilling rig were both successful with no prob- process to achieve bore hole stability in gravel,
lems encountered in the gravel areas (Figure 9). the biocementation process has for the first time
been applied in practice. The application is a
suitable risk-reducing measure when drilling flu-
ids are not expected to be able to stabilize the
bore hole due to high permeability/no filter cak-
ing. Operational and regulatory requirements
could be met by extracting the injected liquids
followed by treatment. The Biogrout applications
have contributed to a controlled crossing of the
river Waal of the North South Route gas line.


The authors wish to thank M. Harkes, M. Blauw,

M. Woning (Deltares), Arno Mulder and Werner
van Hemert (Delft University of Technology) for
their involvement during the laboratory and re-
search stage of the program; as well as all per-
sonnel of VSF/VSH which assisted during per-
formance of the Biogrout process on full scale.


[1] D. Harke Willoughby. 2005. Horizontal Directional

Drilling. McGraw-Hill, New York (U.S.).
[2] V.S. Whiffin, L.A. van Paassen and M.P. Harkes. 2007.
Microbial Carbonate Precipitation as a Soil
Improvement Technique. Geomicrobiol J 24(5): 417-
[3] J.T. de Jong, M.B. Fritzges and K. Nusslein. 2006. Mi-
crobially Induced Cementation to Control Sand Re-
sponse to Undrained Shear. J Geotech Geoenv Eng.
132(11): 1381-1392.
[4] L.A. van Paassen, R. Ghose, T.J.M. van der Linden,
W.R.L. van der Star and M.C.M. van Loosdrecht
MCM. 2010. Quantifying Biomediated Ground Im-
provement by Ureolysis: Large-Scale Biogrout Experi-
ment. J Geotech Geoenv Eng. 136(12): 1721-1728
[5] M. Van, M. Blauw, N. Benhamed, P. Philippe. 2011.
Preventing Internal Erosion Phenomena by Means of
Figure 9 Installation of the 600 m 48-inch gas pipeline (bot- Biogrout. This conference.
tom), using a 60-inch flycutter and 48-inch barrel reamer [6] J.T. de Jong, B.M. Mortensen, B.C. Martinez and D.C.
(top) and a 450 tons drilling rig (middle). Nelson. 2010. "Bio-mediated soil improvement." Ecol
Eng 36(2): 197-210.
[7] L.A. van Paassen et al. 2011. Shearbox tests on biologi-
cally cemented gravel. Manuscript in preparation.
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 91
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Effectiveness of CPT-Based classification methods

for identification of subsoil stratigraphy
Efficacité des méthodes de classification basées sur le CPT pour
l’identification de la stratigraphie des sols
M. T. Tumay
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
and Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey
Y. H. Karasulu
Construction Science & Mgmt. Program, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
Z. Młynarek1, J. Wierzbicki
Department of Geotechnics, University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland

The paper presents an analysis of effectiveness of the application of seven commonly used CPT-Based classification systems for
the assessment of subsoil stratigraphy and lithology. The analysis was conducted with the following classification systems: Be-
gemann 1965, Douglas/Olsen 1981, modified Schmertmann 1985, Robertson et al. 1986, Robertson 1990, Eslami/Fellenius
1997, and, Zhang/Tumay 1999. The analysis was performed for subsoil composed of slightly and strongly overconsolidated mo-
raine tills and glacifluvial sands and gravels. In the investigated area a total of nine piezocone penetration tests, PCPT (or CPTU)
tests were conducted and samples were collected for laboratory analyses. The reference point for soil behavior type classification
systems was provided by the results of grain size distribution of the soil. The basic element in the analysis was to determine the
effect of the type of the applied soil behavior type classification system on the construction of the subsoil stiffness model. Three
systems were selected as best performing for the purpose of this analysis: Douglas/Olsen 1981, Robertson et al.1986, and
Zhang/Tumay 1999. The construction of subsoil stiffness models was based on the statistical Inverse Distance Weighted method
(IDW) by Młynarek, et al., 2007.

La communication présente une analyse de l’efficacité de l’application de sept systèmes de classification basés sur l’essai CPT
communément utilisés pour l’évaluation de la stratigraphie et de la lithologie des sols. L’analyse a été réalisée sur la base des
systèmes de classification suivants : Begemann 1965, Douglas/olsen 1981, Schmertmann modifié 1985, Robertson et al. 1986,
Robertson 1990, Eslami/Fellenius 1997 and Zhang/Tumay 1999. L’analyse a été faite pour des sols composés d’argiles
morainiques à blocs, légèrement et fortement surconsolidées et de sables et de graviers glaciofluviatiles. Dans la zone étudiée, un
total de neuf essais de pénétration au piezocône, PCPT (ou CPTU) ont été réalisés et des échantillons ont été récupérés pour des
analyses de laboratoire. Le point de référence pour évaluer les systèmes de classification des sols a été fourni par les résultats de
l’analyse granulométrique réalisée pour les différents sols. L’élément de base dans l’analyse réalisée a été de déterminer l’effet
du type de système de classification utilisé sur la construction du modèle de raideur du sol. Trois systèmes ont été sélectionnés
comme étant les plus performants pour ce type d’analyse : Douglas/Olsen 1981, Robertson et al. 1986 and Zhang/Tumay 1999.
La construction des modèles de raideur des sols s’est appuyée sur la méthode statistique de l’ « Inverse Distance Weighted »
(IDW) de Mlynarek et al., 2007.

Keywords: cone penetration test, CPT, PCPT, CPTU, soil behavior, soil classsification, soil stiffness, probability

Corresponding Author.
92 M.T. Tumay et al. / Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods

1 INTRODUCTION x Systems developed by Robertson et al. [5],

Robertson [6], Jefferies and Davis [7], Eslami
The piezocone penetration test, PCPT [1,2] (or and Fellenius [8] and Lunne et al. [9], use cor-
CPTU [3]), simultaneously measuring cone tip rected tip resistance, qt.
resistance, qc, frictional component of penetra- x The systems developed by Begeman [10],
tion resistance, fs, and generated pore pressures, Schmertmann [11], Douglas and Olsen [12],
u, is at present a common approach applied in the Zhang and Tumay [13,14], use directly meas-
assessment of stratigraphy, lithology, behavior ured tip resistance, qc.
and geotechnical parameters of soil substrata. x Douglas and Olsen, Robertson et al., Jeffries
The pore pressures generated during penetration and Davis, Robertson, Eslami and Fellenius,
are measured, depending on the location of the Lunne et al. give consideration to soil compo-
pressure transducer, at the cone face, u1, behind sition, increasing fines content, changes in the
the cone base, u2, or behind the friction sleeve, void ratio, OCR, sensitivity, plasticity, stiff-
u3. Due to the geometric design of the piezocone, ness and ageing.
pore water pressures generated behind the cone x Begemann and Schmertmann classifications
base (u2) may influence the total stress measured consider granulometric composition of soil,
by the cone tip. Therefore, the measured cone tip and composition and stiffness, respectively.
resistance (qc) may have to be corrected for cer- x Zhang and Tumay probabilistic methodology
tain cone configurations to account for the effect addresses the uncertainty of correlation be-
of this pore water pressure developing behind the tween the soil composition and soil mechani-
cone tip. Theoretically, the corrected cone tip re- cal behavior, and the fuzzy approach is fun-
sistance (qt) is given by qt = qc + u2 (1-a), where damentally different in releasing the constraint
“a” is the effective area ratio of the cone, An = of soil composition, and instead is based on
cross-sectional area of the load cell, and Ac = the certainty of soil behavior.
projected area of the cone. This may necessitate
calibration of the piezocone in a pressure cham- When using CPT-based classification charts
ber to account for the actual “effective area ratio” we also have to bear in mind other important li-
of the cone used. Theoretical studies also indi- mitations which are frequently overlooked. All
cate the region “behind the cone base” is unsta- classification systems, as mentioned above, are
ble and may lead to u2 anomalies in some sub- developed based on measured and transformed
strata rendering erroneous soil classifications CPT or PCPT parameters. Studies conducted at
[4].The fact that CPT-based classification sys- the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute and the
tems have been widely investigated and around a Department of Geotechnics of the Poznan Uni-
dozen such systems proposed is a testament of versity of Life Sciences [15] showed that pene-
their paramount role and advantages in geotech- trometers of leading cone manufacturers exhibit
nics. It is important to be familiar with specific different levels of accuracy for measured values
characteristics of the classification systems in or- of cone resistance, sleeve friction and pore pres-
der to recognize their effectiveness and limita- sure measurement. Figure 1 depicts a “differ-
tions, including: ence” trend for corrected cone resistance, qt, for
nine different penetrometers tested. In Figure 2,
x Development of CPT-based classification sys- Młynarek [16] shows differences in the evalua-
tems rely on the results of laboratory analyses tion of undrained shear strength obtained using
conducted on randomly selected soil samples three different penetrometers, that reveals dif-
along penetration path. The proper application ferences by 50%. The quality of penetrometers is
of the system makes it possible to obtain a connected with penetrometer classes in accor-
continuous picture of subsoil structure, taking dance with the TC-16 directive. Figure 3 shows
into consideration its stratigraphy, lithology [17] accuracy for three classes of penetrometers
and engineering behavior; using Robertson 1990 classification. Anomalies
M.T. Tumay et al. / Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods 93

in “correction” of cone penetrometer parameters consistency of the evaluation of changes in geo-

and/or penetrometer accuracy/quality and cali- technical parameters of soil, which were deter-
bration may significantly change the effective- mined from characteristics of penetration with
ness of the soil classification system. changes in the liquidity index of cohesive soil
and relative density of non-cohesive soil, since
these parameters are strongly connected with
mechanical parameters (i.e behavior) of soil. The
parameter which describes rigidity of both cohe-
sive and non-cohesive soils is a particularly con-
venient parameter for the evaluation of effective-
ness of a given system. Two particularly popular
classification systems used for soils in Poland,
i.e. by Robertson et al. [5] and Douglas and Ol-
sen [12] were selected for the analysis of effec-
tiveness. Due to the fact that the probabilistic and
fuzzy system developed by Zhang and Tumay
[13] lends itself to incorporation of changes in
Figure 1. Calculated trend with offset for cone resistance qt grain size distribution and behavior, this model
for different penetrometers with ± accuracy range for class I was also included in this analysis.
penetrometer (50kPa) (after 15]).

Figure 2. Prediction of undrained shear strength su of Onsöy

clay by different penetrometers (after [16]).

CPT-based classification methods can supply

an extensive body of essential information on
subsoil. It is an open problem how the system Figure 3. CPT accuracy areas for peat and soft clay (after
would respond if interbeddings of soils with dif- [17]).
ferent grain size distributions are found in a ge-
netically homogeneous soil layer. Such a situa-
tion is typical of subsoils found in Poland. By 2 GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
effectiveness of a classification system we un- THE STUDY AREA
derstand the degree of consistency of an evalua-
tion of subsoil stratigraphy and lithology, deter- The test site is located in the middle west of Po-
mined on the basis correlations with reliable data land, within the area of the post glacial moraine
coming from laboratory analyses. Effectiveness plain, formed by the Pleistocene Scandinavian
of a system may also be investigated through the glaciers. The upper part of the Pleistocene pro-
94 M.T. Tumay et al. / Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods

file, to the depth of 20-30 m, consists of glacial

tills interbedded with glacifluvial sands and gra-
vels (Figure 4). The lower tills, which are the
clay–sand mixtures of low plasticity, are inter-
bedded with some gravel and sandy-silty layers.
These tills are strongly overconsolidated (OCR 5
to 10 at a depth of 15 m) and stiff. They are
overbedded by glacifluvial sands and gravels,
with a thickness of at least 5 to 10 m. The glacif-
luvial deposits are dense to very dense due to the
overloading of the last glacier. The youngest gla-
ciations yielded a layer of upper glacial till, with Figure 4. The PCPT results at the background of geological
grain size distribution similar to the lower one, cross-section of the test site.
but with a higher content of sand admixtures.
The sand content very often situated this soil at
the area of very low plasticity soils. The upper
tills can be generally divided into the stiff, lower
part, and the soft, upper part. The deposits of the
lower part of the upper till profile are overcon-
solidated (as “lodgment” type tills), but their up-
per part are characterized by relatively high po-
rosity and compressibility (as “melt out” type
tills). Figure 4 presents a typical PCPT/CPTU
profile in view of the lithological profile. Soil
classification in accordance with computer-aided
Standardized KT Color System [17] is depicted
in Figure 5. Table 1 summarizes the results of
grain size distribution and the determinations of
the liquidity index and the density index, which
were used in the evaluation of effectiveness for
PCPT/CPTU classification systems.

Table 1. The basic soil properties derived on the basis of la-

boratory tests for the testing point CPTU-3.
Depth Sand Silt con- Clay DR/LI
contents tents contents
1,8 80,0 10,0 10,0 0,23
3,0 79,0 9,0 12,0 0,07
4,3 72,0 13,0 15,0 0,25
5,8 71,0 15,0 14,0 0,35
7,8 97,1 3,0 0,0 >90%
10,2 99,6 0,4 0,0 60%
11,0 99,5 0,6 0,0 60%
13,0 99,0 1,0 0,0 60%
14,0 98,8 1,2 0,0 45%
16,0 63,0 27,0 10,0 <0,00
18,0 66,0 22,0 12,0 <0,00
Figure 5. The soil classifications according the Standardized
KT Color System [18] at CPTU-3.
M.T. Tumay et al. / Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods 95

3 FOUNDATIONS FOR THE and: a1= -11.345, a2= -3.795, b1= 15.202, b2=
INTERPRETATION OF SOIL BEHAVIOR 5.085, c1= -0.269, c2= -0.759, d1= -2.960, d2=
In this system a probabilistic correlation was
In the development of CPT-based classification established between the U index and the compo-
systems directly measured and/or “corrected” pa- sitional soil type given by the Unified Soil Clas-
rameters are utilized, i.e. qc versus qt, fs and u. sification System (USCS). The CPT-based fuzzy
Significant progress in the identification of soil soil classification methodology, which also uses
behavior type using a PCPT classification system in situ state index, V, is fundamentally different
was obtained by introducing a standardization of in realizing the constraint of soil composition,
cone resistance by vertical effective stress and and instead is based on the certainty of soil be-
the effect connected with the excess pore pres- havior (i.e., cone tip resistance and local fric-
sure in cohesive soils. These effects are included tion).
in the following formulas:

qt  V v 0 (1)
V 'v 0
u 2  u0 (2) LITHOLOGY
qt  V v 0
The potential of individual classification charts
where: qt – corrected cone resistance, Vv0 & V’v0 based on PCPT data for the identification of soils
– total & effective overburden stress, u2 – pore found in the subsoil may be verified as a 1-D or
pressure measured behind the cone, u0 - hydro- 2-D problem [16]. In case of a 1-D model this
static pressure. identification is conducted along the PCPT per-
A different probabilistic to fuzzy approach is formed, while in the 2-D or 3-D models it is
presented by the system proposed by Zhang and through the construction of the so-called geo-
Tumay [13]. In this method conformal mapping technical section. The analysis of the evaluation
was performed on the Douglas and Olsen [12] of soil type was limited to the 1-D model, while
chart to transfer the chart axis from the CPT data the analysis of subsoil rigidity was based on the
(qc and Rf) to the soil classification index U and 2-D model. Figure 5 presents the evaluation of
the in situ state index, V. the structure of subsoil using different systems.
A very good conformity with the results of grain
a1 x  a2 y  b1 c1 x  c2 y  d1 size distribution in the soil was obtained when
c1 x  c2 y  d1 2  c2 x  c1 y  d 2 2 using classification charts by Zhang and Tumay,
as well as those by Douglas and Olsen. It was

a2 x  a1 y  b2 c2 x  c1 y  d 2 (3) particularly evident in the surface zone, where
c1 x  c2 y  d1 2  c2 x  c1 y  d 2 2 clays are strongly interbedded with sands and
silts. The Robertson et al. 1986 system, com-
monly used in Poland, isolates at that depth a
where: layer of homogeneous clays. This fact is clearly
documented in Figure 5. In turn, the potential to
x 0.1539R f  0.8870 log qc  3.35 (4) expose the effect of interbedding in the subsoil
structure was revealed in the recent system pro-
0.2957R f  0.4617 log qc  0.37 (5) posed by Robertson [14], which applies soil be-
havior index Ic.
96 M.T. Tumay et al. / Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods

The comparison of individual systems sug- of values defined by coordinates xi,yi,z0. Each of
gests one important observation. Figure 5 shows these values affects the interpolated value of v0
that in regions of the analyzed with simple sub- with the weight, wi , which is inversely propor-
soil structure, i.e glacifluvial sand zone and the tional to the distance between these points. The
lower clay layer, less advanced systems such as formula used in Inverse Distance Weighted,
those proposed by Begemann or Schmertmann, IDW, method takes the form:
provide a very good identification of subsoil stra-
tigraphy and lithology, while some recent ad- N ( v0 )

vanced methodologies miss the mark. ¦wv

i 1
i i
v0 N ( v0 )

i 1


BASED ON SELECTED CPTU where ~N(v0)~denotes the number of included
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS observations from the neighbourhood of v0, and
weight wi takes the form:
Constrained modulus M was used in the descrip-
tion of subsoil rigidity. Numerical values of this 1
modulus were established for cohesive soils by wi (5)
Kulhawy and Mayne [20]. d i  s

M D qt  V v 0 (6) where the value of di denotes the Euclidean dis-

tance between points (x0,y0,z0) and (xi,yi,z0).
For glacial tills D was assumed to be 8.25,
Values of modulus M were determined for all
while for silts at 6.0. Values of the modulus for
layers, which were isolated by a given classifica-
sands were determined by Lunne et al. [9].
tion system. Figure 6 presents a model of subsoil
Changes in modulus M in subsoil are strongly re-
rigidity, in which two most commonly applied
lated not only with the type of soil, but also with
classification systems, i.e. proposed by Douglas
stress level in the subsoil and its liquidity index
and Olsen as well as Robertson et al., were used
or relative density index. This element facilitates
together with the probabilistic system by Zhang
the evaluation of effectiveness of these systems
and Tumay. Figure 6 makes it possible to formu-
thanks to the evaluation of consistency of
late several interesting and important conclu-
changes in the modulus in the subsoil with
sions, which at the same time will justify the aim
changes in the liquidity index or relative density
of this paper. These conclusions are as follows:
index, which had been determined in laboratory
analyses. Modulus of subsoil rigidity was veri-
fied for the cross-section, which contains CPTU x In homogeneous subsoil zones, which are
nos. 3, 5 and 9. This profile is highly convenient composed of fluviglacial sands and glacial
for analysis, since changes in the values of this tills, the models are almost identical. Models
modulus are connected with the zone structure of of this zone respond in an identical manner to
the subsoil, composed of an interbedded glacial a change in the state of consolidation of sands
till in the surface zone, a homogeneous zone of and the degree of plasticity of clays.
glacifluvial sandy deposits and a homogeneous x In the upper subsoil zone, which is composed
zone of glacial till lying on the profile floor. of glacial tills interbedded with sands, locally
In the construction of the 3-D model the IDW strengthening rigidity of this layer, the model
method was applied [16, 21, 22]. For this method by Zhang and Tumay reflects the above men-
the interpolation value M in a given point with tioned strengthening of this zone. Strength-
coordinates (x0,y0,z0) is established on the basis ened zones are very well identified by the
course of isolines of constant values of M.
M.T. Tumay et al. / Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods 97

x The model of rigidity based on the system

proposed by Robertson yields a more conser-
vative evaluation of rigidity in the upper sub-
soil zone. It is classified as a zone of smaller
rigidity. The system by Robertson et al. to a
certain degree averages subsoil rigidity in this

Figure 7. Differences between the M modulus profiles, calcu-

lated on the basis of PCPT at the testing point CPTU-3.


Conducted analyses showed that soil behavior

type classification systems from CPTU data are a
convenient method to evaluate stratigraphy of
subsoil with a complex geological structure.
However, the effectiveness of structure evalua-
tion, and first of all in the next stage - geotechni-
Figure 6. The models of subsoil stiffness calculated on the cal parameters, depends definitely on the adopted
basis of PCPT results, using different classification systems. system. If subsoil structure is simple, then the
conducted analyses confirmed that the selection
of a system for the evaluation of stratigraphy and
lithology of subsoil plays a lesser role. In the
These differences are clearly evident in the case when even genetically homogeneous layers
profile of changes in modulus M established at are found in a subsoil, but are interbedded with
the site of CPTU no. 3. Differences in the soils of varying grain size distributions, then
evaluation of rigidity in this zone are as high as each of the systems responds differently to the
50% (Figure 7). identification of these interbeddings. This differ-
The model of rigidity by Zhang and Tumay in ent reaction of the system results in the evalua-
the upper clay zone very clearly reflects also lo- tion of geotechnical parameters of soils in the
cal changes in the state of consistency in clays, subsoil. The analyzed example of a model of
which were highly consistent with excess pore subsoil rigidity showed that the probabilistic sys-
pressure u2 recorded in this zone. tem by Zhang and Tumay best reflects variation
in rigidity, connected with changes in grain size
distribution and the state of soil, well identifies
98 M.T. Tumay et al. / Effectiveness of CPT-Based Classification Methods

the strengthening and weakening zones. This Engineering, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Vol I,
element is particularly important when a designer
[11] J.H. Schmertmann, Guidelines for Cone Penetration
of an object has to analyze in detail the coopera- Test, Performance and Design, Report No. FHWA-
tion of this object with subsoil, taking into con- TS-78-209, U.S. Department of Transportation,
sideration the non-uniformity of settlement for Washington, D.C., (1978), pp. 145.
[12] J. B. Douglas, R. S. Olsen, Soil Classification using
individual foundations. Electric Cone Penetrometer, Symposium on Cone Pene-
tration Testing and Experience, Geotechnical Engineer-
ing Division, ASCE, St. Louis, MO, USA, (1981), 209-
[13] Z. Zhang, M.T. Tumay, Statistical to Fuzzy Approach
toward CPT Soil Classification, ASCE Journal of Geo-
The authors would like to thank HEBO Pozna technical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol.
Ltd. for conducting static probing tests in the 125, No. 3 (1999), 179-186.
analyzed area and making their results available. [14] Z. Zhang, and M. T Tumay, Simplification of soil
classification charts derived from the cone penetration
test," ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, GTJODJ,
Vol. 19, No.2, (1996), 203-216
REFERENCES [15] T. Lunne, P. Gauer, Z. Młynarek, W. Wołyski, M.
Kroll, Quality of CPTU, Part 2 Statistical evaluation of
differences between the CPTU parameters obtained
[1] M.T. Tumay, R.L. Boggess, and Y. Acar, Subsurface from tests with various penetrometers, Norwegan Geo-
investigation with piezocone penetrometer,” Sympo- technical Institute Report, 2003.
sium on Cone Penetration Testing and Experience, [16] Z. Młynarek, Site investigation and mapping in urban
Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, St. Louis area, Geotechnical Engineering in Urban Enviorn-
MO, USA, (1981), 325-342. ments, V. Cuellar et. al (Eds.) Vol. 1. Millpress Rotter-
[2] H.M. Zuidberg, L.H.J. Schaap, and F.L Beringen , A dam (2007), 175-202.
penetrometer for simultaneously measuring of cone re- [17] M.Th. van Staveren, J.K. Deen, The need for cone pe-
sistance, sleeve friction and dynamic pore pressure,” netration test accuracy classes, Geotechniek, 7(2),
Procedings of the Second European Symposium on Pe- (1998), 12-19.
netration Testing, Vol. 2, Amsterdam, (1982), 963-970. [18] Y.H. Karasulu and M. T. Tumay, Practical visual pres-
[3] R. G. Campanella, and P. K. Robertson, Current status entation approach for CPT-based soil characterization
of the piezocone test, Proceedings Penetration Testing and modeling, Proceedings, of the ASCE Geo-Frontiers
1988, ISOPT-1, Orlando), Vol. 1, Balkema, Rotterdam, Conference: Advances in Geotechnical Engineering,
(1988), 93–116. ASCE Special Publication No. 211, Dallas, TX, (2011),
[4] P.D. Kiousis, G.Z. Voyiadjis, M.T. Tumay, A large pp. 2387-2396.
strain theory and its application in the analysis of the [19 ] P.K. Robertson, Interpretation of cone penetration tests
cone penetration mechanism,” International Journal for – a unified approach, Canadian Geotechnical Journal,
Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 46, (2009), 1337-1355.
Vol. 12, No, 1, (1988), 45-60. [20 ] F.H. Kulhawy, P.W. Mayne, Manual on Estimating Soil
[5] P.K. Robertson, R.G. Campanella, D. Gillespie, J. Properties for Foundation Design, Report No. EL –
Grieg, Use of piezometer cone data, Proc. ASCE Spe- 6800, Electric Power Reseaech Institute (1990
cialty Conference In Situ’86: Use of In Situ Tests in [21] Z. Młynarek, Subsoil contribution to construction fail-
Geotechnical Engineering, Blacksburg (1986), 1263- ures (in polish), Proc. of Konferencja Naukowo-
1280. Techniczna “Awarie Budowlane”, Szczecin (2009).
[6] P. K. Robertson, Soil Classification using the Cone Pe- [22] Z. Młynarek, J. Wierzbicki, W. Wołyski, An approach
netration Test, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 27(1) to 3D subsoil model based on CPTU results, Geotech-
(1990), 151-158 nical Engineering in Urban Enviornment,. V. Cuellar
[7] M.G. Jefferies, M.O. Davies, Soil Classification by the et. al (Eds.) Vol. 3. Millpress Rotterdam (2007), 1721-
cone penetration test: discussion. Canadian Geotechni- 1726.
cal Journal, 28(1) (1991), 173-176.
[8] A. Eslami, B.H. Fellenius, Pile Capacity by direct CPT
and CPTu methods applied to 102 case histories, Cana-
dian Geotechnical Journal, 34(6) (1997), 880-898.
[9] T. Lunne, P. K. Robertson, J. Powell, Cone penetration
testing in geotechnical practice, E&FN Spon, Lon-
[10] H. K. S. Begemann, The friction jacket cone as an aid
in determining the soil profile, Proceedings 6th Interna-
tional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 99
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Problems caused by the presence of hard concre-

tions and lithified beds in the subsoil on the realisa-
tion of geotechnical investigations and infrastruc-
ture projects
Problèmes causés par la présence de concrétions dures et
d’horizons lithifiés dans le sol lors de l’exécution de projets
G. van Alboom 1 , I. Vergauwen,
Geotechnics Division, Flemish Government, Belgium
J. Maertens,
Jan Maertens bvba and Catholic University of Leuven (KUL), Belgium
W. Maekelberg,
Geotechnical design engineer, TUC RAIL n.v., Belgium

The presence of hard concretions and lithified beds in the subsoil can cause serious problems during the realisation of infra-
structure projects. As these concretions do most often not occur as continuous layers, they also are a real challenge for geotech-
nical investigations. This paper gives an overview of geological features and general characteristics of typical hard soil concre-
tions in Flanders. Special attentions is paid to the important interaction between geology and geotechnics. Some typical
examples are given of successful and unsuccessful geotechnical investigation programs and their effects on the realisation of in-
frastructure projects.

La présence de concrétions dures et d’horizons lithifiés dans le sol peut causer de graves problèmes lors de l’exécution de
projets d’infrastructure. Puisque dans la plus part des cas ces concrétions ne se présentent pas comme des couches continues el-
les constituent un défi réel pour les investigations géotechniques.
Cet article donne un aperçu général des caractéristiques géologiques et mécaniques de quelques concrétions typiques pour le
sous-sol Flamand. Un intérêt spécial a été dédié à l’interaction entre la géologie et la géotechnique. Quelques cas représentatifs
sont présentés de recherches géotechniques qui soit ont abouti à des résultats positifs, soit ont mené à un échec.

Keywords: hard concretions, boulders, geology, soil investigation, case studies

INTRODUCTION and gravel sediments with thicknesses up to hun-

dred of meters. The upper Quaternary formations
In Flanders outcrops of Primary bedrock are rare, have been influenced by the glacial periods, re-
and bedrock is covered by Tertiary clay, sand sulting in the formation of marine, coastal, river,

Corresponding Author.
100 G. van Alboom et al. / Problems Caused by the Presence of Hard Concretions and Lithified Beds

lake or wind deposits of sand, clay, peat and heterogeneous. In many cases only the better
loam (silt). A typical soil profile in the Antwerp quality, meaning the rocks used as building
harbour area eg. consists of soft clay and peat, stones, are well described and investigated. Poor
loose Quaternary sands, very dense Tertiary quality rocks have not been studied quite exten-
sands and stiff clay. sively.
Within Tertiary sediments hard concretions This table gives a broad overview of these
can occur as continuous/discontinuous layers or concretions, but is certainly not complete.
as boulders. Their presence in Flemish soils is
certainly not predominant, but can have a major
impact on geotechnical design.
Table 1

Some of these hard concretions (sandstones, In recently updated geological maps and booklets
limestones…) have over the past centuries been with explanatory text the presence of hard con-
quarried for the construction of historical build- cretions is clearly mentioned within the descrip-
ings (cathedrals, beltowers…). The demand for tion of geological units. This was not the case
authentic natural building stones is now growing with the older geological maps, where you had to
rapidly for renovation projects. have knowledge of the presence of hard concre-
Table 1 gives a summary of some typical con- tions to find evidence from specific borehole
cretions in Tertiary layers in Flanders and their logs.
features. The features and compressive strength The Belgian Geological Survey is now draw-
of the described concretions or rocks can be quite ing up a database on hard concretions in the Bel-
G. van Alboom et al. / Problems Caused by the Presence of Hard Concretions and Lithified Beds 101

gian subsoil, including a sheet with technical fea- x retraining walls (all types): eg inadequate
tures (compressive strength…) concrete cover on diaphragm walls [3],
Technical features are at this stage based on sheet piling not suitable due to inadequate
building stones documentation [1], and should be penetration or tearing of interlocks causing
completed with results from project site investi- water infiltration and ground loss
gations. x tunnel boring: increase of wear of tunnel-
ling equipment, lower production rates

HARD CONCRETIONS A CURSE ? Due to a limited geotechnical investigation

hard concretions can be a curse for a project..
The presence of hard concretions in the sub- A geotechnical investigation program with
soil can cause problems for the realisation of in- a special focus on hard concretions can limit
frastructure projects [2], because the contractor is these problems and even show opportunities
faced with: for quarrying building stones needed for resto-
x Lower production rates than expected ration works.
x Inadequate execution techniques that can
only be used if adapted, or should be disre-

This will definitely lead to discussions where In Flanders nearly all site investigations make
following questions need to be addressed: use of CPT, with depths ranging between 20m
x Could the presence, number and hardness of and 40m.
hard concretions be anticipated by the con- The presence of hard stones is marked by an
tractor, based on available information in abrupt increase of cone resistance in the CPT
specifications. diagram, sometimes up to refusal of the equip-
x Were the execution methods proposed by the ment. [4]
contractor fully adapted to the known soil Three situations can occur:
conditions xthe stone is pushed away, or CPT rods are de-
x Could lower production rates or need for flected at the contact point with the stone (
adapted execution techniques be anticipated fig 1 a and b): the CPT profile doesn’t give
x Who is financially responsible for extra costs evidence of the presence of these stones. In
the latter case the CPT might deviate sig-
The presence of hard concretions can have im- nificantly from the vertical
pact on xthe maximum thrust of the CPT is reached,
x groundworks for building excavations: when and further penetration is not possible with-
excavations have to be performed within a out use of special techniques (fig 1 c)
limited space the removal of hard concretions xthe CPT rods do not touch the stone at all, and
can be cumbersome because no heavy equip- there isn’t any evidence of the presence of
ment can be used stones in the CPT-profile. (fig 1d)
x groundwater lowering: the presence of hard
concretion layers can cause problems for in-
stallation of deep wells, and can also influ-
ence waterflow towards the excavation slopes,
requiring additional drains above these layers
x deep foundation techniques: problems
caused by fracture of precast piles, feasibil-
ity of auger piles depending on hardness and
size of concretions
102 G. van Alboom et al. / Problems Caused by the Presence of Hard Concretions and Lithified Beds

(a) (b)

Fig 3 mechanical CPT penetrating different sandstone


Anyhow when refusal is met one can recall to

different techniques to resume CPT. Depending
(c) (d) whether or not intact samples of the stones are
needed, destructive or non destructive methods
Fig 1 Hard concretions vs CPT can be used [4].

Destructive methods:
However a laboratory research at the Catholic
University of Leuven demonstrated that penetra- a) pneumatic hammering
tion of sandstone with a thickness up to 20cm In between thrust column and CPT rods a
might be possible with CPT cones [5]. Electrical framework with a pneumatic hammer is placed
cones being more fragile it is general practice in allowing a pulsating downward movement of the
Flanders to execute mechanical CPT if penetra- rods. By the pulsating force and a limited static
tion of sandstone layers is required. thrust the stone can be crushed. The use of this
technique is limited to rather thin stone layers.
Figure 2 shows a CPT diagrams where an b) Overburden drilling (ODEX)
electrical CPT had to be stopped due to the pres-
ence of a sandstone layer At refusal of the CPT, all rods are removed
and a drilling rig with ODEX-system takes over.
The boring tubes are lowered into the ground
by percussion, combined with an eccentric
movement of the tophammer. After perforation
of the hard concretions the casings and topham-
mer are withdrawn and CPT is resumed. Extra
casings are needed to avoid buckling of the CPT
Fig 2 electrical CPT stopped at hard concretion level rods.

Figure 3 shows a CPT diagram where a me-

chanical CPT could penetrate multiple sandstone Non destructive methods
layers of limited thickness.
a) After interruption of CPT a core drilling
is performed to sample the hard concre-
G. van Alboom et al. / Problems Caused by the Presence of Hard Concretions and Lithified Beds 103

tions; alternately CPT and core drilling

take over about every half a meter.
b) Geophysical methods could be used to
detect hard concretions as they are not
limited to point locations; There is how-
ever little positive experience with this


Sandstone concretions in Ruisbroek sands

Fig 4 Sandstones at diversion Brussel-Schelde canal
During construction of the tunnel under the
Rupel river and the canal Brussels-Schelde in Sandstone concretions in Brussels sands
Boom (1970-1980) the unexpected presence of
sandstone boulders caused serious problems. For the Diabolo project in Zaventem TUC
The tunnel was finished with a delay of 6 RAIL, aware of the impact of sandstone layers in
years at an extra cost of millions of euros. The in Brussels sands, had the intention to compile a
situ test program consisted of 32 CPT and 7 bor- complete soil investigation dossier. Main objec-
ings. Only 3 CPT had to be stopped prematurely, tive was to have a good estimate of the number,
at a level which later proved to correspond with extent and hardness of sandstone layers within
the presence of the sandstones. The geotechnical the excavation volume. Moreover the efficiency
report did not make any comment on this fact, as of executing strutted excavation trenches was
the old geological maps did not draw attention to monitored in a test pit.
the hard concretions (only mentioned in 2 bore- From the test pit (3m x 1,5m and 13m deep)
hole logs). detailed geological profiles ware drawn (see fig
Observations on the project site showed that 5), with focus on sandstone layers and concre-
the concretions consisted of calcareous sandstone tions. Excavation rates (m³/manhour) were also
with dimensions ranging from 1 to 2.5m. The monitored to have an idea of the efficiency of
concretions had a area coverage of about 7%. executing strutted excavation trenches within
This means that CPT, borings or any other part of the tunnelling project, and the amount of
method representative for discrete test locations stones within each excavation phase.
had only a probability of 1/14 to detect the con-
cretions (which corresponds with the 3/39 effec-
tiveness of executed CPT and borings on site).
During dredging activities for the diversion of
the canal Brussels-Schelde the presence of a
“hard layer” was met, which didn’t allow the fur-
ther use of conventional dredging techniques.
CPT and borings revealed the presence of the
calcareous sandstones mentioned above. Again
the presence of the hard concretion layer was not
Suction dredging techniques had to be com- Fig 5 – picture and geological profile of test pit section
bined with backhoe dredging, resulting in lower On about 20 sandstone samples uniaxial com-
production rates and higher cost. presssion tests, Brazilian tests and abrasive tests
were performed to estimate the impact on tunnel-
ling rates and wear of equipment. Tested samples
104 G. van Alboom et al. / Problems Caused by the Presence of Hard Concretions and Lithified Beds

had a heterogeneous structure with laminations, drilling projects. More often they result in sub-
cavities and porous zones. Compressive strength stantial delays and major extra costs.
varied between 30 and 145 MPa, tensile strength
between 3 and 9 MPa.. The question whether or not the presence of
From mineralogy tests heterogeneity was con- hard concretions was unforeseen is an issue for
firmed and stones could be classified as either fierce discussions.
calcareous sandstone or sandy limestone. “Unpredictability” is indeed debatable, and
The specifications on the tunnelling project does not exclusively relate to whether or not their
included general information on geology and presence was anticipated and mentioned in the
complete data on the test pit (geological profiles specifications. Adequacy of information on
and descriptions, test results, efficiency of exe- thickness of continuous layers, area density and
cuted strutted excavations). Moreover TUC dimensions of boulders, hardness of the hard
RAIL organised for all interested tenderers a concretions are quite often discussed, often re-
visit to the site, where samples of different exca- sulting in lawsuits
vated sandstones were exhibited.
Thanks to the extensive investigation and the The case of the tunnelling project in Zaventem
well documented specifications the tunnelling shows however that a well documented dossier
project could be realised without problems re- and geotechnical/geological investigation that is
lated to the presence of sandstones. shared with tenderers can reduce significantly
uncertainties with respect to the presence of hard
concretion and their features.

The presence of hard concretions in the sub- REFERENCES

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September 1997.
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discontinuous stone layers may not be detected. wezigheid van stenen op regelmatig toegepaste tech-
And even when detected they can not be pene- nieken. Workshop “Stenen in de grond: nut of
trated or sampled using routine techniques. probleem”, KVIV, Antwerp (15/09/94).
[3] Maekelberg W. et al ‘Observations of anomalies in dia-
Geophysical methods that can investigate lar- phragm walls for deep tunnel excavations’ ECSMGE,
ger areas do not give reliable results or are not Athens 2011
workable on a routine basis. [4] Van Alboom, G. ‘Problemen door versteningen bij geo-
technisch onderzoek. Workshop “Stenen in de grond:
nut of probleem”, KVIV, Antwerp 1994
Therefore a well detailed desk study for any [5] Maertens, J. et al ‘Penetrability of sandstones with a
infrastructure project is essential; recently up- CPT cone’ ICSMGE Hamburg 1997
dated geological and geotechnical maps give [6] Nulens, K. 1996. Aanwezigheid van stenen in de on-
evidence of possible hard concretion layers. dergrond. Onderkenning met behulp van diepsonderin-
gen. M.Sc.thesis. Department of Civil Engineering,
A database is being drawn by the Belgian K.U.Leuven, 107
Geological Survey focussing on features of
building stones, thus representing the better qual-
ity of hard concretions. The project however will
provide a continuous update and an effort should
be made to compile investigation results from in-
frastructure sites.
The presence of hard concretions in the sub-
soil can have a major impact on techniques used
for excavations, groundwater lowering, deep
foundation techniques, tunnel boring, directional
1.2. Laboratory Testing
Essais en laboratoire
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Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 107
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.




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This page intentionally left blank
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 115
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Dynamic Poisson ratio analysis

Analyse du coefficient de Poisson dynamique
M. F. Amaral 1, A. Viana da Fonseca & J. Carvalho
FEUP, University of Porto; Portugal
N. C. Consoli
UFRGS, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul; Brazil

The dynamic Poisson ratio is a complex calculation parameter mainly considering the standard existing equipment in some Geo-
technical laboratories. Nevertheless, this dynamic property can be easily calculated through a simple relationship – based on the
theory of elasticity – between the propagation velocities of two distinct elastic waves. Despite permitting an easy calculation of
the dynamic Poisson ratio, the signals arrival instant – in regard to the above referred waves – are not always identifiable on the
time domain basis of interpretation (Viana da Fonseca et al. [1]). For the analysis of the dynamic Poisson's ratio, three types of
elastic waves were taken into consideration. For soil-cement specimens – studied in this paper – were calculated the compression
wave velocity VP, Bar wave velocity VL and shear wave velocity VS. Properties like the dynamic confined modulus Mdin, dynam-
ic modulus of elasticity Edin and dynamic shear modulus Gdin were also intended. The cross comparison between the dynamic
Poisson ratios computed by different waves is used to ensure the chosen arrival instances based on time domain interpretation. In
this paper it is also preformed a dynamic Poisson ratio recalculation in order to evaluate the parameter sensitivity regarding the
equipment resolution concluding in the possibility   $@
$^din from the presented tests.

Le coefficient de Poisson dynamique est un paramètre de calculs complexes qu’envisage principalement l'équipement standard
en vigueur dans certains laboratoires géotechniques. Néanmoins, cette propriété peut être facilement calculée par une relation
simple - basée sur la théorie de l'élasticité - entre les vitesses de propagation de deux ondes élastiques distinctes. Malgré permet-
tant un calcul facile du coefficient de Poisson dynamique, l'instant d'arrivée des signaux - en ce qui concerne les vagues ci-
dessus visées - n'est pas toujours identifiable sur la base de l'interprétation dans le domaine temporel (Viana da Fonseca et al.
[1]).Pour l'analyse du coefficient de Poisson dynamique, trois types de vagues élastiques ont été tenues en considération. Pour
les spécimens de sol-ciment - étudiés dans le présent document - ont été calculées de la vitesse des vagues de compression VP,
vitesse des vagues Bar VL et la vitesse des vagues de cisaillement VS. Propriétés comme le module dynamique limité Mdin, mo-
dule d'élasticité dynamique Edin et module de cisaillement dynamique Gdin étaient également destinés. La comparaison croisée
entre les coefficients de Poisson dynamiques calculées par les différentes vagues est utilisé pour assurer l'arrivée des cas choisis
en fonction de l'interprétation dans le domaine temporel. Dans cet article, il est également préformé un nouveau calcul de coeffi-
cient de Poisson dynamique afin d'évaluer la sensibilité des paramètres concernant la résolution d’équipements.

Keywords: Soil-cement, seismic waves, dynamic Poisson ratio, ultrasonic transducers, bender elements

Corresponding Author.
116 M.F. Amaral et al. / Dynamic Poisson Ratio Analysis

1 INTRODUCTION shear (Gdin) modulus, respectively. In this paper,

it is per$   ^din computing using P & L
1.1 About soil-cement wave velocities (VP and VL, respectively) and L
& S wave velocities (VS). Then, according to the
Cementation effects in dynamic, hydraulic and
time window test resolutions it is achieved the
mechanic behavior of naturally and artificially
maximum and minimum values not only for Mdin,
cohesive geomaterials have been studied by sev-
Edin and Gdin 
$^din for each wave inter-
eral researchers (e.g. Clough et al. [2], Leroueil correlation.
& Vaughan [3], Coop & Atkinson [4], Gens &
Nova [5], Viana da Fonseca [6], Cuccovillo &
Coop [7], Schnaid et al. [8], Consoli et al. [9],
Consoli et al. [10], Viana da Fonseca & Coutinho
[11], Amaral [12], Amaral & Viana da Fonseca
[13]). These authors established a fundamental
understanding of the behavior of natural soils Specimens were compacted to obtain a cylindric-
and/or develop soil stabilization methods using a al shape; 71mm diameter () and a 136mm
cementation agent (Cruz et al. [14]). length (H). The 12% of water content (w) was
A very good example of soil-cement applying defined by the modified Proctor test.
is the high speed railways embankments, particu- For compaction, an equivalent quantity of
larly the transition zones. As the transition zones fines replaced the necessary cement weight to be
take part as one of the most critical areas in these added. Thus, the macro structural granulometric
engineering works, it is extremely important to curve (see Fig. 1) was kept constant.
study the cyclic and dynamic behavior of these Soil, cement and water were placed on a board
structures. and very well mixed. Then, the resulted volume
To understand bounding effects in dynamic was divided in to three similar portions. The first
properties of a residual granitic soil of Porto portion was placed in a lubricated compacter and
(north of Portugal), artificially cemented speci- statically compressed originating the first speci-
mens were compacted for distinct cement con- men’s layer. After this procedure, the surface was
tents and compaction degrees. scarified to be used as a support for the second
layer. The procedure was repeated for the second
and third layers.
1.2 Seismic waves
At the end of the process, the specimens were
Seismic tests are typically used to detect flaws stored in a humid chamber with a relative humid-
and evaluate the mechanical properties’ degrada- ity of 96%. After a period of 24 hours, the speci-
tion of materials (Bodig & Jayne, [15]). One of men was taken out of the mould and again placed
the most widely used techniques for this type of in the same humid chamber remaining curing for
transducers is the pulse-echo method (Blitz & 28 days.
Simpson [16], Cartz [17]). In addition, the pulse The specimens were suitable considered if re-
velocity test is an ASTM [18] standard for mea- maining in the following tolerances:
suring seismic wave velocities trough concrete. It
is also used for monitoring massive rocks quality Dry Unit Weight (d) ± 1% of target value,
and settlement ranges (Santamarina et al. [19], w ± 1.0% of the target value,
Cascante et al. [20], Landon et al. [21]). Diameter within ± 0.5mm,
In this paper are presented three types of seis- Height within ± 1mm.
mic wave measurements; compression wave (P), Cement content (C) is defined by simple rela-
bar waves (L) and shear waves (S). P, L and S tionship between dry cement weight (WC) and
waves are related among them by the Poisson ef- dry soil weight (Wd) express by Eq. 1.
fect analytically expressed by dynamic Poisson
 ^din). They are also related with the dynam-
ic stiffnesses of confined (Mdin), Young (Edin) and C  WC Wd (1)
M.F. Amaral et al. / Dynamic Poisson Ratio Analysis 117

3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Table 1. Specimens’ information

Name C (%) w (%) H (mm) _ { 3)(*) S (%)(*)

The experimental program was carried out in a
very well graded granular soil mixed with ce- 1 2 11.7 136.48 1857 51.1
ment. The physical properties of the soil charac- 2 3 11.3 136.68 2046 63.6
teristics and of the admixture with cement were
3 3 12.7 136.74 2049 69.1
reported by Rios Silva et al. [22]. A significant
amount of tests with ultrasonic compression 4 5 12.1 135.92 1973 59.6
transducers and bender elements were performed 5 7 12.9 136.18 1878 54.4
on specimens with different combinations of ce- |_}Dry unit weight, (*) S = Degree of saturation
ment content and void ratio.
In this study, five soil-cement specimens of Retention curves analysis proved this range of
weathering Porto granite (Viana da Fonseca et al. S promotes a suction variation in 100kPa to
[23]) were molded. The referred soil is classified 200kPa. Thus, it is not expected considerable dy-
as a SM (silty sand). The grain size distribution is namic properties changes because of the distinct
presented in Fig. 1. It reflects a mean effective saturation degrees.
diameter (D50) of 0.25mm and the uniformity and
curvature coefficients are of 113 and 2.7, respec-
tively. Atterberg limits measurements have
shown a non-plastic soil. Particle specific gravity
is 2.72 and mineralogical analysis predominantly
In order to compute the dynamic properties four
presented feldspars, quartz and small portions
type of equipments were used; a signal generator,
an oscilloscope, an acquisition system and an ap-
propriate pair of transducers. For each category
of seismic wave determining (P, L & S) it was
used a different pair of transducers. These last
equipments were placed in the specimens top and
bottom. Thus, the specimens’ lengths (H) are
equivalent to the propagation length of each
seismic wave.

4.1 Compression waves

0.001 0.01 0.1 1

According to Richart et al. [24] there is a type of
wave called compression wave whose velocity is
related with Mdin in the following expression.
Figure 1. Porto residual soil grain size distribution.
M din
The used cement was a rapid hardening CEM I VP  (2)
52.5 R. The cement particle specific gravity is

3.10. Distillated water was used for specimens’
compaction. Where VP may be estimated by
Table 1 shows the essential specimens’ basic
information for dynamic parameters computing. VP  H t P (3)

Where tP is the time of propagation of the

compression wave which was directly measured
from the oscilloscope.
118 M.F. Amaral et al. / Dynamic Poisson Ratio Analysis

The used oscilloscope and the chosen time where tS is the S-wave time of propagation.
window for the VP determining provide a tP accu- The relationship between Gdin and Edin is well
racy of ± 0.2s. These tests were performed using known and it can be written by
a 1MHz nominal frequency compression trans-
ducers. 1
Gdin  Edin (7)
4.2 Bar waves 2(1   din )
According to Graff [25], the use of lower nomin- Then, the association linking Gdin to Mdin is
al frequency transducers converts propagation
medium, of the compression wave, to an asso-
(1  2 din )
ciated constrained environment. Therefore, those Gdin  M din (8)
frequencies enable a bar wave propagation in- 2(1   din )
stead of the – as presented before – traditional
compression wave. Some authors (Graff [25],
The tS determining accuracy was ± 2.0s.
Khan et al. [26], Amaral & Viana da Fonseca
These tests were performed using a pair of bend-
[13]) defend that this physical phenomenon is as-
er elements.
sured whenever the impulse wave length has the
same order of magnitude of the propagation envi-
VL or Bar velocity is expressed by 5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

5.1 Dynamic stiffness and ȣdin

VL   H tL (4) The unprocessed results either for ultrasonic or
 bender elements tests are the time of propagation
determining. Fig. 2 shows an example of those
Where tL is the time of propagation of the bar raw results, specifically bender element results.
wave. Read times of propagation were corrected by
A relationship between Edin and Mdin is defined subtracting the estimated time delay calculated in
by ^din and expressed by Eq. 5. the calibration standard procedures. The three
pairs of transducers were placed in contact. The
(1   din ) time difference between the wave arrival instant
M din  Edin (5) and the function generator sent pulse instance is
(1   din )(1  2 din ) the time delay. This value was subtracted to each
specimens’ arrival time record. All three pair of
The chosen time window for the VL determin- transducers demonstrated different delay times.
ing provided a tL accuracy of ± 0.5s. These tests
were performed using a 50kHz nominal frequen- 0.15
cy compression transducers.

4.3 Shear waves

According to Richart et al. [24] there is also
another type of wave called S. VS is related with -0.15
the Gdin by Eq. 6.

VS   H tS (6)
 Figure 2. S-wave times of propagation.
M.F. Amaral et al. / Dynamic Poisson Ratio Analysis 119

Tables 2 and 3 indicate not only the speci- Table 4. Dynamic properties minimum values.
mens’ dynamic stiffnesses but also the ^din com- N. Mdin (MPa) Edin (MPa) Gdin (MPa) ^din
puted for each combination of Mdin & Edin and
Edin & Gdin. 1 2467 2000 784 0.227
2 5884 4772 1923 0.172
Table 2. ^din computed by Mdin and Edin. 3 5927 4892 1900 0.216
t VP Mdin tL VL Edin
N. P ^ 4 6729 5355 2092 0.204
 (m/s) (MPa)  (m/s) (MPa) din
5 4832 3664 1378 0.264
1 118 1155 2476 131 1042 2016 0.262
2 80.4 1700 5913 89.5 1536 4825 0.261 Table 5. Dynamic properties maximum values.
3 80.2 1705 5956 88.0 1554 4947 0.252
N. Mdin (MPa) Edin (MPa) Gdin (MPa) ^din
4 73.4 1852 6766 82.0 1658 5421 0.269
1 2484 2031 815 0.295
5 85.7 1608 4855 97.5 1404 3702 0.290
2 5942 4880 2036 0.269

Table 3. ^din computed by Edin and Gdin. 3 5986 5004 2012 0.317

tL VL Edin tS VS Gdin 4 6803 5488 2225 0.312

N. ^
 (m/s) (MPa)  (m/s) (MPa) din 5 4878 3740 1450 0.357
1 131 1042 2016 208 656 800 0.261
Analyzing both Tables 4 and 5 it can be con-
2 89.5 1536 4825 139 983 1978 0.220
clude that Mdin Edin and Gdin do not significantly
3 88.0 1554 4947 140 977 1955 0.265 change with the time window resolution uncer-
4 82.0 1658 5421 130 1046 2157 0.257 tainly. In addition, ^din is to some extent affected
5 97.5 1404 3702 157 867 1413 0.310
by stiffness modifications, taking variations up to
about 20%.
Based on Tables 2 and 3 it can be concluded
that ^  €     cement content
(C) and its values seem to be consistent between 6 CONCLUSIONS
the two conducts of ^din computing.
From the data presented in this paper, the follow-
5.2 ȣdin accuracy determining ing conclusions may be drawn:
It is possible to estimate fair values of ^din val-
Supported on the chosen time window, values of ue from the presented tests. Besides, its compu-
tP, tL and tS were adjusted for ± the presented res- ting represents a very good way to validate VP,
olution !‚† !  ‚!, providing a VL and VS  ^din remains in the interval 0.17
Mdin, Edin and Gdin maximum and minimum val- to 0.36, well in the range of what is commonly
ues. Then, each new dynamic stiffness combina- expected in cemented materials.
tion was interrelated in order to provide max and Dynamic stiffnesses are not very affected by
minimum ^din. For example, a minimum value of the uncertainty of the time window resolution.
Mdin and a maximum Edin value provide (Eq. 5) a
minimum of ^din, and vice-versa. Following
tables show how dynamic properties are able to ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors wish to express their gratitude to the
University of Porto Engineering Faculty Geo-
technical Laboratory personal, to the University
of Waterloo Non Destructive Geotechnical La-
120 M.F. Amaral et al. / Dynamic Poisson Ratio Analysis

boratory and its coordinator Professor Giovanni [13] Amaral, M. F. and Viana da Fonseca, A., Laboratory
spectrum analysis. Proc., Portuguese Geotechnical Na-
Cascante. This research was developed under the
tional Conference, Geotechnical and Sustainable De-
activities of FCT (Portuguese Foundation for velopment. Vol. 1, Guimarães, Portugal (2010), 2209-
Science and Technology) research unit SEC, in 2218.
FEUP, namely PTDC/ECM 099475/2008 project, [14] Cruz, N., Rodrigues, C. and Viana da Fonseca, A., The
influence of cementation in the critical state behavior of
financed by European Community artificial bonded soils, Proc., Int. Symp. on Deform.
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IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Estimation of UCS from PLT for sedimentary

rocks, with emphasis to conglomerate and breccias
Estimation de la résistance á la compression de l’essai ponctuel,
avec emphases á conglomérâtes et breccia
A. A. Antoniou1
National Technical University of Athens, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Athens, Greece

The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) is one of the main parameter for rock mass characterization and classification, as well
as in rock engineering practice. Although UCS testing has been standardized by the International Society for Rock Mechanics
other parameters such as results from point load test, which is comparatively cheap and easy to apply, are most widely used.
Various studies in the literature propose relationships between Is50 (from point load test) and UCS, thus objective of this study is
to determine conversion factors relating Is50 and UCS for intact sedimentary rocks, as well as for conglomerates and breccias,
since to those rocks, specimen with geometric characteristics for the USC test according to ISRM requirements can not be easily

La résistance á la compression uniaxe est la paramètre essentielle pour définir et classifier la messe rocher. Bien que la résistance
á la compression a été normalisée par la Société International du Mécanique des Roche, autres paramètres telle que l’essai
ponctuel, sont appliquées. Objectif de cette étude est la proposition des facteurs de la conversion entre l’essai ponctuel et la
résistance à la compression aux rocks sédimentés et semblablement aux conglomérâtes et breccias.

Keywords: uniaxial compressive strength, point load test, conglomerate, breccias

1 INTRODUCTION tion while the testing equipment is less compli-

The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) is The aim of this article is to present a relation
the main test in order to determine the strength of between the point load index and UCS for
intact rock materials; therefore this test has been carbonate sedimentary rocks. Besides that
standardized either by [15] and [1]. Although, another main objective of this study is to
the method is relatively simple, it is time con- determine conversion factors relating Is50 and
suming and expensive; since it requires well- UCS for conglomerates and breccias, since to
prepared rock cores [8]. Hence, indirect tests are those rocks, specimen with geometric
often used to predict the UCS, such as point load characteristics for the USC test according to
index. This test is very easy to carry out, even in ISRM requirements can not be easily shaped.
the field, because it requires no sample prepara-

Corresponding Author.
122 A.A. Antoniou / Estimation of UCS from PLT for Sedimentary Rocks

2 BACKGROUND Laboratory core drill and saw machines were

used to cut the samples in order to provide spe-
The point load strength test apparatus was devel- cimens with size, shape and ends geometries ac-
oped at Imperial College, London as an aid to cording to [15] requirements.
core logging. Nevertheless, this technique has
been used extensively as a laboratory research Table 1. Published equations correlating the UCS to the point
load index
tool and as a useful method for field index test-
ing. British Standards refer that the point load Reference Equation
index is only a quick and cheap laboratory and [4] qu=24Is50
filed indicator strength test, useful to core log- [3] qu=23Is50
ging. Its results are considered as input parame- [12] qu=29Is50
ters to Rock Mass Rating (RMR, [2]) rather than [20]
predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of 1) Sedimentary rocks qu=16Is50
2) Basalts qu=20Is50
The development of point loading method by
[4] led many researchers to conclude to a rela- [10] qu=16.5Is50+51.0
tionship between point load index and UCS. In [16] qu=20÷25Is50
particular, [13]; suggested a very simplified table [27] qu=8.6÷16Is50
of site specific conversion factors for core sam- [26] qu=14÷82Is50
ples of sedimentary rocks (in dry and wet condi- [9] qu=16Is50
tions), and finally proposed an increasing value [7] qu=12.5Is50
of the conversion factor as point load index is in-
creasing. [21], presented published data as well
1) Power relation
as his own for sedimentary rocks and showed a
variation of the conversion factor from 14.5 to 27 2) Linear relation qu=7.3(Is50)1.71
for limestones, 12 to 24 for sandstones, 10 to 15 qu=23Is50
for siltstones, and 5 to 10 for chalk and porous
limestone (in [25]). Table 1 summarizes the Table 2. Physical and mechanical properties of sedimentary
equations correlating the UCS to the point load rock materials
index. As shown, the suggested ratios between
Rock Location No of ad ^c ¦s(50)
compressive strength and point load strength ex- Type samples (¥B/m3) (MPa) (MPa)
hibit a very large range; the ratio for the equa- Limestone Athens 65 23.00- 27- 1.3-
tions using the zero-intercept varies between 7.3 27.59 180 6.4
Dolomitic Piraeus 12
and 29. limestone Crete 23
Tripoli 15
Marly li- Piraeus 5 20.0- 26-37 1.3-
Siltstone Nafpaktos 5 25.89- 10-16 0.6-
26.21 1.0
3.1 Carbonate rocks
Rock samples used in this study were obtained The influence of the sample size upon UCS
from exploratory sampling boreholes. The sam- has been extensively discussed and it is generally
pling locations were widely distributed around assumed that there is a considerable reduction in
the Greek territory (Table 2); while the samples strength with increasing sample size, while the
were sedimentary carbonate rocks, since this ratio of height to diameter of the cylindrical rock
type of rocks is the most common one in Greece, cores remains constant. [14] proposed the fol-
comprising almost the 25% of the outcrops. lowing formula for the conversion of the results
obtained for different diameter specimens:
A.A. Antoniou / Estimation of UCS from PLT for Sedimentary Rocks 123

Vc (1) 3.2 Conglomerate and breccia

V c50 0.18
§ 50 ·
¨ ¸
©d ¹
3.2.1 Introduction
Where; Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting
^c50: is the uniaxial compressive strength calcu- of rounded fragments and are thus differentiated
lated for a 50 mm diameter sample, 200
^ c: is the uniaxial compressive strength cal- 160 y = 21,05x
R2 = 0,75
culated for sample which has a different

c (MPa)
core diameter size, 80
d: is the diameter of the specimen in mm. 40
[13] stated that the results of his studies do not 0
support the previous equation; the maximum 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0

strength values for sedimentary samples ranging Is50 (MPa)

from 38 to 54 mm in diameter. Figure 1. Linear function between point loading and uniaxial
In this study, the cylindrical samples had a compressive strength for sedimentary carbonate rocks.
length to diameter ratio of 1.9 to 2.3, avoiding
any uncertainties regarding the influence of the
sample size on the measured strength. The dia- y = 24,82x 0,88
metrical point load test was carried out on cores R2 = 0,77
c (MPa)

having a length to diameter ratio fluctuated from
1.8 to 2.1. Moreover the loading axis was applied 80

perpendicularly to any visible plane of weakness. 40

Finally the result of point load test considered 0

adequate when the failure plane was fresh and 0,0 1,0 2,0 3,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0
Is50 (MPa)
not following any discontinuity surface.
Regression analysis was applied to define the Figure 2. Power function between point loading and uniaxial
relation among UCS and point load test data. As compressive strength for sedimentary carbonate rocks.
shown in Figs. 1 and 2 the equation for the re-
gression curve is: from breccias, which consist of angular clasts.
Both conglomerates and breccias are character-
Vc 21.05I s (50) (2) ized by clasts larger than sand. Conglomerates
are cemented by various minerals. Normal ce-
menting agents include calcite, quartz, sand and
clay. When the sediment is first deposited there
Vc 24.82 I s (50 )
(3) are lots of open spaces. Cement can affect the
amount of pore space that is left in a rock as it
Several researchers ([6], [18], [19], [5], [11],
[17], [23], [24]) have investigated the properties
of complex geo-materials such as melanges, or
coarse pyroclastic rocks, while many suggest that
only the matrix of a conglomerate would need to
be tested because failure, if it were to occur,
would be through the matrix. This might be ac-
ceptable where over half of the material is matrix
and no boulders or clasts come in contact, or
when boulder size is small. However if a signifi-
cant number of large boulders are present and are
124 A.A. Antoniou / Estimation of UCS from PLT for Sedimentary Rocks

not accounted for the in strength estimate the

strength of the formation would undoubtedly be Table 3. Mechanical properties of conglomerate and breccia
underestimated [22]. In addition, he referred to materials
an empirical criterion where if more than 10% of Rock type Location No of ^c ¦s(50)
the gradation has a size greater than 50mm, or if samples (MPa) (MPa)
5% is greater than 600mm, then the failure path Conglomerate- Athens 8 7.65- 0.30-
27.74 2.77
would be forced around boulders and along breccias
Drama 15 7.23- 0.36-
boulders-matrix contacts; resulting an irregular 33.30 3.65
failure surface with an apparent roughness. Siatista 5 32.50- 3.09-
38.56 5.45
3.2.2 Test approach
In this study, only the results from diametrical
tests on cylindrical specimens were evaluated.
Moreover, tests were rejected as invalid if the
fracture surface passes through only one loading
point (Fig. 3d, 3e).
Figure 4. Valid conglomerate-breccias specimen

Figure 5. Valid conglomerate-breccias specimen

Figure 3. Typical modes of failure for valid and invalid test;
(a) valid diametric tests; (b) valid axial tests; (d) invalid core
tests; (e) invalid axial tests [16].

The samples were obtained only from ex-

ploratory sampling boreholes which were widely
distributed around the Greek territory (Table 3),
while Figs. 4 and 5 present typical conglomerate-
breccias specimens valid for the tests where less
than 5% is greater than 60mm. In Fig. 6 a non
valid specimen is presented. The cemented mate-
rials were usually calcitic, sandy and in some
places clayey, while rock boulders derived main- Figure 6 . Non valid conglomerate-breccias specimen
ly from limestone, marble, sandstone, siltstone,
and schist. V c 10.46 I s (50) (4)
Regression analysis was applied to define the
relation among UCS and point load test data. As
shown in Figs. 7 and 8 the equation for the re- Vc 11.81I s (50 )
gression curve is:
A.A. Antoniou / Estimation of UCS from PLT for Sedimentary Rocks 125

60 [5] C. Burgi, A. Parriaux, G. Franciosi, Geological charac-

50 y = 10,46x terization of weak cataclastic fault rocks with regards to
R2 = 0,77
the assessment of their geomechanical properties. Q J
 c (MPa)

Engng Geol Hydrogeol 34, (2001), 225–232.
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IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

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Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 133
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

Compression index Cc and recompression

index Cr of Zagreb area clays
Indice de compression, Cc, et indice de recompression, Cr, des
argiles de Zagreb
I. Bradvica 1, G. ‡@ˆ
Institut IGH Zagreb, Croatia

The compressibility properties of Zagreb-area clays are evaluated based on oedometer consolidation test results for 177 undis-
turbed samples tested in the period between 2002 and 2007. The compression Cc and recompression Cr indexes are statistically
correlated (linear regression) with the corresponding classification index properties. Each of these indexes is correlated with the
liquid limit, natural moisture content, plastic limit, void ratio, and their combinations. Derived correlations are compared with
similar correlations for clay found in other countries.

La compressibilité des argiles de Zagreb a été analysée sur la base de 177 essais oedométriques effectués sur les échantillons in-
tacts de sol dans la période entre 2002 et 2007. La corrélation statistique entre l'indice de compression, Cc, et l'indice de relaxa-
tion ou recompression, Cr, a été établie par régression linéaire en utilisant les paramètres de classification appropriés tels que la
limite de liquidité, la limite de plasticité, la teneur en eau naturelle, l'indice des vides, et leur combinaisons. Les corrélations ob-
tenues ont été comparées avec les corrélations similaires utilisées pour argiles dans d'autres pays.

Key words: compression index, recompression index, soil index parameters, linear regression.

1 INTRODUCTION sion index Cr, with classification parameters, ref-

erence [1].
After the Institut IGH's Geotechnical Laboratory
was accredited by the HAA (Croatian Accredita-
tion Agency) in 2002, the classification and oe- 2 PURPOSE OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
dometric tests were conducted, in accordance
with British and American standards (BS and This paper does not consider parameters influen-
ASTM) on the first 177 samples of Zagreb-area cing Cc and Cr, such as the type and amount of
clays, taken down to 50m in depth, for various clay minerals and physical properties of soil
builders and clients. Based on these tests, the (density, load history, joints, etc.), i.e. it concen-
correlation was made between oedometric indi- trates only on the correlation by linear regres-
cators of compressive index Cc and recompres- sion, based on some of the selected classification

Corresponding Author.
134 I. Bradvica and G. Mitrović / Compression Index Cc and Recompression Index Cr

tests, which point to the effectively observed Cr H  

natural state of clay. The index Cc provides elas- H  log  (1)
toplastic deformations, while the index Cr gives 1  e0 
elastic deformations that are nonlinear in reality,
due to recompression or additional loading to the The second analysis is the expression for H
preconsolidation level. However, by presentation where the total stress value is greater than the
on the logarithmic scale, they can be shown in preconsolidation stress p.
the linear relationship. For those that will be us-
ing these data in the settlement analysis, a brief
Cr H p Cc H  
reminder of abbreviations used is given below: H  log  log 
1  e0  1  e0 p
’ - geological effective vertical stress,
 - increase of vertical stress due to external Preliminary empirical statistical relationships
load, are used for calculation of consolidation, accord-
p - preconsolidation stress, ing to the above expressions for H in design,
e0 - void ratio, based on rapid classification tests. To establish
w0 - natural moisture content, correspondence of results, the Zagreb-area clay
wl - liquid limit, studies were compared with the published Amer-
wp - plastic limit, ican studies primarily relating to clays from Chi-
Cc - compressibility index cago and Texas.
Cr - index of recompression
Cs - swelling or rebound index
Although the swelling or rebound index Cs,
differs from the recompression index Cr, the
A part of the oedometer test report for one of the
presentation of the oedometric loop of unloading
analyzed Zagreb clay samples is shown in Figure
and recompression is taken, for purposes of en-
gineering simplification, as the loop axis of these
two parameters and Cr is used in this study.
The stress applied on the normally consolidat-
ed clay sample is equal to or greater than the pre-
consolidation stress ( > p), while stress exerted
on a preconsolidated sample is smaller than the
preconsolidation stress ( p < ). Practically all
samples subjected to this analysis were preconso-
lidated. The consolidation value H, as deter-
mined through oedometric testing of clay sam-
ples representing a layer of H thickness, will be
dependent on the value of additional stress,  ,
and on preconsolidation stress that depended on
previous stress, p. Two distinct analyses can be Figure 1. Shape of Cc and Cr indexes for a Zagreb clay sam-
differentiated. The first analysis is the expression
for H, where the total stress value (geological
The relationships established between the se-
effective stress + additional vertical stress) is
lected classification tests and compression index,
smaller than or equal to the preconsolidation
Cc, and recompression index, Cr, are shown in
stress, p. the following tables.
I. Bradvica and G. Mitrović / Compression Index Cc and Recompression Index Cr 135

Table 1. Correlations established for Cc – compression index Table 3. Previously published equivalences for Cc - compres-
for Zagreb-area clays sion index

Table 2. Correlations established for Cr – recompression in-

dex for Zagreb-area clays

The testing of Zagreb-area clays, with establish-

ment of relations for the compression index Cc,
and recompression index Cr, has revealed a rela-
tively wide dispersion of measured values when
compared to values obtained by calculation.
However, for those measured Cc and Cr values
that are lower than the calculated values, we are
on the side of safety, with regard to greater de-
formations or settlements, which is why it is
more significant to concentrate on measured val-
3.1 Correlation between the compression and ues that are greater than the calculated ones.
recompression indexes according to void Seven of Zagreb clay samples with maximum
ratio deviation of measured values with respect to cal-
culated ones (Table 4.), were selected and ana-
lyzed through equivalences established in this

Table 4. Samples with extreme deviations

Figure 2. Correlation between the compression index and re-

compression index, logarithmic presentation
136 I. Bradvica and G. Mitrović / Compression Index Cc and Recompression Index Cr

Table 5. Comparison of calculated and measured Cc values correlations established for other clays, as can be
seen from comparison with previously published
correlations with other coefficients of selected
variables. The authors recommend the use of
equivalencies defined for Zagreb clays for pre-
liminary design purposes, but with precautions as
indicated above. Final correlations are:

Cc = 0.0091 wo - 0.032
Cr = 0.0005 (wle0) + 0.0171
The newly established correlations for Zagreb Cr = 0.117 Cc + 0.0101
clay (equivalence No. 2 for Cc and equivalences
No. 12 for Cr) have revealed the smallest devia- The correlations established for other clays show
tions between the calculated values and meas- greater dispersion of measured values when
ured values. Only one out of the total of 177 tests compared to the above correlations.
exceeded the calculated value by more than two
times. Other correlations established in this study
are similar to previously established relation- REFERENCES
ships, references [2] and [3].
Školska knjiga, Zagreb 1979.
[2] R.D. Holtz, W.D. Kovacs, An Introduction to Geotech-
Table 6. Comparison of typical values of compression index-
nical Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
es Cc
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981.
[3] S. Javed, Prediction of Compression and Recompres-
sion Indices of Texas Overconsolidated Clays, Proceed-
ings of Texas ASCE Spring Meeting, 2005.


The study of Zagreb-area clays, and establish-

ment of relations for compression index, Cc, and
recompression index, Cr, has revealed a relative-
ly great dispersion of measured values when
compared to values obtained by calculation. For
measured Cc and Cr values, that are lower than
calculated values, we are on the side of safety
with regard to greater deformations or settle-
ments, which is why it is more significant to
concentrate on measured values that are greater
than the calculated ones. Measured values com-
pared to calculated ones, with extreme devia-
tions, are given in Table 5. Correlations estab-
lished in this paper point to similarities with
Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 137
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.

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Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 143
A. Anagnostopoulos et al. (Eds.)
IOS Press, 2011
© 2011 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.


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