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Fault locator

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Jan Izykowski Przemyslaw Balcerek Murari Mohan Saha

Eugeniusz Rosolowski, Rafal Molag Marek Fulczyk ABB AB

Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland ABB Corporate Research Center Västerås, Sweden

jan.izykowski@pwr.wroc.pl Krakow, Poland murari.saha@se.abb.com

eugeniusz.rosolowski@pwr.wroc.pl przemyslaw.balcerek@pl.abb.com

rafal.molag@wp.pl marek.fulczyk@pl.abb.com

Abstract – This paper presents a new fault location Limited availability of measurements for fault

algorithm for three-terminal line utilising unsynchronised location on three-terminal lines was considered in [5]–

measurements of three-end currents and voltages. The [7]. In [5]–[6] ensure complete immunity to saturation

distributed parameter line model is strictly considered for

formulating three subroutines of the algorithm. Efficient of current transformers (CTs), since only voltage signals

procedure for selecting the valid results is introduced. The are utilised for fault location. The method presented in

presented results of the ATP-EMTP evaluation prove the [7] is based on using minimal amount of measurements.

validity of the fault location algorithm and its high In [8] use of three-phase current from all three line

accuracy. terminals and additionally three-phase voltage, acquired

at the terminal at which the fault locator is installed, has

Keywords: three-terminal power line, fault location, proposed. Such specific availability of measurements

three-end unsynchronised measurements, ATP-EMTP has been assumed with the aim of simple supplementing

of the fault location function to current differential

1 INTRODUCTION relays protecting a three-terminal line.

In this paper, an algorithm, which utilises

Accurate location of faults on overhead power lines

unsynchronised measurements of currents and voltages

for the inspection-repair purpose [1]–[9] is of vital

at all three terminals is presented. It is assumed, that

importance for operators and utility staff for expediting

analytical synchronisation of such measurements has to

service restoration, and thus to reduce outage time, be performed without resorting to synchronising with

operating costs and customer complains. the pre-fault measurements. In order to assure high

Different fault location algorithms for three-terminal accuracy of fault location, the distributed parameter line

lines (Fig. 1), have been developed so far [1]–[8]. The model is strictly utilised.

cited algorithms are based on an impedance principle, The paper starts with derivation of the fault location

making use of the fundamental frequency voltages and algorithm. Then, the sample results of extensive ATP-

currents. They differ each other mainly with respect to EMTP [10] evaluation of the algorithm are presented

the applied input signals of the fault locator. and discussed.

In [1] usage of synchronised measurements of

currents and voltages from all three terminals has been 2 FAULT LOCATION ALGORITHM

considered. Distributed parameter models of the line

sections have been utilised there. This assures high 2.1 Basics of fault location algorithm

accuracy of fault location, and the faulted line section is The circuit diagram of a three-terminal line for

also reliably indicated [1]. considering the fault location using three-end

Use of three-end unsynchronised measurements of unsynchronised measurements is presented in Fig. 1.

Different types of symmetrical components of the

currents and voltages has been considered in [2]. The

signals can be processed in the algorithm. In Fig. 1, and

lumped models of the line sections were applied there

also further, the signal type is marked by the subscript i.

and it was also implied that the error resulting from such

In Fig. 1 the measurements from the end B are taken

simplification is minimised due to the redundancy of the as the basis, while the measurements from the buses A

fault location equations. Yet another utilisation of three- and C have to be analytically synchronised, with use of

end unsynchronised measurements has been proposed in

the synchronisation operators e jδ Ai and e jδ Ci ,

[3], where exchanging the minimal amount of

information between the line terminals over a protection respectively. Thus, two additional unknowns: angles δAi

channel was considered. and δCi appear, in comparison to the case of

synchronised measurements [1].

In turn, a demand and importance of developing fault

The fault can occur at any of three line sections

location algorithms for three-terminal lines utilising only

(faults: FA, FB or FC in Fig. 1). Therefore, there are

two-end synchronised measurements of voltages and

three hypotheses regarding placement of the fault.

currents has been stated in [4].

FC

d Ci C

SYSTEM C

jδCi

I Cie

V Ci e jδCi

A FA FB

B

d Ai d Bi

SYSTEM A SYSTEM B

I Ai e jδAi T I Bi

V AiejδAi V Bi

Figure 1: Fault location on three-terminal line using three-end unsynchronised measurements of the i–th symmetrical component of

voltages and currents.

The distance to the particular fault, counted from the basis, while the phasors from the end S are analytically

particular bus (A, B or C) up to the fault point is marked synchronised – with use of the synchronisation

as: dAi, dBi, dCi, respectively. All three hypotheses operator:

regarding indication of the faulted line section are

e jδSi = cos(δSi ) + j sin(δSi ) (1)

considered and after calculating the distances to fault

(dAi, dBi, dCi) by using these three subroutines, the The unknowns of the fault location algorithm are:

judgement on selecting only one solution (the valid d i – distance to fault from bus S (p.u.),

solution), which is consistent with the actual fault, is δSi – synchronisation operator.

performed. All three subroutines of the presented fault

If the lumped line model (Fig. 2) is considered, the

location algorithm are based on the two-end

unsynchronised fault location algorithm presented in [9]. parameter: Z iL – impedance of the line SR, for the i-th

symmetrical component, is utilised. For the distributed

2.2 Fault location algorithm for two-terminal line

parameter model (Fig. 3), the line parameters: Z ci , γ –

The algorithm from [9] is formulated for the i-th i

symmetrical components and considers both the lumped surge impedance and propagation constant of the line

(Fig. 2) and the distributed parameter (Fig. 3) models of SR having the length l , for the i-th symmetrical

a two-terminal power line. component, is considered.

S F R In [9] the following compact formula for the

I Si e jδSi d i Z iL (1 – di ) Z iL IRi

synchronisation angle has been derived (by comparing

the voltage at the fault point, viewed from both ends):

Ai cos( δSi ) + Bi sin( δSi ) = Ci (2)

V Si e jδSi VRi

where:

Figure 2: Lumped model of faulted line for considering ( (

Ai = imag Z *iL (V Ri − Z iL I Ri ) I *Si − V Si I *Ri , ))

B = real(− Z ((V )) ,

unsynchronised two-end fault location. * *

i iL Ri − Z iL I Ri ) I Si + V Si I *Ri

S F R C = imag(− Z ((V *

− Z iL I Ri ) I *Ri − V Si I )) ,

*

I Si e jδSi IRi i iL Ri Si

x* – conjugate of x .

di [p.u.] (1 – di ) [p.u.] There are two solutions of (2) for the synchronisation

V Si e jδSi VRi angle: δSi_1 , δSi_2 , if the reasonable angle range from

Figure 3: Distributed parameter model of faulted line for (–π) to (+π) is considered [9].

considering unsynchronised two-end fault location. After determination of the synchronization angle from

(2), the distance to fault can be calculated as:

The input signals of the two-end unsynchronised fault V e j δSi _ 1( 2 ) − (V − Z I )

location algorithm are: V Si , V Ri , I Si , I Ri – voltage d i _ 1( 2) = real Si Ri iL Ri

(3)

Z ( I e

j δSi _ 1( 2 )

+ I

and current phasors from the terminals S and R, iL Si Ri )

respectively, for the i-th symmetrical component. Digital There are two solutions for the synchronisation angle,

measurements of the phasors from two line ends are and two solutions are for the distance to fault (3).

considered as the unsynchronised. Therefore, the Applying the distributed parameter line model, the

measurements from the terminal R are assumed as the voltage at the fault point F, viewed from the terminals S

and R, are compared, giving: Comparing the transferred voltage (7) (after

V FSi (d i , δSi ) − V FRi (d i ) = 0 (4) synchronising with use of the synchronisation operator

where: ( e jδ CAi ) and the voltage (5) one obtains the following

V FSi (d i , δSi ) = V Si cosh( γ ld i ) − Z ci I Si sinh(γ i ld i ) e jδSi formula for the sought synchronisation operator:

i

V Bi cosh(γ i l LB ) − Z ci LB I Bi sinh(γ i l LB )

V FRi (d i ) = V Ri cosh(γ i l(1 – d i )) − Z ci I Ri sinh(γ i l(1 – d i )) e jδCAi = LB LB

(9)

V Ci cosh(γ i l LC ) − Z ci LC I Ci sinh(γ i l LC )

LC LC

γ , Z ci , l – propagation constant, surge impedance of

i Taking the signals from the end A and the signals

line for the i-th sequence, line length. transferred analytically to the tap point T one complets

In [9] the way of solving (4) with use of the Newton- the required set of the input signals for the subroutine

Raphson iterative calculations has been presented. As SUB_A. Applying the two-end algorithm from [9] (the

the starting point of these calculations, the results signals specified on the left side of the below

obtained according to (2)–(3) are utilised. assignments) for performing the calculations of the

2.3 Subroutine SUB_A for locating faults on section AT subroutine SUB_A (the signals specified on the right

Fig. 4 presents the circuit diagram used for deriving side of the below assignments), we get:

the subroutine SUB_A. This subroutine is designated for V Si e jδSi := V Ai e jδAAi (10)

locating faults FA on the line section AT.

I Si e jδSi := I Ai e jδAAi (11)

jδ CAiC

I Ci e V Ri := V TBi (12)

I Ri := I TBi + I TCi e jδ CAi (13)

jδ CAi

V Ci e

e jδ CAi – synchronization operator determined in (9).

A FA Processing the signals for the subroutine SUB_A,

I TCi e jδ CAi B

I Ai e jδ AAi T I Bi assigned in (10)–(13), one has to take the line

parameters relevant for the line section AT. This

I TBi

d Ai [p.u.] subroutine will yield two solutions for the distance to

V Bi fault dAi_1, dAi_2 and also two solutions for the

V Ai e jδ AAi V TBi = V TCi e jδ CAi jδ jδ

synchronization operator e iA_1 , e iA_2 . Therefore the

Figure 4: Subroutine SUB_A – circuit diagram for the i-th

selection will be required (provided in Section 2.6).

symmetrical component under fault at section AT.

2.4 Subroutine SUB_B for locating faults on section TB

Transferring analytically the signals from the end B Fig. 5 presents the circuit diagram which is used for

towards the tap point T (Fig. 4) one obtains: deriving the subroutine SUB_B, designated for locating

V TBi = V Bi cosh(γ i l LB ) − Z ci LB I Bi sinh(γ i l LB ) (5) faults FB on the line section BT.

LB LB

−V Bi C

I TB i = sinh( γ iLB l LB ) + I Bi cosh( γ iLB l LB ) (6) I Ci e jδ CBi

Z ciLB

where:

V Ci e jδ CBi

Z ci LB , γ – surge impedance and propagation

i LB

A FB

constant of the line section BT for the i-th sequence, B

I Ai e jδ ABi I TCi e jδ CBi I Bi

l LB – length of the line section BT.

Similarly, as in (5)–(6), the signals from the end C I TAi e jδ ABi T

can be transferred analytically towards the tap point T: d Bi [p.u.]

V Ai e jδ ABi V e jδ ABi = V e jδ CBi V Bi

V TCi = V Ci cosh(γ i l LC ) − Z ci LC I Ci sinh(γ i l LC ) (7) TAi TC i

LC LC

−V Ci Figure 5: Subroutine SUB_B– circuit diagram for the i-th

I TC i = sinh( γ iLC l LC ) + I Ci cosh( γ iLC l LC ) (8)

Z ciLC symmetrical component under fault at section BT.

where: Comparing the voltages at the tap point T (Fig. 5),

Z ci LC , γ – surge impedance and propagation one obtains the following relations between the

i LC

constant of the line section CT for the i-th sequence, synchronisation operators:

l LC – length of the line section CT. e jδCBi = (V TAi V TCi )e jδABi (14)

In Fig. 4 the signals (7)–(8) are synchronised V Ai cosh(γ l ) − Z ci LA I Ai sinh(γ l LA )

analytically to the common basis (the measurements e j(δCBi −δ ABi ) = i LA LA i LA

acquired at the bus B are assumed as the basis) with use V Ci cosh(γ l ) − Z ci LC I Ci sinh(γ l LC )

i LC LC i LC

jδ CAi where: (15)

of the synchronisation operator e .

γ , Z ciLA – propagation constant and surge impedance 2.6 Selection of valid results

iLA

The three subroutines (SUB_A, SUB_B, SUB_C) are

of section AT for the i-th sequence, applied in the presented fault location algorithm

l LA – section length. designed for application to a three-terminal line. Taking

Applying the two-end algorithm [9] (the signals a particular type of symmetrical components (denoted

specified on the left side of the below assignments) for by the subscript ‘i’) each subroutine yields two solutions

performing the calculations of the subroutine SUB_B for the distance to fault:

(the signals specified on the right side of the below - SUB_A: (dAi_1 and dAi_2),

assignments), we get: - SUB_B: (dBi_1 and dBi_2),

V Si e jδ Si := V Bi (16) - SUB_C: (dCi_1 and dCi_2).

j δ Si

Each subroutine also yields two solutions for the

I Si e := I Bi (17) synchronisation angle, used for synchronising the

V Ri := V TAi (18) measurements from the ends A and C:

- SUB_A: (δAAi_1 and δAAi_2), (δCAi_1 and δCAi_2),

I Ri := I TAi + I TCi e j(δ CBi −δ ABi ) (19) - SUB_B: (δABi_1 and δABi_2), (δCAi_1 and δCBi_2),

One has to take into account that on the right sides of - SUB_C: (δACi_1 and δACi_2), (δCCi_1 and δCCi_2).

the assignments (18)–(19) there are the signals, which There is a need for selecting:

are synchronised to the line end A, and not to the end B - valid subroutine: SUB_A or SUB_B or SUB_C,

as assumed (Fig. 1). Therefore, the synchronisation - valid solution of the subroutine, which has been

angle yielded by the Subroutine SUB_B is: indicated earlier as the valid one: the first solution

(δ Si ) SUB_B = −δ ABi (20) (marked with ‘1’ at the last position of the

subscript) or the second solution (marked with ‘2’).

2.5 Subroutine SUB_C for locating faults on section CT The following selection indexes are applied:

Fig. 6 presents the circuit diagram which is used for abs(V TBi )

deriving the subroutine SUB_C – designated for SEL LAi = (26)

abs(V TCi )

locating faults on the line section CT.

abs(V TCi )

FC C SEL LBi = (27)

I Ci e jδCCi abs(V TAi )

abs(V TAi )

d Ci [p.u.] SEL LCi = (28)

abs(V TBi )

jδCCi

V Ci e If there is a fault at the section AT, then the

A B magnitudes of the phasors of voltages (for the

I Ai e jδ ACi I TAi e jδACi I TBi I Bi considered i-th symmetrical component) at the tap point

T T, transferred analytically from the line ends B: | V TBi |

and C: | V TBi | , have to be identical (in practice very

V Ai e jδ ACi V TAi e jδACi = V TBi V Bi

close each other). Therefore, for the fault at the section

AT, we have: SEL LA i ≅ 1 , while the selection indexes:

Figure 6: Subroutine SUB_C– circuit diagram for the i-th

symmetrical component under fault at section CT. SEL LBi ≠ 1 , SEL LCi ≠ 1 . Analogously is for faults

occurring in the other line sections. Moreover, when a

Comparing the voltages at the tap point T (Fig. 6), given subroutine yields all results for the distance to

which are obtained by the analytical transfer, one fault (both the first and second solutions) outside its

obtains the following relation range: from 0 to 1 [p.u.], then this subroutine has to be

V Bi cosh(γ l LB ) − Z ci LB I Bi sinh(γ l LB ) rejected.

e jδ ACi = i LB i LB

(21)

V Ai cosh(γ l LA ) − Z ci LA I Ai sinh(γ l LA ) Selection of the valid subroutine (SUB_A or SUB_B

i LA i LA

or SUB_C) and the valid solution (the 1-st or the 2-nd)

Applying the two-end algorithm [9] (the signals can be performed also by repeating the calculations for

specified on the left side of the below assignments) for the other type of symmetrical components (say, the k-th

performing the calculations of the subroutine SUB_C type, where k ≠ i ), and then comparing the results of the

(the signals specified on the right side of the below

distance to fault for these two types (i-th and k-th) of

assignments), we get:

symmetrical components. The estimated distance to fault

V Si e jδ Si := V Ci (22) with using the i-th type, coinciding with the result for the

jδSi k-th type (with some error margin) is selected as the

I Si e := I Ci (23)

valid result – being consistent with the actual fault.

V Ri := V TBi (24) The described selection procedure is explained in

Section 3 in relation to the presented fault example.

I Ri := I TBi + I TAi e jδ ACi (25)

3 ATP-EMTP ALGORITHM EVALUATION The equivalent sources: Z 1SA = (0.65 + j3.69)Ω ,

ATP-EMTP software program [10] was applied to Z 0SA = (1.16 + j6.57) Ω , Z iSB = 2Z iSA , Z iSC = 3Z iSA

evaluate performance of the developed fault location

algorithm. The modelled 110 kV test network includes were also included. Phase angles of the sources were

the line sections – AT: 100 km, BT: 80 km, CT: 50 km, assumed as equal to Æ source A: 0o, source B: –30o and

having the positive- and zero-sequence source C: –15o.

' In Fig. 7–Fig. 10 the fault locator input signals and

impedances: Z 1L = (0.0276 + j0.315) , the fault location results for the example fault are

Z '0L = (0.275 + j1.027) (Ω/km). shown.

4000

a b c

0.8

SIDE A – Phase voltages: vA [105 V]

2000

0.4

a b c

0 0

–0.4

–2000

–0.8

–4000

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time [ms] Time [ms]

600

a b c a b c

SIDE B – Phase voltages: vB [105 V]

0.8

400

SIDE B – Phase currents: iB [A]

0.4

200

0 0

–200

–0.4

–400

–0.8

–600

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time [ms] Time [ms]

600

a b c

0.8

SIDE C – Phase voltages: vC [105 V]

400

0.4

200

a b c

0 0

–200

–0.4

–400

–0.8

–600

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Time [ms] Time [ms]

Figure 7: The fault location example – waveforms of fault locator input signals.

POSITIVE-SEQUENCE QUANTITIES – 1st SOLUTION POSITIVE-SEQUENCE QUANTITIES – 2nd SOLUTION

2.5

SUB_A

SUB_B

2 2

d A1_1(30 ÷ 50)ms = 2.1369 p.u.

d B1_1(30 ÷ 50)ms = –0.2384 p.u.

Distance to fault [p.u.]

1.5 1.5

dC1_1(30 ÷ 50)ms = 0.6848 p.u.

SUB_C

1 1

SUB_A

0 0

d A1_2(30 ÷ 50)ms = 0.2009 p.u.

SUB_B dB1_2(30 ÷ 50)ms = 2.0383 p.u.

–0.5 –0.5

dC1_2(30 ÷ 50)ms = 1.0075 p.u.

–1 –1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Post-fault time [ms] Post-fault time [ms]

Figure 8: The fault location example – the 1st and 2nd solutions for the distances to fault applying positive-sequence quantities.

SUB_B

1.6 SUB_B 6

Distance to fault [p.u.]

Distance to fault [p.u.]

1.2 4

SUB_C

dC2_2(30 ÷ 50)ms = 7.2297 p.u.

0.8 2

d A2_1(30 ÷ 50)ms = 0.1998 p.u. SUB_C

dB2_1(30 ÷ 50)ms = 1.4909 p.u.

0.4 dC2_1(30 ÷ 50)ms = 0.9997 p.u. 0

SUB_A

SUB_A

0 –2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Post-fault time [ms] Post-fault time [ms]

Figure 9: The fault location example – the 1st and 2nd solutions for the distances to fault applying negative-sequence quantities.

d A1_2(30 ÷ 50)ms = 0.2009 p.u.

40

δCA1_2

0.4

dA1_2

Synchronisation angle [o]

Distance to fault [p.u.]

30

0.3

20 δAA1_2

0.2

0.1 10

δ AA1_2(30 ÷ 50)ms = 17.94 o

δ CA1_2(30 ÷ 50)ms = 35.96 o

0 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Post-fault time [ms] Post-fault time [ms]

Figure 10: The fault location example – the results (the 2nd solutions for use of the positive-sequence quantities) for the distance to

fault and for the synchronisation angles of measurements from the ends A and C, selected as the valid results.

The specifications of the fault from the example - fault distance: dA=0.2 p.u.

presented in Fig.7–Fig. 10 are as follows: The current and voltage signals from the line end A

- fault type: a-g, were intentionally delayed by a single sample, while the

- fault resistance: 10 Ω, signals from the end C by two samples. Such delays for

- faulted section: AT, the applied sampling frequency of 1000 Hz correspond

to the case of unsynchronised measurements with the model is strictly taken into account for deriving the

synchronisation angles equal to: δA=18o, δC=36o. algorithm subroutines. The calculations are performed

For evaluating the accuracy of the presented fault for a particular type of symmetrical component, as for

location algorithm itself, the errorless current and example for the positive-sequence.

voltage transformers were modelled. Analogue anti- There is a need for selecting the valid result, which is

aliasing filters with the cut-off frequency of 350 Hz consistent with the actual fault. The selection indexes

were included (1 kHz sampling frequency was used). can be used for that. Also, the selection can be

Full-cycle Fourier orthogonal filters were applied. The performed by additional use of the other type of

obtained continuous time results were averaged within components, as in the presented example.

the post-fault interval: from 30 up to 50 ms. The presented results of the ATP-EMTP evaluation

Input signals for the presented example are shown in prove the validity of the derived algorithm. The obtained

Fig. 7. In Fig. 8 there are the results of a distance to fault accuracy of fault location is comparable with the

calculation using the positive-sequence quantities: the 1st achieved when using synchronised measurements.

solution indicates the fault on the section CT (SUB_C:

dC1_1=0.6848 p.u.), while the 2nd solution the fault on the REFERENCES

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also the errors caused by non-ideal transformation of application with current differential relays of three-

instrument transformers have to be accounted for. terminal lines”, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery,

Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 2099–2107, October 2007

4 CONLUSIONS [9] J. Izykowski, R. Molag, E. Rosolowski and M.M. Saha,

“Accurate location of faults on power transmission

New fault location algorithm for three-terminal line lines with use of two-end unsynchronized

utilising unsynchronised measurements of three-end measurements” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery,

currents and voltages has been derived. The algorithm Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 627–633, April 2006

consists of three subroutines and the procedure for

[10] H.W. Dommel, Electro-Magnetic Transients

selecting the valid result. The distributed parameter line

Program, BPA, Portland, Oregon, 1986.

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