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Network Components
Aim: To provide basic network devices and LAN technologies.
Objective: After going through this assignment you will be in a position to:
1. Basic components of a network (Sender, medium, receiver)
2. List the different components( hub, switch, router etc)
3. Various transmission medium ( UTP, FOC, STP, Coaxial, Bluetooth, IR)
4. Understand the use of computer network
5. Examples of networking ( ATM, Novell Netware )
Theory: Elaborate the following points.
1. Basic elements of communication system (Sender, medium, receiver).
2. Type of transmission medium ( Guided and unguided)
3. Networking devices ( Repeater, Hub, Switch, Bridge, Router, Gateway)
4. Network topology (Star, Bus, Ring, Mesh).
5. Classification of computer network ( LAN, WAN, MAN)
6. Reference model ( ISO-OSI, TCP/IP)

1. Ask students to define the term network.
2. Begin to focus on computer networks, seeking to apply some attributes of networks
in a broader sense to their understanding of computer networks. Ask students to list
examples of computer networks they may encounter on a regular basis like ATM
networks, etc.
3. Ask students to explain why computer networks were developed. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of computer networking?
4. Explain that computer networks can be classified in various ways, in terms of their
scale, the arrangement of network nodes i.e. topology, the functional relationship
among network nodes, and the protocols that govern their operation.

1. Define LAN.
2. What is the difference between hub and switch?

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1. Network Components

3. For ‘n’ devices in a network, what is the number of cable links required for a mesh
and ring topology?
4. Define Routers.
5. What are the four internetworking devices?

Network Laboratory SCOEIT 2

2. Network Implementation
Title: Design and implement a small network using actual physical components with IP
address scheme.
Aim: To provide the necessary skills for LAN implementations.
Objective: After going through this assignment you will be in a position to:
1. Solve basic network design problems.
2. Design and build a simple local area network, and implement appropriate
network operating system client and server software in a Windows and Linux
3. Define and describe the function of a MAC address.
4. Describe the different classes of IP addresses.
5. How to setup IP an addressing scheme using class “A/B/C” networks
6. Understand the purpose of the network mask.
7. Applications, merits and demerits of this assignment.
Theory: Elaborate the following points.
1. Choosing the Best Computer Network.
2. Client server network ( client, server , diagram )
3. MAC address and IP address ( all classes )
4. Subnetting ( Definition, requirement)
5. Applications
1. Decide which topology is going to use.
2. List out all the hardware and software required for network.
3. Decide which class IP addresses are available.
4. Decide the number of user.
1. Define IP address.
2. Define Gateway.
3. List the different types of topology?
4. Which transmission media used in star topology?
5. Define a protocol?
6. What is subnet mask?

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3. TCP/IP Utilities And Commands
Title: Study of the TCP/IP utilities and commands.
a. Ping b. Ifconfig c. tracert d. whois e. netstat
Aim: To develop the necessary skills for network maintains and troubleshooting.
Objective: After going through this assignment you will be in a position to:
1. How to Determine Network Configuration
2. Troubleshooting the network
3. Test Local Connectivity
4. Check Configuration Settings
5. Testing Routes
6. Network status
Theory: Elaborate the following points:
(Working and uses)
1. Ping 2. Ifconfig 3. tracert 4. whois 5. netsat
1. Ping Command
• The ping command helps to verify IP-level connectivity. When troubleshooting,
you can use ping to send an ICMP echo request to a target host name or IP
address. Use ping whenever you need to verify that a host computer can
connect to the TCP/IP network and network resources. You can also use ping to
isolate network hardware problems and incompatible configurations.
• It is usually best to verify that a route exists between the local computer and a
network host by first using the ping command and the IP address of the network
host to which you want to connect. Try pinging the IP address of the target host
to see if it responds, as follows:
ping IP_address
You should perform the following steps when using ping:
1. Ping the loopback address to verify that TCP/IP is installed and configured
correctly on the local computer.

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3. TCP/IP Utilities And Commands

2. Ping the IP address of the local computer to verify that it was added to the network
ping IP_address_of_local_host
3. Ping the IP address of the default gateway to verify that the default gateway is
functioning and that you can communicate with a local host on the local network.
ping IP_address_of_default_gateway
4. Ping the IP address of a remote host to verify that you can communicate through a
ping IP_address_of_remote_host
• If you cannot use ping successfully at any point, confirm that:
1. The computer was restarted after TCP/IP was installed and configured.
2. The IP address of the local computer is valid and appears correctly on the General
tab of the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.
3. IP routing is enabled and the link between routers is operational.
2. Ipconfig/Ifconfig command
• Ipconfig – used in Windows based systems to get basic host computer
configuration information, including the IP address, subnet mask, and default
gateway. When ipconfig is used with the /all switch, it produces a more detailed
configuration report for all network interfaces.
• Ifconfig – used in Linux based systems to make an interface accessible to the kernel
networking layer. This involves the assignment of an IP address and other
parameters and activation of the interface
• Examples
• To display the basic TCP/IP configuration for all adapters, type:
• To display the full TCP/IP configuration for all adapters, type:
ipconfig /all
3. Tracert

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3. TCP/IP Utilities And Commands

• Tracert is used to trace the probable path a packet takes between source and
destination. Probable, because IP is a connectionless protocol and different packets
may take different paths between the same source and destination networks,
although this is not usually the case.
• Trace will show the path the packet takes to the destination, but the return path may
be different. This is more likely the case in the Internet, and less likely within your
own autonomous system.
• The TRACERT or TRACEROUTE utility can be used to check connectivity
over longer distances. If you can access some locations on the network, but not
others, you can use TRACEROUTE to determine which link in the chain is
broken. Uses ICMP message within an IP Packet.
• Calculate and display number of hops between computers. it also calculate time it
takes to traverse entire one-way path between machines
• UNIX platforms the layout of the command is:
TRACEROUTE [destination IP address]
TRACEROUTE [URL of the destination host]
• On Windows machines the function of traceroute comes with the command
4. whois
• To make it easier for administrators to find information about domains in this large
distributed database, modern TCP/IP implementations generally come with an
intelligent version of the whois utility. It is able to accept as input the name of a
domain and automatically locate the appropriate registry in which that domain’s
information is located. The utility is usually used as follows:
whois [-h <whois-host>] <domain>

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• In this syntax, “<domain>” represents the name about which registration
information is requested. The administrator can use the “-h” parameter to force the
program to query a particular whois server, but again, this is usually not required.
3. TCP/IP Utilities And Commands

• Some implementations also include other options that can be used to direct queries
to particular registries.
5. Netstat
• Netstat displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections. Netstat is a
common command line TCP/IP networking utility available in most versions of
Windows, Linux, Unix and other operating systems. Netstat provides information
and statistics about protocols in use and current TCP/IP network connections.
• This utility provides the connection both the local and remote, ports and the state of
the connection. It has several switches which maybe found by typing netstat /? from
the command prompt.
• It provides the IP addresses and the ports of the remote computer(S) to which the
socket is connected. If a port has not been established it is indicated by a *.
• It shows the port numbers as well as IP address for the local computer. It provides
the type of protocol being used for the connection(s). It provides a status of the
connection. Is it established ?? is it closed ?? or is it waiting ?? and more
For example : c:\ netstat
6. Telnet Commands
• The telnet protocol also specifies various commands that control the method and
various details of the interaction between the client and server. These commands are
incorporated within the data stream. The commands are distinguished by the use of
various characters with the most significant bit set. Commands are always
introduced by a character with the decimal code 255 known as an Interpret as
command (IAC) character

telnet [\\RemoteServer]

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\\RemoteServer : Specifies the name of the server to which you want to connect.
/?: Displays help at the command prompt.
3. TCP/IP Utilities And Commands

1. What is ping?
2. Which port number used by FTP?
3. What is traceroute ?
4. Which command is used by Ping command?
5. What is the port number used by Telnet?

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4. Protocol Analyzer
AIM: To analyze the network as well as packet header with the help of any protocol
analyzer. (Ethereal/Wire-shark)

OBJECTIVE: This lab will introduce the network protocol analyzer (ethereal/
wireshark). We will also be concentrating on:
1. Network analyzing process.
2. Packet capturing process.

1. What is a protocol analyzer?
2. Explore different packet headers with the analyzer. Write in brief about the same.

INPUT: Steam of data packets using diff. protocols

Steps to be followed:

1. Execute the Wireshark setup

2. Select the “Capture” option. Select “Interfaces” under the

3. Select the NIC card and click on “Start”

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4. Protocol Analyzer

4. The packets flowing in the network can be seen.

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4. Protocol Analyzer

5. Click on “Stop” the capture and start exploring the frames

6. Select a frame and explore the protocol. Here is an example of how the explored
ARP protocol packet will look

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4. Protocol Analyzer

OUTPUT: Result:-packets captured

1. What protocols are currently supported on Wireshark?
2. What type of sockets does ethereal use to capture packets?
3. Can the contents of the message be seen on the analyzer?
4. Can we use Ethereal with Linux?
5. Can a protocol analyzer be used as a hacking tool?
6. What devices can a network analyzer use to capture packets?

1. Connect a small network and transfer files with FTP. Capture the packets with the
2. Connect two machines and make a VoIP call. Observe the packets and check out
the call flow diagram on ethereal/wireshark.

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5.Switch Configuration
Title: Design & implement network using network simulator

AIM: To design & implement medium/large network using any network simulator
(Boson simulator) with IP address scheme (CIDR).

OBJECTIVE: This lab will introduce the Internetwork Operating System (IOS)
command line interface (CLI). In this, we also shall be exploring about how to study IPv4
address management through subnetting / VLSM/CIDR.

1. What is an IOS?
2. What are different types of switches available in the market? What are
different access modes and commands used on switch?
3. What are IPv4 addresses?
4. Brief description about VLSM, CIDR and subnetting with examples.
5. What are VLANs? Why are they used in a network?


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6. Network Simulator
5.Switch Configuration


Switch configuration:

The switch supports these interface types:

1. Physical ports—Switch ports

2. VLANs—switch virtual interfaces
3. Port-channels—Ether-Channel of interfaces

To configure a physical interface (port), enter interface configuration mode,

and specify the interface type, slot, and number.

• Type: Fast Ethernet (fast Ethernet or fa) for 10/100 Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet (Gigabit
Ethernet or gi).

• Slot: The slot number on the switch (always 0 on this switch).

• Port number: The interface number on the switch. The port numbers always begin at 1,
starting at the left when facing the front of the switch. For example: fastethernet 0/1,
fastethernet 0/2. If there is more than one media type (for example, 10/100 ports and
Gigabit Ethernet ports), the port number starts again with the second media: gigabitethernet
0/1, gigabitethernet 0/2.
We can identify physical interfaces by physically checking the interface location on
the switch. We can also use the IOS show privileged EXEC commands to display
information about a specific interface or all the interfaces on the switch.

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5.Switch Configuration

Procedures for Configuring Interfaces:

These general instructions apply to all interface configuration processes:

1. Logging onto a switch requires connecting a Console cable from Console port of a
Switch to SERIAL or COM port of workstation Press enter to get into the user
prompt mode. Enter enable to get into privileged mode.
2. Type “?” to see a list of privileged mode commands. Enter disable to go back to
user mode.

> enable
# disable
3. Switch the catalyst switch ON and get into privileged mode and then into global
configuration mode. Assign switch a host name of 1900sw. Use exit or ctrl-z to get out of
configuration mode.
> enable
# configure terminal
(config)# hostname 1900sw
1900sw(config)# exit

4. On switch1, type show running-config to see the active configuration.

1900sw# show running-config

5. On switch1, erase the current configuration with the following command:

1900sw# delete nvram

6. On switch1, get into privileged mode and then into global configuration. Reassign
the switch a hostname of 1900sw and an enable password of ‘cisco’. Assign the
switch an IP address of with a subnet mask of Assign
the switch a default gateway of (Router’s ethernet address if router is
also considered to be connected)

> enable
# configure terminal
(config)# hostname 1900sw
1900sw(config)# enable password level 15 cisco
1900sw(config)# ip address
1900sw(config)# ip default-gateway

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7. On switch, issue the show ip command to verify that the IP address, mask, and
default gateway are correct.

1900sw# show ip

8. On switch, issue the show interfaces command.

1900sw# show interfaces

9. On switch, issue the show version command.

1900sw# show version

10. On switch, issue the show spantree command.

1900sw# show spantree

11. On switch, issue the show mac-address-table command. This shows which devices
are attached to which switch ports.

1900sw# show mac-address-table

12. On switch, permanently assign a device with MAC address 1111-1111-1111 to port
E0/5. Issue the show mac-address-table command to verify the device is in the table
as a permanent entry.

1900sw(config)# mac-address-table permanent 1111-1111-1111 e0/5

1900sw(config)# exit
1900sw# show mac-address-table

13. We can use the interface range global configuration command to configure
multiple interfaces with the same configuration parameters. When we enter the
interface range configuration mode, all command parameters that we enter are
attributed to all interfaces within that range until we exit this mode.

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5.Switch Configuration

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5.Switch Configuration


Description of topology:
This is the simple topology to demonstrate VLAN configuration. The two VLANs
on switch are assigned some ports. Our main aim is to check the logical grouping between
the VLANs .Two pc’s pc1 and pc2 are grouped in same VLAN with assigned ports fast
Ethernet fa0/1 (mode 0/1 st port) and fa0/2 , and pc3,pc4 are grouped in vlan 3 . Let’s try to
ping a pc connected to port fa0/1 to fa0/2 and fa/3. The result will conclude this

I. Switch configuration :

1. Configure the 2950 switch by going to the console and press ctrl+c to enter in
command line interface.
You will receive the > prompt.
2. Assign the user mode password on 2950 .The switch uses the command to set the
user and privileged mode commands.

3. Enable the switch for global configuration.

4. Specify the vlan that are to be configured in the vlan database
5. Assign switch ports to the vlans given in the database
6. Verify the configuration on switch using
a) Show ip.
b) Show running –config
c) Show int f0/17(any interface)

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5.Switch Configuration

II. Configuring VLANs on the switch:

1. Switch# vlan database

2. Switch (vlan) # vlan 2 name x
(Vlan 2 added, Name: x)
3. Switch (vlan) # vlan 3 name y
(Vlan 3 added, Name: y)
4. Switch (vlan)#apply
(Apply completed.)
5. Switch (vlan) # end

III. Checking VLAN database:

1. Switch# sh vlan brief

IV. Assigning the ports to VLANs added in database:

1. Switch (config) #int f0/1

(0 specifies the Mode and 2 species the port in that mode)
2. Switch (config-if) #switchport mode access
3. Switch (config-if) #switchport access vlan 2
4. Switch (config) #int f0/2
5. Switch (config-if)#switchport mode access
6. Switch (config-if) #switchport access vlan 2
7. Switch (config) #int f0/3
8. Switch (config-if ) #switchport mode access
9. Switch (config-if) #switchport access vlan 3
10. Switch (config) #int f0/4
11. Switch (config-if) # switchport mode access
12. Switch (config-if) #switchport access vlan 3
13. Switch (config-if) #end

V. To checkout the configuration:

1. Switch# sh vlan brief

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5.Switch Configuration

Command summary:

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5.Switch Configuration

IOS commands:

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5.Switch Configuration


1. Which layer of OSI and TCP/IP model switch is associated with?

2. What are different switches available in market?
3. What are VLANs?
4. What is the difference between VLAN and VPN?
5. What is the difference between L3 switch and a router?


1. Implement a small network using a switch. Implement VLAN for the same.
Implement inter-VLAN communication for two VLANs

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6 . Router Configuration
AIM: To configure a router using router commands including access lists on any network
simulator (Packet Tracer)

OBJECTIVE: Find information about router configurations, memory size, interface

status and IP addresses. Execute the user-levels and command modes on a Cisco router.
Configure and modify the Cisco 2600 router interfaces.

1. What are different components of a router? What are different memories used with
2. Describe different modes of Cisco IOS
3. What is a HyperTerminal? Where is it used?
4. What are access lists? Why do we use access lists?


To access the router you need first to establish a telnet session to its Commserver. The next
few steps help you connect to the Commserver.


(Figure 1)

Use HyperTerminal to establish a telnet session:

1. Go to Start>Programs>Accessories>Communications>HyperTerminal on the PC
2. Next, name the session for the new connection.

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6 . Router Configuration

3. You can view all commands available at this mode by entering “? “at the prompt:

2600> ?
( the help command, lists all commands)

4. This command is also helpful when you need a list of all commands that begin with
the same letters. For instance, let us try to find all commands that start with letters
“sh”. Enter the command:

2600> sh?
(list all commands that begin with “sh”?)

5. Also you can determine the arguments that matches a particular command using the
“?” help command

2600> show ?
(lists the available matching arguments for show command)

6. Commands are often abbreviated to the minimum number of letters that identifies a
unique selection

2600> sh ?
(verify that sh is similar to show command)
(Note the space after sh.)

7. To delete a configuration line enter no in front of the statement you wish to delete.
For example:

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r1(config-if)# no ip address
6 . Router Configuration

8. To switch to the Privileged EXEC mode enter enable (or its abbreviation en)

2600> enable
(enable command to switch to privileged mode)

9. Enter the password on the flyer handed out to you. To view the configuration of the
router enter:

2600# show run

(display the configuration information currently running on the router.)


(Figure 2)

10. Note the ip host commands and how line numbers 2001, 2002, etc. were assigned
to routers. You must do this by way of the commserver. There are two ways to
accomplish this. You can also use the telnet command with the commserver IP
address of the city location to connect to router r1:

2600# telnet IP address of commserver 2001

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6 . Router Configuration

11. Connecting to router r1 using line 2001 of the Commserver. Line 2002 connects to
r2, 2003 to router r3, 2004 to r4, etc. Or you could simply enter the name of the
router, r1. (this would be r4 if you were assigned to routers Press ENTER key again
after the “… Open” line and you should see the prompt r1> or “Connection refused
by remote host” message, similar to the next window:

12. If you get a “Connection refused by remote host” message the telnet session is
suspended and you will have to clear the console line. To do this, enter the
following commands on your Commserver:

2600# clear line 1

(clears line 1 (or ‘clear line 4’ for r4) so it’s ready for new telnet sessions.)
(For r2 enter “clear line 2”, for r3 “clear line 3”, r4 “clear line 4”, etc)

13. Press the enter key to confirm the clearing of the line or repeat the command until
the line clears. Now try connecting to the router again as explained above. Verfiy
that you successfully connected to the router by looking at the hostname prompt.
Now that you have established a connection with your router you can begin to
configure and maneuver within that Cisco device using Cisco’s IOS software.

14. First, enter privileged EXEC mode of the router, r1.

r1> enable
(You should see a # sign next to router r1 now)

15. To find the version and system information about your router issue the following

r1# show version

(NOTE: When you see “–More—“ press the spacebar to continue with the entire
output. )

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6 . Router Configuration

16. To interrupt output press Ctrl-Z until it brings you back to the router prompt.

a. What is the software image version?

b. How long has the device been running?
c. How many interfaces are physically present on this device?
17. To find memory information about the router, enter:

r1# show memory

a. How much total memory is there for the processor (b=bytes)?
b. How much processor memory is in use?
c. How much processor memory is free or available for use?

18. To learn about the status of the interfaces of this router use the following command:

r1# show ip interface

a. What is the administrative status of the first Ethernet interface?
b. What is the line protocol status of the first Ethernet interface?
c. What is the difference between these two fields?
19. The CLI is smart enough to recognize abbreviated commands. For example sh ipint
br would be enough to issue the above command. In addition, if you enter the first
few letters of a command and hit Tab, it will display the remainder of the command.

r1# show ip interface brief


There are two different configurations stored on the router. These configurations are
called the Running Configuration and the Start-Up Configuration. The Running
Configuration is your current, working configuration. This configuration is stored in the
RAM memory of the router.

1. Enter the following command:

r1# show running-config
a.What interfaces are present?

2. The Start-Up configuration is the configuration that is loaded when the router initializes
its boot sequence. This configuration is stored in the NVRAM of the router. To view this
configuration, enter the command.

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Since we have made no changes in the configuration, the startup and running
configurations are the same.

6 . Router Configuration


To configure the router you must be in the Configuration Mode. You can get
to the configuration mode from the Privileged EXEC Mode.

A. Global Configuration Mode

1. From privileged mode, you can monitor devices, view the status of interfaces, or
run debugging. However, if you want to change the configuration of the router, you
must enter configuration mode. This is done using the 'configure terminal
command. From router r1 enter the following commands:

r1# configure terminal

r1(config)# <CTRL>+Z

2. The prompt now indicates that you are in configuration mode, as shown above. This
is global configuration mode. Configuration commands that are entered here apply
to the entire system. This is where you would do such things as enable a routing
protocol, or change the hostname of the router. To exit from configuration mode,
press <CTRL>+Z.

B. Interface Configuration Mode

1. Many features must be configured on a per-interface basis, rather than for the entire
system. For example, to assign an IP address to the Serial interface, we must get to
the configuration mode specific to that port. There may be many interfaces with
different addresses. To do this we must enter interface configuration mode. To enter
an interface of the router perform the following commands:

r1# configure terminal

r1(config)# interface serial0/1
r1(config-if)# <CTRL>+Z

>> Notice that our prompt has changed once again. To exit from interface
configuration mode, use the 'exit' command. This will return you to global
configuration mode. To exit configuration mode entirely and go back to privileged
Exec mode, press <CTRL>+Z.

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6 . Router Configuration

1. To change the name of your router (hostname), you need to be in the global
configuration mode.

r1# config terminal

(entering the global configuration mode)
r1(config)# hostname Spartan
(configuration of new host name)

>> Notice the change in your prompt name to confirm the change of the
hostname of your router.
>> Repeat steps above to change the hostname back to its original name
>>Exit the global mode with a Ctrl-Z.

2. Find all interfaces configured in your router, r1

r1# show run

(displays all running interfaces)
r1# show interfaces
(displays detailed information on all interfaces on the router)

3. Now assign interface Serial 0/1 of Router r1 the IP address as described below:
a. From the global configuration mode enter:

r1(config)# interface Serial0/1

(enter configuration mode)
r1(config-if)# ip address
(assign an IP address and a Class C subnet mask to the interface using its IP address in
b. To complete the interface configuration you need to activate the interface. By
default router interfaces are deactivated by manufacturer, left on the shutdown
state. From interface configuration mode, enter:

r1(config-if)# no shutdown
(activate the interface)

4. Exit to the privileged mode by entering <Ctrl>-Z and use the command show ip
interface brief to check if the interface has been assigned an IP address and see if
the interface status has changed. It should be in “administratively up” status, if not,
continue with the steps below to configure IP addresses to connecting interfaces to

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bring it to an up state. To switch to another router or “reverse telnet”, suspend this
telnet session by pressing [Ctrl+Shift+6] simultaneously, release the keys then

6 . Router Configuration

press x. This will take you back to your Commserver and should display a 2511#
prompt. Telnet to the router r3, and configure an IP address and subnet mask on the
Serial interface 0/0 as described below. From the global configuration mode enter:

r3(config)# interface Serial0/0

(enter configuration mode)
r3(config-if)# ip address
(assign an IP address and a Class C subnet mask to the interface using its IP address
in Figure)

Perform a no shutdown command and exit to the privileged mode. Check the
interface modification using the show ip interface brief command. There should be
a connection between routers r1 and r3 as determined by the interface Serial 0/0
having a status of “up” and a protocol status of “up”.


Use commands and methods of the previous exercises to assign IP addresses using Figure 2
to complete the configuration of the network.

1. Testing Connectivity

ping and traceroute are tools commonly used to test network layer connectivity.
You can also examine the device’s routing table to obtain further information on
network layer functionality.
2. Testing accessibility: ping

The ping (packet internet groper) command demonstrates network layer

connectivity and gives you an idea of the reliability of the path to the specified
system. ping does this by providing information as to the minimum, average, and
maximum times it takes for ping packets to find the specified system and return.
There are two forms of ping. The simplest form is available through the User
EXEC mode of the CLI. It takes the IP address of the interface of the device you
want to contact as its only argument, for example:

r1# ping

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There is also an advanced feature of ping call the extended ping which is available
from the Privileged EXEC mode of the CLI. It provides more testing for the link.
You can access this advanced form of ping by simply entering ping at the router
prompt. But for now, use the simple form to ping addresses. ping the IP address of

6 . Router Configuration

one of your directly connected devices. While connected to Router r3 ping Router

Notice the success rate is 100 % meaning you successfully reached the destination
router. Congratulations! If you have anything below 100% the router has difficulty
with making a network connection to the other router.

3. Finding the Point of Failure: traceroute

The traceroute command is used to find the actual path that packets took to reach
its destination. Instead of testing just end-to-end connectivity, as ping, traceroute
is used to check each link along the packet route. Experiment with the traceroute
command as we did with ping, starting with the line command:

r1# traceroute
(IP address of destination)

The trace command terminates when the destination responds, when the maximum
TTL is exceeded, or when the user interrupts the trace with the escape sequence.
4. Checking the Routing Table: show ip route

Through the show ip route command you can directly examine the routing table to
determine if an entry for the host actually exists. The output of the show ip route
displays the entries in the routing table. (directly connected network, static route, or
which routing protocol was used to select the route, and via the type of connection
the information was collected). View the routing table of r2 by entering:

r2# show ip route

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6 . Router Configuration

(output of show ip route command)

5. Setting password to console port:

Starting from within the Router (config) mode, you need to put in the following
series of commands to create one.
Router (config) # line console 0
Router (config-line) # login
Router (config-line) # password CISCO
Router (config-line #Ctrl-Z


Router access modes :

1. User EXEC mode - limited examination of router


2. Privileged EXEC mode - detailed examination of router, debugging, testing, file

manipulation, etc.

3. Global configuration mode – configuring router interfaces, routing protocols, etc.
4. ROM Monitor - useful for password recovery & new IOS upload session
5. Setup Mode – available when router has no startup-config file
6. Console – direct PC serial access
7. External configuration sources:

Auxiliary port – Modem access

Virtual terminals – Telnet access

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TFTP Server – copy configuration file into router RAM

6 . Router Configuration


Access lists can allow one host to access a part of your network and prevent another
host from accessing the same area. In Figure , host A is allowed to access the Human
Resources network, and host B is prevented from accessing the Human Resources network.

You can also use access lists to decide which types of traffic are forwarded or
blocked at the router interfaces. For example, you can permit e-mail traffic to be routed, but
at the same time block all Telnet traffic.

The Cisco access control list (ACL) is probably the most commonly used object in
the IOS. It is not only used for packet filtering (a type of firewall) but also for selecting
types of traffic to be analyzed, forwarded, or influenced in some way.


Cisco ACLs are divided into types. Standard IP, Extended IP, IPX, Appletalk, etc. Here
we will just go over the standard and extended access lists for TCP/IP. As you create
ACLs you assign a number to each list, however, each type of list is limited to an
assigned range of numbers. This makes it very easy to determine what type of ACL you
will be working with.

1. TCP/IP Access Lists

You can have up to 99 Standard IP Access Lists ranging in number from 1 to 99,

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the Extended IP Access Lists number range is assigned from 100 to 199. The most
common use of the Extended IP access list to is create a packet filtering firewall. This is
where you specify the allowed destinations of each packet from an allowed source.

6 . Router Configuration

2. Standard IP Access Lists

A Standard Access List only allows you to permit or deny traffic from specific IP
addresses. The destination of the packet and the ports involved do not matter.
Here is an example:
access-list 10 permit
(This list allows traffic from all addresses in the range to

You can see how the last entry looks similar to a subnet mask, but with Cisco
ACLs they use inverse subnet masks. Also realize that by default, there is an
implicit deny added to every access list. If you entered the command:

show access-list 10

The output would be:

access-list 10 permit
access-list 10 deny any

3. Extended IP Access Lists

Extended ACLs allow you to permit or deny traffic from specific IP addresses to a
specific destination IP address and port. It also allows you to specify different types of
traffic such as ICMP, TCP, UDP, etc. Needless to say, it is very grangular and allows
you to be very specific. If you intend to create a packet filtering firewall to protect your
network it is an Extended ACL that you will need to create.

Typically you would allow outgoing traffic and incoming initiated traffic. In other
words, you want your users to be able to connect to web servers on the internet for
browsing but you do not want anyone on the Internet to be able to connect to your
machines. This will require 2 ACLs. One to only limit our users on the company
network to only use a web browser (so this will block outgoing FTP, email, Kazaa,
napster, online gaming, etc.) The other access-list will only allow incoming traffic from
the Internet that has been initiated from a machine on the inside. This is called an
established connection. Let's see what our access list would look like for starters:

internal network:
access-list 101 - Applied to traffic leaving the office (outgoing)

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access-list 102 - Applied to traffic entering the office (incoming)
Access lists are numbered (for IP, numbered or named)

6 . Router Configuration


a. IP Standard 1 - 99
b. IP Extended 100-199
c. Named (Cisco IOS 11.2 and later)
d. IPX Standard 800 - 899
e. IPX SAP filters 1000 - 1099
f. Apple Talk 600 – 699

1. Number identifies the protocol and type
2. Other number ranges for most protocols:
a. For TCP/IP packet filters, Cisco IOS access lists check the packet and upper layer
headers for:
i. Source IP addresses using standard access lists; identify these with a number
in the range 1 to 99.
ii. Destination and source IP addresses or specific protocols using extended
access lists; identify these with a number in the range 100 to 199.
iii. Upper-level TCP or UDP port numbers in addition to the other tests in
extended access lists; also identify these with a number in the range 100 to
b. For all of these TCP/IP access lists, after a packet is checked for a match with the
access list statement, it can be denied or permitted to use an interface in the access


Decimal Keyword Description
0 Reserved
1-4 Unassigned
5 RJE Remote Job Entry
7 ECHO Echo
9 DISCARD Discard
11 USERS Active Users
13 DAYTIME Daytime

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17 QUOTE Quote of the Day
19 CHARGEN Character Generator
20 FTP-DATA File Transfer Protocol (data)
21 FTP File Transfer Protocol
23 TELNET Terminal Connection

6 . Router Configuration

25 SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

37 TIME Time of Day
39 RLP Resource Location Protocol
42 NAMESERVER Host Name Server
53 DOMAIN Domain Name Server
67 BOOTPS Bootstrap Protocol Server
68 BOOTPC Bootstrap Protocol Client
69 TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
75 Any Private Dial-out Service
77 Any Private RJE Service
79 FINGER Finger
101 HOSTNAME NIC Host Name Server
113 AUTH Authentication Service
117 UUCP-PATH UUCP Path Service
123 NTP Network Time Protocol
133-159 Unassigned
160-223 Reserved
224-241 Unassigned
242-255 Unassigned


Decimal Keyword Description
0 Reserved
1-4 Unassigned
5 RJE Remote Job Entry
7 ECHO Echo
9 DISCARD Discard
11 USERS Active Users
13 DAYTIME Daytime
17 QUOTE Quote of the Day
19 CHARGEN Character Generator
20 FTP-DATA File Transfer Protocol (data)

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21 FTP File Transfer Protocol
23 TELNET Terminal Connection
25 SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
37 TIME Time of Day
39 RLP Resource Location Protocol
42 NAMESERVER Host Name Server

6 . Router Configuration

53 DOMAIN Domain Name Server
67 BOOTPS Bootstrap Protocol Server
68 BOOTPC Bootstrap Protocol Client
69 TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol
75 Any Private Dial-out Service
77 Any Private RJE Service
79 FINGER Finger
123 NTP Network Time Protocol
133-159 Unassigned
160-223 Reserved
224-241 Unassigned
242-255 Unassigned


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6 . Router Configuration


Using the example above you can create a standard IP access list that blocks

host from accessing subnet The commands you need to do this are
given below.

RouterB#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
RouterB(config)#access-list 1 deny
RouterB(config)#access-list 1 permit
RouterB(config)#int e0
RouterB(config-if)#ip access-group 1 out

Key Concepts for IP Access Lists:

1. Standard lists (1-99) test conditions of all IP packets from source address
2. Extended lists (100-199) can test conditions of
a. Source and destination address
b. Specific TCP/IP-suite protocols

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c. Destination ports
3. Wildcard bits indicate how to check the corresponding address bits
(0=check, 1=ignore)

Wildcard mask :

32-bit quantity used in conjunction with an IP address to determine which bits in an IP

address should be ignored when comparing that address with another IP address. A
wildcard mask is specified when setting up access lists.
a. A wildcard mask bit 0 means "check the corresponding bit value.
b. A wildcard mask bit 1 means "do not check (ignore) that corresponding bit value.

Wildcard masking for access lists operates differently from an IP subnet mask. A
zero in a bit position of the access list mask indicates that the corresponding bit in the
address must be checked; a one in a bit position of the access list mask indicates the
corresponding bit in the address is not 'interesting' and can be ignored.

How to use Wildcard mask bits -

1. IP access list test conditions:

Check for IP subnets: to

Address and wildcard mask:

6 . Router Configuration
2. Test condition:
Ignore all the address bits (match any)
Accept any address: (ignore all)
Abbreviate the expression using the key word "any"

3. Test condition:
Check all the address bits (match all)
Check for an IP host: (check all bits)
Abbreviate the wildcard using the key word "host" followed by the IP address


Access list:

1. List kept by Cisco routers to control access to or from the router for a number of
services (for example, to prevent packets with a certain IP address from leaving a
particular interface on the router).
2. Command that creates an entry in a standard traffic filter list.
a. Standard access lists filter based on a 'source address' and mask.
b. Standard access lists permit or deny the entire TCP/IP protocol suite.

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Router(config)# access-list acl-number {permit|deny} source [mask]

a. IP standard access list 'acl-number' uses 1 - 99

b. permit|deny - does this entry allow or block the specified address
c. source - source IP addresses
d. mask - 0s = must match, 1s = don’t care positions

3. IP access-group - Command that links an existing access list to an outbound


Router(config-if)# ip access-group acl-number {in|out}

a. Activates the list on an interface

b. acl-number - the number of the access list to be linked to this interface
c. in/out - Selects whether the access list is applied to the incoming or
d. outgoing interface. If in or out is not specified, out is the default

4. Applying Access Lists:

Finally the instructions you all have been waiting for! Make sure you are in
enabled mode. Then use the command below:

6 . Router Configuration

r1#conf t
r1(config)#int ser0/0
r1(config-if)#access-group 101 out
r1(config-if)#access-group 102 in


1. Allow only traffic from a specific source network

Router(config)# access-list 1 permit

(implicit deny any - not visable in the list)
(access-list 1 deny

Router(config)# interface ethernet 0

Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out
Router(config)# interface ethernet 1
Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1 out

2. Deny a specific host

Router(config)# access-list 1 deny host

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Router(config)# access-list 1 permit
(implicit deny any - not visable in the list)
(access-list 1 deny
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0
Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1

3. Deny a specific subnet

Router(config)# access-list 1 deny

Router(config)# access-list 1 permit any
(implicit deny any - not visable in the list)
(access-list 1 deny
Router(config)# interface ethernet 0
Router(config-if)# ip access-group 1

Standard IP Access Lists

Access-list (list #) (permit | deny) (source address) (source wildcard mask)

>> (list #) - Standard IP access lists are represented by a number in the range of 1-
99 (in IOS versions 11.2 and greater, they can also be represented by text names).
>> (permit | deny) - Used to specify the nature of the access list line. It is either a
permit or a deny statement.
>> (source address) - The IP address of the source.
>> (source wildcard mask) - A wildcard mask applied to determine which bits of
the source address are significant.

1. Which layer of the OSI model router is associated with?
2. Which addresses router uses to switch or forward the packets to the destination?
3. “Router ports are administratively down”, comment.
4. Can a router be used to connect PSTN and IP networks?
5. Name a few dynamic routing protocols.
6. What is a metric?
7. Which is the most widely used routing protocol in internet?
8. What is the difference between RIPv1 and RIPv2?

1. Design a network with three routers and configure:
a. Static routing protocol
b. Dynamic routing protocol
2. On your administrative network
a. Block the access to chat (gtalk, yahoo messenger, etc.)
b. Block the access to

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7. Socket Programming
Title: Write a program for TCP and UDP socket on Linux platform.
Aim: To develop the necessary skills for developing robust & scalable network
applications and to build necessary basic knowledge for managing networks.
Objective: After going through this assignment you will be in a position to:
1. To learn the basics of socket programming using TCP/UDP Sockets.
2. To learn port numbers.
3. To develop knowledge of threads for developing high performance scalable
4. To learn about raw sockets.
5. To learn the communication between server and client
Theory: Elaborate the following points:
1. What is socket and port?
2. Types of socket.
3. TCP socket and UDP socket.
4. Socket system calls
TCP socket system call

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Socket system call
1. Socket Function

int socket ( int family, int type, int protocol );

family: specifies the protocol family {AF_INET for TCP/IP}

type: indicates communications semantics
SOCK_STREAM stream socket TCP
SOCK_DGRAM datagram socket UDP
SOCK_RAW raw socket
protocol: set to 0 except for raw sockets
returns on success: socket descriptor {a small nonnegative integer}
on error: -1
if (( sd = socket (AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0)) < 0)
err_sys (“socket call error”);

2. Connect Function

int connect (int sockfd, const struct sockaddr *servaddr, socklen_t addrlen);

sockfd: a socket descriptor returned by the socket function

*servaddr: a pointer to a socket address structure
addrlen: the size of the socket address structure
The socket address structure must contain the IP address and the port number for
the connection wanted. In TCP connect initiates a three-way handshake. connect
returns only when the connection is established or when an error occurs.
returns on success: 0
on error: -1
if ( connect (sd, (struct sockaddr *) &servaddr, sizeof (servaddr)) != 0)
err_sys(“connect call error”);
3. bind Function

int bind (int sockfd, const struct sockaddr *myaddr, socklen_t addrlen);

bind assigns a local protocol address to a socket.

protocol address: a 32 bit IPv4 address and a 16 bit TCP or UDP port number.
sockfd: a socket descriptor returned by the socket function.
*myaddr: a pointer to a protocol-specific address.
addrlen: the size of the socket address structure.
Servers bind their “well-known port” when they start.
returns on success: 0
on error: -1

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if (bind (sd, (struct sockaddr *) &servaddr, sizeof (servaddr)) != 0)
errsys (“bind call error”);

4. Listen Function
int listen (int sockfd, int backlog);

listen is called only by a TCP server and performs two actions:

Converts an unconnected socket (sockfd) into a passive socket. Specifies the maximum
number of connections (backlog) that the kernel should queue for this socket. listen is
normally called before the accept function.
returns on success: 0
on error: -1
Example: if (listen (sd, 2) != 0)
errsys (“listen call error”);

5. Accept Function
int accept (int sockfd, struct sockaddr *cliaddr, socklen_t *addrlen);

accept is called by the TCP server to return the next completed connection from the
front of the completed connection queue.
sockfd: This is the same socket descriptor as in listen call.
*cliaddr: used to return the protocol address of the connected peer process (i.e., the
client process).
*addrlen: {this is a value-result argument}
before the accept call: We set the integer value pointed to by *addrlen to the size of
the socket address structure pointed to by *cliaddr;
on return from the accept call: This integer value contains the actual number of
bytes stored in the socket address structure.
returns on success: a new socket descriptor
on error: -1

6. Close Function
int close (int sockfd);

close marks the socket as closed and returns to the process immediately.
sockfd: This socket descriptor is no longer useable.
Note – TCP will try to send any data already queued to the other end before the normal
connection termination sequence.
Returns on success: 0
on error: -1
Example: close (sd);

7. Socket Programming

Network Laboratory SCOEIT 44


1. What is a socket?
2. What are the types of sockets?
3. What is the difference between select ( ) and poll ( )?
4. What is socket address?
5. List the socket primitives for TCP.
6. What is difference between TCP socket and UDP socket?
7. What is a port?
8. What is data structure used in socket system call?

Network Laboratory SCOEIT 45

8.Configure Network Services
AIM: To configure the following network services
a. Remote Login Service – TELNET/SSH
b. FTP Server and Client.

OBJECTIVE: Configuring different protocols like Secure Shell Protocol (SSH),

TELNET, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and web servers (APACHE) on a network.
1. What is SSH? What is the difference between SSH and Telnet?
2. Discuss in brief about Apache web services
3.What are different type of file transfer services available?


This chapter describes how to configure Secure Shell Protocol (SSH) and Telnet on the
1. Define username and password
(config)# username cisco password cisco

2. Define hostname on device

(config)# hostname xyz

3. Define domain name

(config)# ip domain_name

4. Generate appropriate keys

(config)# crypto key generate rsa
(rsa is a security protocol)

5. Define version
(Default version is 1.5, if one wants to change, here is the procedure)
(config)# ip ssh version 2

6. Vty login
(config)# line vty 0 4
(vty: virtual terminal)
(config-line)# login local
(use local user database)
(config-line)#transport input ssh
(strictly defining access to SSH and NOT to TELNET)

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8. Configure Network Services

1. Configure virtual terminal password
(config)# line vty 0 4
(vty: virtual terminal)
(config-line)# login
(config-line)# password sanjose


A. Install Internet Information Services and the FTP Service

Because FTP depends on Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS), IIS and the
FTP Service must be installed on the computer. To install IIS and the FTP Service,
follow these steps.

NOTE: In Windows Server 2003, the FTP Service is not installed by default when you
install IIS. If you already installed IIS on the computer, you must use the Add or
Remove Programs tool in Control Panel to install the FTP Service.

1. Click Start, point to Control Panel, and then click Add or Remove Programs.
2. Click Add/Remove Windows Components.
3. In the Components list, click Application Server, click Internet Information
Services (IIS) (but do not select or clear the check box), and then click Details.
4. Click to select the following check boxes (if they are not already selected):

Common Files
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Service
Internet Information Services Manager

5. Click to select the check boxes next to any other IIS-related service or
subcomponent that you want to install, and then click OK.
6. Click Next.
7. When you are prompted, insert the Windows Server 2003 CD-ROM into the
computer's CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive or provide a path to the location of the
files, and then click OK.
8. Click Finish.

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8. Configure Network Services
IIS and the FTP service are now installed. You must configure the FTP Service before
you can use it.

B. Configure The FTP Service

To configure the FTP Service to allow only anonymous connections, follow these steps:

1. Start Internet Information Services Manager or open the IIS snap-in.

2. Expand Server_name, where Server_name is the name of the server.
3. Expand FTP Sites
4. Right-click Default FTP Site, and then click Properties.
5. Click the Security Accounts tab.
6. Click to select the Allow Anonymous Connections check box (if it is not already
selected), and then click to select the Allow only anonymous connections check
When you click to select the Allow only anonymous connections check box,
you configure the FTP Service to allow only anonymous connections. Users cannot
log on by using user names and passwords.
7. Click the Home Directory tab.
8. Click to select the Read and Log visits check boxes (if they are not already
selected), and then click to clear the Write check box (if it is not already cleared)
9. Click OK.
10. Quit Internet Information Services Manager or close the IIS snap-in.

The FTP server is now configured to accept incoming FTP requests. Copy or move the
files that you want to make available to the FTP publishing folder for access. The default
folder is drive:\Inetpub\Ftproot, where drive is the drive on which IIS is installed.
C. Configuring APACHE web server:

I. Plan your folders:

1. Planning a good folder structure for organizing your websites is important.

Assuming that you have your own company, I recommend to create a "My
Company" folder in your "My Documents" folder. Instead of "My Company"
you might want to use the real name of your company. Next, create in the "My
Company" folder for example the following sub-folders: "Customers" and "My
Sites". The latter can be used to store sites that belong to your company.

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8. Configure Network Services

2. Next, create a folder for each customer under the Customer folder. Use for example
the name of the company or the name of the customer to name this folder. Then for
each customer create a folder with the same name as the domain of that customer.

3. Inside each domain folder, create a folder named "site" which will be used to store a
local copy of all the folders and files that are also on the (remote) web server
connected to the Internet. Try to keep files that shouldn't be on the actual web
server outside of this folder in order to use it to update the remote server without
too much of a hassle.

a. For example the site folder I have contains the following folders: cgi, logs,
and web. They are named thus because that's the name they have on the
server that hosts my website.

b. The folder named "web" is the document root, in this case, meaning that
documents and folders in this folder appear at the top level of the domain.
For example, if this folder contains a file "example.html" it will be
accessible as assuming that the domain is

c. Note that the cgi directory (cgi-bin) is outside the document root folder in
the file system, which is a good thing (This will be explained in an
upcoming article).

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8. Configure Network Services

II. Download APACHE:

1. The Apache web server is available in three different series: 1.3, 2.0, and
2.2. Since 2.0 is recommended over 1.3 for running on Windows XP, and
software like PHP as far as I know don't support 2.2 yet, I decided to install
the latest 2.0.x version which is 2.0.59 at this time of writing.

2. Go to the Apache HTTP server download page and select the series you
want to use (either 1.3 or 2.0) and download the Win32 binary. In my case I
downloaded apache_2.0.59-win32-x86-no_ssl.msi.

3. After you have downloaded the MSI file compare the MD5 signature with
the value published on the Apache website. Note: I am working on an
explanation on how to do this, for now read the instructions on the Apache
HTTP server download page.

III. Installing the APACHE server:

1. If you set up your day-to-day account properly on Windows XP you are working as
a limited user. For installation of the Apache HTTP server you need to have
Administrator rights. So go to the Windows XP Login screen by pressing the
Windows key (between the left Ctrl and left Alt on most keyboards) and the L key
2. When started, the Apache HTTP server installation wizard displays a welcome
message. Click on the Next button to continue. Next, the Apache license is shown.
Read it carefully and if you accept the license, select the "I accept the terms in the
license agreement" option and press the Next button.
3. Next a "Read This First" document is displayed. Read it carefully before pressing
the Next button.

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8. Configure Network Services

4. Next, you can enter your server information. Since I don't need other computers on
the local network to be able to contact the web server I used localhost. If you have a
local network, and want other computers to be able to contact the computer, make
sure you use the right settings. If you don't know which option you want, use
localhost for now, since you can always change the configuration settings later on
in the configuration file of the Apache web server.
5. It is recommend to run the Apache HTTP server as a service. This way it is always
running and you don't need to start it manually. If you consider manually start and
stop because of security issues, then reconsider and use a firewall, preferable one
running on an external device like a router.
6. The next step allows you to select the install type of the Apache web server. The
default (Typical program features) is probably right for your situation, so press
7. Next, you can select the destination folder of the installation. Unless you prefer to
use a different folder for some or all of the software you install, I recommend to use
the default setting: C:\Program Files\Apache Group\

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8. Configure Network Services

8. Finally, after clicking on the Next button you can start the actual installation by
pressing the Install button. A few windows pop up and go automatically, and then a
Windows Security Alert window appears asking if you want to keep blocking this
(Apache HTTP server) program.

Windows Security Alert for the Apache HTTP server.

9. Since we don't want to make the web server available on the network we selected
the Keep Blocking option. Note that you can always change this into Unblock later
in case you decide to make the Apache HTTP server available on your network.
After selecting a button in the Windows Security Alter dialogue window the
window closes itself and the Apache HTTP Server 2.0 Installation Wizard reports
that the Apache HTTP server has been installed successfully. Click the Finished
button to close the HTTP server installation wizard.

IV. Testing the APACHE server installation:

1. In order to test your Apache web server installation, open a browser and enter
http://localhost/ into the address bar (unless you used a different value then
localhost in the Apache server information step). The Test Page for Apache
installation should be displayed into your browser.

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8. Configure Network Services

Part of the Apache HTTP server test page in Mozilla Firefox

2. If you don't get the test page it might be that the Apache web server was not able to
start for some reason, check the error.log file in the logs folder of the web server
(see the next section).

V. Understanding the apache folder structure:

1. It is important to understand some part of the Apache HTTP server folder structure,
or where is what located. I won't describe each and every item, but just mention the
important ones:

8. Configure Network Services

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Apache folder structure

• The bin folder

The bin folder contains amongst other files the server executable: Apache.exe and a
program to control the Apache HTTP server when ran as service: ApacheMonitor.exe. Also
contained in this folder are htpasswd.exe and htdigest.exe for making parts of your site(s)

• The cgi-bin folder

The cgi-bin folder has one CGI program written in Perl,, which you can use
to test if your Perl installation is working in combination with the Apache HTTP server. If
you get a "500 Internal Server Error" when you enter http://localhost/cgi-bin/ in
the address bar of your browser, you either have Perl not installed, or the configuration of
the web server is not right. You might want to check the error.log file in the logs folder in
the latter case.

• The conf folder

This folder holds the configuration files used by the Apache web server. Of each file
used by the server there is a copy which has .default in its name, e.g. httpd.default.conf.
The access.conf and srm.conf files are empty (except for comments) by default, and I
recommend to not use those files for configuring the server. The httpd.conf file has already

Network Laboratory SCOEIT 54

been updated by the installation process. I list some of those modified settings below,
including a short description and the line number (which might differ with your version).

• Listen 80 - The port the Apache server is using. If you have already a web server
running, for example as part of Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS), you
might want to change the number to something different (line 120).
• ServerAdmin admin@localhost - The email address of the server administrator,
which is used on, for example, error pages generated by the server (line 198).
• ServerName localhost:80 - The hostname and port the server uses (line 212).

Some of the other settings are omitted since they will be overridden by the name-based
virtual hosting set up discussed below.

• htdocs
This folder contains the default HTML page you see when you visit http://localhost/
with your web browser. Don't start adding your HTML documents and related files to this
folder, but read on.

• manual
This folder contains the Apache HTTP server documentation, available as
http://localhost/manual/. Note that this folder shows up under the document root thanks to
the AliasMatch directive in the httpd.conf server configuration file (line 491).

• logs
This folder contains (amongst others) the access.log and error.log files. If anything goes
wrong, for example the notorious 500 Internal Server Error, make sure that you check the
error.log file. With virtual hosting you can give each site its own log file (discussed below),
so be sure to check the right file(s).

1. Which are the ports used for FTP and TFTP services?
2. Why does an FTP service require two ports to connect to server?
3. What is SSH?
4. What is a web server? Name a few.
5. What is APACHE?

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9. Study Of Existing College Network
Title: Case Study of existing College network with IP Address Scheme.
Aim: To under stand the IP address schemes and Internet
Objective: After going through this assignment you will be in a position to:
1. Connect all of the departments in the campus to the network.

2. Provide internet connectivity to all departments and major Institutes.

3. Obtain sufficient international bandwidth to support the academic activities of the

staff and students of the departments and institutes.

4. Expand campus wide networking in other new institutes.

5. Operate and maintain the campus wide networks.

6. Deploy applications such as distance education and library functions based on the

Theory: Elaborate the following points:

1. Network hardware and software used.
2. Design of network
3. Working
4. Approximate cost

1. Visit the server room and List out the hardware component used.
2. Find out the topology.
3. Find out how other departments are interconnected to each other.


1. Which topology is used in the lab?

2. What is a leased line?
3. What is broadband?
4. What is backbone cable?
5. Why FOC used as backbone cable?

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10. NS-2 Installation
AIM: Installation of NS-2

OBJECTIVE: This lab will introduce the installation procedure for network simulator
(NS) , more popularly called as NS-2.

1. What is NS/ NS-2?
2. Why NS2 is used?
3. What are the advantages of using NS2 ?


The following general steps should be followed to install NS2 on windows:

1. Requirements
a. Free disk space of 5GB required
b. Minimum 256MB RAM suggested

2. Assumptions
a. Windows installed in Drive partition “C”

3. Installation Instructions for CYGWIN

a. Download CYGWIN using setup.exe from
b. Run setup.exe

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10. NS-2 Installation

c. There are two ways to install after this step :

i. Install from Internet

(This option is generally chosen, as everything is done automatically.)

ii. Download and then Install

(This option is desired when needed to install on large no. of machines.)

d. Selecting Root directory where CYGWIN is installed

(Recommended root directory path is “C:\cygwin”.)

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10. NS-2 Installation

e. Selecting directory where installation files are stored:

f. Selecting connection to internet : Direct connection preferred

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10. NS-2 Installation

g. Selecting Mirror site to download cygwin:

Select one of the mirror site , generally preference is made to site that’s near to
download location.

h. Selection of packages to install:

Since CYGWIN has lot of packages , its desirable to install all packages.

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In order to achieve this , Click view button , until it shows “full” .

In order to make all packages installed, click the each of “skip” entry. After this
step, the installation window looks like this. Just click “Next” to make cygwin

4. Installation Instructions for Network Simulator (NS-2)

a. Download NS-2 installation file from :


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b. Save the above file in : C:\cygwin\
c. Now open the cygwin window by clicking the cygwin shortcut on the desktop
d. Inorder to extract the NS installation file , go to the location where the
installation file is stored , by following commands:
_ cd c:
_ cd cygwin/
e. Extraction of files :
Extract the installation files by the following commands:
_ gzip –d ns-allinone-2.27.tar.gz
_ tar –xvf ns-allinone-2.27.tar
by the above commands there will be directory created in the name of ns-allinone-
f. Installing the packages from extracted files :

Commands to be executed :
_ cd ns-allinone-2.27

after the above step :

_ ./install
This command will initiate the process of installing NS2.

IMP NOTE: if in the process , you get a prompt saying “ package diff missing do u
want to proceed , press Y for proceeding or N for exiting. If all the above steps are
followed there should not be any error in installing NS2. if in any case if u get an
error message saying that package missing , it means that those packages are
skipped at the time of installation so u have to install those packages by doing setup
again .
g. Validating NS2:
Move to the folder containing NS-2(i.e. ns-2.27) and then type the following
This will test the installation of NS2 with the predefined examples.

Common errors and guidelines:
1) its always preferred to install cygwin as a normal user.
2) Check for display setting using at the prompt:
This will open a Xserver window. Now open another instance of cygwin and

Standard working principles for NS:

Step 1: Open CYGWIN bash prompt

Step 2: go to location of TCL file
Step 3: type startx

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You will find the following screen:

After entering the startx command, the following screen appears:


1. What is NS2?
2. Where NS2 is used? Which is the other option that can be used instead of NS2?
3. On what all platforms the NS can run?
4. What all protocols does NS support?
5. Which scripting language NS2 uses?


1. Simulate a simple network with ICMP command on NS2

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