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SGDE 4013

ASSESSMENT IN LEARNING
ITEM DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS

DISEDIAKAN OLEH:
ANIS AMALINA BINTI MALEK (824693)
NUR IZZANA BT ABDUL SATAR (824717)
FATIMAH BINTI MOHD ZAINOL (824698)
NOOR HILALLIYA BT MOHAMAD KHALID (824709)

NAMA PENSYARAH:
DR. NURLIYANA BINTI BUKHARI
INTRODUCTION

Assessment of learning is described of a process by which assessment information is used

by teachers to adjust their strategies and by students to adjust their learning strategies.

Assessment, teaching and learning are inextricably linked as each informs the others. Assessment

is a powerful process that can either optimize or inhibit learning, depending on how it’s applied.

In this course the first topic that we have learned is Assessment in Learning. So, we have

decided to choose this topic as our project. We want to measure how well student PGDE

understands about measurement, test, assessment and evaluation. These elements are important

to generate marks or grades which distinguish between students enable pass or fail decision to be

made. Besides, it is also providing evidence for other outside the course to enable them to judge

the appropriateness of standards on the course.

Test takers are students of PGDE enrolling SGDE4013 Assessment in Learning subject.

There are total of 30 test takers. The relevant instrument is using SGDE 4013 Assessment in

Learning notes as a main reference for item development.

No. Construct No. of objective items No. of Subjective items

1 Measurement 4 1

2 Test 4 1

3 Assessment 4 1

4 Evaluation 3 2

Total 15 5
Learning Outcome

Upon completion of the test, test taker able to:

1. Explain the concept of measurement in assessment and mental measurement.

2. Distinguish traits with the right scoring measurement.

3. Distinguish the difference between the terms “measurement” and “test”.

4. Define the meaning of a test.

5. Differentiate the differences of Criterion-referenced and Norm-referenced tests.

6. Explain a method of obtaining information.

7. Differentiate the types of assessment.

8. Explain the concept of evaluation and define the difference of them

9. Correlate the items and make the brief explanation

Table of specification

No. Construct Subjective Total Marks

Cognitive level Total Items

Easy Average Difficult

1 Measurement 1 3 1

2 Test 1 1

3 Assessment 1 6 1

4. Evaluation 1 2
1

Total 5
No. Construct Objective

Cognitive level Total Items

Easy Average Difficult

1 Measurement
Meaning 1 4
Traits 1
Mental measurement 1
Pain tolerance measurement 1

2 Test 4
Meaning 1
Test vs measurement 1
Criterion -referenced test 1
Norm-referenced test 1

3 Assessment 4
Meaning 1
Characteristic Norm-Referenced Test 1
Formative Assessment
Authentic Assessment 1
1

4. Evaluation 3
Meaning 1
Relation of evaluation 1
Formative evaluation 1

TOTAL 7 6 2 15
ITEM DEVELOPMENT

Universiti Utara Malaysia


Fakulti Pendidikan
Assessment in Learning
Date : 9 December 2018
Place : SEML
Time : One hour
Student Name: __________________________________

SECTION A (15 Marks)


For each of the items, choose and circle the answer from among the given alternative.
Answer all questions.

1. Measurement is a procedure of assigning numbers or scores to a specific trait or items


according to specific set of scoring rubric.
a) True
b) False
c) Unsure

2. When the measure is in degree (ᵒC), thus the traits is in ________.


a) Distance
b) Temperature
c) Height

3. Which statement about mental measurement is TRUE?


a) The traits are directly measure and uniquely interact with measurement instrument to generate
a measurement of the trait.
b) The traits do not interact with measurement instrument directly and determining the scores
is randomly stated.
c) The traits are used to evaluate means to determine the significance and worth of the
condition.

4. A researcher is measuring a pain tolerance by having an individual walks across a beach of hot
sand. Identify the reaction with the BEST scoring.

Reaction Scoring

a) Cry Moving away from the sand


b) Cry The more tears, the painful

c) Scream Moving away from the sand

d) Scream The louder, the painful

5. What is a test?
a) An instrument or systematic procedure for observing and describing one or more
characteristics of a student.
b) A process for assigning number.
c) A procedure for assigning number of characteristic value to the quantity of entity item.

6. What are measurement and test?


a) Measurement refers to the process of making subjective judgment about the quality of
scores interpretations from a test.
b) Measurement refers to procedures for assigning scores to a person’s trait while test is a tool
used to conduct measurement.
c) Measurement refers to the process of gathering test items to produce scores while test is a
simple of scores for scaling.

7. The characteristics of criterion-referenced test is


a) Compare a person’s performance with the performance of others.
b) Compare an individual’s performance with the performance of others.
c) The test developers design the test with questions that most people will incorrect.

8. What is the purpose of norm-referenced test?


a) To know the specific skills which students have achieved.
b) To find out how much students know before instructions begins and after it has finished.
c) To discriminate between high and low achievers.

9. What is an assessment?
a) Any systematic method of obtaining information, used to draw inferences about
characteristics of people, objects or programs.
b) The process of assigning numbers.
c) The process of making a value judgment about the worth of an entity’s performance or
product.
10.
· Score are given as a rank based on other student scores.
· Assesses a very large number of students.
· Test usually takes a longer period number of times.

Based on statement above, this assessment refer to


a) Criterion-Referenced Test
b) Norm-Referenced Test
c) Summative Assessment

11. Five minutes before end of the period for subject English Language, Madam Liyana does
some revision for the topic that her student learned today.
Based on the situation above, what type of assessment that used by madam Liyana ?
a) Formative Assessment
b) Summative Assessment
c) Criterion Referenced Test

12. Which one of these answer below refer to Authentic Assessment?


a) Students complete project in content area, working individually or in pairs.
b) A school held a midterm exam to grade students.
c) A man took a driving test.

13. Process of making a value judgment and to determine of significances is the main purpose
of?
a) Measurement
b) Summative Evaluation
c) Evaluation

14. Do you think the program of School Based Assessment is related with the process to
determine the extent to which an action was successful?
a) No.
b) Yes.
c) Unsure.

15. Formative evaluation is used after the course completion to assign the grades. Which one of
the following answers is the TRUE statement?
a) No: Formative is used to know what the instructional objective has been achieve.
b) Yes: Formative also helps to provide feedback to the teacher.
c) Unsure.
SECTION B (15 Marks)
Answer all questions.

1. By using the example of pain tolerance as a trait, complete table below by determine the 3
painful levels and scream level that can be used to measure pain tolerance. (3 marks)

Painful level Scream loud level

2. What is the use of a test and give an example of a test. (2 marks)


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

3. What are differences between formative assessment and summative assessment? (6 marks)

Formative Assessment Summative Assessment

4. What are differences between measurement and evaluation? (2 marks)


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

5. Give the brief statement about measurement and evaluation. (2 marks)


______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

END
Marking scheme/ scoring rubric

Objective
- Each right answer entitle for one mark.

No. Answer Reason

1. A TRUE : Measurement is a procedure of assigning numbers or scores to a specific trait


or items according to specific set of scoring rubric.

2. B When the measure is in degree (ᵒC), thus the traits is in ___Temperature_____.


a) Distance ( Measure in meter or kilometer )
b) Temperature
c) Height ( Measure in inch or centimeter )

3. B Which statement about mental measurement is TRUE?


a) The traits are directly measure and uniquely interact with measurement instrument to
generate a measurement of the trait. ( Trait measurement )
b) The traits do not interact with measurement instrument directly and
determining the scores is randomly stated.
c) The traits are used to evaluate means to determine the significance and worth of
the condition. ( Evaluation )

4. D A researcher is measuring a pain tolerance by having an individual walks across a beach


of hot sand. Identify the reaction with the BEST scoring.

Reaction Scoring

a) Cry Moving away from the ( Unable to determine different pain level )
sand

b) Cry The more tears, the ( Best to measure sadness )


painful

c) Scream Moving away from the ( Unable to determine different pain level )
sand

d) Scream The louder, the painful ( Best to describe different pain level
and represent pain )
5. A What is a test?
a) An instrument or systematic procedure for observing and describing one or
more characteristics of a student.
b) A process for assigning number. (Measurement)
c) A procedure for assigning number of characteristic value to the quantity of entity
item. (Measurement)

6. B What are measurement and test?


a) Measurement refers to the process of making subjective judgment about the
quality of scores interpretations from a test. (Evaluation)
b) Measurement refers to procedures for assigning scores to a person’s trait
while test is a tool used to conduct measurement.
c) Measurement refers to the process of gathering test items to produce scores while
test is a simple of scores for scaling. (Assessment)

7. A The characteristics of criterion-referenced test is


a) Compare a person’s performance with the performance of others.
b) Compare an individual’s performance with the performance of others. (Norm-
referenced test)
c) The test developers design the test with questions that most people will incorrect.
(Norm-referenced test)

8. C What is the purpose of norm-referenced test?


a) To know the specific skills which students have achieved. (Criterion-referenced
test)
b) To find out how much students know before instructions begins and after it has
finished. (Criterion-referenced test)
c) To discriminate between high and low achievers.

9. A 9. What is an assessment?
a) Any systematic method of obtaining information, used to draw inferences
about characteristics of people, objects or programs.
b) The process of assigning numbers. ( Measurement )
c) The process of making a value judgment about the worth of an entity’s
performance or product. ( Evaluation )
10. B · Score are given as a rank based on other student scores.
· Assesses a very large number of students.
· Test usually takes a longer period number of times.
Based on statement above, this assessment refer to

a) Criterion-Referenced Test (student scores are given as percent, assesses a small


number of students, test usually doing on the last class period)
b) Norm-Referenced Test
c) Summative Assessment (is used to evaluate students learning at the end of an
instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark)

11. A Five minutes before end of the period for subject English Language, Madam Liyana
does some revision for the topic that her student learned today.

Based on the situation above, what type of assessment that used by madam Liyana ?

a) Formative Assessment (is used to monitor students learning to provide


ongoing feedback that can be used by instructors or teachers to improve their
teaching improve learning of their student)
b) Summative Assessment (is used to evaluate students learning at the end of an
instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark)
c) Criterion Referenced Test (measured a student’s performance based on the
specific set of skills and knowledge a student has mastered)

12. A Which one of these answer below refer to Authentic Assessment


a) Students complete project in content area, working individually or in pairs.
b) A school held a midterm exam to grade students. (Summative Assessment)
c) A man took a driving test. (Criterion Referenced Test)

13. C Process of making a value judgment and to determine of significances is the main
purpose of?
a) Measurement ( Process of assigning number)
b) Summative Evaluation (evaluate at the end of semester)
c) Evaluation

14. B Do you think the program of School Based Assessment is related with the process to
determine the extent to which an action was successful?
a) No
b) Yes
c)Unsure

15. A Formative evaluation is used after the course completion to assign the grades . Which
one the true statement?
a) No : Formative are used to know what the instructional objective has been
achieve
b) Yes: Formative also help to provide feedback to the teacher.
c) Unsure

Subjective

No. Suggestion answer Marks

1. By using the example of pain tolerance as a trait, complete table below by determine the 3m
3 painful levels and scream level that can be used to measure pain tolerance. (3 marks)

Painful level Scream loud level

1- less painful 1 – low scream (1 mark)

2 – painful 2 – average loud scream (1 mark)

3 – very painful 3 – very loudly scream (1 mark)

2. What is the use of a test and give an example of a test. (2 marks) 2m


 A test is a tool used to conduct measurement and the example is UPSR (or any
other correct answer)

3. 3. What are differences between formative assessment and summative assessment? (6


marks)

Formative Assessment Summative Assessment

1- It is used to check students 1-Assessment of learning or summative


understanding and to plan subsequent assessment provide teachers and
instruction. students with information about the 2m
attainment of contain knowledge.
2-The information gained from formative 2-Summative Assessments often result
assessment guides the next steps in in grades which mean that they have a
instruction and helps teachers and students high point value.
consider the additional learning 2m
opportunities needed to ensure success.

3-Formative assessment information must 3- The goal of summative assessment is


be fed forward into an instructional model to evaluate student learning at the end
that allows for responsiveness to student of an instructional unit by comparing it 2m
need against some standard or benchmark.

4. What are the differences between measurement and evaluation ?

Measurement Evaluation

Measurement is a process of Evaluation is a process of use the data to determine 2m


assigning number an action was successful decide direction

5. Give the brief statement about measurement and evaluation ?

Measurement Evaluation
2m
To summarize the traits of entity To make judgement about the entity of student

TOTAL 15m
TEST ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES

The test was given to PGDE students. They are a total of fifteen objective questions and

five subjective questions that covers about the first topic of Assessment in Learning such as

measurement, item, assessment and evaluation.

The test was held on 4th December 2018. 9.00 a.m until 10:00 a.m. The test took place at

SEML class. The condition of the venue was semi-formal, where examinee took the test at their

own place and it was a paper based test. All examinee need to submit their answers after one

hour of test.

During the test, the subject or issues that occur is that students may imitate a friend on the

side as all students only answer the test at their respective places. Then it is easy for them to

discuss the answer.

Upon conducting the test, all participants need further explanation to understand the

questions need and they regularly asked for the definition of certain words. Besides, all the test

takers are not well prepared to answer the question as they are mostly exhausted after attending

their morning class. On the other hand, the questions are prepared by inexperienced creator and

are unable to focus on developing the items due to time constraint which the time allocated to

complete the task is too short.

Besides, there are also some issues during the analysis process using SPSS which one of

the most problematic issue is that the members of the group are mostly not familiar with SPSS

itself. It makes them unable to determine or understand the usage of the SPSS and cannot make

full use of it and are unable to utilise the data due to lack of knowledge and exposure to the

SPSS.
Last but not least important, majority of the students are not mastered in the subject but

they search the correct answers throughout the websites such as google websites.That is the

reason that it gives some impact to the reliability. In other way, the test makers are lack of

experience in construct the items are also affected the item’s reliability. As an example, some

subjectives questions are need to define what the differences between evaluations and

measurements, but the students are disabilities to understand what purpose of the questions and

how to answer the items due to the unclearly construct.


SCORING & RECORDING
The scoring for objective item is done based on each correct answer for each question entitle for
one marks that make it up total of 15 marks for 15 questions. The scoring for subjective item is
done based on the rubric marking score. Overall, the scoring is calculated automatically using
excel. It is automatically generated using simple additions by adding objective and subjective
marks that make up to total of 30marks.

Results

No. Objective ( 15 Marks ) Subjective ( 15 Marks ) Total (30 Marks)

1. 2 12 14

2. 9 5 14

3. 8 6 14

4. 7 7 14

5. 11 4.5 15.5

6. 3 13 16

7. 3 13 16

8. 3 13 16

9. 8 12 20

10. 8 13 21

11. 10 11 21

12. 8 13 21

13. 6 15 21

14. 9 12 21

15. 11 11 22

16. 11 11 22

17. 7 15 22

18. 7 15 22
19. 8 15 23

20. 10 14 24

21. 9 15 24

22. 11 13 24

23. 11 14 25

24. 10 15 25

25. 11 15 26

26. 11 15 26

27. 11 15 26

28. 13 14 27

29. 14 13 27

30. 13 15 28
ITEM ANALYSES

ITEM MEAN SD CORRECTED ITEM-TOTAL CRONBACH’S ALPHA IF ITEM


CORRELATION DELETED

i1 0.800 0.4068 0.521 0.591

i2 0.800 0.4068 0.672 0.578

i3 0.500 0.5085 -0.141 0.651

i4 0.733 0.4498 0.578 0.583

i5 0.600 0.4983 0.232 0.614

i6 0.800 0.4068 0.191 0.619

i7 0.467 0.5074 0.143 0.623

i8 0.667 0.4795 0.391 0.599

i9 0.400 0.4983 0.085 0.629

i10 0.433 0.5040 0.373 0.600

i11 0.433 0.5040 0.061 0.631

i12 0.400 0.4983 -0.573 0.688

i13 0.567 0.5040 0.109 0.626

i14 0.733 0.4498 0.597 0.581

i15 0.433 0.5040 0.247 0.613

i16 2.550 0.8131 -0.314 0.696

i17 1.200 0.9965 0.572 0.543

i18 5.433 1.3817 0.370 0.598

i19 1.667 0.6609 0.350 0.571

i20 1.633 0.6687 0.347 0.597

Scale Reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha for SAS) 0.627

Scale Mean 21.25

Scale SD 4.407575767

N 30
Table 1: Reliability indexed for each construct and cronbach alpha of SAS
Item Reliability

The purpose of this study is to know the extent of the students' understanding in the subject that

had learned throughout in PGDE studies in Semester 1.The students’ population are 35 students

consisting of 6 men and 29 women. 30 student or respondent are randomly selected to answer

the questions that was provided to them.The instrument that were used are questionnaires’

includes objective forms and subjective (fill in the blank) . The application to analysis the data

that was used are Statiscal Package for Social Science version 22.0 .Statistic descriptive are

include mean / Standard.

Item reliability is the consistency of a set of items (variables) that is to what extent they measure

the same thing. When set of items are consistent, they can make a measurement scale such as

sum scale.Cronbach’s alpha is the most popular measure of item reliability, it is the average

correlation of items in a measurement scale. If the items have variances that significantly differ,

standardized alpha is preferred.

The table above shows that the cronbach alpha for the overall items are 0.627. The MEAN of the

overall items are (m = 21.25 , st deviation = 4.41). The level of understanding that being

measured by this study consist of four main construct which is measurement, item, assessment

and evaluation.Difficulty and discrimination indexed items are used to evaluate the test items.

Those tables are showed the reliability indexed for each construct and cronbach alpha of SAS .
Item Difficulty

The item difficulty index is one of the most useful, and most frequently reported, item analysis

statistics. It is a measure of the proportion of examinees who answered the item correctly; for

this reason it is frequently called the p-value. As the proportion of examinees who got the item

right, the p-value might more properly be called the item easiness index, rather than the item

difficult can range between 0.0 and 1.0, with a higher value indicating that a greater proportion

of examinees responded to the item correctly, and it was thus an easier item. Based on the table,

the result shows there are two items difficult includes item 9 and item 12. If the index nearly to 1

, that means the item is easy and if the item is difficult , the item nearly to zero.

To increase the value of cronbach alpha, some items should be removed to make it positive

results. The negative items are item 3, item 12, and item 16.

Table 2: Index Difficulty

Mean (P) Items

0.00 - 0.20 Too Difficult

0.21- 0.40 Difficult

0.41- 0.60 Moderate

0.61 - 0.80 Easy

0.81 - 1.00 Too Easy


Discrimination item

Item discrimination index is a platform to measure of how effectively an item discriminates

between high group and low group. The index is extended to show the differences between the

high score and low scores. The students with high scores usually got a item correct and however,

there are also can be answered by others group. This table shows the index discrimination.

Table 3: Discrimination index

Index discrimination Discrimination item

ID > 0.4 High positive discrimination

0.2 < ID > 0.4 Moderate positive discrimination

0 < ID <0.2 Low positive discrimination

ID < 0 Negative discrimination which is lower group is better than high group.

For this analysis, there are 15 questions of objectives were be measured in this study which

consist 4 stages such as high positive discrimination , moderate positive discrimination , low

positive discrimination and negative discrimination which is lower group is better that high

group .For the stage of high positive discriminations , there are consists 5 items are very good

items and too discrimination. The 5 items in higher positive discriminations are items ( 1, 2, 4,

14 ) . The percentage of higher positive discrimination is 20%. For moderate positive

discrimination consists 8 items such as item (5, 8, 10, 15, 17, 18, 19, and 20). These items are

good and can be improved .The percentage of moderates positive discriminations are 40%. The

items which includes in low positive discrimination are item 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and the
percentages of low positive discrimination are 25% which this items are weak and need to be

checked again. The index discrimination are also shows the negative discrimination which is

lower group is better than high group are includes items (3, 12, and 16) . The percentages of this

stage are 15% that means the items are couldn’t use in this analysis.

Table 4: Percentages of Items discriminations

Description Item Number of Item Percentage (%)

Low 5 25%

Moderate 8 40%

High 4 20%

Negative 3 15%

Total 20 100

According the results, we can conclude that if the items discrimination (DI) index are near to

zero, that means the items are not good and couldn’t be used as a question.
DISCUSSION

The reliability index for this study was 0.627 which is good. We cannot expect assessment

results to be perfectly consistent. There are numerous factors other than the quality being

measured that may influence assessment results.

Among the factors that can affect the reliability of the item is range of ability.

Respondent in this study had the heterogeneous ability and had caused this reliability to be good.

Item difficulty level also affects index of reliability. Reliability will be low if a test is so easy or

so difficult that every student get most or all of the items wrong or correct.

After that, distractor of the answer are strong and most student less guessing the answer

also the factor that show value of the reliability is good.

Based on the discrimination item (DI) and difficulty item (DI), there are relation between

discrimination and difficulty. Difficulty is still useful for flagging items, though an item flagged

for being too easy or too hard will often have a low discrimination, it may be worth reviewing

and other factors that may have impacted the statistics. Sometimes easy and hard items are useful

for measurement . For item difficulty , some items should be removed from question due to some

distractors .

The first negative item is item 3 which the distractors maybe the answer that was given

confusing the respondents.The items seems like same meaning and purpose. Then it also about

the question are not clear and couldn’t make the respondent are understand with simple

ways.Beside that, the background of respondent are the one factor of distractor that will give

impact to the difficulty items. In the same time,there are two negative items such as objective are

not working at all.Its seems like the test- maker give a slight clue in the length item 12 and item
16. Then , we found out that the distractors of question number 12 in of the distractors.The others

factor that impact item difficulty is perhaps due to to period of time and the respondents are not

mastered in the outcomes learning. The brief formula of difficulty are if the index are nearly to 1

, that means the question or item is easy and all the respondent can give the answer in the easy

ways.

Subsequently, discrimination are also has relations meaning with difficulty items. If item

difficulty index nearly to 1 means easy , then in discrimination index ,if the index nearly to 1 ,

that means the item is high positive discrimination. The 3 items in negative discriminations are

items ( 3,12,16 ) . When an item is discrimination negatively, overall of the student are not

completely mastered in the topic which is learned. Item have negative discrimination, educators

can remove them from the list of item.


CONCLUSION

Generally, the result of the test on the students of PGDE Universiti Utara Malaysia ,

shows the mean of the overall items are good .Mostly questions which are answered by the

student are correct and just 20% items are negative and should be removed. The test that are

given to PGDE student consist of fifteen objective questions and five subjective questions that

covers about the first topic of Assessment in Learning such as measurement, item, assessment

and evaluation. The results are reliable because of some students are mastered and others are not

mastered in this subject. Statistics discriminations shows 40% of the discrimination index are in

moderate stage.

Besides, there are some issues upon completing this task which are during the beginning which

concerns about the item development, upon conducting the test which concerns on the

difficulties faced by the test takers mostly in understanding the item’s needs and also some issues

during the analysis process using SPSS which one of the most problematic issue is that the

members of the group are mostly not familiar with SPSS itself.

Based on the results and overall discussion, the researchers give some suggestions in

improving this task. Hence, there are some suggestion in improving this task which concerns on

the time allocation. It should be longer and must be assigned early in the semester, not at the end

of it. In addition, we must also take into consideration on the readiness of the test takers to

answer the questions. . And then, it is a must for the item creator to have experience and

expertise or at least guidance from the experts in this field to make the result of the test valid. In

addition of that, the reliability results also are shows good due to earlier information to test taker

about the test which is will be given to them.


REFERENCES

Scott A. , Sarah M. , Jason K. & John R. (2013). Item Development and Assessment

Construction Guidelines for Common Core State Standards. United States of America:

Assessment Technology Incorporated Publishers.

National Center for Educational Statistics (2007). NAEP Item Development Process. Retrieved

November 27, 2018, from https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/contracts/item_dev.aspx

[Ross Avlin] (2016). How to analyze data in SPSS [Video File] Retrieve from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6Gs24iK8bM

Discrimination Item Analysis (Schreyer Institute Self-Paced Modules), Retrieved from

http://sites.psu.edu/itemanalysis/discrimination

[Liyana Bukhari]. (2018, Mar 21). Demonstrasi Kemasukan Data Dalam SPSS [Video File]

Retrieve from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4YSG8sX5io


APPENDIX

Descriptive Statistics

Std.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Deviation
i1 30 0.0 1.0 .800 .4068
i2 30 0.0 1.0 .800 .4068
i3 30 0.0 1.0 .500 .5085
i4 30 0.0 1.0 .733 .4498
i5 30 0.0 1.0 .600 .4983
i6 30 0.0 1.0 .800 .4068
i7 30 0.0 1.0 .467 .5074
i8 30 0.0 1.0 .667 .4795
i9 30 0.0 1.0 .400 .4983
i10 30 0.0 1.0 .433 .5040
i11 30 0.0 1.0 .433 .5040
i12 30 0.0 1.0 .400 .4983
i13 30 0.0 1.0 .567 .5040
i14 30 0.0 1.0 .733 .4498
i15 30 0.0 1.0 .433 .5040
i16 30 0.0 3.0 2.550 .8131
i17 30 0.0 2.0 1.200 .9965
i18 30 2.0 6.0 5.433 1.3817
i19 30 0.0 2.0 1.667 .6609
i20 30 0.0 2.0 1.633 .6687
Valid N
(listwise) 30

Statistics
SAS_Score
N Valid 30
Missing 0
SAS_Score

Valid Cumulative
Frequency Percent Percent Percent
Valid 14.00 4 13.3 13.3 13.3
15.50 1 3.3 3.3 16.7
16.00 3 10.0 10.0 26.7
20.00 1 3.3 3.3 30.0
21.00 5 16.7 16.7 46.7
22.00 4 13.3 13.3 60.0
23.00 1 3.3 3.3 63.3
24.00 3 10.0 10.0 73.3
25.00 2 6.7 6.7 80.0
26.00 3 10.0 10.0 90.0
27.00 2 6.7 6.7 96.7
28.00 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

Case Processing Summary


N %
Cases Valid 30 100.0
a
Excluded 0 0.0
Total 30 100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in
the procedure.

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach'
s Alpha N of Items
.627 20
Item Statistics
Std.
Mean Deviation N
i1 .800 .4068 30
i2 .800 .4068 30
i3 .500 .5085 30
i4 .733 .4498 30
i5 .600 .4983 30
i6 .800 .4068 30
i7 .467 .5074 30
i8 .667 .4795 30
i9 .400 .4983 30
i10 .433 .5040 30
i11 .433 .5040 30
i12 .400 .4983 30
i13 .567 .5040 30
i14 .733 .4498 30
i15 .433 .5040 30
i16 2.550 .8131 30
i17 1.200 .9965 30
i18 5.433 1.3817 30
i19 1.667 .6609 30
i20 1.633 .6687 30
Item-Total Statistics

Scale Scale Cronbach's


Mean if Variance Corrected Alpha if
Item if Item Item-Total Item
Deleted Deleted Correlation Deleted
i1 20.450 17.489 .521 .591
i2 20.450 17.006 .672 .578
i3 20.750 19.806 -.141 .651
i4 20.517 17.077 .578 .583
i5 20.650 18.192 .232 .614
i6 20.450 18.592 .191 .619
i7 20.783 18.546 .143 .623
i8 20.583 17.622 .391 .599
i9 20.850 18.813 .085 .629
i10 20.817 17.595 .373 .600
i11 20.817 18.905 .061 .631
i12 20.850 21.847 -.573 .688
i13 20.683 18.698 .109 .626
i14 20.517 17.008 .597 .581
i15 20.817 18.112 .247 .613
i16 18.700 21.114 -.314 .696
i17 20.050 14.144 .572 .543
i18 15.817 13.732 .370 .598
i19 19.583 16.174 .530 .571
i20 19.617 17.064 .347 .597

Scale Statistics
Std.
Mean Variance Deviation N of Items
21.250 19.427 4.4076 20
PELAJAR i1 i2 i3 i4 i5 i6 i7 i8 i9 i10 i11 i12 i13 i14 i15 i16 i17 i18 i19 i20 MARKAH_OBJ MARKAH_SUB MARKAH_PENUH SAS_Score SAS_Score_Xslx
P027 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 12.0 14.0 14.00 14.0

Yi )  P028 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 9.0 5.0 14.0 14.00 14.0
Y P029 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 3.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 8.0 6.0 14.0 14.00 14.0
)
 P030 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 7.0 7.0 14.0 14.00 14.0
 P026 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 2.5 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 11.0 4.5 15.5 15.50 15.5
P023 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 13.0 16.0 16.00 16.0
P024 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 13.0 16.0 16.00 16.0
P025 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 13.0 16.0 16.00 16.0
P022 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 2.0 1.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 20.00 20.0
P017 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 8.0 13.0 21.0 21.00 21.0
P018 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 5.0 2.0 2.0 10.0 11.0 21.0 21.00 21.0
P019 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 8.0 13.0 21.0 21.00 21.0
P020 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 15.0 21.0 21.00 21.0
P021 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 2.0 1.0 9.0 12.0 21.0 21.00 21.0
P013 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 2.0 11.0 11.0 22.0 22.00 22.0
P014 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 2.0 11.0 11.0 22.0 22.00 22.0
P015 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 7.0 15.0 22.0 22.00 22.0
P016 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 7.0 15.0 22.0 22.00 22.0
P012 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 8.0 15.0 23.0 23.00 23.0
P009 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 10.0 14.0 24.0 24.00 24.0
P010 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 9.0 15.0 24.0 24.00 24.0
P011 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 1.0 11.0 13.0 24.0 24.00 24.0
P007 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 11.0 14.0 25.0 25.00 25.0
P008 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 25.00 25.0
P003 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 11.0 15.0 26.0 26.00 26.0
P004 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 11.0 15.0 26.0 26.00 26.0
P005 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 11.0 15.0 26.0 26.00 26.0
P002 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 13.0 14.0 27.0 27.00 27.0
P006 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 1.0 14.0 13.0 27.0 27.00 27.0
P001 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 2.0 13.0 15.0 28.0 28.00 28.0

mean 0.800 0.800 0.500 0.733 0.600 0.800 0.467 0.667 0.400 0.433 0.433 0.400 0.567 0.733 0.433 2.550 1.200 5.433 1.667 1.633 21.25
SD 0.406838 0.406838 0.508548 0.449776 0.498273 0.406838 0.507416 0.479463 0.498273 0.504007 0.504007 0.498273 0.504007 0.449776 0.504007 0.813146 0.996546 1.381736 0.660895 0.668675 4.407575767
var 0.165517 0.165517 0.258621 0.202299 0.248276 0.165517 0.257471 0.229885 0.248276 0.254023 0.254023 0.248276 0.254023 0.202299 0.254023 0.661207 0.993103 1.909195 0.436782 0.447126 19.42672414
cov(item-total) 1.051724 1.293103 -0.06034 1.275862 0.741379 0.5 0.568966 1.017241 0.431034 1.043103 0.387931 -1.08621 0.491379 1.310345 0.784483 -0.51293 3.137931 3.801724 1.844828 1.405172
cor(item-total) 0.586517 0.721127 -0.02692 0.643587 0.337577 0.278836 0.254403 0.481359 0.196266 0.46956 0.17463 -0.49459 0.221198 0.660981 0.35314 -0.14312 0.714408 0.624246 0.633321 0.476776
cronbach's alpha 0.626986