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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V4N-3V7HFJ6-

6&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F1998&_alid=1485850246&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_

orig=search&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=5763&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanch

or=&view=c&_ct=57194&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&m

d5=9139dbccfd74dbeab8d0ca0abd365e9f&searchtype=a

Journal of Process Control

Volume 8, Issues 5-6, October-December 1998, Pages 355-368

ADCHEM '97 IFAC Symposium: Advanced Control of Chemical Processes

Copyright © 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Permissions & Reprints

Full paper

Dominique Bonvin

Switzerland

Abstract

This paper presents a personal, thus necessarily subjective, view of the operation of batch

and semi- batch reactors. The emphasis is on safety, product quality and scale-up. Key

characteristics of discontinuous reaction systems are discussed, along with the resulting

implications for monitoring, control and optimization. The industrial needs are compared

with the research solutions proposed by academia. It is argued that, in industry, measurement

and modeling issues are often more important than the algorithmic aspects related to the

computation of control and optimization strategies. Major challenges and selected research

opportunities are discussed.

Author Keywords: batch industry; batch processes; batch reactor control; process

monitoring; optimal control; optimization

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?

_ob=ArticleListURL&_method=list&_ArticleListID=1485850246&_sort=r&_st=13&view=c

&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=feb9885f8b8fe1cf326

8866dffefb5cd&searchtype=a

Volume 19, Supplement 1, 11 June-14 June 1995, Pages 357-368

European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering 3-5

Copyright © 1995 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Permissions & Reprints

Abstract

Design and control of batch reactors provide challenging problems with respect to basic

functionality and safety of a process as well as product quality and yield related issues. In this

paper examples for the use of modelling, dynamic simulation and advanced control

techniques for industrial problems are given. They are evaluated with respect to economic

benefit as well as effort for development and implementation.

Author Keywords: Batch reactors ; process design; advanced control; operator training;

dynamic simulation; model based control; fuzzy control

Article Outline

F. Szeifert, T. Chovan and L. Nagy

158, H-8201, Hungary

Abstract

The dynamics of a fed- batch reactor was studied using the detailed first principle model of

the system. The conditions of reaction runaway, the typical sources of hazardous operation in

fed- batch techniques are determined. Considering these conditions a model-based control

scheme is proposed to ensure robustness. When the stability criterion predicts that the range

of operation is safe the cooling is set to its maximum and the temperature is controlled by the

reactant feed. Otherwise the reactant feed is stopped and the flow rate of the cooling medium

is the control variable.

Author Keywords: Fed- batch reactor ; temperature runaway; tendency model; operation

safety; model-based control.

Article Outline

• References

Regular paper

Development of a mathematical model and a simulator for the analysis and optimisation of

batch reactors: Experimental model characterisation using a reaction calorimeter*1

Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, Institute for Safety

Technology, Process Engineering Division TP680, 21020, Ispra (VA, Italy

Received 20 November 1995;

accepted 22 March 1996. ;

Available online 5 February 1999.

Abstract

the mass and heat balances leads to a set of algebraic-differential equations which, when

solved, produce the temperature and concentration profiles as a function of time. Emphasis

has been placed on a realistic description of such a reactor by incorporating an accurate

representation of the heat effects, such as the heat taken by the reactor wall, heat losses,

stirring power supply, heat of dilution, vortex influence on heat transfer area, and a model of

the heating/cooling circuits as well as their controllers.

To obtain the data necessary to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the reactor, a set of

characterisation tests was carried out. Once the different parameters of the model were

evaluated, some experiments were performed to compare with the predicted dynamic

behaviour obtained with the simulator. These experiments invluded the heating/cooling

dynamic behaviour with different fluids, and the neutralisation reaction between sodium

hydroxide and hydrogen chloride.

Reaction calorimetry

Article Outline

William B. Zimmermana, ,

, P.O. Mchedlov-Petrossyanb and G.A. Khomenkoc

a

University of Sheffield, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Newcastle Street,

Sheffield S1 3JD, England, UK

b

Institute of Theoretical Physics, NSC, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine

c

Laboratoire d’Océanografie Côtière du Littoral, ELICO, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale,

MREN, 32, Avenue Foch, 62930, Wimereux, France

revised 27 January 2005;

accepted 27 January 2005.

Available online 17 March 2005.

Abstract

Recent studies by the authors of the heterogeneous catalysis of fast binary reactions have

taken a dynamical systems approach, assuming that fast enough reactions are confined to a

manifold upon which surface equilibrium holds. This approximation makes substantial

simplification possible, for instance in the case of a batch reactor, it allows a naturally sixth

order system to be approximated by a two dimensional manifold for the dynamics of two

modified Thiele moduli. Nevertheless, a proper assessment of how much faster must the

velocity of surface reaction be than the velocity of mass transfer to the catalytic surface

before the quasi-equilibrium on the surface holds should be made. In this paper, a theory for

the systematic correction to infinitely fast reactions is made for large but finite velocity

reactions. It is compared to full numerical solutions to the model equations.

Recommendations about the regime of applicability of the quasi-equilibrium approximation

are made. In general, the predictions of the quasi-equilibrium theory hold for ratios of mass

transfer coefficients to reaction velocity ξ of less than 1/1000, with qualitative agreement in

regimes of less than 1/100. The general trend, however, is that the stronger the kinetic

asymmetry between the mass transfer coefficients of the reactants, the slower the reaction

rate can be and still have the quasi-equilibrium theory hold. A perturbation analysis

demonstrates that the quasi-equilibrium theory is a regular limit of the fast non-equilibrium

theory. In the irreversible case, a matched asymptotic analysis gives the same prediction for

the switch time from effective surface depletion of one reagent to the other as the quasi-

equilibrium theory. Furthermore, it gives an estimate of the smoothing out of the transition

zone with a temporal width of ξ1/2. It should be noted that the continual drive for improved

catalyst activities inevitably leads to mass transfer limited reactions, and thus this regime is

not uncommon.

reactors

N. Aziz1, ,

, M.A. Hussain2 and I.M. Mujtaba3

1

School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300

Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

2

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur,

Malaysia

3

School of Engineering, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP, UK.

Abstract

optimal reactor temperature profiles and its performance is evaluated through a few

robustness tests. A complex exothermic batch reaction scheme is used as a case study. The

optimal reactor temperature profiles are obtained by solving optimal control problems off-

line using Control Vector Parameterisation (CVP) and Successive Quadratic Programming

(SQP) techniques. The NN-IMBC strategy is evaluated in tracking both the constant and

dynamic optimal set points. Neural Network estimator is embedded to the strategy as the on-

line estimator to estimate the amount of heat released by the chemical reaction. The NN-

IMBC is found to be well performed in tracking both set points and accommodating changes

within its range of training. It also promises robust controller if it is trained with a wide range

of the reactor temperature covering all possible conditions of the process and is much easier

to implement compared to other typical types of controllers because no tuned parameter is

needed. Therefore, it can lead to efficient and profitable operation and provide a better

business decision making in setting up new plants or improving the existing operations.

Modeling and Simulation of a Multi Phase Semi-batch Reactor

AUTHOR: Anna Nyström; Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.; Chalmers University Of Technology.; [2007]

KEYWORDS: MATEMATIK; MATHEMATICS; MATEMATIK; MATHEMATICS; TEKNIKVETENSKAP; TECHNOL

OGY; semi-batch reactor; modeling; simulation; optimization;

ABSTRACT: The operation of an industrial semi-batch reactor is modeled and the flow of one reactant is

investigated. In the reactor a strongly exothermic polymerization reaction takes place followed by a

slightly exothermic reaction, and the objective is to minimize the duration of the operation of the

process. Various operational as well as quality and safety related constraints have to be met during the

batch. The complete process model is derived from measurements, first principles, and reasoning about

effects on molecular level. This work has been performed in cooperation between Akzo Nobel Functional

Chemicals and Chalmers. We have increased the knowledge of one semi batch process and tried to

improve the production of thickeners by modeling the production process with the aid of mathematics. A

better understanding of the underlying principles including the chemical reaction heat, energy transfer

and the control system has been gained. The process model is simulated using MATLAB and SIMULINK.

The optimization is made through investigations of manually chosen EO profiles and simulations.

Piecewise constant EO profiles with up to three constant plateaus and varying levels have been used.

Simulations show that a 5 % increase in total batch time is possible, using a profile with two plateaus as

in the original, but with 20 % higher levels and no delay. A 10 % shorter batch time than today is

possible using a profile with three different plateau levels. However, in this a profile, a large portion of

the EO is added prior to the wanted reaction temperature is reached, which may result in a worsened

end product quality. In order to decide which profiles are acceptable, more research about the effect of

the reaction temperature used on the end product quality is needed.

Models of Ideal Reactors

operated (batch reactor), continuously operated (flow reactor),

and half-continuously operated (semi batch reactor). The ideal

borderline cases of continuous reactors are represented by the

ideally mixed continuously stirred tank reactor or the ideal plug

flow reactor.Below are shown (a) the temporal and (b) the

spatial dependence of the concentration of the reactant A (

und ( ) under steady state conditions for the ideal continuously

stirred tank reactor, the ideal plug flow reactor as well as the

ideal batch reactor:

...

Fig.1

The figure shows a) the temporal and b) the spatial dependence of the concentration of

the reactive component A for a continuously operated ideal stirred tank reactor. The

continuously added reactants are mixed immediately with the contents of the reactor

and products are constantly being removed. This borderline case is referred to as

"homogenous, steady state" which means the composition of the reactor mixture and

the reaction rate are identical at all times and at every spot for all components in the

reactor.

...

Fig.2

The figure shows a) the temporal and b) the spatial dependence of the concentration of

the reactive component A for the ideal plug flow reactor. The residence time is the same

for all parts and is equivalent to the mean residence time. The composition of the

reactor mixture is constant through the cross section of the reactor (radial) and no

mixing of the reactants occur in the flow direction (axial)(plug flow). At steady state the

concentration is all times constant at every point of the flow reactor. In accordance to

the reaction, a concentration gradient in flow direction (axial) appears. This borderline

case is referred to as "non-homogenous, steady state".

...

Fig.3

The figure shows a) the temporal and b) the spatial dependence of the concentration of

the reactive component A for an ideally stirred batch reactor. It is also characterized by

a fully mixed content. The reactants are brought into the reactor prior to reaction and

the products are removed after of reaction-conclusion. The concentration of the

reactants decrease a) in time and are b) spatially constant. In this case, all particles

have the same mean residence time. This borderline case is referred to as

"homogenous, non-steady state" (regarding the operation of the reactor).

...

Fig.4

continuously stirred tank reactors) is widespread. In this case a stair-shaped

concentration profile of the reactants is achieved for the cascade of ideal stirred tank

reactors (see figure). With an increasing number of tanks (n) the observed

concentration change is similar to that of the plug flow reactor.

Whith an infinite number of tanks the dependance of the

concentration of the cascade of stirred tank reactors is equivalent

to the plug flow reactor. For a small number (n) of tanks the

residence time for a large part of the molecules differs from the

mean residence time (broad residence time distribution). A

higher number of tanks causes an adjustment towards the mean

residence time (narrow residence time distribution).

Batch and semibatch reactor performance for an

exothermic reaction

a

Mining Engineering and Natural Resources Department, Escola Universitàtia Politècnica de Manresa,

Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 61-73-08240, Manresa, Spain

b

Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyers Industrials de Barcelona, Universitat

Politècnica de Catalunya, 647-08028 Barcelona, Spain

Received 19 October 1998;

revised 10 February 1999;

accepted 19 February 1999.

Available online 24 January 2000.

Abstract

In this work, a study of a batch and semibatch reactor has been carried out based on a very exothermic reaction

between thiosulfate and hydrogen peroxide. The experiments were carried out in a glass-jacketed reactor of 5 l,

provided with different sensors and a data acquisition system. Thermal and kinetic studies were carried out

previously using an adiabatic batch reactor. Then, these results have been used for experiments in semibatch

mode of operation with heat transfer. Several experiments have been carried out at different operating conditions

(addition flow, initial temperature, initial concentration of reagents…). In batch and adiabatic mode of operation,

experimental measures of the reaction mass temperature provided concentration profiles of reagents and

products which have been compared to those determined by simulation. In semibatch mode of operation,

temperature profiles have also been simulated and validated with experimental results. An algorithm describing

the mathematical model has been developed and implemented in a software module written in FORTRAN 77

language. With this mathematical model it has been possible to obtain concentration and heat profiles for the

semibatch mode of operation.

experimental study

Z. H. Liu and S. Macchietto

Centre for Process Systems Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY, U.K.

Abstract

An experimental study of two nonlinear model based control methods for the temperature control of a

multipurpose batch reactor is presented. A combination of a cascade control structure and suitably chosen

controllers is shown to provide robust control in the presence of severe measurement error and model mismatch.

Various nonlinear or linear control techniques can be accommodated in the cascade structure. Furthermore, the

theoretical equivalence of GMC and GLC controllers is confirmed experimentally.

Author Keywords: Nonlinear control; GLC; GMC; cascade structure; batch reactor; experiments.

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