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SAD - DATA MODELING

SAD - DATA MODELING

by LisaRay9

SAD - DATA MODELING


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Table of contents

* DATA MODELING

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Data Modelling+

1, data modelling is a technique for organizing and documenting a


systems data in a model.+

2. ERD depicts data in term of the entities and relationships described


by the data.+

3, Relational Data Model is a blueprint for implementation of a


conceptual data model ( ERD) in relational database enviroment( software
indepenndent)+

4, MS Acess Relationship Window: a graph showing how a data model is


implemented with Microsoft Acces+

ERD+

- is used to model data and their relationship+

- is a graphical representation of a conceptual data model+

- is resource independent: it does not comit to any particular database


environment.+

ENTITY+

- is a group of attributes corresponding to the same conceptual object


about which we need to capture and store data.+

- is a set of occurrences(instances) of the object that it represents+

- must have a unique name ( a singular noun) unique identifier, and at


least one attribute ( the identifier itself)+

ATTRIBUTES+

- is a descritptive property or characteristic of interest of an entiy.


Also called element, property and field+

- DATA TYPE for an attribute defines what type of data can be sorted in
that attribute+

- DOMAIN of an attribute defines what values an attribute can


legitimately take on.+

- DEFAULT VALUE for an attributes is the value that will be recorded if


not specified by the user.+

IDENTIFICATION+

- a KEY is an attribute, or a group of attributes that assume a UNIQUE


VALUE for each entity instance+

- a group of attributes that uniquely identifies an instance of a entity


is called a COMPOSITE KEY+

- a PRIMARY KEY ( identifier) is that candidate key that will most


commonly be used to uniquely identify a single entity instance( StudentID)+
- Any candidate key that's not selected to become the primary key is
called an alternative key. ( SSN, DriverLicenseNo)+

- a SECONDARY KEY is an attribute whose values divide all entity


instances into usefull subgroup/ sub-criteria ( Major, Gender..) +

RELATIONSHIPS+

- a relationship documents an asscociation between one, two, or more


entites+

- must have a name( and many carry data)+

- Degree of relationshiip ( number of entities)+

- Cardinalities of relationship ( number of instances / members)+

DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIp defines how many entiies are involved in a


relationship.+

exmalple: Recursive ( unary), Binary, ternary+

CARDINALITIES+

- document how many occurrences/member of one entity can relate to a


single occurrence/ member of another entity in a relationship+

- Max / MIx number of occurrences+

- Reflect business policies or general business practices ( how many


classes a student can take, how many students a class can hold)+

LOGICAL DATA MODELLING STAGES+

1. Context Data Model +

- To establish project scope+

2. Key-base data model+

- Eliminate nonspecific relationships+

- Add associative entities+

- Include primary and alternate keys+

- Precise cardinalities+

3. Fully attributed data model+

- All remaining attributes+

- Subsetting criteria+

4. Normalized data model+

GOOD DATA MODEL+

- Simple+
Data attributes that describe any entity should describe only that entity.+

Each attribute of an entity instances can have only one value.+

- Non redundant:+

Each data attribute, other than foreign keys, describes at most one entity+

Look for the same attributes recorded more than once under different
names.+

- Flexible and adaptable+

Rules In ERD BUIDING+

- Each entitly must have a name+

- Each entity must have an identifier+

- An occurrence itself cannot be an entity +

- Each relationship must have a name+

- Reasonable cardinalities ( context specific)+

ASSOCIATIVE ENTITY+

- is an entity that inherits its primary key from more than one other
entity ( called parents)+

- each part of composite key points to one and only one instance of each
of the connecting entities+

FOREIGN KEYS IN RELATIONAL DATABASE+

- a foreign key in entity is a primary key of another entity, which is


used to identify a one-to-many relationship between two other entities. \+

- In M:N relationship, the associative /junction table with a composite


key will be used to capture the relationship.+

- Each part of the composite key serves like a foreign key+

- sometimes, a surrogate key ( RecordNo) is used as primary key to


simplify the identification of record.+

DATA ANYALYSIS NORMALIZATION+

- data analysis is a process that prepares a data model for


implementation as a simple, non-redundant, flexible, and adaptable
database. +

- is technique to organize data attributes such that they are grouped to


form non redundant, stable, flexible, and adaptive entities.+

1NF:+

- No repeating group of same attribute ( multi valued attributed)+


2NF+

- Attributes should depen on the whole ( composite) key, not part of it(
partial functional dependency)+

3NF:+

- Attributes should depend on the primary key only, not on each other.(
transitive dependency) +

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