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ISGT-LA 2011 1

Implementation of Smart Grids in the Colombian


Electrical Sector
A. Aldana R. Cespedes E. Parra R. Lopez M.E. Ruiz
Universidad Nacional RConsulting Group Universidad Nacional XM SA ESP XM SA ESP
Bogota, Colombia Universidad Nacional Bogota, Colombia Medellin, Colombia Medellin, Colombia
Student Member SM-IEEE Member

of smart grids in Colombia. Finally, the Colombia


Abstract—A workshop was developed to determine a Inteligente initiative is introduced as the relationship
roadmap for the implementation of smart grids in Colombia. between the Smart Grid Maturity Model and the roadmap.
More than 125 participants from different companies,
universities, government, etc. took part of this process.
II. MOTIVATION
According with previously established focus areas,
workgroups voted two matrices: Pertinence and Relevance. Worldwide the electric power systems are changing, they
The results were analyzed to construct an initial roadmap of are evolving. There are many achievements in different
the Colombian electrical sector in three phases. This road map areas that make you wonder which next steps are in future
is a key element to organize the efforts of the electrical sector developments of the electrical sector. Each country facing
towards a Smart Grid implementation. Among other
this question realizes that something needs to be done. But
possibilities the Carnegie Mellon University Smart Grid
Maturity Model (SGMM) will be used to track the progress of
what tasks and in which order need to be addressed and
the Smart Grids technologies implementation of the country when? The Smart Grids concept is of broad scope, with
and of participant utilities in this important program. several approaches depending on each country or region
and with different paths that certainly may lead to different
Index Terms— Workshop, Smart Grids, Roadmap. results and at different paces. In consequence it is
mandatory to evaluate the framework for the
I. INTRODUCTION implementation of Smart Grids in the specific situation of
Colombia. Once a base point and the expected future
T HE workshop – Technology and Implementation of
Smart Grids in the Colombian Electrical Sector– held
in Medellin - Colombia, was developed between November
milestones are established, a path connecting them can be
established. The path is a roadmap, a tool for organizing
the milestones, activities, projects, requirements, etc, in line
22 and 24, of 2010. The workshop had participation of with the desired future target or targets. The roadmap´s
representatives of several companies, industry, universities elements are organized chronologically according with the
and government, related to the electrical sector and expectations of each phase. It is useful also to determine
business. The objective of the workshop was to identify the what benefits are expected, based on trends and on
state of the art of Smart Grids development in the country international experiences.
and to collect basic information for initiating the
construction of a Smart Grids Road Map, based on the The main actors of the Colombian electrical sector realized
experience and knowledge of the participants. the importance of Smart Grids and decided to build a
roadmap. The form to discuss the different opinions and
This paper summarizes the methodology, main topics, points of those actors of view for building the roadmap was
results and conclusions of the workshop. First, an developing a workshop. The result of the workshop is the
introduction of the basic considerations and the components first version of the Colombian Smart Grid roadmap.
of the workshop and roadmap are presented. Then, an
example of the methodology and its development is III. WORKSHOP
described, and finally the road map with the conclusions of A. Basic Considerations
the almost 120 participation is presented. This work is one For studying the subjects/topics of the electrical business,
of the initial tasks of several needed for the implementation the workgroup proposed five main focus areas, according to
the value chain: Transmission, Generation, Distribution,
Consumer and Support Areas (regulations and standards,
R. Cespedes is partner of RConsulting Group SAS and associate telecom-systems, human resources).
professor of Universidad Nacional, Bogota, Colombia.
renato.cespedes@rcgsas.com.
E. Parra is Associate Professor at the National University of Colombia Each group included sub-groups and the so called elements
and Senior Consultant of RConsulting Group SAS, which are components of the Smart Grids. Each element
estrella.parra@rcgsas.com.
A. Aldana is MSc student at the National University of Colombia and was defined to be addressed separately, and they were
consultant engineer f RConsulting Group SAS, aaldanami@unal.edu.co defined in order to reach a common understanding in
R. Lopez is with XM SA. ESP, Colombia, relopez@xm.com.co subjects that are rather new to the audience; this common
M. E. Ruiz is with XM SA. ESP, Colombia, meruiz@xm.com.co
base was set in a document that defines the elements which

978-1-4577-1801-4/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE


ISGT-LA 2011 2

was made available to participants. Elements used were 4) Focus areas: For better understanding of the electrical
about 76 which were part of the following sub-groups: business, the workgroup uses the typical stages as focus
areas: Transmission, Generation, Distribution, Costumer
• Consumer and the support areas.
ƒ Home Area Networks
ƒ Demand Side Management 5) Development phase: Each element has relative priority
ƒ Energetic Efficiency due many factors. Not all elements can be achieved at the
ƒ Electric Vehicles same time. The defined phases are:
• Distribution
ƒ Infrastructure development • Conceptualization (2011-2012): Colombia realizes the
ƒ Flexible network importance of looking towards smart and efficient
ƒ Smart Operation energy systems. Fundamental basic theory and
• Generation international experience are studied. Roadmap and
ƒ Generation with renewable vision is consolidated. Projects are formulated.
ƒ Centralized generation • Development (2012-2025): New, efficient and smart
ƒ Market technologies become part of the Colombian system.
• Transmission International trends are adopted with specific projects.
ƒ PMUs infrastructure • Consolidation (2026-…): The energetic culture of the
ƒ Flexible network with power electronics country is oriented to efficient and environmental-
ƒ Asset technologies friendly systems. New technologies are established as
ƒ Advanced operation part of the grid.
• Regulatory and Standards Support
ƒ Regulation C. Pertinence Matrix: Designed with the objective to
ƒ Environmental regulation identify:
ƒ Standardization
• Subgroup’s and area pertinence
• Human Resources Support
ƒ Future company • Challenges without or with few elements
ƒ Training • Elements with negative effects
ƒ I+d+i • Dependence between subgroups and supports
• ICT Support
ƒ Communication Fig. 1 presents the components of the Pertinence Matrix.
ƒ IT
B. Initial Roadmap
According with similar exercises and international
experience, the workgroup structured a proposal for the
road map, based on five main components:

1) Initial situation: Diagnostic of the present system,


using indicators such as efficiency, energy security, fuels,
AMI penetration, etc. All indicators are included in the Fig. 1. Pertinence Matrix structure
project Metrics. Three Support Areas are defined:
Regulatory, Human Resources and ICT. A support area Fig. 2 shows the voting criteria.
helps the development of all the electrical sector activities.
Based in the initial analysis, ten Challenges for the Smart
Grids in Colombia are identified:
• Service Quality • Market structure
• NIZ (Non-Interconnected • Commercial management
Zones) coverage • Asset Management
• Reliability Fig. 2. Criteria for voting the Pertinence Matrix Components
• Demand Side Management
• Industrial and technological • Energy security
development D. Relevance Matrix: Designed with the following
• Energetic efficiency objectives:
• Organize by phases the identified elements
2) Vision: Global concept that includes all the elements of • Determine the relative complexity of elements
the road map and what is expected to achieve. • Determine the priority of elements

3) Objectives: Aligned with the challenges and the vision. Fig. 3 shows the components of the Relevance Matrix.
The final objectives are a result from the analysis of the
workshop.
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having participant’s understanding of international real


experiences.

4) Presentation of Roadmap activities; Description of the


road map elements, structure, objectives, selected
challenges, definition of the composition of workgroups
integrating different views of the electrical sector.

5) Explanation of the Pertinence and Relevance Matrix


Fig. 3. Relevance Matrix structure (Section III.C and III.D).

Fig. 4 shows the criteria for filling the matrix. 6) Explanation of the use of the Pertinence Matrix, an
example with the Transmission group was done using the
wireless voting.

7) Eleven workgroups were conformed: Transmission (2),


Distribution (3), Generation (2), Consumer (1), Regulation
(1), ICTs (1) and Human Resources (1). At each
workgroup, everyone voted individually and later they
decided as a group, to consolidate the two used matrices.

Fig. 4. Criteria for the Relevance Matrix 8) Each workgroup designated a member to present the
results and the main conclusions of their work.
IV. METHODOLOGY
9) The workshop was ended.
Fig. 5 shows the main steps in the workshop.
V. RESULTS
The result of the workshop is the roadmap for the
implementation of Smart Grids in the electrical sector in
Colombia. At the beginning a preliminary/empty roadmap
was introduced to the audience. The Metrics and Support
Areas remains the same, but the challenges were focused in
five main: Asset Management, Energetic Efficiency,
Energy Security, Demand Response and Reliability. Those
challenges were selected at the second step of the
methodology.

The vision of the Colombian electrical sector was defined


as:
Fig. 5. Workshop methodology activities
Develop, operate and maintain an
1) Introduction of the workshop’s stages; Day and a half electric power and energy system in a
activities included in the program: Brief introduction to more secure, efficient, reliable,
Smart Grid concept. Several presentations, group voting, economic and environment-friendly
individual voting, workgroup, challenges selection and form, taking care of the requirements –
results description. defining quantitatively and by quality -
the electric energy supply of an active
2) Wireless voting to general questions about: demand.
International and Colombian electrical sector, smart grids
deployment, energy trends, drivers for implementation,
communications, AMI, Distributed Generation, etc., about The objectives, aligned with the selected challenges, are:
30 questions for setting up the current state and potential of • Take infrastructure decisions according with the Asset
the smart grids. The end of the group voting was the Management criteria to ensure a correct use of the assets
selection of the five main challenges, between the ten conditions maximizing their capabilities.
challenges initially considered. • Improve the efficiency in the entire value chain

3) As part of the presentations, two manufacturers showed


their experience on Smart Grids topics. This was good for
ISGT-LA 2011 4

Fig. 6. Transmission Results

• To plan, develop, operate and maintain the electric one option to foster the evolution of the network, based on
power system based on high reliability criteria, ICT systems. The AMI is necessary but need more
implementing the technological developments development, field experience and changes in the local
• Evolve the consumer to a proactive participant in the regulation. The electric vehicles are slowly entering the
electrical business, be aware of his characteristics and country. In a few years this share may become an important
allowing for them to have a structured decision power load and challenge the distribution system. Efforts in
• Ensure the energy security for the country development automation, for many situations in the distribution systems,
shall be explored in depth.
The main results obtained for of each area are summarized D. Consumer
next.
New technologies to increase the consumer participation
A. Transmission are available at the market. The constant evolution and new
The Asset Management is fundamental for the correct use vendors, facilitate the creation of a culture of gadgets that
of the elements. That is why an AM culture is needed to shall be evaluated carefully before adopting them. The
change the current processes and methodologies. The education of the consumer is very important; it is necessary
digital substation although not completely new shall be to improve the “relationship” between the electric
more aligned with standards (IEC61850), needing more energy/utility and the consumer. The topics of energetic
studies and wide adoption. This is one area that could be of efficiency shall gain more and more importance in the use
obligatory compliance in the future regulation. The of electrical energy and the consumer participation.
standardization effort is progressing well but needs more E. Supports
time to be properly developed. There are many elements
that are going to benefit the system, but they need more In general, the current state is not bad, but a renovation is
research and development time, including advanced necessary. Each support is fine for the old power system,
materials and system restoration functions. (Fig. 6) but the challenges presented by the Smart Grids needs an
integral engineer, with excellent technical knowledge.
B. Generation
The Distributed Generation is a form to increase de demand As example, Fig. 6 shows the Transmission Area Results.
participation. The electric energy is needed everywhere, so The initial list of elements is sorted according with the final
is highly important to take the service to all corners of the voting. Each element was classified in the phases by the
country. The improvement of the Non-Interconnected Relevance Matrix criteria. Each focus area has a similar
Zones is an urgent project. The renewable energy is not an structure. Fig. 7 is the first part of the roadmap. For the
urgent project given that enough conventional energy is complete results, please download the executive summary
available. The generation structure of the electric energy is at Colombia Inteligente website. [1]
considered adequate. For the future, the renewals are going
to be more important. Several studies are needed to choose VI. “COLOMBIA INTELIGENTE”
the best alternative for installing new generation. Colombia Inteligente (CI), or Smart Colombia, is an
C. Distribution initiative for the development of the new technologies and
trends by the implementation of a countrywide program of
The Distribution system is the one with more identified projects. It is the evolution of the electric system in
objectives. The elements of the Smart operation are Colombia together with other main sectors that are closely
required to have a stronger system. The conclusion is that related because of their influence on or the influence by the
there are many options with successful experience. The electrical sector. In that strategic framework, there are 5
Asset Management is also a source information. The main sectors: Energy, Electrical, Consumer, Transport and
difficult part is to utilize that information in the correct Construction. The principal objective of the initiative is to
form. The remuneration of the new and advanced assets is achieve that Colombia reaches an overall good efficiency
ISGT-LA 2011 5

by implementing best practices of energetic use and the Smart Grids, a roadmap was structured to align works in
technological efficient solutions in the five sectors. CI is a order to obtain all the expected benefits and milestones of
future vision with work progressing in specific projects to the electric power system evolution. The participation of all
bring many benefits to the country. As such, CI is the inter- the actors in the electrical business in this roadmap ensures
sectorial strategic framework that defines the main goals, an solid base with consolidated results. The SGMM will be
direction and metrics of the road towards a sustainable and a useful tool to determine the progress with a worldwide
efficient electrical system, with reliable and secure framework.
operation.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The promoters of this initiative are XM (Power System and
Market Operator), CIDET (Electrical Sector Research Specials thanks to all the participants from the electrical
Center), COCIER (Colombian branch of CIER), CNO sector in the Smart Grid Workshop and the organizing
(National Operation Council), CAC (Commercialization entities, including XM, Empresas Públicas de Medellín
Advisor Committee) and CINTEL (Communications (EPM) and Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB). Also
Research Center). Together these institutions are to Universidad de los Andes for the technological support
developing the proposal to jointly – with several companies (wireless voting) and logistical help.
of the electrical sector- develop the necessary tasks and
projects. This initiative is the result of previous meetings REFERENCES
and workshops where the necessity to work together to [1] Colombia Inteligente.
maximize the benefits, was placed as a key requirement. http://www.colombiainteligente.com.co
[2] Smart Grid Maturity Model. Model Definition. A framework for
smart grid transformation. The SGMM Team. October 2010.
The National Program of Smart Grids (PRIC) is the
development of projects inside the framework defined by
CI. The program has an independent structure, with efforts Renato Cespedes G. graduated as Electrical Engineer (1972) from the
to achieve concrete short-term objectives but aligned with University of the Andes (Colombia) and obtained a Doctor in Electrical
Engineering (1976) degree from the National Polytechnique Institute of
the long term goals of the strategic framework. Both, CI Grenoble, France. He is associate professor at the National University of
and PRIC, have common actors, objectives, action plans, Colombia. Dr. Cespedes is presently partner and CEO of RCONSULTING
etc. For further information refer to GROUP, a consulting company based in Bogotá with interest in
www.colombiainteligente.com.co automation, technology and Smart Grid concepts. Dr. Cespedes retired in
2009 from KEMA Inc. where he held the position of Director of the Latin
America operations.
VII. SMART GRID MATURITY MODEL
The Smart Grid Maturity Model [2] is a management Estrella Parra. Eng. Parra was born in Bogotá, Colombia. She finished
her undergraduate and postgraduate studies in the Department of Electrical
tool, developed by the Software Engineering Institute at Engineering of the National University of Colombia. She is Specialist in
Carnegie Mellon University. The model provides a Power Systems, she has been teaching in the National University of
framework for understanding the current state of smart grid Colombia since 1980 and has been awarded of the medal to the university
merit and in numerous occasions she has received the distinction of
deployment and capability. It is composed of eight model Exceptional Teacher. Mrs. Parra has participated in various consulting
domains with six defined levels of maturity. studies and is a recognized professional in her subjects of interest.

Andres Aldana (S’10) was born in Bogota, Colombia, in 1988. He


Domains are logical groupings of smart grid related
received his electrical engineering degree from the National University of
capabilities and characteristics. The six levels of maturity Colombia, Bogota, in 2010. He is doing his M.Sc. in Electrical
represent defined stages of an organization’s progress Engineering at the same university. Currently he is consultant engineer at
toward achieving its smart grid vision. The SGMM RConsulting Group. He has experience in illumination: commercial and
street lighting, and Smart Grids projects. Mr. Aldana has special interest in
Compass assessment is the tool for the maturity rating of an Environmental Impact Assessment applied to the electrical infrastructure
electric utility. (subject of his master thesis), Smart Grids and control centers.

Maria Elena Ruiz. Eng. Ruiz is electrical engineer of the University of


The link between the roadmap and the SGMM is the Antioquia. She is with XM SA ESP, as specialist, where she develops
establishment of the future strategy plan. Once an utility many projects including Smart Grids, electrical market and others.
knows where it is, and has clues of the possible future
Raul Lopez. Eng. Lopez received his degree of Computer Engineering
achievements, is much easier to set up a strategic plan of the University Antonio Nariño at Medellin. He is responsible for the
aligned with the corporative vision. The SGMM was XM technological group for innovation project development including
adopted to follow up the progress in the roadmap route of smart grids, control systems for electricity and mobility. Wide
international experience in projects at Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia,
this country wide initiative. etc.

VIII. CONCLUSION
As Smart Grids are progressing worldwide, Colombia
cannot be outside this progress. The “Colombia Inteligente”
initiative provides a countrywide strategic framework for
related works. As part of this analysis of the framework of
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Fig. 7. Electrical Sector Roadmap