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Petroleum Engineering Department

Fluid mechanics LAB.

Experiment NO. 02: Bernoulli Equation (Flow through Venturimeter)

Aim:
❖ To obtain:
• Discharge coefficient
• Velocity of fluid

Theory
❖ Venturimeter are depending on Bernoulli’s equation. Venturimeter is a tube with a
constricted throat that increases velocity and decreases pressure (see Figure 1). Venturi
meters are used for measuring the flowrate of both compressible and incompressible
fluids in a pipeline. The basic principle on which it works is that by reducing the cross-
sectional area of the flow passage, a pressure difference is created and the measurement
of the pressure difference enables the determination of the discharge through the pipe.
The measurement of pressure difference between the inlet section and throat section
leads to the measurement of discharge.
If a fluid is made to flow through a varying section due to the variation in pressure,
there will be variation in velocity and this effect is known as venture effect.

Figure 1. Ideal conditions for a Venturi meter


Petroleum Engineering Department
Fluid mechanics LAB.

Using the continuity equation

❖ Using the continuity equations between the upstream section (cross-section A) and
the throat (narrowest pipe section – cross-section D) it can be shown that;

2𝑔(ℎ𝐴 − ℎ𝐷 )
𝑄𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 = 𝐴𝐷
√ 𝐴𝐷 2
1−( )
𝐴𝐴
❖ Using the continuity and energy equations between the upstream section (cross-
section A) and the throat (narrowest pipe section – cross-section D) it can be shown
that;

2𝑔(ℎ𝐴 − ℎ𝐷 )
𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝐶𝑑 𝐴𝐷
√ 𝐴𝐷 2
1−( )
𝐴𝐴

• 𝑄𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 : Corrected flow rate


• Cd: Discharge coefficient,
• hA: Head at upstream section
• hD: Head at throat section
• AA: Pipe cross sectional area at upstream section
• AD: Pipe cross sectional area at throat section.

• where, DA=26 mm, DD=16 mm (Diameters for each section)

𝑄𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙
• 𝐶𝑑 =
𝑄𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙

Velocity of fluid
𝑄𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙
• 𝑄𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 = 𝑉𝑖 × 𝐴𝑖 𝑉𝑖 =
𝐴𝑖
Petroleum Engineering Department
Fluid mechanics LAB.

Calculate following items for seven time running venturi meter:

• Corrected flow rate


• Velocity of fluid
• Discharge coefficient

Plot following diagrams:

• Corrected flow rate - discharge coefficient