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# PBW–N303

Foundations

## Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Faculty of Engineering
Cairo University
Fall 2018
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
General
It is one of the most important applications of using shear strength parameters
in the analysis of soil-structure interaction
Basement walls Retaining walls Sheet pile walls

## Foundations– Dr. Shehab Wissa – Fall 2018 165

LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
General

## Foundations– Dr. Shehab Wissa – Fall 2018 166

LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
At-Rest Earth Pressure
When the earth retaining structure has no chance to move (restrained from
movement), ex: pile foundations

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
Active Earth Pressure
When the earth retaining structure has the tendency to move away from
backfill/ retained soil. ex. retaining walls.

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
Passive Earth Pressure
When the earth retaining structure has the tendency to move towards the
backfill/ retained soil. ex. bridge abutments

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE

## - Elastic equilibrium -------- at rest.

- Plastic equilibrium ---------- active or passive.

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
- At any depth z below ground surface, the vertical overburden pressure (v) is:
v = q + z
- The effective vertical overburden pressure ’v) is:
ʹv = (q + z) - uo
as uo = hydrostatic pore water pressure.
- The effective horizontal pressure (ʹh) is:
ʹh = K ʹv
as K = coefficient of lateral earth pressure.
- Wall movement -------- at rest, active, or passive:

Ka < Ko < Kp

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
At-Rest Earth Pressure

- For normally consolidated (NC) soil, the coefficient of at rest earth pressure
(Ko) is:
Ko = 1 – sin ʹ

- For OC soil:
Ko = (1 – sin ʹ) OCR sin ʹ

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
Active Earth Pressure

- Wall displacement H = 0 --------- circle (a) at rest earth pressure (Ko) ------
elastic equilibrium
- Wall moves away from soil with displacement H > 0 -------- lateral pressure
decreases since the soil expands outwards ------------- circle (b)
- Wall displacement continues to increase ----------- circle keeps increasing till
failure -- circle (c) ---------- min lateral pressure --------- active earth pressure ---
----- plastic equilibrium.

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
Passive Earth Pressure

## - Wall displacement H = 0 -- circle (a) at rest earth pressure (Ko) -- elastic

equilibrium
- Wall moves into soil with displacement H > 0 ----- lateral pressure increases
due to lateral compression of the soil ---- circle (b)
- Wall displacement continues to increase --- circle keeps increasing till failure --
circle (c) --- max lateral pressure --- passive earth pressure -- plastic equilibrium.
- Passive pressure is much larger than active pressure since soil stands more
compressive stress than tensile stress --- larger movement in passive state.
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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
TYPES OF EARTH PRESSURE
Rankine Earth Pressure

## • Homogeneous and isotropic soil

• Horizontal plane ground surface
• Infinite extent of soil
• Plane strain condition
• Equilibrium and analysis are for soil element.
• The back of the retaining wall is smooth, (no friction between wall & backfill).
• The back of the retaining wall is vertical.

The coefficient of active earth pressure, Ka The coefficient of passive earth pressure, Kp

Kp =

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
Cohesionless Soils

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
Cohesionless Soils

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
Cohesionless Soils

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
Cohesionless Soils

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
Cohesive Soils

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
Cohesive Soils

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LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS
c- Soils