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Fadwah AlGhalib Basic Immunology 2nd yr 2011

(1st Lecture)

Introduction of the immune system

1-Define what is immunology? What is Immunity? What is Antigen? What
is antibody? Homeostasis?

2- Define the terms , "intra" and " extra" cellular pathogens, immune
response and inflammation?

3- Describe and classify the cells of the immune system.

4- Classify the elements of the immune system in regarding to :

a. the type of the pathogen recognition " specific or non-specific immune


b. the type of the immunological element involved in the immune

response either cellular or humoral (non-cellular).

5- Explain the "main functions" of the immune system.


Immunology: is the study of the immune system
System: The whole unit which composed of different elements to perform a
specific function. [ e.g: respiratory system, digestive system, immune system..etc...]

Immune system: is a collection of cellular elements & non cellular (humoral)

elements. They do not interact with self components, but respond ( interact) to non-self
components and destroy them.

Immune Response: the reaction of an organism's body to foreign materials

(antigens), including the production of antibodies

Immunity: The ability of the body to defend itself against specific invading agents such
as bacteria, toxins, viruses and foreign tissues.

Antibody: are proteins that are formed in response to an antigen and that react
specifically with that antigen

Dr.Fadwah AlGhalib Basic Immunology 2nd yr 2011

Antigens: are substances that can stimulate an immune response, that react specifically
by binding to effector molecules (antibodies) and effector cells ( T lymphocytes).

Intracellular pathogens: enter inside the human cells and multiply. [ All viruses
and some protozoan, some bacteria,]

Extracellular pathogens: Exist outside the host cells (human cells). [ large
parasites, and many bacteria] they live in tissues & body's fluid.]

Where exactly in our body do these pathogens lives and multiply????

Define Homeostasis? Hemeos (the same) stasis (standing): Is the maintained steady-state
conditions existing in healthy individuals.

What are the functions of the immune system?

a. Surveillance (recognition of non-self) the antigen

b. Defence: initiating an immune response, The immune system can eliminate threats by
isolation, disruption, or ingestion or by combination of the three actions

c. Regulation:
i--control of the immune responses to maintain hemeostasis, and return the immune
system to a state that existed before the antigenic stimulation.
ii--To prevent tissue injury that may result from an exaggerated immune Response.

d. Immunity (immunological memory): state of resistance (acquired protection)

following exposure to a stimulating agent

e. Tolerance: induction of a state of unresponsiveness toward certain antigens (mainly


3-What are the cells of the immune system?

Agranular Leukocytes and Granular Leukocytes

Agranular Leukocytes:
Plasma cells
Monocytes (are phagocytic cells in circulation) in tissues are
Dendritic cells ( are phagocytic cells)
Lymphocytes (T, B, & NK cells)

Granular Leukocytes: Neutrophils , Basophils, Eosinophils

4-What are the types of the immune responses?

a. Natural- innate- (non-specific)
b. Adaptive- acquired- (specific)

Dr.Fadwah AlGhalib Basic Immunology 2nd yr 2011

 What are the cellular components for each immune


1) Natural immunity:
1- Cells:

I) Phagocytic cells ( internalize pathogen and kill) & others do not.

It is classified into 2 types according to their nuclear shapes and number.
a- polymorphonuclear phagocytes: includes Neutrophils (short lived cells) and
b- Mononuclear phagocytes: includes Monocytes and macrophages (long lived cells) and
dendritic cells.

II) Non-phagocytic cells:

a- Auxiliary cells such as Mast cells, Basophiles, & platelets

b- Tissues cells (some epithelial cells).

2- Soluble molecules:- Complement [is the major humoral non-specific defence


2) Adaptive Immunity:
There are two major branches of the adaptive immune responses:

a- humoral immunity and b- cell-mediated immunity.

a- Humoral immunity: involves the production of antibody molecules in response to

an antigen and is mediated by B-lymphocytes

Some components of the humoral immunity ( Soluble mediators' of immunity):

1- immunoglobulins ( IgA, IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE)

2- Cytokines ( interferone, interlukines, & colony stimulating factors)
3- Acute phase proteins ( C-reactive proteins)
4- Complement (C1-C9)

b- Cell-mediated immunity: includes the LYMPHOCYTES. B CELLS, AND T


i- B CELLS: differentiate to plasma cells which produces the soluble immunoglobulins.

ii- T CELLS:

Dr.Fadwah AlGhalib Basic Immunology 2nd yr 2011

There Are Four Main Types Of T-Cells:

a- Helper T-cells –.

1) They secrete lymphokines (cytokines) which are hormones that stimulate other cells in
the body to resist invading antibodies.
2) They display the protein CD4 on their surface;
3) which assist in both cell mediated immunity (CMI) and Antibody-mediated immunity

b- Killer T-cells –

1) which kill antigens directly once stimulated by agents released by the helper T-cells.
2) They display the protein CD8 on their surface;

c- Suppressor T-cells – are a controversial cell that is believed to dampen or

suppress the immune response
d- Memory T-cells - which recognise the original invading antigen. When the antigen
returns thousands of memory cells are available to initiate a far swifter reaction than
occurred during the first invasion.