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U5 Tube Failure Investegation Report May 2014

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Date: 12.6.2014

Incident Description:

Unit 5 Boiler tube Failure

Final Report

On Sunday May 04, during preparations for boiler safety valves tests by Boiler Department. Boiler fired and tripped Many times before reaching the range of test, boiler fired again and during the boiler pressure increasing there was drop in pressure at that time boiler vibration was noticed and seen white smoke at chimney. And safety valve test failed to do.

During operation boiler feed pump tripped by vibration without tripping the boiler. On May 05, operation Engineer decided that the boiler tube failure occurred and there is a leakage.

Consequently, this committee was formed involving members from operation, maintenance, planning and efficiency departments in order to investigate the problem and recommend an effective action plan to determine the causes. Activities of the committee included a series of short brainstorming meetings; return to DCS Unit history, Operation and Maintenance reports in addition of some research from the Internet about the same case.

History of The Problem:

By referred to the operation and BMD reports Boiler Fired and prepared to The Safety Valve test On 02/05/2014 BMD Failed to Complete the test cause boiler tripped many times by Drum LVL low ,On 03/05/2014 resumed testing but MFT Defect and Dum level Low caused the fail of test

On 04/05/2014 boiler ready, 3 Oil burners in service but drum level reading fault boiler tripped by fuel press (6.5) Operation and maintenance check out and found boiler tube failure and many tubes were bent severely at boiler rear, right side wall and left side wall.

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Oil Burner Status:

Based on Operation log book:

19:29 O/B 5B fired

19:49 O/B 5G fired

20:34 O/B 5D fired

23:07 O/B 5A fired

23:08 O/B 5G stopped

The tables below shows the:

1- Performance parameters of Boiler Feed Pump and drum level

2-Feed Water Flow and Drum level

Status of BFP

Time

Drum level (mm)

Trip

23:38:33

+21

Start

23:44:37

-269

Trip

23:48:13

-79

Start

23:51:49

-199

Trip

23:52:25

-251

Start

00:08:46

-306

Trip

00:11:55

-314

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Time

Feed water Flow(T/H)

Drum level (mm)

00:09:54

334

-310

00:11:54

0

-314

00:20:45

93

-317

00:36:09

100

-328

00:53:00

104

-336

Note: Drum level low alarm setting -250

 

Highlighting point:

**Boiler was out of Service for a long time before this incident

 

** One BFP on Service

 

** Drum level deterioration started from 23:44:37 (-269 mm) when BFP tripped by vibration

** BFP tripped 3 times by vibration without boiler tripping

 

** Firing tripped at 00:09:54 when drum level -310

** Boiler Tripped by F.O press without BFP tripping

**Burner (B)have got along flame

 

** On 02/05/2014 Boiler tripped 6 time by drum level low

 
 

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DCS Trends:

  • 1- Show drum level when BFP tripped

DCS Trends: 1- Show drum level when BFP tripped 5

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  • 2- The Trip Point when F.O press. increased , feed water decreased and drum level less than -300mm

2- The Trip Point when F.O press. increased , feed water decreased and drum level less

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7

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  • 3- 02/05/2014 operation and tripped by drum level low (for Example took 1/6 trips)

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  • 4- 25/05/2014 U6 Safety valve Test

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Conclusion:

All the circumstances indicate the occurrence of short term over heating caused by the reduction of feed water and continuing the firing which in turn caused the tube failure and tube bending.

Tree cause below can explain the incident;

Flame impingement

from upper burners

Over firing or uneven firing of burners

Conclusion: All the circumstances indicate the occurrence of short term over heating caused by the reduction
  • Excessive

heat flux

Low Boiler Short-term water screen tube overheating flow fish-mouth rupture Reduced tube wall thickness Oxide inclusion
Low
Boiler
Short-term
water
screen tube
overheating
flow
fish-mouth
rupture
Reduced tube
wall thickness
Oxide inclusion in
tube material (as
conformed by lab
Scale/Deposition
Scale/Deposition
Starvation due to failure of another tube
Starvation due to
failure of another
tube

Sudden load

swing

 

Rapid startup

Instrumentation/co ntrol fault/lack of response

Starvation due to failure of another tube
Starvation due to
failure of another
tube
Improper welding repair upstream
Improper welding
repair upstream

Debris left in steam drum

Poor design of new combustion system

Circulation failure caused by low water level
Circulation failure
caused by low water
level

Sudden increase in

steam demand

Partial tube blockage/obstruction

Erosion from gas side

Erosion from gas side

Long-term overheating
Long-term
overheating

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The time of overheating equals the different between drum level deterioration time and the firing stop time it is about 24 minute it is enough to caused failure

Recommendation:

  • 1- Must have a protection system to the boiler when BFP Tripped.

    • 2- Must have a procedure for safety Valve Test

      • 3- Formation main team for all commissioning work (from All Department).

        • 4- Preservation Boiler

Attached File:

  • Boiler Maintenance department inspection Report

  • Operation Report

  • Operation Report

  • Chemical Unit Analysis Report

  • The Nalco guide to boiler failure analysis

  • Babcock boiler analysis

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