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CHAPTER III

IMPLEMENTATION WORK

3.1. MATERIALS USED


Building Materials is the main factor that affects the quality of jobs
that would be generated is the power of construction, because the
good building it must be made of good quality materials as well,
therefore the calculation of material used also is needed and in
accordance with the agreed contract value, so that the project is
constructed in accordance with the collective agreement.
The selection of construction materials should pay attention to
the quality, so that will get the results in accordance with the planning.
Besides, that must need to be considered also storage and buildup in
the warehouse, in order not to decrease material quality, either caused
by weather factor and length of storage time in the warehouse.
The building materials used in the Transmart Carrefour Cirebon
development project are:

3.1.1. Water
Water is a basic ingredient that is very important in the
manufacture of construction materials. In the concrete
construction, water is required to act with cement so that it can be
the adhesive between the coarse aggregate with fine aggregate.
Classification of water is good for the development of a
construction are as follows:
 Water must be clean.
 Should not contain more than 2 grams/liter of mud.
 Should not contain oil sludge and other visible applied objects.

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 Shouldn’t contain salt that can damage the concrete (organic
acid) more than 15 grams/liter.
 Should not contain sulfate compounds more than 1 g / liter
because it can corrode the concrete and reinforcement.
 Should not contain more than 0.5 grams/liter of chloride (Cl)
because it can cause corrosion of the metal.
 It should not contain organic substances as they may affect
the binding time and the strength of the cement
 Drinkable water may be used for the manufacture of concrete
 If there is any doubt about water, it is advisable to bring the
water sample to the examination agency for the materials to
be tested.
At the Transmart Carrefour Cirebon development projects
for water resources using the water pump is directly taken from
the ground using a water pump.
 To a mixture of masonry mortar and masonry times,
 For cleaning equipment, floor cleaning work,
 Maintenance of watering concrete floor to work,
 To clean the truck mixer.
 Also for the purposes of MCK.

Figure 3.1. Water Torrent to store water

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3.1.2. Fine Aggregate (Sand)
Fine aggregate is a building material that is widely used
from the lowest structure to the top of the building, good as sand
urug, mix to concrete mixture. Fine aggregate in the form of natural
sand that comes from the natural disintegration of rocks or in the
form of artificial sand produced by the rock-breaking tools.
According to SNI 03-2847-2002, fine aggregates must meet
one or more requirements, the following points:
 Fine aggregate composed of grains of sharp and hard.
 Fine aggregate must be eternal, that is not broken or
destroyed by influences weather.
 Fine aggregate should not contain sludge more than 5% (on
dry weight), if levels exceed 5%, the sludge should be washed
sand.
 Fine aggregate should not contain organic ingredients.
Fine aggregate used at the project of Transmart Carrefour
Cirebon is sand coloured black or dark brown, which is used to
mix ingredients mortar for brick masonry.

Figure 3.2. Sand

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3.1.3. Cement
Definition of cement an adhesive material that has the
properties capable of binding solid materials into a single unit that
is compact and strong, the characteristics of good cement for use
in building construction are:
 Cement is good physically and doesn’t clot.
 Good adhesion between cement pastes and aggregates
results in a mixture of solid and best construction materials. A
solid mixture produces high-quality concrete materials.
 The quality of cement building materials will be maintained if
the packaging is also maintained, in a tightly sealed manner,
not wet, no patches are available and good in storage.
Cement commonly used in this construction projects are
Portland Cement(PC). In addition to Portland cement, in this
project using cement sikagrout. The cement is used to fill cavities
porous concrete structure and the addition of foundry castings
which currently unallocated perfect. The cement used at the
project of Transmart Carrefour Cirebon is Portland cement Holcim.

Figure 3.3. Portland Cemen

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3.1.4. Cast Concrete (Ready Mix Concrete)
Ready-mix concrete or Concrete Cast is one of the
materials or building materials where the components have been
arranged appropriately in accordance with the needs of the
composition of materials that have been provided. The
composition or material of this concrete is split or coarse
aggregate, sand or fine aggregate then cement and water. The
materials will then be combined with certain methods such as
stirred to the flat which then will have the durable strength or have
the strength in accordance with the duration of the time specified.
So, the dosage of each material to be mixed adjusted with the plan
or the duration of the time already specified. The material used is
the result of selection from the expert supervisors in their field
which refers to the regulation of PBI (Indonesian Reinforced
Concrete Regulation) which now refers to the regulations of SNI
03-2834-2002 (Procedure of making concrete mixed concrete
plans). Therefore, the manufacturing process should be done by
professionals, should not be arbitrary because this is an important
building material.
The use of ready mix can speed up the work time with
concrete quality is maintained. Quality ready mix that often used
for a wide range of quality. The preparatory process for the ready-
mix should have been completed before the time of casting.
Concrete has a time limit from the time of mixing to casting
(setting time) for about 4 to 5 hours if the time exceeds the setting
time of the concrete was not used again (rigid). This could happen
because of a lack of communication or poor management control,
the distance from the batching plan for the project, and it is also
influenced by the conditions of work in the field.

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The use of ready mix can provide convenience in the
implementation of work, that is:
 The quality and volume of concrete are always controlled.
 Work faster and more efficient because it uses Concrete
Pump (Concrete Pump).
 Material storage does not accumulate and not too takes place
wide for storage of materials.
 Almost all of the locations can be affordable.
 Efficient production and large volumes of material using the
economical material also can be ascertained how much the
cost of concrete.

At the project Transmart Carrefour Cirebon in bringing Cast


Concrete (Ready Mix Concrete), the Contractor cooperate with
PT. Adhimix Jaya as providers of Ready Mix.

Figure 3.4. Ready mix

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In the construction of Transmart Carrefour Cirebon project,
before ready mix concrete is used must be tested first to know the
suitability of the spec and the quality of the plan at the time of
booking. Tests conducted include the following:
a. Slump Test
The Slump test is an empirical test/method used to
determine the consistency/stiffness of a fresh concrete
mixture to determine its workability level. The stiffness in a
concrete mix shows how much water is used. For this test, the
slump indicates whether the concrete mixture is deficient,
excess, or sufficient water. Slump test refers to SNI 1972-2008
and ICS 91.100.30.
 Ingredients
K-300 Fresh Concrete taken at random to represent
whole concrete.
 Equipment
- Abrams cone as slump moulds, bottom diameter 20 cm,
top diameter 10 cm, and height 30 cm.
- Stick metal with length ± 50 cm diameter 10-16 mm.
- Plate Metal flat and waterproof as base
- Spoon stirring
- Track Measure
 Phase Test Slump:
- Dampen the cone mould and plate with a wet cloth
- Place the mould on the plate
- Fill 1/3 of the mould with fresh concrete, compacted
with metal rods 25-30 times evenly.
- Fill the next 1/3 of the section and compacted with the
same thing as 25-30 times puncture. Make sure the iron
touches the first layer.

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- Fill the final 1/3 and compacted as much as 25-30 times
puncture. Make sure the iron touches the first layer.
- Once finished compacted, smooth out the surface of
the test specimen, wait about 1/2 minute. While waiting
to clear the excess concrete outside the mould and on
the plate.
- The mould is lifted slowly upright.
- Measure the slump value by reversing the adjacent
cone using the average height difference of the
specimen.
- The tolerance value of slump K-300 fresh concrete in
this project is 10 ± 2 cm.
- If the slump value conforms to the standard, then the
concrete can be used

Figure 3.5. Slump Test


The shape of the slump will be different according to its
water content.

Figure 3.6. The shape of the slump

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 Figure 1: Collapse / Collapse
This situation is caused by too much water/wet so
the mixture in the mould collapses perfectly. It could also
be because it is a high workability mixture that is destined
for a particular foundry location so as to facilitate the
compaction,
 Figure 2: Shear
In this condition, the upper part partially survives,
partly collapses so that it is oblique, probably due to
uneven mixture
 Figure 3: True
It is the ideal slump shape.

Figure 3.7. Results Slump Test Concrete K-300

In the picture explains that the results of slump concrete


cast K-300 is the correct form and ideal slump shape and the
result of slump test is 12cm.

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b. Strength Test of Concrete
Strength test is a goal of obtaining concrete compressive
strength value with the correct procedure in the sensed
strength of concrete compressive is the amount of load per
unit area, which causes the crushed concrete specimen when
loaded with a certain compressive force, which is generated
by a press machine.
The concrete used in the project is to use concrete K300.
K 300 shows the characteristic compressive strength of
concrete in kg / cm2 that is equal to 300 kg / cm2.In concrete
building plans for usual output, the resulting is fc' in units of
MPa. But in the technical specifications of a project.
K is used for concrete with a cylindrical compressive
strength test which has a diameter of 15 cm and a height of
30 cm. while if converted in fc' is:
300
 K300 = x 0,83
10
= 24,9 MPa
This means that the concrete K 300 if converted in fc' is
24.9 MPa.
Here are the concrete compressive strength testing
steps:
 Equipment
- Molds cylinder (diameter 15 cm and height 30 cm).
- Stick.
- mixing machine /concrete mixer.
- Bath mixer.
- Compression Machine.
- Scales with an accuracy of 1 gram.
- Lubricants/oil.
- spoons, buckets and others.

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 Testing Procedure:
- Mortar concrete test results slump put into a mould
(cubes and cylinders), the inside has been smeared
with grease/oil.
- Insert the mortar is divided into 3 layers, each layer is
compacted with a puncture 25 times the upper trim and
labelled (numbers, dates, slump, and others).
- The mould is opened after 24 hours, then soaked in
water.
- Then testing (aged 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days) to the concrete
cylinder was weighed first and then placed in the midst
of the machine press (compression machine).
- Run the press machine, so that the test specimens
were destroyed, record the force to break the specimen
visible example of the tool.

3.1.5. Iron Reinforcement


Iron Reinforcement is used for reinforcement of concrete.
Iron reinforcement in reinforced concrete construction serves to
bear tensile stresses in the concrete. Iron reinforcement to used
must be new, in grey, and does not rust. Because if the rusted iron
will corrode and make the building construction decreased
strength. Iron reinforcement used must come from the production
plant which has been approved by the supervisory directors.
Quality Requirement Concrete Reinforcing Steel:
 Visible nature
The concrete reinforcing steel shall not bear flaky, fold,
crack, cema (wounds of concrete iron that occur due to the
central process) which is deep and is only permitted lightly on
the surface.

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 Form
Plain reinforcing steel, the surface of a concrete
reinforcement bar shall not be finned.
Fabrication work of cutting and bending iron reinforcement
should be in accordance with the needs of the field. So before
cutting and bending iron reinforcement required reference or
guidelines that contain pictures detail and the amount of
reinforcement need to be made.
Jobs that require iron reinforcement structure are the
columns, beams, floor plates, and stair. While the tools used to
work on iron reinforcement are Bar Cutter and Bar Bender. The
Iron reinforcement used in this project is:
 Iron Reinforcement Deform (screw) with a diameter D10,
D13, D16, D19, D22, D25 for beam work.
 Iron Reinforcement Deform (screw) with a diameter of D10,
D13, D19 for Column work.
 For floor plate work using wire mesh with a diameter is D10.

Figure 3.8. Iron Reinforcement

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3.1.6. Bendrat Wire
Bendrat Wire used as a binder reinforcement-reinforcement
series between one reinforcement to another, both for the
reinforcement columns, beams, reinforcement or another circuit so
as to form a series of structural elements order, ready for use. This
wire form ring-shaped roll of 1mm diameter, in use bendrat wire
usually used three layers that are not easily broken off and
stronger.

Figure 3.9. Bendrat Wire

3.1.7. Decking
Decking or concrete tofu is concrete or specimens formed
according to the size of the concrete blanket that has been
planned. Concrete decking is usually box or cylindrical. The
purpose of the use of concrete decking is that there is
space/distance between iron and formwork.

Figure 3.10. Decking Concrete

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3.1.8. Plywood
The use of plywood in the construction of this building,
surface base formation of columns, beams, and floor plates.
Plywood used in construction projects Transmart Carrefour
Cirebon using Multiplex Poly Resin (Poly Films).

Figure 3.11. Multiplex Poly Resin

3.1.9. Hebel
Hebel usage in construction projects used for work the wall
work, use Hebel aims to lighten the burden of the structure, speed
up implementation, and minimize material waste during the
installation process of the wall.

Figure 3.12. Hebel

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3.1.10. Iron Hack
The iron hack is iron pieces shaped like a shoe hack that
works to give the distance between the thickness of the iron.
Besides iron hack serves to avoid deflection of iron which can
reduce the strength of the concrete slab. This hack iron in the
midst of the lower and upper reinforcement.

Figure 3.13. Iron Hack

3.1.11. Calbond
Calbond is an adhesive liquid between the concrete has
been cast (hardened) with a new concrete mix to be cast. The
white liquid adhesive is also called concrete glue as shown in the
figure below. Calbond in this project is widely used in concrete
casting connection.

Figure 3.14. Calbond

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3.1.12.Steel
Steel is one of the commonly used construction materials
whose properties qualities that are important in the use of
construction is because of high strength. At the project Transmart
Carrefour Cirebon steel used is a steel profile BJ-37 / ASTM A-36.

Figure 3.15. Steel

3.1.13.Metal Deck
Metal decks are lightweight steel materials with unique
technical material characteristics and deep profile shapes, which
serve as a sliding brace and increase the capacity of the profile.
Metal decks can be applied as concrete composite floor plates on
concrete structures and steel structures. The use of metal decks
in the work of the floor slab of concrete can save 17% s / d 25%.

Figure 3.16. Metal Deck

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3.1.14. Wiremesh
Wiremesh is an iron that looks like wire and woven in a
sheet. Wiremesh is used for reinforcement in the floor plate.
Advantages of using wire mesh to work building constructs are:
● Implementation of concrete reinforcing iron distribution jobs
can be done easier and faster because it does not have to
assemble again.
● Improving the quality and accuracy of reinforcement within
the concrete.
● Facilitate the supervision of reinforcement work in the field.
● More economical because of the use of iron wire mesh will
reduce the weight of steel reinforcement in concrete.

Figure 3.17. Wiremesh

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3.2. TOOLS USED
Equipment in construction work is defined as a field equipment
(heavy equipment), laboratory equipment, office equipment, and other
equipment. By using the appropriate equipment with the target, the
work can be achieved with a more accurate timekeeping, as well as
meet the technical specifications required. Then in the procurement
and selection of work equipment should produce effectiveness and
productivity optimal way, among others:
a. Detailing the equipment required,
b. Take into account the amount of equipment to be used in
accordance with the volume of work to be done,
c. Taking into account the capacity of the tool,
d. Into account and detailing the cost of the rental/purchase
equipment.
The equipment used in the project Transmart Carrefour Cirebon
some of them belong to the contractors themselves, but for heavy
equipment had its own partly there and partly with the rental system
because the cost will be cheaper. Equipment used in this project are
as follows:

3.2.1. Tower Crane


Tower crane is a building used heavy equipment to lift
objects/materials can’t generally be lifted by humans, vertically or
horizontally to a high place with limited space. Tower cranes are
widely used for the construction of multi-storey buildings.
Development using this tool greatly shorten the processing time in
a development project, because the material can be lifted to the
installation site easier and faster. The parts of the Main Part
Composer Tower Crane:

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 Jib
Long arm that can rotate 360 degrees horizontally, the
jib has a steel cable (slings) used to transport the materials
and tools that will be used in development projects, Jib length
usually is 25 m.
 Operator Station(Cab)
The place of tower crane control, controlled by the
operator.
 Mast Section
The part that can adjust the height of the tower crane.
Assembly mast section is done with the aid of hydraulic
moving vertically.
 Slewing
The ring which allows rotation of the jib.
 Trolley and Hoist Block
That can move along the jib.
 Pole tower
The vertical part of tower crane as pole crane, the middle
pole there is a ladder to place the operator up.
 Counterweight
Its position is behind the arm of the crane (jib). Made of
concrete that works for ballast as well as a balancer when the
project tool is transported.
 Foundation
The foundation on the tower crane serves to keep the
tower crane from falling and also to continue the load from the
tower crane to the hard ground. It is in this section that the foot
of the tower crane is bolted on a massive and large concrete
foundation.

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In this project using two tower cranes, with specifications:
 The maximum height 265 feet (80 meters)
 Tower crane may have a height of over 80 meters only if the
tower crane held/hung in the building so that it can grow along
with the increasing height of building projects range maximum
- 230 feet (70 meters)
 maximum lifting capacity 18 tons.
 Counterweight 20 ton
The maximum lift capacity of the tower crane has a capacity
of 18 tons but may not lift his load on the far end of his jib. The
closer the position of the load is lifted by tower crane tower, the
greater the load can be lifted safely. Therefore, the process of
adhering to the principle of tower crane 300 ton-meter. That is, if
the load as far as 30 meters away from the pole, then the allowable
load of 10 tons. If the load is located as far as 50 meters, then the
allowable load of 6 tons.

Figure 3.18. Tower Crane

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3.2.2. Excavator
Excavator is one of heavy equipment machine that consists
of an arm, boom and bucket and is powered by a hydraulic power
driven by a diesel engine and is on trackshoe wheel. Excavator is
a versatile tool as it can handle a wide range of other heavy
equipment jobs, one of the uses are for soil excavation. Excavator
specifications on the Project Transmart Carrefour Cirebon :
 Model : XG822LC
 Bucket Capacity (m3) : 0,91 m3
 Speed (kph) : 3.5/5.0 kph

Figure 3.19. Excavator


3.2.3. Dump Truck
At the project Transmart Carrefour Cirebon the use of the
dump truck is to move or dispose of the material excavated from
the construction site to the project designated where the material
is disposed of / sold.

Figure 3.20. Dump Truck

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3.2.4. Truck Mixer
A truck mixer is a machine that functions to transport
concrete from cement plants to construction sites while
maintaining the consistency of concrete that remains liquid and
does not harden in the course. Truck of this type is a to specifically
transport for ready-mix concrete from batching plant to the location
of the foundry. Mixer truck should not travel more than two hours
because it will result in a hardened cast concrete, many
contractors who require truck mixers are located in foundry within
90 minutes. The load capacity of the truck mixer concrete varies
but is generally about 3 cubic.
How Mixer Trucks Work is filled with dry and water material
which mixing process occurs during transport time to foundry
location. To maintain the viscosity stability of the cast concrete
within the mixer truck through a process of agitation or drum
rotation, the inner part of the drum is equipped with a rotating one-
way rotary spiral, as a stirred cast concrete material during
transport time to foundry location. Truck mixer specifications on
the Project Transmart Carrefour Cirebon :
 Type : Truck Mixer Standard
 Gross Weight : 13200 kg
 Input Speed & Output Speed : ≥ 3 m3/mnt & ≥ 2 m3/mnt
 Power : 336 HP

Figure 3.21. Truck Mixer

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3.2.5. Concrete Pump Portable
The Concrete Portable Pump is a concrete pumping
machine used for building construction projects, where the vehicle
such as a truck mixer can’t reach them. The concrete pump could
reach foundries portable reached 120 meters to 170 meters.

Figure 3.22. Concrete Pump Portable

3.2.6. Concrete Vibrator


A concrete vibrator is a tool used in the casting process, this
tool has a function for compacting the concrete mixture that is fed
into the formwork. The goal is to allow air or wind that was still in
the batter can get out so it does not cause cavities or holes. This
gives the effect of concrete into a solid, flat and strong and are not
prone to thin.

Figure 3.23. Concrete Vibrator

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3.2.7. Trowel Machine
Trowel Machine is a tool for levelling mortar on the concrete
surface. Trowel machine is used to prevent any air trapped in the
concrete surface.

Figure 3.24. Trowel Machine

3.2.8. Waterpass
Waterpass are tools used to measure the difference in
elevation from one reference point to the next. Waterpass can be
used to mark any level because it doesn’t have vertical angle drive.
It is used to determine the elevation of the floor, beam, and others
that require elevation.

Figure 3.25. Waterpas

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3.2.9. Theodolite
A theodolite is a measuring tool used to determine the
height of the building by taking into account vertical angles and
horizontal angles of the building. Theodolite at building
construction projects are usually used to measure and see the
straightness of the column.

Figure 3.26. Theodolite


3.2.10. Scaffolding
Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support the
human, material and formwork in construction. Scaffolding also
serves as a temporary structure to hold the concrete has not
been able to carry its own weight (implementation foundry) and
help implement the installation of walls, plastering, painting and
other finishing work.

Figure 3.27. Scaffolding

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3.2.11. Bar Bender
Bar bender is a tool to bend the reinforcing steel in a wide
range of angles in accordance with the plan. Bar bender helps
blacksmith so that productivity is increased. This tool uses the
help of an electric transformer with a high enough power.

Figure 3.28. Bar Bender

3.2.12. Bar cutter


Bar cutter is a project tool used to cut steel reinforcement.
Such as bar bender, this tool uses electrical energy to drive the
motor.

Figure 3.29. Bar Cutter

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3.2.13. Bucket and Tremie Pipe Pump
A concrete bucket is transporting concrete from concrete
mixer truck to the site of the foundry. After testing the slump and
has met the requirements set, then the concrete from truck mixer
concrete is poured into the bucket, then it is transported with the
help of the tower crane. In the process, it takes one person as a
concrete bucket operator on duty to open or lock so as not to spill
the concrete cast upon appointment. The concrete bucket used
has a capacity of 0.8 m3 and a bucket of concrete weight is 300
kg.
Tremie pipe pump is used to set up high falling concrete
during casting. Tremie regular pump mounted on the lower end
of the bucket of concrete so that concrete coming out does not
directly fall and mashing casting location.

Figure 3.30. Bucket and Tremie Pipe Pump

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3.3. IMPLEMENTATION WORK
Aspects of the technology were instrumental in the construction
project. Generally, the application of this technology widely applied in
construction work. The use of appropriate methods, practical, fast and
safe, very helpful in the completion of work on a construction project.
Thus, the target time, cost and quality as determined can be achieved.
Stages of implementation of work in accordance with the scope of
practical work on projects Transmart Carrefour Cirebon.
In this practical work report that reviewed the implementation of
the work is the work on the F3 floor, which’s to cover the work of
columns, beams and floor plates. As for the restriction of the problem
is not reviewing the work under the floor F3, because at the start of
practical work is ongoing work on the F2 and F3 floor.

a. Columns Work
Columns are vertical rods of the frame structures that bear the
burden of the beam. The column serves to pass the load from the
top elevation to the lower elevation up to the foundation soil. The
column is a press of a structural element that plays an important
role on the construction of the building so that collapse in a column
is a critical location that can cause the collapse of the floor in
question and the total collapse the entire structure of the building.
Therefore work must be observed column size, precision as the
column so that meet the quality standards that have been defined.

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Process and description of the implementation of the
column work, in general, can be seen in the flowchart below:

Start

Preparatory Work

Reinforcement Column

No

Check reinforcement

Yes
Installation of Formwork

No

Check Formwork

Yes
Preparatory Cast Concrete

Cast

Figure 3.31. Flow Chart Column Work

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1. Preparatory Work
Preparatory work is the first work that must be done carefully
because this work includes:
 Reading the image structure construction of the columns that
have been planned in order to avoid errors during the column
work that will do.
 The Determination of the column as obtained from the
measurement and batching result. This is adapted to the image
that has been planned. How to determine as the column
requires tools such as a theodolite, measuring meter, ink/paint,
sipatan, etc.
 Prepare the tools and materials that will be used in this work.

Figure 3.32. Detail of Column Work and Detail K2 column

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2. Column Reinforcement
At the project Transmart Carrefour Cirebon, column
reinforcement assembly processes carried out at the project site,
especially on the F3 floor using the 4 types of columns, Namely:
Main Reinforcement
Type Dimensions
Reinforcement Begeul binder
K1 700 x 700 20D19 D10 - 100 D10 - 100
K2 800 x 800 20D19 D10 - 100 D13 - 100
K2 800x 800 20D19 D13 - 100 D10 - 100
K4 350 x 350 12D19 D10 - 150
K4’ 350x 350 12D19 D10 -150

Table 3.1. Column type in F3 floor


Column reinforcement work process in the project are as
follows:
 Cutting the main reinforcement, reinforcement stirrup or ring
columns and reinforcement for the fastener based on the
dimensions that have been planned.
 Bending stirrup and binding reinforcement using bar bender.
 Transport of reinforcement steel ready raft to the floor area will
be installed reinforcement using a tower crane.
 Assemble main reinforcement, stirrup and binder, as well as
adjust the spacing stirrup both for reinforcement column
pedestal and field according to the shop drawings.

Figure 3.33. Column Reinforcement

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 After column reinforcement is assembled, further reinforcing
columns that are ready to be transported using a tower crane to
the location that had been installed cuttings column.
 Installation of the column reinforcement is done by binding
bendrat wire the main reinforcement by cuttings column.
 After installation is complete, the column is given around the
steel reinforcement of concrete decking, aim to give the
distance between the steel reinforcement to formwork for
keeping the thickness of the concrete cover is already
determined, if not given concrete decking, then a thick concrete
cover will be less than the limit of tolerance.
 Was then performed checks carried out by the Quality Control
department workers. Starting from distance reinforcement,
dimensions, wire bonding bendrat on reinforcement and
concrete decking. If everything is in accordance with shop
drawings that particular field will go through the next stage.

Figure 3.34. completed column reinforcement

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3. Installation of Formwork
Formwork is a temporary mould used to hold the concrete
during the concrete is poured and moulded according to the form
that has been planned. Work was done if the installation of column
reinforcement work has been checked by the quality control and in
acc. The reference to a column formwork using plywood and
fastening belt use hollow steel, Formwork on this column using a 4
harness and clamp as an elbow brace.
Stages of implementation of the work on the column formwork
installation:
 Create a line as a boundary marker sipatan using concrete
columns on the concrete floor for the place of establishment of
the formwork and clean the area around both the water column
and the remnants of the wire.
 Replace the column leg in accordance with a predetermined
line and Instal foot columns using steel plate and welded as a
binder.
 To adjust the size of the column formwork size of the plan, the
assembly has been carried out on project location and the
column formwork has been so transported using a tower crane
and placed on a column that has been given to the size of the
foot columns and adjusts the size of the column formwork.

Figure 3.35. Formwork is mounted and given a buffer

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 Attach the column formwork to the foot of the column that has
been made and the key lock belt use clamp.
 To keep erectness and straightness of the formwork, then used
plummet on four sides and iron supports for straightness
column.
 After the work is completed, inspectors conduct field inspection,
either of width, length and erectness formwork. If there are
errors in the manufacture of formwork it is entitled to carry out
repairs.

4. Casting Column
This casting process will be done if the jobs above have been
approved by the supervisor or the project owner. F3 columns on the
casting floor using a concrete ready mix with concrete quality K-300.
Here are the tools needed for foundry work:
 Tower crane
 Bucket
 Hose tremi
 Vibrator Machine

Technical stages of implementation work doing casting the


column:
 Checking reinforcement and formwork is mounted and ready to
cast. case This is done by workers Quality Control
 If checked, the employee's Quality Control fill the cast license
and surrender permit to the superintendent MK cast.
 MC will conduct a re-check with the supervisor if the field results
have met, the next signing license area cast and ready to do the
casting.

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Stages of implementation of the work of casting the column:
 The beginning of this work is testing the slump test and
compressive strength of concrete. Testing the slump test aims
to determine the value of the stiffness of a fresh concrete. If the
value of the slump test has been conducted as planned then
the fresh concrete is ready for casting.
 Fresh concrete input into bucket with a capacity of 0.9 m3
 Connect the Bucket with 4 meters long hose tremi, it is intended
that fresh concrete is not spilled at the time of casting.
 Pour the fresh concrete into the area of ready to cast columns.
 Concrete is not fully in the cast, casting the column is not in the
cast full because to binding of casting or other jobs, usually,
subtract 20 cm from the height of the column, and the concrete
is compacted with vibrator machine, it is intended that the
concrete filled and solid.

Figure 3.36. The Process of Casting the Column

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5. Release Column Formwork
Formwork release process should pay attention to the
procedures and requirements, for example, if the concrete must
achieve sufficient strength to bear its own weight, or determined in
accordance with the security permitted, in accordance with the
conditions that occur in the field, such as weather, temperature and
others.
Demolition of concrete formwork is done at the age of 2 (two)
days because concrete is strong enough to bear its own weight.
The phase of the demolition that is by releasing tie rod, form
tie, and stainless wale which is formwork.

Figure 3.37. Process Release Formwork Column

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b. Work Floor Beam and Plate
Beams are also one of reinforced concrete work. A beam is a
part of the structure used as a floor and floor column binder. Its
function is a framework of horizontal reinforcement of the building
will be loads.
Basically, the beams are divided into 2 types:
 The main beam is a beam connecting between columns.
 Children's Beam / Divider is a beam that divides the floor plate
into smaller parts.

Floor plates are part of the building element that serves as a


foothold. Floor plates should be planned: rigid, flat, straight and
have the same height and not tilt, so it feels solid and comfortable
for footing. Floor plate thickness is determined by:
 Large allowable deflection,
 Width of the width or distance between the supporting beams,
 Construction materials of floor plates.

On floor plates only the presence of fixed loads (occupants,


furniture, the heaviness of tiles, own weight plate) that work
permanently for a long time. Unexpected loads such as
earthquakes, winds, vibrations, are not taken into account.
Beams and Plates is a unity in construction for floor slabs and
beams in the cast are monolith. The main function of the beam is
forming a rigid horizontal field. This field is strengthened and joined
with the vertical building structure so as to allow the building to act
against the forces as a closed unit. beams and unplanned floor
plates can cause deflection and vibration when there is a load
working on the plate.

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Process and description of work execution beam and slab,
in general, can be seen in the flowchart below:

Start

Preparatory Work

Installation Scaffolding

Installation Formwork

No
Check Formwork

Yes
Beam and Plate
Reinforcement

No
Check Reinforcement

Yes
Preparatory Cast Concrete

Cast

Figure 3.38. Flowchart Employment Beam & Plate

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1. Preparatory Work
Preparatory Work includes:
 Understanding shop drawings that have been planned, both of
dimensions, thickness, the diameter of the metal that is used to
work the beam.

Figure 3.39. detail Work beam B1

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 Preparing the necessary tools and materials.
 Clean the ground floor as a mat scaffolding so that the surface
is flat and clean from trash.
 Perform measurements using a theodolite to determine the
elevation of the loan to the column, it is intended that has a
reference to account for the high beam and floor elevation in
accordance with shop drawings.

2. Installation Scaffolding
Scaffolding arranged so as to support the load thereon. If an
error occurs in the installation of such a mistake elevation,
scaffolding can beset again without the need to disassemble the
entire scaffolding, but only set the jack base to adjust the elevation.
Scaffolding for beams established by the position of the beam and
is usually established between the columns while the middle area
of the floor plate is established by adjusting the distance of the floor
plate of each frame as needed.

Figure 3.40. Installation Scaffolding

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3. Installation Formwork

Installation Formwork of floor beam and plate are:


 After determining elevation on the F3 floor then do the marking
as a reference beam and floor formwork installation plate and
replacing the iron girders above the jack base scaffolding form
work as a buffer.
 Then cutting wood, plywood board in accordance with the
dimensions that have been planned and Connecting and
assembling wood for formwork beams which are then smeared
oil formwork. Having already prepared formwork beams were
then checked for elevation to the benchmark lending refers to a
column.
 Installing girder slab formwork to shore, then install the beam or
metal pipe as a pedestal above the girder slab formwork that
point buffer becomes more prevalent.
 Slab formwork boards began to be installed, in case of changes
in elevation are not so great, just simply setting worker u-head
and jack base. And for check it out using waterpass and
measuring buoy.
 After all the ground floor covered formwork further work
checked by quality control employees and consultants, to
ensure that the formwork provisions accordance with the
dimensions and the absence of deflection of formwork.

Figure 3.41. Formwork installation image

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4. Beam and Plate Reinforcement
There are several types of beams with different dimensions
and use reinforcement also vary according to the needs and load
calculations.
Data for the reinforcement beams are:
Pedestal Reinforcement Reinforcement Field
Dimension Upper Bottom Side Upper Bottom Side
Type (mm) Reinforcem Reinforcem Reinforcem Stirrup Reinforcem Reinforcem Reinforcem Stirrup
ent ent ent ent ent ent

B1 400x700 7D22 D223 2 D10 D10-90 3D22 D226 2 D10 D10-200


B2 350x600 5D19 3 D19 D102 D10-100 3D19 5D19 D102 D10-200
D10-150
B3 500x700 9D22 4 D22 D102 D10-100x2 3D22 D229 2 D10
x2
D13-100 D13-150
B4 700x1000 15D25 3 D25 D166 7D25 D2520 6 D10
x2 x2
D13-100
B5 1000x1300 14D29 4 D32 D136 6D29 D3218 6 D16 x2D13-150
x2
D13-100
B6 1000x1300 17D25 D258 6 D16 6 D25 22 D25 6 D16 D13-100
x2
B7 600x850 9D25 4 D29 D132 D13-100x2 4D23 D2915 2 D13 x2D13-150
BL1 300x600 5 D22 4D22 D10-150
B2L 350x600 5D19 3 D19 D102 D10-100 3D19 5D19 D102 D10-200
B2A 550x800 13D25 3 D25 D102 D10-90 5 D25 5D25 D102 D10-200
D10- 100
B1A 550x800 11D22 4 D22 2 D10 3D22 D2211 2 D10 x2D10-150
x2
B2R 450x750 10D19 D226 2 D13 D13-90 5D19 D2210 2 D13 D13-150
D13-150
B1R 550x850 14D25 5 D25 D132 D13-100x2 5D25 D2513 2 D13
x2
BL 400x700 10D22 D225 2 D13 D10-90x2 5 D22 10 D22 2 D13 D10-150
S1 350x550 D195 3D19 2 D10 D10-100 D193 5 D19 2D10 D10-200
S2 400x700 D196 3D19 2 D10 D10-75 D193 5 D19 2D10 D10-150
S2 '300x600 3 D19 5 D19 D10-100
S3 500x700 7D22 D225 2 D10 D10-100 5D22 D2210 2 D10 D10-150
S4 300x400 3 D22 5 D22 D10-150
SR1 450x700 9D22 6 D22 D132 D13-100 6D19 D229 2 D10 D13-150
S2L 350x600 3 D19 5 D19 D10-100
SR 450x700 9D22 6 D22 D132 D13-100 6D19 D229 2 D10 D13-150
D13-100
OV1 500x700 11D25 D255 2 D10
x2
OV2 1000x1300 12D22 D224 2 D10 D10-100
D13-100
OV3 500x800 4D25 D256 2 D16
x2
OV4 400x700 7D22 D223 2 D16 D10-90
OV5 400x700 5D22 3 D22 D10-150
RB 700x700 7D22 4 D22 D102 D10-100 4D22 D227 2 D10 D10-150
Table 3.2. Beam Type

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To determine the distance of the field reinforcement with the
reinforcement of the foundation is, the distance reinforcement
pedestal located in ¼ span columns, while the rest of the field rarely
reinforcement of these calculations.

As for the floor reinforcement plate F3 uses 2 types:


 conventional floor plates that use wire mesh D10-150 as
reinforcement.
 The slab that uses the metal deck.

Figure 3.42. Details Conventional Plates and Plate Metal deck

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Stages reinforcement beam and floor plate:

 Preparing working drawings, materials and equipment to be


used.
 Cut and shape steel reinforcement in accordance with shop
drawings. Then Stringing reinforcement beams above the main
reinforcement formwork by placing first and then the
reinforcement stirrup mounted with the distance between
stirrups popularity with working drawings and tied with wire
bendrat.

Figure 3.43. reinforcement beams

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 Once completed post reinforcement concrete decking on the
lower side and the side to get concrete covers planned.
 After completion of reinforcement beams continued
reinforcement in the slab bottom. If it is then installed iron hack
to within the thickness of the wire mesh,
 Then continued reinforcement wire mesh also put the top and
concrete decking,
 When all was done cleaning the area from dirt and used wire
bonding. And determine which parts of the casting in the area
to be cast and determine the limits of casting, by using pieces
of wood.
 Once this is done, then be checked by quality control and
consultancy, checking it includes the amount of reinforcement,
reinforcement diameter in use.

Figure 3.44. Reinforcement of beams and floor plates that are ready for
the cast

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5. Casting Concrete Work
Prior to the casting beam and floor plate, the area must be
clean of dirt and used wire, then prepare the tools that will be used
in this activity. Beam and floor plate casting done simultaneously so
that the relationship between the beam and the floor slab into a
monolithic (integrated and continuous).Casting process using
concrete ready mix and transferred to a casting with concrete pump
portable and piped up to the point of casting, the initial process
before casting is taking samples for testing slump test on concrete
materials ready mix and manufacture samples for testing
compressive strength of concrete in the laboratory, The concrete
used is a concrete ready mix with K-300. The quality at the same
time using the compacted concrete Vibrator. After all formwork cast,
the wet floor Plate plastic cover which aims to prevent water
evaporates when the weather is hot, and protect the concrete from
dirt. During the casting process, the concrete should be protected
from sunlight, rain, or water flow, because it can create mechanical
destruction or dry prematurely. All open concrete surface must be
kept wet for 4 days, that is by spraying water and flooded with water
at the surface. Once this is done, then be checked by quality control
and consultancy.

Figure 3.45. Casting Concrete Work

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6. Release Formwork Beam and Floor Plate
Once the casting process is completed then do the treatment
process in the concrete, that is by watering the concrete surface
with water, it is intended that the concrete pavement a perfect
experience and avoid cracks in the concrete.
When the concrete begins to dry it will be the dismantling of
scaffolding advance without removing the formwork this is due to
the strength of concrete is not maximized, starting with the release
of u-head formwork and then the other parts. The first part
scaffolding is detachable that holds part of the floor slab, after the
part scaffolding that holds the beam.
Once the concrete is strong enough, then dismantling the
formwork in beams and plates can be directly carried out, but at
certain points remain propped up by scaffolding, because of usually
different concrete ages and still not perfect.

Figure 3.46. Beam and floor plate that has been release formwork

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3.4. ANALYSIS TIME SCHEDULE
Time schedule is planned allocation of time to complete
each project work items as a whole with the timeframe set for
executing a project.

Time Schedule includes among others the following activities;

 Material Schedule
Schedule of materials required for this project according to
the number and kind of unity of time.
 Equipment Schedule
Schedule of equipment to be used in this project according
to the number and function of the unity of time.
 Labor Schedule
Schedule of labour needed for this project in accordance with
a membership of a union.
 Cost Schedule
Schedule of costs flow according to schedule materials,
equipment and labour per unit time.

From time Schedule/work plan, will get about the long work can
be completed, as well as parts of the related work. Fourthly it must
conform its procurement so that the implementation can work goes
according to plan and arranged for not raises issues that will make
the implementation of the work to be obstructed and made many
parties suffered losses.

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The function and purpose of the time schedule are:
 To guide the contractor to carry out a job and as guidelines for
directors to control whether a job in progress according to
schedule or not.
 As a guideline for evaluating a job that has been completed.
 As a guideline to regulate the speed of a job.
 To determine the stages of the work in accordance with the order
of execution time.
 To estimate the cost of which must be provided within a specified
period, as well as to estimate the amount of labour, the number
and types of equipment, and materials used.

Preparation of implementation schedule (Time Schedule)


must consider several factors:
 The condition or state courts
 Kind and volume of work
 Methods of implementation and equipment used
 amount and quality of resources available
 estimates of climate and weather

On Project development Transmart Carrefour Cirebon to


problems scheduling time (Time Schedule), there is a delay from the
original plan instance in January at week 11 to week 19, where the
results of the progress of the plan is greater than the results of the
progress of realization, this is due to the realization of the work does
not comply with the plans that have been made and this makes delay
the work. Delays are also caused by several obstacles, such as IMB
and AMDAL.

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Progress Progress
Progress Progress
Weeks Of Cumulative Cumulative Deviation
Plan Realization
Plan Realization
Week 1 0.0202 0.0202 0.7479 0.7479 0.7277
Week 2 0.0572 0.0774 0.8776 1.6255 1.5481
Week 3 0.0872 0.1646 0.8367 2.4622 2.2976
Week 4 0.0972 0.2618 1.0344 3.4966 3.2348
Week 5 0.2122 0.4740 0.9695 4.4661 3.9921
Week 6 0.2122 0.6863 1.2074 5.6735 4.9872
Week 7 0.2132 0.8995 1.1692 6.8427 5.9432
Week 8 0.5032 1.4027 2.3367 9.1794 7.7767
Week 9 0.3954 1.7981 0.7761 9.9555 8.1574
Week 10 0.3954 2.1935 1.6337 11.5892 9.3957
Week 11 2.5162 4.7098 1.2184 12.8076 8.0978
Week 12 2.5162 7.2260 1.3847 14.1563 6.9303
Week 13 2.7146 9.9405 1.2615 15.4178 5.4773
Week 14 1.3766 11.3172 1.2162 16.6794 5.3622
Week 15 1.5142 12.8314 1.2615 17.9409 5.1095
Week 16 2.6917 15.5231 1.2615 19.2024 3.6793
Week 17 1.6970 17.2201 0.9615 20.1639 2.9438
Week 18 1.6970 18.9171 0.8990 21.0629 2.1458
Week 19 1.5278 20.4450 0.9387 22.0016 1.5566
Week 20 1.1348 21.5798 2.2088 24.2103 2.6306
Week 21 1.1845 22.7643 1.6535 25.8638 3.0995
Week 22 2.3538 25.1181 2.4802 28.3440 3.2258
Week 23 1.4748 26.5929 3.2150 31.5590 4.9661
Week 24 2.2251 28.8180 1.8372 33.3962 4.5782
Week 25 1.3696 30.1876 0.4774 33.8736 3.6860
Week 26 2.3722 32.5598 1.3005 35.1741 2.6143
Week 27 2.3822 34.9420 1.1273 36.3014 1.3594

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Week 28 2.3218 37.2639 8.0427 44.3441 7.0802
Week 29 4.7540 42.0179 1.4539 45.7980 3.7801
Week 30 4.7540 46.7720 1.1852 46.9832 0.2112
Week 31 1.0034 47.7754 1.5852 48.5684 0.7930
Week 32 - 47.7754 1.7313 50.2997 2.5243
Week 33 - 47.7754 0.7213 51.0210 3.2456
Week 34 1.7529 49.5283 2.4044 51.9327 2.4044
Week 35 1.8635 51.3918 1.8607 53.2525 1.8607
Week 36 1.8683 53.2601 2.4604 55.7205 2.4604
Week 37 1.6828 54.9429 3.0196 57.9626 3.0196
Week 38 1.6828 56.6258 1.4164 58.0422 1.4164
Week 39 2.1311 58.7568 1.4657 60.2225 1.4657
Week 40 2.1311 60.8879 6.5200 67.4079 6.5200
Week 41 2.1311 63.0190 5.0335 68.0525 5.0335
Week 42 3.3956 66.415 8.4591 74.8736 8.4591
Week 43 4.0787 70.4932 5.8597 76.3529 5.8597
Week 44 4.0529 74.5461 4.4081 78.9542 4.4081
Week 45 3.6079 78.1540 1.5726 79.7266 1.5726
Week 46 4.0069 82.1609 6.9285 89.0894 6.9285
Week 47 4.4471 86.6080 3.2960 89.9040 3.2960
Week 48 3.2861 89.8941 0.8270 90.7211 0.8270
Week 49 3.5915 93.4856 0.1528 93.6384 0.1528
Week 50 3.5915 97.0771 0.3512 97.4283 0.3512
Week 51 1.0942 98.1263 0.1887 98.3150 0.1887
Week 52 1.1469 99.2732 0.1596 99.4328 0.1596
Week 53 0.4036 99.6768
Week 54 0.3232 100
Table 3.3. Time Schedule Proggress

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3.5. PROBLEMS IN PROJECT
The problems that occurred during the implementation of the
Transmart Carrefour Cirebon development project are as follows:
a. Change Drawing Planning
Change drawing planning happening in this project is the
removal of the stairs when the implementation of the stair are
already finished and can be used, but the owner wants a change to
the placement of the stairs. So that the finished staircase was
destroyed and made a new ladder in accordance with the revised
drawing and it makes funds expended becomes larger than
planned.
The solution to this problem is, should the owner or the
planners to consult first so it will no change again this finished
construction, because there will be a lot of harm to the parties
concerned.
b. Handling Requirements License to build Building
Handling these requirements should be done in the time
before starting the execution of the work, but in this project, the
terms or permits it possesses are long-standing requirements. Due
to failure to comply with this regulation, the city government of
Cirebon sanctioned not to continue the work until the requirements
or permit to build newly issued buildings.
The solution to this problem is preferably before the start of
implementation, the necessary requirements must be completed
beforehand, so that when the implementation will not happen again
the above problems.
c. Negligence on Health and Safety work
Based on observations of the project, there are some workers
who are not using safety equipment such as helmets, boots and
gloves. Security guarantees necessary to protect workers from

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possible accidents when carrying out the work. Accidents that often
occur are due to worker negligence while doing the job

Figure 3.47. Workers not wearing the sling cables.


d. Columns cracked and porous
There are several columns that are cracked and porous, this
is due to some things that cause porous to the concrete will be
mentioned below
 During the casting process, the vibrator can’t reach the bottom of
the column so many parts of the column not fully filled. And when
mixing of concrete is not blended so as cement, sand, and gravel
are not mixed well.
 The cast concrete is too runny so water on the cast concrete
comes out of the mold.
The Solution Is:
• Cover the porous part with grout.
• At the time of the vibrator is done evenly, so it will not cause porous

Figure 3.48. Column Cracked and Porous

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