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ENGLISH GRAMMER

Tense

Tense Structure Symptom Example


1. Present Indefinite Sub+ verb (Present form)+Ext. Always, often, sometimes, everyday, daily,
Tense regularly, usually, normally, occasionally, I play football regularly.
generally, etc.
2. Present Sub+ am/is/are+ verb +ing+ Ext. Now, at this moment, at this time, at present,
I am playing football now.
Continuous Tense still etc.
3. Present perfect Sub+ have/has+ verb (Past participle Already, just, just now, yet, never, ever, lately,
I have played football
Tense form)+Ext. recently
recently.
4. Present Perfect Sub+ have been/has been+ verb ing+Ext. Since, for, how long, hver, a‡i, n‡Z †_‡K
I have been playing since
Continuous BZ¨vw` Øviv duration †evSv‡j|
morning.
Tense
5. Past Indefinite Sub+ verb (Past form)+Ext. Yesterday, ago, long ago, long since,
Tense last(night, week, month, year), as soon as, the I played football once.
day before yesterday, once etc.
6. Past Continuous Sub+ was/were+ verb +ing+ Ext. At that moment, at that time, then etc Ges
I was playing football at that
Tense while/when/as Øviv hy³ `ywU AZxZ NUbvq
time.
while/whenhy³ AskwU past continous nq|
7. Past Perfect Tense i) Sub+ had+ verb (Past participle AZx‡Zi `ywU µwgK NUbvi †¶‡Î before Gi i) I had played football before
form)+Ext +before+ Past Indefinite c~‡e© Ges after Gi c‡i Past perfect Tense nq| you came.
ii) Past Indefinite+ after+ Sub+ had+ verb ii) I played football after you
(Past participle form)+Ext had come.
8. Past Sub+ had been + verb ing+ Ext. Since, for, how long, hver, a‡i, n‡Z †_‡K
I had been playing football
Perfect Continuous BZ¨vw` Øviv duration †evSv‡j|
for two days.
Tense
9. Future Indefinite Sub+ shall/will+ verb (Present form)+ Ext. Tomorrow, next, next week/next year, coming,
I will play football next week.
Tense ensuring, in the days/years to come.
9. Future Sub+ shall be/will be + verb + ing + Ext.
I will be playing football.
Continuous Tense
11. Future Perfect Sub+ shall have/will have+ verb (Past By this time, by( time, month, year), by next( I will have played football by
Tense participle form)+Ext. time, month, year). this time.
12. Future Perfect Sub+ shall have been/will have been+ verb Since, for, how long, hver, a‡i, n‡Z †_‡K
I will have been playing
Continuous + ing +Ext. BZ¨vw` Øviv duration †evSv‡j|
football since tomorrow.
Tense
Prepared by: Bony
ENGLISH GRAMMER
Transformation of Sentence
Symptom Simple Complex Compound
(mij evK¨) ( RwUj evK¨) (‡hŠwMKevK¨)
1. hLb Verb+ ing When…. (hLb) And--- (Ges)
Closing the door, he went to Market. When he had closed the door, he went to market. He closed the door and went to market.
2.KviY Because of…….(Kvi‡Y) Since/As…. (Kvi‡Y) And (Ges)
Because of having merit, he was loved Since he had merit, he was loved by the teachers. He had merit and was loved by the
by the teachers. teachers.
Because of his making delay, we missed Since he made delay we missed the train. He made delay and we missed the train.
the train.
3. m‡Ë¡I Inspite of( m‡Ë¡I)/ Despite(m‡Ë¡I)+ Though---- (hw`I) / Although------(hw`I) But---- (wKš‘ )
verb+ ing ……
In spite of having merit, he failed in the Though/Although he had merits, he failed in the He had merit but he failed in the
examination. examination. examination.
4.n¨v By+ verb+ ing…… If +you+ verb…… Imperative evK¨ + And(Ges)
†evaK By taking exercise regularly, you will/ If you take exercise regularly, you will/can keep Take exercise and you will/can keep fit.
kZ© can keep fit. fit.
(Subject
GKB)
5.bv Without +verb +ing-------- If +you+ do not+ verb…. Imperative evK¨ + Or (A_ev)
†evaK Without drinking clean water, you will If you do not drink clean water, you will not/ Drink clean water or you will not/ cannot
kZ© not/cannot keep fit. cannot keep fit. keep fit.
(Subject
GKB)
6.n¨v Incase of +Sub-Gi Possessive + verb If +you+ verb----- Imperative evK¨ + And(Ges)
†evaK +ing
kZ© In case of your standing first, I will If you stand first, I will reward you. Stand first and I will reward you.
(Subject reward you.
wfbœ)
7.bv In case of + Sub-Gi Possessive + If +you+ do not +verb…. Imperative evK¨ + Or (A_ev)
†evaK failure to +verb…..
kZ© In case of your failure to stand first, I If you do not stand first, I will not reward you. Stand first or I will not reward you.
(Subject will not reward you.
wfbœ)

Prepared by: Bony


8.D‡Ïk¨ To+ verb…. So that (hv‡Z) + Sub+ can/could +verb… And+Sub+want/wanted+to+verb
I work hard to prosper in life. I work hard so that I can prosper in life. I work hard and I want to to prosper in
life.
9.GZ...†h …..too…..to…. so ….that+ Sub+cannot/could not+verb ……very……and……
He is too tired to walk. He is so tired that he cannot walk. He is very tired and cannot walk.

Prepared by: Bony