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21st November 2015 Substations


Substations
INTRODUCTION:
In Power System network, in order to transmit and distribute the generated power, it is
necessary to install “SUBSTATIONS” at strategic points to work at required voltage level since
“HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION” is resorted to. The Sub stations are classified as “GRID” of
“RADIAL” Substations. The Grid station is installed in Grid network to reduce the voltage level
from 230KV to 110 KV. The radial Station within Distribution net work to reduce the voltage from
110 KV to 11KV (or 22KV).
In essence the substation provides
(a) Transfer of voltage level
(b) Transmission of the required Power and
(c) Adjustment of voltage variations caused by the system voltage regulation.
110/11KV SUB STATION : CLASSIFICATION OF EQUIPMENTS
Sl.
No
Classification Equipments Purpose
1. Functional a) Bus Bar
b) Transformers
c) Earthing System
To carry Power feeding
To transmit Power from one voltage to
other
To ensure effective grounding for safety &
Protective operation.
2. Isolation &
Control
a) Isolation
b) Breakers
Isolate feeding equipments from source of
supply (Potential )
Breaking the Current (Power flow) for
normal maintenance; and for isolation of
faulty section)
3. Protection from
internal
disturbances
a) Earth Mast
b) Surge Diverter
c) ROD GAP
To prevent damage to equipment from
direct stroke of lightning.
Protecting the transformer from the impact
of surges.
Back up Protection for Surge Diverters.
4. Protection &
Metering
a) Potential Transformer
(PT)
b) Current Transformer

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(CT)
c) Relays
Metering (Voltage and Energy)
Metering (Current & Energy) Protection
For sensing the fault and give command to
breakers to isolate the faulty circuit.
For i) Indication of Status
ii) Annunciation of the fault
iii) Operation of breaker for isolation of
faulty circuit.
5. A.C.System for
LT 3phase, 400V
supply
a) Station Transformer
11KV/400V.
b) A.C.Panel
To feed L.T-3Ph. 400V Supply for
i) Auxiliaries of breakers & Transformers.
ii) Yard & Control room lighting
iii) Supply to battery charge
Control of A.C.Supply
6. Housing a) Yard & Structures
b) Control room
To house equipments with required
horizontal and vertical clearances.
To house indoor equipments like
D.C.System, D.C. & A.C.panels etc.,
1. SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
- 2 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
LAYOUT OF SUBSTATION
!A single line diagram called the Schematic layout of Sub-Station should
be available, showing the arrangement of the above equipments.
!A typical layout of a 230 / 110KV Grid station and that a 110/11KV Radial
station are shown in Fig. 1 & 2 below.
!Based on this single line diagram detailed Electrical layout, drawn to
scale showing the Plan and Elevation of the Sub Station arrangement is
prepared.
!A civil layout for the lands acquired for the installation of the substation
will also be prepared, wherein the Electrical layout will be incorporated in
the specified location, showing, Road, control room, Quarters and other
civil amenities.
!In this detailed Electrical layout, the required clearances, Height of
structures, space occupied by equipments etc., will be clearly marked so
that the Erection Engineer will carryout erection works and installation of
equipments accordingly.
Fig. 110 KV/11KV Major Substation Layout
- 3 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
230/110KV Substation(Main and Transfer Scheme)
- 4 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
FUNCTIONAL EQUIPMENTS
BUS BARS

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The Purpose of bus bar is to receive the Power and feed to the concerned equipments.
Types : Strung Bus & Rigid Bus
Strung Bus : The Conductor (ACSR) Strung between the two ends of Sub Station
through Disc. insulators and Gripper sets.
Rigid Bus : Aluminium tubes erected and Pedestal insulators over pedestal support
structure.
Points:
"!The Main Bus will be of strung bus and the feeding arrangement to equipments
will be Rigid bus.
"!The insulators should be cleaned and checked for any breakage, cracks and to
be replaced.
"!Since the bus bars are heavy current carrying parts, tightness of the clamps to
be checked to avoid glow.
"!The Pedestal Insulators may be Polycone insulator (or) 33 KV rated Foot type
insulators conceded.
- 5 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
POWER TRANSFORMER
This is the Main Equipment of Substation.
#!The Purpose of Transformer is Transmission of Power from one voltage
level to the other required voltage level, with negligible losses.
#!Reduction to the required voltage level.
#!The drop in voltage in the system is compensated by tappings.
INTERNAL ACCESSORIES:
The transformer mainly comprises of Magnetic core and windings wounded for
the 3 phase. Each phase will have a Primary and Secondary winding, wound according
to the voltage for which it is put into use. The core and winding Units are placed in a
Main tank and filled with Transformer oil.
• The transformer oil is for insulation and cooling purpose.
• The leads from the winding are brought out through the bushings for
external system connections.
• The three phase windings on Primary will be connected in DELTA & the
Secondary in Star as shown below:
- 6 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Delta Star
Three separate windings
of each phase will be
connected in the form of
Delta as below:
Here, each phase
winding gets the line
voltage (HT or EHT)
directly and there is no
neutral.
The three windings of the transformer may be connected in star as
shown below:
In this type of connections, between two lines two phase windings
are connected. The advantage is that we get a neutral point ‘N’,
Since the phase voltage is less than the one voltage, the level of
insulation required for winding is less when compared to Delta
connection (where phase and line voltages are same)
R -N, Y -N, B -N are called phase voltage (V phase)

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R -Y, Y -B, B -R are called line voltages (V line)


V Line = Ö3 Vph
Power (in watts) = 3 x Vph X Jph X cos f
(or) Ö3 x V Line x I Line x cosf
(Note: Cos f is power factor)
Details of Transformer
1) Voltage Rating :110 KV/11 KV
2) Current Rating :52.5/525A
3) Capacity :10 MVA
4) Tapings :-3 To + 9% @ 1.5%
5) % Impedance :10%
6) Vector group :41 Dy11
EXTERNAL ACCESSORIES:
1) Main tank with valve & cooling
arrangement, 2) Bushings with C.Ts.
3) Conservator 4) Tap switch 5) Air release
Plug 6) equalizer pipe 7) Explosive vent
8) Temperature indicators 9) Breather 10) Buchholz relay
- 7 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
MAINTENANCE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS
The following periodical maintenance are recommended for Power Transformers:
Annual inspection and maintenance of power transformer should be carried out thoroughly.
The following should be checked.
!Operation of Buchholz relay by pumping air.
!Oil level in the conservator tank using a dip stick.
!Check for any cracks is the foundation.
!Tightening of all loose bolts and nuts.
!Measuring rod gap.
!Release of air tank and bushings.
!Polarisation index valve test with power operated meggar.
!Checking the stop block in the rail.
!Check relief diaphragm.
!Check cooling water and drain piping for leaks.
!Clear Bushings
Item of Inspection or Maintenance Period between Inspection or Maintenance
1. Checking for unusual noise
2.Checking oil level in the conservator and
bushings
3. Checking or leakages of water into cooler
4. Clearing of bushings
5. a)Inspection and cleaning or breather.
b) Reconditioning or replacement of
silica gel .
c) RenewaI or Calcium Chloride
6. Examination of relief diaphragms to ensure
that they are not cracked or broken
7. Checking up or temperature and water flow .
alarm for correct operation
8. Ensuring that oil comes out when the air
of the transformer
9. Measuring insulation resistance of windings

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10. Testing of oil from tank and conservator


for dielectric strength on all transformers
of capacity over 1000 KVA
11. -do - for Trs. of 1000 KVA and below
.
12. Checking up gap settings on bushings
of transformer
13. Pressure testing, of oil coolers
14. Testing of transformer oil for acidity
15. Testing of oil in oil filled bushing of .
dielectric strength and acidity
Daily each shift
Daily each shift
Daily each shift
Weekly or at every opportunity during
prearranged shut -downs.
Monthly or earlier if necessary
Monthly or earlier if gel has turned pink
Monthly or earlier if necessary
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly or at every opportunity
release valve is opened on the top cover during
pre-arranged shut downs
Monthly
Quarterly
Half yearly before and after wet season
Half yearly.
Half yearly.
Yearly
Yearly
- 8 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
!Calibrate temperature indicators and check up operation if temperature alarms and trips.
!Lubricate all moving parts in on load taps change mechanism.
!Check and tighten all connections.
!Check the resistance of the transformer windings.
!Recording Insulation values of winding by meggering with 1000 Volts Power
megger, after removing neutral Earth connection – HV to Earth, LV to Earth and
HV to L.V. and check the continuity of winding.
!Oil sample testing : Dielectric strength, Ac content of oil is to be tested. In
addition , the other tests conducted are a) Resistivity b) Interfacial tension
!c) tan delta e) Dissolved gas analysis (DGA)
EARTHING SYSTEM:
The Solidly grounded system ensures speedy & accurate sensitive of fault and
isolate the faulty section.
"!Neutral of Transformer secondary is grounded
"!All other metallic parts associated with Electrical equipments should
be grounded.
"!Surge divertor should be grounded.
"!Double Earthings should be ensured for each grounding
"!All the groundings should be interconnected.

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The Earthing system comprises of


1) Earth conductor,
2) Earth connection,
3) Earth Pipe,
4) Earth pit and
5) Earth interconnection.
This scheme of grounding is shown below:
EARTH INTER CONNECTION:
In order to interlink all the individual Earth Electrodes, it is in practice to lay an
earth Mat under the ground level of Substation yard.
The Earth Electrodes, in Earth pit are connected to this Earth Mat, running
nearby under the Ground, so that the combined Earthing system is formed.
- 9 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
The Earth Mat is shown below:
MAINTENANCE OF EARTHING SYSTEM
!The soil in Earth pit should be kept
packed homogeneously.
!The soil in Earth pit should be kept
WET by pouring water.
!Earth Connections are checked for
tightness.
!Earth pipe to be maintained in tact
without corrosion.
!For improving the Earthing system
value, impurities like Charcoal,
Railway cinder, Ash, Copper sulphate,
Salt etc., may be dissolved and spread
uniformly in Earth pit through Water
filling.
!Earth Resistance value to be
measured and effectiveness checked,
by using Earth Megger.
The values are 1) Individual Electrode : < 25 ohms. This should be tested by
removing all connection from Electrode.
2) Combined Resistance: < 1 ohm. This should be linked by providing all Earth
connection.
- 10 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
ISOLATION & CONTROL OF EQUIPMENTS:
a) ISOLATORS: These are Potential Isolating Switches to isolate the equipments
from the source. This should not be used for current breaking.
In Sub-station , only “Double break” (or Center rotating type as it
is called) switches are used.
TYPES OF DOUBLE BREAK SWITCHES:
a) Isolator with Arcing horns: Used before transformer to break magnetizing current.
b) Isolator without Arcing horns: Used in other places of Sub-station
POINTS:
!Tandem Operation for simultaneous operation for the three phases should be
ensured.
!The contact pressure should be adequate to withstand load current. This is
ensured by spring & tempered contact leaves. Contact pressure will be > 0.25
Kg. per ampere of normal current rating.

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!The Operation should be free by proper lubrication and by treating the fixed and
moving contacts with Petroleum Jelly.
!The close/open should be done from Ground level. The operating Rod should be
earthed safely.
!The isolator may be hand operated (or) it can be motor operated using A.C.
Motor with reduction gear & cam arrangement with limit switches, to stop the
motor at the end of closing/opening without overshoot.
!The Motor operated mechanism will also have the de-linking arrangement to delink
motor & gear mechanism and perform the hand operation in case A C Supply
fails.
b) BREAKERS:
The main purpose is:
"!To break the load current or fault current
"!It should be capable of quenching the arc quickly & effectively arising
due to interruption of heavy current.
"!The rating of the breaker should be well above the FAULT LEVEL of
the substation, so that the breaker is capable of breaking the
- 11 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
maximum fault current due to 3phase FAULT that may occur near.
The rating is defined in MVA and is called as “RUPTURING
CAPACITY”
"!The time of opening should be fast. Modern breakers are as fast as
to open in 2 cycles (ie) in 0.06 secs.
TYPES OF BREAKERS:
The breakers are classified according to the Medium by which arc is quenched.
a) OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER ( OCB) : Oil is used for quenching as well as for
insulation since metal tank is used.
b) MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER ( MOCB) : Oil of small quantity is used for
arc quenching only.
c) VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER ( VCB) : Arc extinguished in VACUUM
d) GAS CIRCUIT BREAKER (GCB) : SF6 gas is used as the
medium for quenching arc.
Ratings
Type :12PVE 20
Rated System Voltage :11Kv
Highest system Voltage :12KV
Rated Frequency :50HZ
No. of Poles :3
No. of Breaks per pole :1
Rated Normal Current :400/800/1250A
Rated Symmetrical breaking :20KA
Peak Making Capacity :50KA p
Rated Short Time Current for
3 Sec :20KA
DC Component :50%
Rated Power Frequency
withstand voltage for 1 min :28/35KV
Rated Impulse Withstand
voltage at 1.2/50micro sec .:75KVp
Motor Voltage :110/220v AC/DC
Coil Voltage :24/30/110/220v DC

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Power required by Trip and


Close coils :400w
Opening Time :60ms
Total Break Time :80ms
Make time :100ms
Mechanism :Motor charged,
Spring tripping
Rated Operating Sequence :0-0.3”- CO – 3’-CO
Applicable Standards :IS 2516-1920&
IEC 56-1987
- 12 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
"!Rated Breaking Capacity: It is the current (rms) that a breaker is capable of breaking at
a given recovery voltage and under specified condition i.e. PF,RRRV
"!Rated Making Capacity: The peak value of current including D.C. component during
the first cycle of current wave after the closure of circuit breaker is known as making
capacity
"!Rated Short-time Capacity: It is the period for which the circuit breaker is capable to
carry fault current while remaining closed.
"!Rated Normal Current Rating: It is the rms value of current which the circuit breaker is
capable of carrying continuously at its rated frequency under specified conditions with
temperature rise of various parts within specified limits.
"!Relay Time: The time elapses between the instant of fault & the closure of trip circuit.
"!Circuit Breaker Time: The time elapses between the closure of trip circuit & the final arc
extinction
"!Total Break Time:It is the summation of Opening Time and Arcing time.
"!Opening Time: The time interval lapses from the energisation of trip coil to the instant of
contact separation.
"!Arcing time: The time from separation of contact to the extinction of arc is called the
arcing time
"!Fault Clearing time: The time elapsed between the instance of the occurrence of a fault
and the instant of final arc extinction in the circuit breaker i.e
F.C.T.=Relay time + Circuit breaker time(Total Break time)
"!Rated Voltage: The rated voltage of a circuit breaker corresponds to the higher system
voltage for which the circuit breaker intended.
"!RRRV: It is the rate of rise of re-striking voltage and is abbreviated by RRRV KV/mic.sec)
"!First pole to Clear Factor: RMS voltage b/w healthy phase &faulty phase
--------------------------------------------------------------- =1.2 to 1.5
Phase to neutral voltage with fault removed
"!Duty cycle: The duty cycle denotes the sequence of opening and closing operations
which the circuit breaker can perform under specified conditions
OPERATING MECHANISM:
The Breaker has two operation :CLOSE / OPEN
The OPEN operation is also called : “TRIP”
These 2 operation are speedily performed by using operating mechanisms of the
following kind:
a) Spring actuated : Use of spring & leavers this can be operated by hand (or) AC Motor
b) Hydraulic actuated : Using hydraulic fluid like “AERO- shell oil”
c) Pneumatic Actuated : using air comprised system
Any type of mechanism can be employed to any type of breaker.
Details of maintenance procedure:
1)Stationary contact: Visually inspect, when contact space is found uneven, remove it and

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polish with sand paper. then measure the dimension of stationary contact. When the wear
becomes 3 mm or over replace the contact with a new one. Apply thin coat of HITSLUBE 280
Grease to the contact.
2)Moving contact: When it is degraded by large current interruption remove it and polish with
sand paper. Apply three coat of HIT ALUBE 280 Grease to the contact.
- 13 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
3) Arcing contact: When the surface is found- uneven, polish the surface with a smooth out file.
Measure the dimension of arcing contact, when the amount of wear becomes 2 mm or over,
replace the contact with a new one. Apply thin coat of HIT ALUBE 280 grease to the contact.
4)Insulation nozzle and insulation cover: The nozzle and cover can be removed together with
the moving contact. Use wiper to clean up the interior and exterior. Measure the inner diameter
of the nozzle. and cover. When the dimensions are enlarged by 1 mm or more, replace it with a
new one. “
5)Absorbent: Remove the conductor and take out the absorbent case. Replace the absorbent
with a new one. Exchange it quickly just before vacuum drying. Don’t expose it to the open air.
6Operating cylinder : Remove the cylinder cover. Inspect gaskets. Apply grease to he operating
piston guide, main valve guide, main valve rod, pilot valve and operating piston.
7)Operating cylinder: Remove the oil plug and oil. Then supply new oil to the position of oil
plug. When drained oil is found contaminate, disassemble and check the oil dash pot.
8) Operating mechanism: Check Pins, Links, Levers, operating rod and split pins check nuts
and lock plates for possible looseness. Apply Hit lube 280 grease to pins.
9) Closing Link Mechanism: Clean up and apply thin coat of HIT ALUBE 280 grease to the
hook, pins and roller. Check the state of hook arrangement under both closed and open position.
10) Electro-magnetic valve: When the lever is pressed with fingers, the hook is disengaged.
Clean up and apply a turbine oil to the hook. Check nuts and bolts for looseness. Check the split
pins.
11) Airing valve: Contact a hose to the discharge part and use a measuring cylinder to measure
the discharge amount under water. The measured valve should be 300 to 700 Cg/min at the air
celled to 15 Kgs. cm.
12) Auxiliary switch: Check the contacts; check terminal for tightening. Apply a thin coat of
grease to the pin.
13) Pressure gauge: Clean up and calibrate.
14)Pressure switch :Setting pressure rise or reduce according to whether the
adjusting screw is turned clockwise or counter clock wise. Check the operating
pressure.
15)Trip-free contractor: If contacts are considerably uneven, repair them using a smooth
out file or sand paper.
- 14 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
QUARTERLY “CARE”
Q.1. External Cleaning of Insulator Prior to monsoon and as & when Shutdown is
available or deposits are too thick. Dust / Dirt to
be removed.
Q.2. Switch cubicle cleaning Open the switch cubicle & Remove webs/ dust.
Q.3 Check wiring connection in
switch cubicle
Check wiring connection Tightly secured. Check
healthiness of relay, Contactors, Etc.
Q.4. Compressor Check & Compare the Running Time.
Q.5. Compressed Air Plant Maintenance to be carried out as per instruction
manual check for any leakage, check oil leakage,
check for alarm, non Return valve to be opened &

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Cleaned, Verify motor thermal overload is


working or not.
Q.6. Pressure switch in switch
cubicle
Check by reducing the pressure up to requisite
value. The Switch should enter into blocking zone
at specified pressure.
Q.7. Verification of SF6 Alarm Healthiness of alarm can be verified by shorting
electrical circuit, not by draining SF6 Gas.
Trouble shooting chart for SF6 circuit Breaker
Type of
Condition
Possible Cause Recommended corrective Measures
A. Gas
Alarm
i) If alarm, had come
after a very long time
and leakage not heavy.
a) Make up the gas pressure with the help of gas
refilling device & temperature correction chart
Absolute pressure Gauge Pressure
7.0 Bar at 200C 6.0 Bar at 200C
7.3 Bar at 200C 6.3. Bar at 300C
7.6 Bar at 200C 6.6 Bar at 400C
b) If felt necessary then plan the shutdown for
searching the leakage and attending leakage thereof
ii) If alarm comes on
frequently and the leak
rate is high :
ii) CHECK :-
1) Electrical Circuit
2) Gas pipe Braze Joints
3) Gas pipe Couplings.
4) Insulator joints.
5) Lip seal Assembly.
Procedure for Checks :
$! Check Healthiness of leak detector
$! The joints to be covered with bags for at least 2 Hrs.
$! The insert the probe of leak detector inside bag & check.
$! If required, replace/ repair the leak joints / gaskets.
- 15 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Type of
condition
Possible Cause Recommended
corrective Measures
B.Circuit
Beaker Does
not Operate at
Impulse to
close.
$! No or Low control voltage.

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$! Close impulse blocked.


$! Control Circuit interrupted.
$! Magnet ventil plunger sticky.
$! Aux. Switch element.
$! Density Monitor Cable.
$! Tripping Plunger Solenoid in
lifted position.
CHECK & CORRECT :
$! Positions of Switch
$! Control Voltage
$! Pressure Switch Contacts.
$! Density Monitor Contacts.
$! Magnet Ventil piston.
C)Circuit
Breaker does
not operate at
impulse to
open.
$! No or Low control voltage.
$! Opening impulse blocked.
$! Control circuit interrupted.
$! Aux. Switch element.
$! Density Monitor cable.
$! Magnet ventil plunger
stickly.
CHECK & CORRECT :
$! Positions of Switch
$! Control Voltage
$! Pressure Switch contacts.
$! Density Monitor Contacts.
$! Magnet ventil piston.
D) Circuit
Beaker
Operates
Without
impulse.
$!Short Circuit or fault in
connecting with control Circuit.
$!Check Plunger.
CHECK & CORRECT :
$! Circuit diagram for voltage
Control lest insulation.
$! Insulation of Coils.
E) Circuit
Breaker
Hunting
$!Faulty anti-pumping relay. CHECK & CORRECT :-
$! Control Circuit.
$! Anti – pumping relay.
F) Contact
Erosion.

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$! Overheating.
$! Warn arcing contacts large
No.of operations
(Refer Manual)
$! Clean & Lubricate contact
surface in stipulated manner.
Reassemble and check
resistance.
$! Refer instruction manual for
the no. of operations versus
fault current. For further
guidance please contact
nearest ABB office.
G) Single Pole
operation (pole
Discrepancy).
$! Electrical of Mechanical
Fault in operating Device.
$! Locate Faulty pole. Check
Driving Mechanism. As well as
Magnetic ventiles.
$! Check Electrical Circuit.
- 16 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART FOR COMPRESSOR
Type of condition Possible Cause Recommended corrective
Measures
A) Compressor
Frequently runs or runs
for A longer duration.
Leakage in
$! Pipe Line Joints.
$! Audible leakage in
Circuit Breaker.
$! Replace / Repair leaky
joints.
B) Compressor Fails to
start or motor gets
overloaded.
$! Non return valve.
$! Not Working.
$! Replace Non return valve or
springs of Non Return valve
or clean and refill.
C) Oil Contamination in
pressurized air system.
$! Dirty Oil/ Oil Level low.
$! Cylinder and
intercalating dirty.
$! Change Oil, Fill correct
Grade of oil up to maximum
level in the oil level indicator.

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$! Blow with compressed air or


clean Manually.
$! Open, Clean & Refill after
checking.
D) Oil contamination in
pressurized air system.
$! Choked air filter.
$! Oil level high.
$! Oil viscosity too low.
Breather valve not
working.
$! Piston rings stuck in
grooves or broken.
$! Piston to cylinder
clearance excessive.
$! Clean the air filter.
$! Drain oil to Correct level.
$! Change to recommended
grade.
$! Open, clean & refit after
checking
$! Remove piston and loosen
ring.
$! Replace if broken. Check all
related parts for wear before
fitting.
E) Water or rust
formation in crank
Housing
$! Faulty breather $! Check & Replace the
Breather valve if necessary.
F) Unusual water in
Cylinder Piston and
Rings.
$! Inadequate air filter
maintenance.
$! Incorrect grade of oil.
$! Increase frequency of
cleaning.
$! Change to correct grade of
oil as given in recommended
lubricant chart.
G) Compressor knocking $! Loose Compressor fan
fly wheel,
$! Worn out piston,
cylinder, crank, shaft &
connecting rod
bearings.
$! Adjust or replace if
elongated
$! Open and re-tighten.

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$! Open, clean & refit after


careful check.
$! Replace after checking the
related components.
H) Pressure build–up
time excessive.
$! Loose belts.
$! Leaky joints in pressure
lines.
$! Defective seating of inlet
& delivery valve plats
$! Adjust or replace if
elongated
$! Open and re-tighten.
$! Open, Clean & Refit after
careful check.
$! Replace after checking the
related components.
- 17 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
I) Excessive Belt wean. $! Incorrect motor and
compressor pulley
alignment.
$! Check, adjust using a
straight edge or string
across the diameter of
both the pulleys.
$! Check belt adjustments.
J) Oil leak through
Breather
$! Breather valve not
working.
$! Piston ring stuck in
grooves.
$! Piston to cylinder
clearance
excessive.
$! Open clean and refit
breather.
$! Loosen the piston rings
if broken change the
rings as a set.
$! Check and change.
PROTECTION FROM EXTERNAL DISTURBANCES:
Protection from Direct Stroke of lightning.
To protect all the equipments from the
direct Stroh of lighting earth mast is used.
"!Earth mast is a metal spike wit sharp end
"!Height of mast is so chosen that all
equipments comes under the protective
zone, defined as 450 cone with top of
Spike as the APEX of the cone.

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"!Effectively grounded to permit the lightning discharge.


PROTECTION FROM SURGES:
The surges are very high peak voltage under very high
frequency. This will travel on the line of come to the substation
of meet the Transformer winding.& shatter
it therefore the surges are to be prevented from entering
the Transformer.
“SURGE DIVERTORS” are employed before or
after the transformer.
Points:
!Thyrite discs are non-linear resistance &
will conduct on high voltage and high
frequency, but will act as an insulator for
power frequency voltages.
!For BIL value of peak voltage 900 KV for a
- 18 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
110/11KV Transformer, surge Divertor will be selected to conduct surges
greater than 400 KV peak (1.2 x 50 micro wave)
!Leakage current monitor & surge counter will be installed on the base of
surge ground.
!As a backup protection, in case surge divertor fails, ROD Gaps are
installed on bushing of Transformer on 110KV side with a gap setting of
635 mm (25”),
PROTECTION & METERING EQUIPMENTS:
In a
Name plate of CT:
600/1A 30VA 5P15
600/1A----------Primary and Secondary Current
30VA -----------Burden
5P --------------Percentage Error
15----------------Accuracy Limit Factor
a) Potential Transformer
"!The Secondary rating of PT is 110volts
"!11 KV / 110 VOLT is shown,
"!In Radial stations, P.T. used for metering only
"!P.T. will have only a small burden (in VA) to
feed metercoil
"!Neutral will be floated in Py & Sy.
EA-2003 aims at rationalization of Electricity Tariff
- 19 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
b) Current Transformer
%!Each Breaker is associated with a set of C.Ts for Protection & meters
%!Secondary Current:
for Protection : 1 amp
for Metering : 5 amps
%!Separate
secondaries
will be
available for
protection of
metering.

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%!C.T. Ratios
of say 600,
300,
150/1Ampere or 5 Ampere will be available for usage. It is defined as :
Ratio available :
Ratio set at :
%!C.T. will also have a small burden (say 30 VA) to connect meter or
Relay loads.
%!C.T. Secondary should never be open – circuited.
c) RELAYS:
3 O/L and 1 O/L Relay Scheme for Transformers and Breakers
and Differential Relay for Transformer only
"!C.T. Ratio selection - % Current setting in relay & time lever setting in relay
"!E/L Ralay – 40%
- 20 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
D) METERING:
Rating of meters used – 110 V, 5Ampere
Deviations of usage from this Current rating (or)Meter dial, will result in adoption
of Multiplying factor.
1. Voltmeter - 110VOLT Meter Directly Dialed for 11KV to measure 110
voltage, as fed by 11KV/110V P.T.
2. Ammeter - 5 meter dialed for 300A , connected to adopt
300/5 A C.T. If connects to 600/5 A C.T. then MF=2
3. Energy - Meter is 110V – 5A connected to 11KV/110V
P.T. of with C.T. of 300/5A, Then energy in
11KV system will be Reading x 6000 units.
E) D.C. SYSTEM :
1. The D.C. system provides reliable DC Source to operate the protection system in
Case of FAULT.
2. 30Volt (15 cells) of 64 AH will be used.
Points:
"!2 Sets of 30V battery will be used, one set for control of feeders and the other
set for protection of feeders.
"! At Normal condition charger will supply small DC loads & feed charging current
to Battery Heavy trip coil currents supplies by battery.
"!The battery should be kept on wooden stand over insulated pedestal.
Maintenance
1. The cell voltage should be around 2 VOLTS & Specific gravity of Electrolyte
1200/270c
2. Battery should be on trickle charge continually. If drained due to continuous
tripping it should be put on quick charge & brought to the level.
3. To be tested daily for leakage is detected & for catering of load.
- 21 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
4. If positive or negative leakage is detected, the faulty section to be isolated &
rectified.
5. Battery room should be free of dust ,fire etc & properly ventilated.
PROTECTIVE SCHEME:
a) FEEDER PROTECTION :
The Protective scheme consists of
"!Sensing by C-Ts and feeding to relays
"!Activation of relay and closing relay contacts

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"!Feeding D.C. Source to the Trip coil of Breaker


"!Breaker tripping & isolating the faulty sections
each breaker should be associated with this protective scheme, to control the section
to which it is meant for.
SCHEME DESCRIPTION:
Breaker is in closed condition feeding a 11KV feeder. If any fault occurs on the
feeder, the breaker should trip. Cutting off supply to the feeder.
The sequence is as follows:
• Fault occurs on the feeder & heavy current flows thro the circuit
• The C-T Senses the fault current & high secondary current flows through the
Relay coil.
• The relay contact closes & D.C circuit is closed.
• With breaker kept on Auxiliary Contacts 4-4’& 3-3’ are N/c & hence D-C + Ve &
- Ve juice is supplied to the trip coil
• Trip coil energized & the plunger is moved up & trigger the trip latch.
- 22 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
• The Breaker is tripped of Aux Switch moves of the contacts 4-4‘& 3-3’ are now
N/o & hence the trip coil current is cut off.
• Since faulty section is isolated, the current in secondary is zero & hence relay
moves back to its normal position, breaking the relay contact.
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION:
The transformers are controlled by group control breaker on 110 KV side &
independent L.V. breakers on 11KV side. If a fault occurs on transformers there
breakers should be tripped.
The fault on the transformer is identified by:
a) over current relay,
b) Differential Relay,
c) Bucholtz relay of,
d) Winding temp relay &,
e) P.R.V. Relay
Closing of these contacts by actuation of relay in case of fault initiates the
trip circuit of the controlling breaker thro’ a common relay called “MASTER RELAY”
L.T.A.C. SUPPLY SYSTEM
A Station transformer of 100KV 11KV/400V as connected to the 11KV
Bus. provide A-C supply (Alternative supply) either fed from another substation (or) from
a generator will be provided for emergency.
The LT A-C supply / Alternative supply is fed to the A-C panel in control
room from which it is supplied to the following requirements with power control
arrangements.
- 23 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
"!To A.C motors of breaker mechanism, Air compressor systems,
"!To cooling fans of pump motors of power transformer& OLTC operating
systems,
"!To battery charger
"!Yard lighting and control room lighting
OPERATIONAL FEATURES OF SUB STATION
i)POWER HANDLING:
!The power requirement of the 11KV feeders feeding into distribution network is
met by the Power Transformer Capacity adequate transformers will be erected
(Max 3 Nos) with 10, 16 or 25MVA capacities as per requirement.
!If the capacities are not adequate due to load growth and if enhancement of

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capacity is also not possible , additional substation in load center will be erected.
!The feeding of loads are monitored by substation attendants as well as
monitoring by temperature indicators installed in the transformer (Oil and
Winding) . Adequate measures has to be taken if oil alarm comes by shedding
some unimportant loads.
!Capacitor banks will also be erected in SS in order to improve power factor to
unity, so that increased M.W. loading can be resorted to.
2) TAP OPERATION
%!Since the sub section in the sending end of power to the load
pockets, it is necessary to maintain constant voltage at the
secondary, irrespective of voltage received on HV side. This is
done by providing On Load Tap Changer.
%!A diagram of tapping coil arrangement with Main primary coil with
preselector AND Selector contacts and also its On load
operational features sequence are shown in the two figures
enclosed.
DECISION OF CLEARANCES
The Decision for electrical clearances depend upon the following factors
a) Out door or Indoor b) Attended or unattended
c) Insulating medium e) Rigid or flexible buses
Taking into the above factors, the required spacings & clearances are
arrived at based on
i) System Reliability consideration
ii) Safety to personnel consideration
The spacings and clearances requested for a sub station are
- 24 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
"!PHASE TO EARTH CLEARANCE
"!PHASE TO PHASE CLEARANCE
"!GROUND CLEARANCE
"!SECTIONAL CLEARANCE
"!BAY WIDTH TO HOUSE EQUPMENTS OR FEEDER TAKE –OFF
The Decision made as such is shown in a sample
diagram as below.
STANDARD CLEARANCES ADOPTED IN PRACTICE
a)Min clearance for outdoor equipments rigid conductors in air for an attended station
(– “in mm”)
SL. VOLTAGE PH-PH PHEARTH
GROUND
CLEAR
SPACING FOR ISOLATORS
W/O A-H WITH A/H
1. 230 KV 3350 1675 5485 3350 3960
2. 110 KV 1675 1000 4570 2135 3050
3. 66 KV 1220 750 4570 1525 2135
4. 33 KV 915 610 3660 765 1220
5. 22 KV 610 460 3660 765 1070
6. 11 KV 460 305 3660 610 915
7. 0.4 KV 380 305 - - -
- 25 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
b) SECTIONAL CLEARANCES in “MM”
1. 230 KV - 4270 MM

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2. 110 KV - 3350 MM
3. 66 KV - 3050 MM
4. 33 KV & 22 KV - 2740 MM
5. 11 KV - 2590 MM
c) BAY WIDTH “IN METRES”
1. 230 KV - 12.2
2. 110 KV - 9.5
3. 66 KV - 7.0
4. 33 KV - 4.5
5. 22 KV - 3.8
6. 11 KV - 3.5
d) CLEARANCES FOR INDOOR SS
SL. VOLTAGE PH – PH PH – EARTH
1. 33 KV 360 220
2. 22 KV 240 140
3. 11 KV 180 115
CONCLUSION
The sub station forms part & parcel of the power of the power system net
work. The essential equipments installed in a sub station, with the operation and control
features are explained in detail which will provide practical utility information
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 26 -
2. CIRCUIT BREAKERS
1. INTRODUCTION :
In low voltage circuits, a switch is used for
opening and closing and a fuse is used for over current
protection. For high voltage circuits (say from
11KV upwards) isolation of the circuit is done by
circuit breakers for switching and protection.
A circuit breaker is a current interrupting device.
2. NEED FOR A CIRCUIT BREAKERS:
At abnormal conditions such as faults and
short circuits the currents are high and they should
be interrupted automatically with in a short time. The
fault currents can damage the equipment and the
installations, if allowed to flow for a longer duration.
In order to avoid such a situation, protective relaying
associated with switching device is provided in the
power system. The protective relays will sense the
faults and break the circuits by means of circuit
breakers.
3. CIRCUIT BREAKER’S COMPONENTS:
In general a circuit breaker comprises of
1. A set of fixed and moving contacts.
2. An operating mechanism for making/breaking
of the contacts.
3. An arc extinguishing chamber with medium
to extinguish the areinside.
4. ARC FORMATION:
An arc is formed while the high quantity or
current are separated due to fault conditions.The
formation of an arc is caused by a column of ionized

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gas having molecules which have lost one or more


electrons.The electrons are attracted towards the
anode, with a high velocity and on the way detach
more electrons by impact.
5. AN ARC:
The electric arc is a self sustained discharge
of electricity between electrodes in gas, or vapour
which has a voltage drop at cathodes of the order of
minimum ionizing potential of gas or vapour.
The initation of an arc happens because of
the following process.
Field Emission.
Thermal Emission.
Thermal Ionization.
6. ARC EXTINCTION:
Various techniques are used to extinguish
the arc in the circuit breaker. Mode of arc
extinction are
a) HIGH RESISTANCE INTERRUPTION
This is done by increasing the resistance of
the arc.
By increasing the length of the arc, voltage
across the arc is increased till it is more than system
voltage across the contacts.The current is
reduced to a value insufficient to maintain it.Then
the arc gets extinguished.
7. LOW RESISTANT OR CURRENT ZERO
INTERRUPTION:
The arc gets extinguished at natural current
zero of the alternating current wave and is prevented
from restriking again by rapid building of dielectric
strength.
OPERATING MECHANISM OF CIRCUIT
BREAKERS :
Circuit breakers have two working positions
open and close. During the closing operation the
circuit breaker contacts close against the following
opposing forces. Electromagnetic forces between
contacts, Action of operating spring, Intertia of movable
sub assembly, Opposing forces due to medium
& Friction.
(a) Electromagnetic forces between contacts:-
When the contacts touch during closing operations
electromagnetic forces appear, their
magnitude being proportional to square of the
current and opposing to the direction of closing
While closing, on existing short circuit, these
forces are large.
(b) Action of operating spring:- If the moving contacts
are opened by spring pressure, while
closing these springs oppose the closure.

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(c) Inertia of movable sub assembly:- The movable


parts are contacts, their holders tension
rods operating links of operting mechanism
etc. The mass of these sub- assemblies are
quite large and their inertia tries to oppose
rapid acceleration.
(d) Opposing forces due to medium:- The movable
sub assembly has to move in dielectric
medium which is compressed air, gas oil at
high pressure and density.
(e) Friction :- Static and dynamic.
While closing the contact, closure should be
fast, sure without hesitation, with adequate contact
pressure at the end of contact travel. If these
conditions are not satisfied, contact welding can
result.
During the opening operation, the closed
contacts are separted as early as possible. The
opening should be fast, in order to reduce circuit
breaker opening time . The opening time between
the instant of receiving trip signal and final contact
separation is of the order of 0.030 second (i.e) 1.5
cycles.
Opposing forces during opening operation are
Electromagnetic forces due to contact grip, Frictions,
Opposing forces due to quenching medium & Inertia
of movable parts.
(a) Electromagnetic forces due to contact grip :-
The current transfer from fixed contacts to
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 27 -
movable contacts and then grip oppose the
movement of moving contacts. During the short
circuit condition, the electromagnetic forces
tends to increase the grip of the contacts
assembly. The forces of contact grip increases
in proportion to the square of current.
(b) Frictions:- The various operating links, bearing
surfaces, mating surfaces between fixed and
movable parts etc. offer static friction.
(c) Opposing forces due to quenching medium:-
The quenching medium (compressed air, dielectric
oil, SF6 Gas) may offer substantial
opposing forces to the movement.
(d) Inertia of movable parts:- Energy in the operating
mechanism is utilized in accelerating
the movable sub assemblies to the required
speed.
Types of Mechanism:- The operating mechanism
in Circuit breakers are either dependable or
stored energy type. Dependent operating mechanism
depend on continuity of power supply manual forces

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during closing.
The stored energy type are called independant
operating mechanism as they are independent of
continuity of power supply or skill of the operator. In
such mechanism the energy required for closing is
stored in a charged springs or in compressed air -
hydraulic oil.
They can be classified as
1. Spring opened, spring closed mechanism
2. Solenoid closed, spring opened
3. Hydraulic mechanism
4. Pneumatic mechanism etc.,
Spring Operating Mechanism of CB:- The
closing springs charged by rotating the cam which
is linked to a system of ratchet gears. The rotation
is carried out manually by a handle or through an
electric motor. The cam developing on roller compresses
the closing springs. At the end of the stoke
the loading cam frees itself from the roller. The motor
stops through limit switch. The closing spring
held by a latch / hook.
To close the Circuit Breaker, release the latch/
hook using either the control handle or the closing
coil supplied by the station battery with a load of
atleast 300 VA through the dragging latch/ hook,
the closing springs transmit their stored energy to
the lever and its shaft. The latter, acting on lever,
closes the Circuit Breaker and loads the opening
springs at the same time. The position of circuit
breakers closed and opening springs loaded is ensured
by another latch/hook. The control mechanism
is now ready to carry out the opening/ tripping
operation. The closing springs charging is possible
by closing the limit switch of the motor or manually.
To open/ trip the circuit braker disengage the
opening hook/latch by means of control handle or of
trip coil.
In closing operation the mechanism force will
be transmitted to the main shaft assembly through
the ratio linkages and in turn bell crank connected
in main shaft will push the contact spring, insulated
drive rods and moving portion of interrupter upto the
point of contact touching. After the contact touch
the main shaft moves continuously towards the end
of the stoke, further compressing the contact springs,
upto the level to give enough contact pressure.
During the closing movement the opening spring
together until the point of contact separation is
reached, after which the drive is maintained by the
opening spring along the full stoke.
TROUBLE SHOOTING MECHANISM :- The circuit

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breakers are set for life at the factory to the appropriate


setting instructions and should not be
distrubed unnecessarily. Before gaining access to
Circuit breaker ensure that the instructions given by
the manufacturer the contact wear, the snatch gap
setting decreases and length of contact pressure
setting increases in closed position. The contact
pressure spring give sufficient pressure for full 3mm
wear of the vacuum interrupter contacts.
Mechanism in over travel setting
Where it becomes necessary to read just any
of the settings originally made in the factory due to
distrubance or wear close the Circuit Breaker, adjust
nuts at the bottom of the spring post until latch
just moves fully under latch pin, check contact pressure
spring length, snatch gap and hold open spring
length. Reset wherever necessary.
Trip Closing coil setting:- Trip coil setting: Loosen
trip coil assembly fixing screws adjust gap setting
between trip pin and trip coil plunger link to the specified
limit say 2 - to 2.2mm lock off using locktite
241.
Closing Coil Setting :- Adjust the gap between release
roller and electrical release closing coil plunger
to 2 to 2.5mm by adjusting release assembly within
its mounting and lock off using lock tite 241.
Other settings to be checked :-
1. Dashpot setting
2. Push button Trip ( Pre travel setting)
3. Closing release Electrical
4. Interlock setting.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 28 -
Fault Cause Remedy
Spring will not charge Motor has wrong or no Measure voltage on the
Operating voltage motor motor leads
running continuously.
Motor shaft broken, motor
gear damage. Change motor
The latch for the tripping
device does not functions Check Mechanism
Disconnection in the wires Check by measuring
Voltage
Closing of breakers Closing coil does pull Measure the voltage adjust
does not take place coil adjustment screw
although there is spring Checking closing springs.
charged indication.
Breaker closes and open The toggle joint of the
again (Dummy) mechanism are incorr
-ectly adjusted. Adjusts toggle joint.
Main circuit is wrong Find fault & adjust
Wrongly adjusted clearance

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of opening magnets armature Adjust


Could not keep spare Over travel of toggle linkage Adjust.
Charge.
Breaker does not Trip Trip coil does not function Measure the voltage Ad
just coil grip adjustment.
Main contact closed Discontinuity in operating
even breaker in open link from linkage assembly Check operating linkage.
position.
Breaker continuously Anti pumping relay wrong Change relay.
opens and closes.
Breaker will not close Micro switch arm wrongly Find fault and adjust.
Completely adjusted under voltage
relay released.
Pneumatic Operating Mechanism of Circuit Breaker:- Pneumatic operating mechanism consists of piston,
air cylinder, control valve, tripping and closing, coil, latch, trigger etc.
Opening:- When the trip coil is energized the space of pilot valve is filled with compressed air and the
charging valve moves to right. The space in the operating cyclinder is filled with compressed air and the
operating piston is driven to the left. The operating rod connected to the operating piston is pulled in the
opening direction to drive the puffer cylinder in SF6 breaker at the high speed, through the insulated operating
rod in the supporting insulator.
Simultaneous with the opening operation the cam rotates and causes the electromagnet valve to return
to its original position. As a result compressed air in the space of the pilot valve is exhausted into atmosphere
and the charging valve is reset to the original position. As the open state is retained by the link mechanism
attached to the end of the operating piston.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 29 -
Closing :- When the closing coil is energized, the arc nature is made to rotate causing the hook to be disengaged.
Thus the sector line rotates to release the roller and the operating piston is driven to the closing
direction by the force of the closing spring, upon completion of closing, the link mechanism is held in a state
to be ready for the subsequent opening operation.
Fault Cause Remedy
Compressor frequently runs Leakage in pipe line Replace / Repin
or runs for a long duration joints and andible leak Leak joints
compressor fails to start or in circuit breaker Non
motor gets overloaded return valve not working Replace non return valve or
springs of non return valve
or clean and refill.
Coil continuation in pressurized Dirty oil / oil level born Change oil upto
air system choked air filter, oil level level. Clean air filter check
high, breather valve Replace piston, ring
faulty, piston rings assembly.
stuck in groove
Compressor knocking Loose ran fly wheel worn Examine fly wheel key way
out piston cylinder cylinder overhaul compressor unit.
crankshaft connecting
rod.
Pressure build up time Loose belt, leaky joints Adjust belt retighter Replace
excessive worn out piston rings after checking related com
ponents
Excessive belt wear Incorrect motor compres Adjust alignment Adjust belt
sor pulley alignment.
Incorrect belt tension.

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Pnemo Hydraulic Operating Mechanism:- The main feature of this type is the closure and holding of the
breaker provided by oil pressure. The tripping of the circuit breaker is provided by short travel compression
springs provided in jack casing whose permanent energy is available at all times.
The energy required to close the breaker is stored in two accumulators, one main and one back up.
Each accumulator consists of a cylinder, a piston and pressurized Nitrogen. The energy for actuating the
closing mechanism of the beaker is transmitted hydraulically to the rotating jack through the oil medium from
the Nitrogen gas stored in the accumulators by partial expansion of the gas.
The aeroshell oil is maintained at high pressure in the accumulators (300 to 350 KSCM). The pressure
built by motor driven hydraulic pump in the accumulators. The Jack piston can be moved with high pressure by
opening of hydraulic valves and letting in the hydraulic oil form the accumulator into the cylinder. This movement
is utilized to operate the links so as to close the Circuit breaker contacts.
During opening the high pressure oil acts on upper area of piston and opening stroke is obtained.
Performance of the breaker tested with the following readings.
1. Pre inflated pressure / Tripping pressure Kg / CM2
2. Time taken by the pump motor to build up working pressure Sees
3. Pump motor stopping pressure Kg / Cm2
4. Steady working pressure Kg/ cm2
5. Pressure at which the low pressure lamp goes off kg/ cm2
6. Pump motor starting pressure Kg / cm2
7. Pressure at which the low pressure lamp comes on Kg/ cm2
8. Pressure observed after one closing Kg/ cm2
9. Dip in Pressure on closing the breaker Kg/ CM2
10. Time taken by the pump motor to build up this dip in pressure Secs.
Operating Mechanisms
Types of Operating Mechanism
1) Spring operated Mechanism
2) Compressed air Mechanism.
3) Hydraulic operating Mechanism.
4) Solenioid Closing Mechanism
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 30 -
1. SPRING OPERATED MECHANISMS.
General description
The operating mechanism consists, in principle, of
a battery of springs, which are charged by a motor
(by hand cranking also) with gears and a control
mechanism for carrying and opening operations.
Maintenance
a) General:
Work on operating mechanism should be
carried out only when the springs are in discharged
condition and the circuit breaker in open
position.Clean the operating mechanism whenever
required and, if possible, twice in ayear. Pay special
attention to the auxiliary switch contacts and the
terminal blocks for any possible loose contacts
etc.The operating mechanism is to be lubricated with
recommended lubricants.The brand of inbricants, periodicity
of lubrication and the parts that are to be
lubricated are to be followed as per the maintenance
manual of the circuit breaker. Check I.R. value of the
motor and circuits once in a year.

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(b) Dash pots:


Inspect aligment and adjustment of all dash
pots, bumpers, and shock absorbers. Be sure dashpots
and shock absorbers have the proper amount
of suitable fluid and are free from binding.Dashpots,
bypasses,and air valves should be free and adjusted
so that they check mechanism movement before
the opening stroke is complete and allow it come to
its proper position without undue impact.Stops must
be adjusted to provide the contect over travel when
closing.
c) Springs:
Inspect all springs -bumper buffer, closing
tail, accelerating and balance- for breakage, proper
size and ‘ set ‘ replacing any with a permanent loss
of tension or compression. See that all springstops
are securely fastened and fubricated. Check for lost
or missing springs.
d)Slow motion check :
See that all links and levers move freely.
Operate the mechanism slowly by hand to see that
all parts move freely and no undue friction is
noticeable.Observe mechanism during several closing
and tripping operations to see that everything is
in working order.
e) Latch:
Check all pins, bearings and latches for binding
and misalignment. Check latch carefully to see
that it is not getting worn so as to unlatch from vibration
or struck and fail to trip.
f) Electical Operating Mechanism:
The first step in checking the electric operating
mechanism is to measure insulation resistance
of the control cable, trip coil, and closing coil with a
500 V instument .Clean the DPST control switch
and apply a little white Vaseline or oxide inhibiting
grease to the control and hinge ends.Be sure that
trip solenoid has a little free travel before striking
the trip lever and a little over travel after engaging the
trip latch.Be sure there is a good connection from
the panel to the ground wire.Clean and lubricate all
bushings and bearings with oil or grease which will
not freeze in winter.
Clean the ground surfaces of all latches.Dirt
or corrosion here will increase latch resistance and
impede tripping. If the metal surface is uneven, polish
with crocus cloth or fine emery but be careful not
to alter the angle of the latch. Then coat the surface
with a thin film of graphite or gun grease.
Using the manual control lever, operate the
electric mechanism slowly to see that all parts move

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freely.Do this first with the solenoid connected to


the life rod linkage, then with it disconnected. The
trip -free latch should reset as the mechanism passes
the trip-free position.Check travel of the trip plunger
making sure it is long enough to give positive
tripping.Compare electrical and mechanical over
travel against values given in the manufacturer’s
instructions.
g) Locking pins and plate:
Check that all pins, locking plates, check nuts
etc.,are in place and are properly tightened.
h) Interlocks:
Check all interlocks for proper action.
i) Junction boxes:
Examine all junction and conduit boxes for moisture.
If it is present,retape connections with rubber and
friction tape and apply a good coat of lacquer. To
provide good ventilation,1|4’’ holes may be drilled in
the bottom of wo or more junction boxes selected to
give a natural circulation of air.Conduit covers should
be replaced carefully, installing new gasket if needed.
j) Cabinet heaters:
Inspect heaters in the mechanism cabinet for loose
connections, damaged insulation, or overheating.
Turn the power on to see that they are operating
correctly. Rust may indicate that they are not
working.Heaters should be on at all times to minimise
condensation.
k) Operating counter:
Check the operations counter to make sure it is
operating correctly,that the numbers are in plain
view,and that the linkage is properly adjusted.At the
beginning, and end of the inspection, record the
counter reading in the station log book and on the
test sheet.
l) Painting and partitions of cabinet:
Clean and paint the inside of the mechanism
housing.Excessive rust here may indicate that air
vents are blocked, that new vents are blocked, that
new vents or heaters are needed. On some old type
breakers,a 1|4 ‘’hole may be drilled in the web on
the bell crank housing to let water out.
2. COMPRESSED AIR MECHANISM
(i) General Description:
With suitable air compressed air is stored in air
reserviour.This compressed air as utilised to operate
the circuit breaker. A centralised air compressor
which feeds compressed dry air for a maximam of
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 31 -
about six breakers is installed in a few places.In
certain other places unit compressed air plants are

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provided for each breaker.


ii) Maintenance of compressor:
Daily:
a. Clean the compressor throughly.
b. Check the oil level in the crank case.Replenish
with the correct grade of oil if required.
c. Check compressor belt tension.
d. Drain water from the air receiver.
Every 125 hours of Operation
(a) Dismantle the suction filter and rinse in petrol
or kerosine.
(b) After thorogh drying,reassemble on the compressor.
Every 500 Hours of Operation
(a)The breaker valve should be
dismantled,cleaned and checked for perfect
seating of the valve.
(b) Examine the lubricating oil in the sump-drain
the oil if necessary and renew.
(c) Dismantle the delivery unloader valve. All the
parts are to be throughly cleaned and renew
the worn-out parts.
(d) Dismantle the solenoid valve.Examine the
plunger, guide and ‘O’ ring.Renew the spares
if required.
3. HYDRAULIC OPERATING MECHANISM
(f) General Description:
Hydraulic drives are of high pressure,as high
as 300 kgs |cm2.The hydraulic system generally
consists of the drive cylinder,main value, accmulater
and control unit. The operating force is produced by
differential piston whose,smaller surface area is under
constant hydraulic pressure.The larger surface
is pressurised for closing and depressurised for tripping.
ii)Maintenance:
(a) Make a visual leakage check of the hydraulic
system daily.Tighten or replace the oil seal
wherever neccessary.
(b) Check the oil level and its condition every 3
months.Fill in new and correct grade and
filtered oil if required.
4. SOLENOID CLOSING MECHANISM
(i) General Description:
The closing energy is obtained from the electro mechanical
force due to heavy current in the
solenoid.Tripping spring is generally compressed
during closing operation.This kind of mechanism is
relatively simple in construction.
(ii) Maintenance:
(a) Voltage drop up to solenoid:
Check operating voltage at the solenoid terminals
with full operating current flowing to see that it is

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adequate for correct operation.


(b)I.R Value:
Check resistance and Insulation resistance of the
solenoid coil.
(c) Plunger Movement :
Check plunger for stickness in guides.
(d) Fuses :
Examine fuses on solenoid circuit.
(e) Current :
Check closing solenoid current.
iii) Trip coil plunger :
a) Observe operation during electrical tripping.
Check that full energetic snappy action of the
plunger is obtained.
b) Check plunger for any stickiness.
c) Check that the plunger has sufficient travel to
assure an adequate impact that will positively
release the breaker latch.
iv) I.R. Value :
Check resistance and insulation resistance
of coil.
v) Fuses :
Examine fuses on trip circuit.
vi) Control Relay or contacter :
a) Mechanical movement
Check mechanical parts for free movements.
b.) Arc Chutes :
Clean arc chutes.
c) Contacts :
Examine contacts and renew where necessary.
d) Fuses :
Examine fuses on control circuit.
SF6CIRCUIT BREAKER
Maintenance
SF6 circuit breaker require very little maintenance.
Involved are those parts which are subject
to wear and ageing. The paint finish and degree of
contamination of insulators should also be checked.
Major Inspections Involving examination of
Interruptor and electro hydraulic or pneumatic operated
mechanisms require thorough knowledge of the
maintenance instructions of the manufacturer and
stocking of tools and spares. It is desirable that
manufacturer is associated with such works.
Inspection and Maintenance medium voltage
SF6 Circuit breakers during Operation
a. General
All the inspection and mainterance service
must be performed with the circuit-breaker open, the
closing springs unloaded and the main and auxiliary
electrical circuits disconnected. Failure to observe

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these rules could cause serious accidents for the


operator.
During normal operations the circuit breakers
require very little maintenance.
-The frequency of Inspection and maintenace service
is tied, on the other hand to the severity of the
operations. which in turn varies according to several
elements such as:
-Frequency of movements .
-value of interrupted current.
-power factor
-installation environment.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 32 -
Conditions that may make more frequent maintenance necessary are :
1) Humidity at high ambient temperature.
2) Corrosive atmosphere
3) Excessive dust and dirt.
4) Frequent, heavy operation
5) Frequent interruptions for breakdowns
6) Plant-long in continual operation without the benefit of even limited inspection or maintenance.
7) Information obtainable from the history of previous inspections.
These elements are so variable that it is not possible to give precise indications. In any case, the
following rules are recommended.
- equip the circuit breakers with movement-counters
- circuit breakers that made only rare movements remain closed for long periods must be actuated from
time to time to prevent the tendency to grip causing slower opening and closing speeds;
-at least once during the first year of operation inspect the circuit-breaker
and eliminate dust from the insulating parts. clean and lubricate the contact parts and the elements that
transmit the pole shoe movement.
- Later, based on information obtained during the fifth year of operation, increase the interval of time
between inspections, if warranted;
- If the installation position makes it possible, visual inspection of the circuit - breaker is advisable from
outside during operation according to the program shown in Table 1 and a series of inspections according to
the program shown in Table -2.
b. Visual inspection program :
To maintain the circuit breaker in good repair, it is recommended to follow the following chart :
Table - 1 Inspection program for SF6 circuit breaker.
Inspections Trouble found Remedy
Operating mechanism Damage or loss of parts Replace damaged or lost parts
Accumulated dirt Clean off dirt
Movement - counter Does not correctly Inspect, repair or replace
indicate the operation movement - counter
of the device.
Medium - Voltage Excessive accumulation Clean the insulating parts
Portion of dust and dirt removing the dust with a dry rag.
C. Inspection Program :
To assure the satisfactory operation of the circuit - breaker it is advisable to inspect it periodically
according to the following program :-
Table 2 - Inspection program
Inspected Part Prescribed Inspections Remedies
and Troubles

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Insulating resistance on pole Check standard values; Insulation drops


(With megger) between main terminals noticeable due to
and 2000 M (2500v) mass accumulated dust.
between main terminals clean with a dry cloth
and mass with breaker restored.
open 2000 M ( 2500v)
Gas pressure in each Check for standard value Restore to standard
pole (check required in of 2.4. kg / sq.cm at 200C value with procedures
case of pressure switch or value recommended outlined in
Intervention) by manufacturer. manufacturer’s
instructions.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 33 -
Main circuits Lack of contact on parts Restore contact using the
of wiring . procedures outlined in
manufacturer’s .
instructions.
Breaker circuits and are Bad contact between the Contact manufacturers .
contacts wiring and the terminals
Controls Dirt deposits, loose Remove dirt. Tighten
screws or nuts, damage screws and nuts and
or pIaces missing Dry replace damaged parts.
open/close test 5 times Find nature of troubles,
repair.
d. Circuit-breaker life:
The life of the circuIt -breaker depends mainly
on the degree of decomposition of the SF6 gas, on
the wear and tear on contacts due to operation and
on the mechanical life of the operating mechanism.
c. Gas decomposition
An indirect indication can be obtained by
measuring the Insulation resistance with Megger at
2500V between the terminals of the pole acceptable
value 2000 M according Table 2.
d. Wearing of contacts and breaker parts:
The state of wear of the contacts can be
detected in an indirect way by determining at What
point the arcing contacts (fixed and moving) come
in touch while the breaker is closing.
For this operation the circuit - breaker must
be closed very slowly, according to the following procedure.
Applicable for a particular make of circultbreaker.
(Refer to manufacturers instructions in respect
of other makes)
- With the circuit - breaker open and off line,
insert a tester between the terminals of the pole to
be checked.
-Slowly rotate the external lever of the poles
in a clockwise direction until contact is indicated by
the tester, and note distance ‘a’ in this Position.
On a pole with new contacts, dimension “a”
is about 8.5mm for 12-.24 KV breakers and about

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13mm for 36 KV breakers (for a particular make of


Circuit-breaker).
With maximum acceptable pole contact wear,
dimension “a” becomes about 22mm.
Pole reconditioning is therefore required for
greater values.
In this event, it is advisable to have the other
poles reconditioned as well. Since special precautions
must be taken during reconditioning (absence
of moisture Inside the pole and a suitable level of
cleanliness of the Internal parts of the pole) manufacturers
must be consulted.
To replace the pole, first disconnect the
main lines connected to the pole terminals and the
sheathed auxiliary cables of the pressure switches
and for the 500C Circuit -breaker version, the thermostat
probe. then remove the safety ring between
the shaft and the external pole lever, remove the 4
screws holding the pole to the base and pull out the
pole.
When mounting a new pole on the circuit -
breaker assembly, the above operations must be performed
in reverse order. The electrical life of the
circuit breaker depends on the devices used and is
linked to wear on the arcing contacts, while the SF6
gas is not significantly altered following power - outs.
The example of cumulative breaking current
shown below corresponds to what has been verified
in direct laboratory breaker tests without reconditioning
and to the requirements of the ENELDY 1501
specifications:
4, breaks at 12.5KA +
12 breaks at 7.5 KA +
322 breaks at 3.7KA +
252 breaks at 1.2 KA
The cycle described above corresponds
approximately to 50 times the full break power, based
on statistics for circuit-breaks in medium - voltage
distribution plants in operation for at least 20 years.
At the end of this test cycle, the device still
represents a considerable reserve of electrical life,
based on the wear to live parts.
G. Mechanical life of the operating mechanism.
See the indications in the instructions booklets.
An inspection with lubrication every 5000 operations,
or every 3 months, is recommended.
Recommendations for use of SF6 gas in
Medium - Voltage Equipment.
a. Protective measures and their purpose
In areas where equipment using sulphur
hexafluoride as a means of arc-quenching is installed,

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special written instructions should be displayed for


personnel that could be exposed to sulphur hexafluoride
(SF6) and its by-products of decomposition when
operating the equipment.
b. Preliminary considerations
Sulphur hexafluoride, in its pure state, is an
odourless, colourless, non-toxic gas with a density
about five times that of the air. For this reason, though
it produces no specific physiological effects, it could
cause effects typical of oxygen shortage.
Due to the effect of the electric arc, a small
quantity of SF6 contained in the pole casing (a few
% max) decomposes leaving both gaseous and powdery
by-products with an acidic reaction and thus
potentially aggressive. In a circuit breaker these
decomposition products, which as we said are quantitatively
insignificant, normally remain closed inside
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 34 -
the sealed equipment and absorbed by special filters:
The probabillty of contact with decomposed
SF6 is extremely low as pertains to these events.
c. Gas leaks
There is no risk for persons since the quantities
of SF6 are modest and decomposed even less.
d. Opening the casing for maintenance
Considering the long electrical life of the SF6
equipment, the event is extremely improbable.
For MV Circuit breakers it in any case advisable
to replace the breaker elements, since the
operation is simple and rather infrequent.
This maintenance service is really only probable
for HV circuit breakers.
e. Breakage of the casing
Considering the pressures used and the dimensioning
of the casing, this should be regarded as a highly
improbable accidental event.
Protective Measures and Procedures
In order to prevent the modest risks connected
with the use of SF6 in electrical equipment, It is
advisable to comply with the following precautions
and instructions:
a. Make sure there is sufficient natural air exchange
in the areas in which the equipment is installed.
b. In the event the casings are accidentally broken,
the presence of decomposed gas is perceptible even
In extremely small quantities (1-3 ppm) because of
its pungent. unpleasant odour, and the following procedure
should be instituted.
-thoroughly ventilate the area and, in the case of
Installation in a protective or armoured cabinet,make
sure there is efficient air exchange; open the cabinet

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only after the characteristic odour of decomposed


SF6 is no longer Perceptible;
-Wear protective rubber or plastic gloves and remove
and powder that has escaped from the equipment
using throw away rags;
-Personal hygiene is important after these operations.
Thorough washing with soap and lukewarm
water is a sufficient precaution to aviod irritation of
the skin and eyes.
c. If the pole casings are opened for maintenance, it
is advisable to follow the above Instructions after recovering
the gas.
Maintenance of EHV SF6 Circuit breakers
Circuit-breakers require very little maintenance.
Involved are those parts which are subjected
to wear and aging. The paint finish and degree of
contamination of insulators should also be checked.
The following are the factors which govern the maintenance
of the breaker:
- Number of short circuit interruptions
- Switching frequency and service conditions
- Number of years of service
Maintenance and inspection should be carried
out in accordance with the inspection schedule.
The servicing intervals indicated below are only
approximate and should be suitably altered to suit
the operating service conditions.
The inspection and servicing jobs have been
divided into three groups “.
-Routine check to be made every 5 years:
These checks contain jobs only to be done at earth
potential. Draining of SF6 is not necessary.
-Minor inspection after 1500 operations or
10 years of service; in the case where in breaker
operates more than 1000 times a year, inspection
should be carried out after a maximum 3000 operations.
-Major inspection.
After 3000 operations or 20 years of service. in the
case of breaker operating more than 1000 times a
year, inspection should be carried out after a maxium
6000 operations.
The life of the contacts normally matches the
life expectancy of the breaker.
If the breaker performs the short circuit interruptions
before the inspection becomes due. it is
necessary to check the contacts in accordance with
the inspection schedule and also after 3000 interruptions
of normal rated current. Cricuit-breakers that
made only rare movements and remain cIosed for
long periods must be actuated from time to time to
prevent the tendency to grip causing slower opening

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and closing speeds.


Precautions to be taken
Before starting work on breaker Carry out the
following:
-Isolate the breaker on both the sides.
-connect the breaker terminal to earth
-disconnect the auxIliary supply
-reduce the oil pressure of electro hydraulic mechanism
to zero by opening the pressure relief valve. If
spring operated unload the closing spring.
-transfer the SF6 to the maintenance unit and vent
the breaker.If no maintenance unit is available allow
the SF6 to escape.
-Comply with all local safety regulations.
General Instructions for maintenance
All the specl pins. lock washers, spring washers
of bolted joints should be replaced with new ones
when they are opened for maintenance.
All the gaskets, O -rings and rubber washers
should also be replaced with new ones during reassembly.
All the breaker parts dismantled for maintenance
should be covered and, protected against ingress
of dirt and moisture while reassembly is in
progress. Small quantities of mettalic fluoride powder
forms because of arc interruption of SF6 gas.
This metallic powder when in dry state is insulating
and harmless. However the powder is hygroscopic
and in the presence of water vapour the dust forms a
paste which is conductive as such this metallic fluoride
powder should be cleaned with the help of a
clean non fluffy cloth or a vacuum cleaner, as soon
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 35 -
as the interrupter is opened for inspection and servicing to prevent the formation of conductive paste which is
very difficult to remove. The cloth once used should be thrown into dust bin separate cloth should be used for
each interrupter. During cleaning of the metallic fluoride gloves should be worn. Care is advised when working
near the auxillary switches, and the piston rods of operating mechanism since any damage may cause leakage.
For decaring and degreasing agents and special compounds to be applied during maintenance.
INSPECTION SCHEDULE
Routine Inspection
Minor Inspection
Major Inspection
1.1. General Checks
1.2 Note the number of Make - and - break operations
and any particular occurrences.
1.3 Check SF6 filling
2. Draw out the SF6
3. POLE COLUMNS
3.1 Open all interrupter units and make a visual check of
the contact system and the blast cylinder
3.2 Check the sliding faces of the crosshead and the cou
pling pins and bearings for signs of wear.

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3.3 Examine and clean the operating rod.


3.4 Replace filters
4.0 AUXILIARY SWITCH :
Sparingly oil the bearings, examine and grease the
coupling linkage.
5. Fill in the SF 6
6.0 ELECTROHYDRAULIC OPERATING MECHANISM
6.1 Carry out test operations.
6.2 Make a visual leakage check of the hydraulic system.
6.3 Check the oil level and its condition.
6.4 Drain the oil and clean both the oil tank and the intake
filter.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 36 -
Routine Inspection
Minor Inspection
Major Inspection
6.5 Examine the accumulator, the main valve and the
operating cylinders
6.6 Fill in new oil
6.7 Check the priming pressure of nitrogen
6.8 Raise the oil pressure in the accumulator to the nominal level.
Measure the current input of the motor at this pressure.
6.9 Carry out test operations
6.10 Operate the breaker at reduced operating voltage
6.11 Check the operating pressure of the safety valve
6.12 Check the inner sealing of the hydraulic system
7.0 Check the operating values of the SF6 density monitor
and oil pressure monitors.
8.0 Check the breaker pressure gauge for SF6 and
pressurised oil
9.0 Check the space heaters
10. Check the anti-pumping feature
11. Check all fully assembled breakers for SF6 leaks
12.1 Check that the external connecting leads are seated firmly.
12.2 Tighten the internal terminals
13.0 Check the paint finish and touch up where necessary.
Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCBs)
Inspection Schedule
Once a year, a general inspection should be carried out and if necessary the insulating parts should be
cleaned with rag. More frequent checks may be necessary if the breakers are installed in a dust laden
atmosphere.
Breaker operating mechanism
The operating mechanism should be oiled and lubricated every 10 years or after 10,000 operations
whichever is earlier.
Vacuum interrupters
Replacing the interrupter is an exception. They may have to be replaced after 30,000 mechanical
operations or when contacts have eroded by maximum amount and white ‘dot’ marked (or coloured mark on
burn off indicator in some makes) on moving contact stem of the vacuum interrupter is not visible in breaker
closed condition. Use of contact burn off calipers is recommended in certain makes. For guide the following
number of operations are given for life of interrupters of certain makes. Manufacturer’s instructions on paticular
makes may be used.

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For a 36KV, 1250A, 25 KA - VCB For a 12KV - 630A - 16KA - VCB


25 KA - 50 Normal load - 20,000
16 KA - 90 2.5 KA - 3,000
12.5KA - 225 8.0 KA - 400
1250 A - 20000 16 KA - 100
Normal Current - 30000
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 37 -
Important
Before starting any work on breaker isolate,
short circuit and earth. Disconnect the auxiliary supply,
open and close the breaker by hand until both
closing and tripping springs are discharged.
Inspections and repairs should be carried
out by qualified fitters who are familiar with switchgear
of this type with due reference to operating instruction.
Only those lubricants, grease and corrosion
protection agents recommended by the manufacturer
shall be used.
Contact resistance
Check the contact resistance across the
top and bottom pole supports after closing the
vacuum interrupter through quick release of closing
spring. The contact resistance should be around 15
to 20 micro ohms. This test is recommended as a
bench mark while installing the new interrupter. Experience
has shown that a degree of spread can be
obtained in contact resistance measurements when
the circuit breakers is closed, but these do not have
the same degree of significance as in other types of
circuit breakers. The results show that there is a
tendency for the resistance to decrease as the
switch is used. Any increase in the resistance figure
does not indicate contact erosion as in most
breakers and the fact that the contacts are in vacuum
precludes the forms of deterioration which would take
place in other media.
Check of Vacuum
In respect of preservation of the vacuum, the
vacuum interrupters feature high reliability. Consequently,
checking the vacuum is not included in the
mainenance schedule. Checking is advised only in
the following cases:-
1. When it is suspected that the interrupter
was damaged externally during transport or installation
and
2. After the switchgear has been installed
twenty years. Some manufacturers specify a routine
maintenance check around once in 4 years, by one
of the following methods:
a) By mechanically pulling down the moving contact
stem of the interrupter. If it moves freely it would

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indicate that the interrupter is full of air and hence


lost vacuum.
b) H.V. test- The high voltage test may be undertaken
according to manufacturer’s instructions.
Warning
1. On conclusion of this H.V. test bear in
mind that the section of the vacuum interrupter may
have been capacitively charged. Establish an earth
before touching it.
2. Do not exceed the test voltage ratings
because inadmissible high X-ray intensities could
arise particularly at high d.c.voltages.
Inspection Schedule of VCBs
Six months after commissioning and there General inspection; check tightening of
after once a year bolts. Clean insulating parts with nonfluffy
cloth. Check the mechanism stroke
settings. More frequent inspection may
be necessary if the breakers are installed
on a dust laden atmosphers.
Every 10 years or 10,000 operations Lubricate operating mechanism with
approved lubricants. Ensure the coil
fixing screws are fully tight and locked by
lock - tight fluid.
After 30,000 mechanical operations or Replace vacuum interrupter as per manufac
when contacts have eroded a maximum turer’s instructions.
amount
Note:
It may be necesary in certain cases to equip the VCBs with surge absorbers to take care of current
chopping effects.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 38 -
Check point for periodical inspection of VCBs
Sl.No Check point Check Item Check Method Criteria What to do Remarks
1. Entire circuit Tightness of By tightening There should Retighten
Breaker bolts and them with not be any fast the loose
nuts screw driver ener loosely tigh fastners
and spanners tened properly
Dust and Visual check The breaker should Clean by
foreign matter be clean and there compressed
should be no foreign air flow. Also
matter. wipe the
accessible
components
with a clean dry
cloth.
Deformation, Visual check There should be no Remove cause
excessive wear excessive wear or and replace parts.
and damage. damage or deforma
-tion.
Lost or missing Visual check There should be no Reinstate the
Parts missing parts missing parts to
normal condition.

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2. Spring Dust and for Visual check There should be no Remove it by


operated mech eign matter dust or foreign mat- compressed air.
anism. ter accumulated on
mechanism.
Smooth Manual Operation should be Apply proper
operation operation smooth grease to these
points.
1. Lubrication Visual check All these points shall
of bearing and feel be well lubricated and
pin rotating smoothly.
2. Lubrication
of bearing
blocks.
3. Lubrication
of breaker shaft
ends
4. Lubriation of
closing latch
roller bearing.
3. Vacuum Contact wear Visual check for Wipe length should If it is less than
Interrupter Measurement be 3+ 0.5mm with 1.0mm, replace
the breaker closed. the vacuum inter
rupter.
Vacuum Replace the vacuum
Pressure interrupter when
Vacuum pressure is
not sufficient.
4. Auxiliary Terminals Tighten by There should be Retighten
switches screwdriver no loose connections
Case and Visual check There should be no Replace if damaged
contacts damage and
deformation.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 39 -
3. BATTERY AND ITS MAINTENANCE
I.Introduction:
Lead acid storage battery is an electro chemical source of current (voltaic cell) that
possesses the capacity of- accumulating and storing energy and supplying it as electrical energy.
A battery consists of a set of cells, each set is capable of giving electricity at 2 V per cell. Each
cell is having electrodes in the form of plates with terminals brought outside as positive and
negative. They are immersed in an electrolyte consisting sulphuric acid diluted with distilled
water.
2.Principle of operation :
Electrolyte consists of water molecule and sulphuric acid molecule. The atoms of water
molecule combine with the ions of a molecule of sulphuric acid. This leads to polar molecules of
water callusing separation of molecules of sulphuric acid into positive hydrogen ions negative
acid radical ions.
H2 SO4 ------- 2H + SO4
As a result of this electrolytic dissociation, ions are formed in an electrolyte. Since the
sum of charge carried by negative acid radical ions is equal to the sum of charge carried by
positive hydrogen ions, the solution remains electrically neutral.
Prior to discharge of any lead acid cell its condition is such that the active material of the

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negative plate will consist of spongy lead and that of positive will consist of lead peroxide.
As a result of interaction of electrolyte with the atoms of lead of negative plate, some of
the lead atoms become ionized and two charge positive ions of lead pass over into the electrolytic
solution. This leaves the surface of the negative plate charged, with two electrons by each atom
of lead that passes into solution. Therefore, negative plate becomes charged negatively in
relation to electrolyte, similarly, the positive plate is charged with four charge positive ions of lead.
When the plates are connected by means of some conductor, the cell begins to
discharge. The electrons on the negative plate passing into conductor and forcing free electrons
in the conductor matter into the positive plate. the positive ii) ns of the positive plate attract the
free negative ions of the conductor. There is a flow of electrons from negative plate to positive
plate and thus there is a flow of current from positive plate to negative plate.
Each atom of lead of negative plate gives up two electrons. these two electrons pass into
positive plate where they combine with the four charge ion of lead (Pb++) to become two charge
ion of lead (Pb++). These two charge ion of lead enters into electrolyte reacts with two charge
negative ion of acid radical (SO 4--) and from a molecule of lead sulphate. This lead sulphate is
deposited in the form of small crystal on the positive plate. At the same time water is formed near
the positive plate. the process is expressed a below:
- 40 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
PbO2 + 4H+ + SO4
-- + 2e - ® PbSO4 + 2H2
At the negative plate, as soon as the electrons move away from the negative plate a two
charge, positive ion of lead which is near the negative plate combines with the two charge
negative ion or an acid radical to form a molecule of lead sulphate. This is deposited in the
negative plate.
Pb++ + SO4
-- - 2e- ® PbSO4
Thus carry two molecules of sulphuric acid, one molecule of lead peroxide and one atom
of lead will produce on discharge, one molecule of lead sulphate on each plate and two
molecules of water at the positive plate. the substance formed have a smaller reserve energy and
hence formation of substances with lower energy level releases energy. Thus chemical energy is
converted into electrical energy.
During charging positive terminal of the source of electrical energy connected to positive
plate of the cell and negative terminal with the negative plate. when negative source of electrical
supply sends a current through the cell, electrons are moved out from positive terminal, the
positive plate due to difference of electrons, the lead sulphate will undergo oxidation to lead
peroxide as below:
PbSO4 + 2H20 -2e- ® 4H++ + PbO2 + S04
-
Simultaneously two electrons will move into negative plate and an atom of lead is formed
as below: PbSO4 -2e- ® Pb + SO4
-
The hydrogen ions of positive plate combine with sulphate radical and from molecules of
sulphuric acid. Hence during charging the specific gravity of electrolyte increases and during
discharge the specific gravity decreases.
After all the lead sulphate is converted into lead peroxide and lead, it is called that the cell
is fully charged. If the charging is continued, the electrical energy supplied to the cell will then be
spent to dissociate the water into hydrogen and oxygen.
2H+ + 2e- ® 2H
O--- 2e - ® O
The dissociation of water is noticed by an abundant evolution of gas at both plates. This
gassing or bubbling is a sign of completeness of charge. The above will explain the principle of

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operation of an lead
3.Components of lead Acid cell :
a) Container: Jars of lead acid cells are made of ebonite moulded plastic, ceramics,
glass and wood lined with lead sheet. Main criteria is that the container should be acid
proof. Normally ebonite is made out of rubber 60% and sulphur 40%. Enough space
will be left at the bottom for active material to fall down prevent it from touching the
plates.
- 41 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
b) Cover: Cover will be made out of ebonite with three or four holes in it to take out
positive and negative terminal. Vent for gassing and for pouring acid or distilled water
to make up level and vent for fixing acid level indicators.
Electrolyte:
Battery grade sulphuric acid at specific gravity 1200 is used. Battery grade sulphuric acid
should have a purity of 99.94 percent at specific gravity of 1830 Kg/m3. Electrolyte of 1200 is
prepared by having distilled water in a glass jar and pouring acid in small quantities stirring the
electrolyte continuously. As heat will be generated during mixing, mixing should be done slowly,
Water should not be mixed with acid.
Distilled water used for preparation of electrolyte should have a pH value of 6.6.
Chemically pure water will have a pH value of 7 and when it is less it is acidic and when it is more
it is basic. distilled water prepared from DM water plant or distilled water plant alone be used (or
batteries. It should be kept in a clean container with stoppers and handled in clean vessels kept
separately for this purpose.
Separators:
To prevent buckling of plates, positive and negative plates are held together tightly.
Separators are provided in between both plates. Separators should have insulating property
porous enough to allow gas bubbles to pass through and inactive to acid and lead. Separators
are made out of wood, hard rubber, glass fibre, micro porous plastic materials, perforated vinyl
plastics and perforated allotted ebonite. Separators will be micro porous and also will have slot to
permit gases to travel to the top of the plates. Bi-plast separators made out of vinyl chloride has
been found to have sufficient mechanical strength, very high chemical stability and good electrical
property. Perforated ebonite is also used as spaces along with other separators to enable large
volume of acid to have access to plates. ‘
Felted glass fibre separators are used to prevent positive active materials from getting
dislodged from plates. Positive plates are normally wrapped in glass fibre cloth and other type of
separators are placed on sides. This prevents shedding of positive materials and hence
enhances the life of the battery.
Positive plates:
Positive plates are made out of lead antimony alloy. They are moulded as grills with
packet for holding active materials. Grills are moulded in steel form box with molten alloy at a
temperature of 400 - 450C. The grills are filled with active materials prepared of lead powder and
litharge. Expanders such as lamp black, oak flour, barium sulphate, cotton lines are added to
avoid possibility of shrinkage and hardening. The plates are jointed together into a group by
connecting the top of the plate by a bar and lug is taken out for terminal connections.
After assembly, the positive plates are given treatment forn1ing and they become dark
chocolate brown in color.
- 42 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
Negative plates:
Negative plates are also made in the same way but they will be lighter in design and will
be filled up with sponge lead. Even lead plates are used as negative plates. Groups of negative
plates are held together by a bar and terminal similar to positive is taken out.
Positive and negative plates are held together closely to minimize the internal resistance

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of the” cell. Positive and negative cells are interleaved with separators and spacers in between to
prevent shorting of the battery. Further tight packing prevents buckling of the plates.
Charging of batteries:
Batteries are received in dry state. Battery when received is checked for any cracks in the
container, damages to terminals, covers etc. The inside of the battery is cleaned well and
removed, for dust by blowing air through a blower at slow rate. The cells are assembled as
suggested by the supplier. Positive terminals of the next cell is connected to the negative of the
cell and thus entire terminals arc connected. Before connecting the terminals are cleaned with
sand paper or smooth file to remove the oxide coating. Then thin coating of Vaseline or petroleum
jelly is applied and connectors are put and bolted together.
Then acid of approved specific gravity pored in slowly in all the cells. The cells are
allowed to absorb the acid for 12 to 24 hours. At the end of 24 hours charging is commenced.
Before charging, the charge should be checked. The D.C. voltage of the charger should
be that of battery. The charger is switched on after putting correct size of fuses. Positive and
negative of the charger should be identified. If wires are connected to the terminals and positive
and negative leads are put in water and kept at a short distance, say 50 mm active bubbling will
occur, in positive and dull bubbling will be occur in negative.
Positive and negative can be identified by connecting it to a moving coil voltmeter, if the
polarity’ is wrong, the meter will kick reverse.
Another way is to take a big potato and cut it into half. Insert the positive and negative
leads 50 mm apart. When supply is switched on, the potato around positive terminal will charge
brown due to the action of released hydrogen from the water in the potato with the carbohydrates
of the potato. No such thing will occur in negative.
After identifying the terminal, the positive of the charger is connected to positive of the
battery and negative terminal of the charger to negative terminal of the battery.
Charging should be done strictly as per the instructions of the supplier. The charger may
be switched on and charged at the current specified by the supplier. Battery log book is opened
and hourly readings of charging voltage, current are recorded. Every four hours voltage and
specific gravity of the cells are noted. As there will be effective gassing in the cells, all the plugs of
the cells should be removed to avoid development of pressure inside the cell. Fans in the battery
room should be kept operating continuously. This is very important during the last phases of
charging. The temperature of the electrolyte of the cells should be noted every hour and it should
- 43 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
not exceed 40°C because of danger of plate buckling. If is reaches, the charging should be
stopped and cells are allowed to cool and then started.
While nearing the completion of charge it is necessary to examine all the batteries and
make sure that gassing begin simultaneously in all the cells and with the same intensity. Density
of the electrolyte will rise slowly initially but rapidly at the end. When the battery is fully charge,
the specific gravity would have reached 1200 to 1240 and cell voltage to 2.4 volts. When all the
cells have reached this level it is allowed to continue for four hours then charging stopped.
Charging should 15e done continuously without break unless for extraneous reason.
When charging with M.G. set a reverse power relay should be provided to prevent
running of the generator as motor or when A.C. supply fails or voltage goes down.
After completion of charging, the cells should be cleaned well with cloth soaked in
distilled water to remove all the acid particles settled on the cover and sides of the cells.
Then first discharge is commenced by connecting the battery through a switch fuse,
ammeter to a resistance box of micrometer or water rheostat or a battery of bulbs or carbon
lamps. Discharge is adjusted according to the capacity of battery. Voltage, current, cell voltage,
specific gravity are measured every 15 Mts. when the cells are reaching 1.8 volts and specific
gravity 1700 to 1800. At this, stage discharging is stopped.
The level of the electrolyte is adjusted by adding distilled water or acid according to the

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specific gravity of the acid in the cell to bring the level of the electrolyte to the same level and also
specific gravity to same value.
Then second charging is commenced in the same way as was done earlier and the
battery is brought to full charge.
Thus the battery is charged four times and discharged three times. During initial charging
all the parts of the plates may not get full chemical reaction due to bubbling, un-equal acid
specific gravity at various places, impurities in plates etc. To provide the plates uniform chemical
transformation charging and discharging are repeated.
Thus after three operation all parts of the cells would have received equal chemical
reaction and buckling and shedding of plates will be minimum at a later stage.
Trickle charging:
A battery already in fully charged condition is maintained without deterioration by trickle
charging. due to impurities in plates and surface leakage, the battery will be draining slowly and
up to make up that, battery is charged at I mA per amp. hour of the battery. Also the charger will
meet the continuous load of the battery. This will maintain the battery at fully charged condition.
Quarterly quick charging:
Once in every quarter, the battery should be a given quick charge at the rate specified by
the manufacture till all the cells pass well and the cell voltage comes to 2.4 V to 2.6 V and kept at
that level four to five hours.
- 44 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
Battery room:
Battery room should be well ventilated with good illumination and situated in such a
location that no fumes can come into contact with any electrical plant. A cut out should be
provided near the battery terminal to protect the battery from short circuit etc.
Battery room should be provided with two number exhaust fans to exhaust fumes
outside. Second one will act as stand by as acid fumes will affect the windings of exhaust fan and
get repaired often.
!"2 Nos. Hydrometer,
!"2 Nos. thermometers,
!"cell testing voltmeter,
!"inspection lamp,
!" rubber gloves,
!"rubber apron
should be provided in the battery room.
Cadmium test strip or rod should be provided in each battery room. This electrode is a
round cadmium rod about 6 mm in diameter that is soldered to a copper rod. The end of the
electrode is placed in a PVC tube provided with holes for the access of electrolyte. PVC tube will
also prevent electrode coming in direct contact with plates. Before use cadmium electrode should
be immersed in electrolyte with a density of 1200 to 1250.
To measure the potential of the positive plates the cadmium electrode, connected to one
of the terminals of the voltmeter is immersed in electrolyte, the other terminal of the v6ltmeter is
being connect to the terminal pest of the positive plates of the cell. The potential of the positive
electrode will be around 2.20 volts. The potential of the negative electrode is measured similarly
and will be around 0.2V. The sum will give the total potential of the cell.
INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF BATTERIES
Battery should be inspected daily in open type cell with Glass container the following
points to be observed.
1. Color and Touch of Plates :
Positive chocolate brown Negative – Bluish gray.
Positive smooth greasy feels, negative smooth feel
Neither should be harsh nor metallic under brand now.

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2. Condition of plates such as crack, distortion, accumulation etc.


3. Outside of the cell container should always be kept class and dry.
4. Condition of the separator and container.
5. The level of the electrolyte should be maintained to the correct level. The cell should
be topped up with distilled water only and while doing so, it is preferable to introduce
water at a bottom of the cell by a rubber syringe so that it mat get well mixed. But the
waste deposits settled at the bottom of the cell should not be disturbed.
6. The electrolyte should fully cover top edges of the plates otherwise the active
materials of negative plate will oxidize intensively and sharp reduction in useful life of
the battery
- 45 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
7. Color of cell deposits and clearance between deposit and bottom edge of the plate to
be observed. The deposit should be brown and not white.
8. Inter cell connections should be tight and should be without corrosion at points.
Joints should be coated with a thin layer of Vaseline or white petroleum jelly to
prevent corrosion. It is preferable to use lead strips for interconnecting the cell.
9. Correct voltage should be maintained by adjusting the trickle charger output. The
voltage should be within 2.15 V to 2.3 V. The discharge should not be continued
beyond the cell voltage of 1.85 V.
10. The specific Gravity is to be maintained at 1200 at 60 F. It should not be taken below
1185. Proper temperature correction is to be made to get correct value. Hydrometer
of reputed make should be used to measure the specific gravity
11. If the battery is overcharged at results in unequal expansion of positive plate known
as buckling and shedding of active material. Continuous under charging causes
sulphation of plates (i.e.) Insoluble while lead sulphate is formed. If sulphation
occurs, battery has to be put on charge till its specific gravity rises to normal.
Repeated charging will be required to be given to non-metallic the battery.
12. Battery Room :
` (a) Should be well ventilated with good illumination and situated in such a
location that no fumes can come into contact with any(electrical plates)
(b) A output should be provided near the battery terminal to protect the battery from the
short circuit
(c) Naked flame should be taken into battery room.
(d) Should be provide with exhaust fans to exhaust acid vapor etc. outside.
(e) All wood work, and metal work, and walls should be coated with sold proof paint.
(f) Direct Sunlight should not fall on the cells. The battery room should be clean and dry
without dust.
(g) Insulators of Glass or porcelain are inserted between the stand and battery to prevent
Leakage of current. Beside there should be insulator between stand and flooring
(h) 2 Nos. Hydrometer, 2 Nos. thermometers, cell testing Voltmeter. Rubber gloves,
Rubber apron, inspection Lamp should be provided in the battery room.
TROUBLE SHOOTINGS
Hydration :
This is the action of water on lead plates. If a battery is exhausted to a point, where the
electrolyte is practically water and charging is not given at once (or) if the plates are not entirely
immersed in the electrolyte continuously. Hydration will set up as a white creamy substance
spreading regularly over the plates. As soon as charging is given acid liberated from the plate
attack the lead hydrate forming lead hydrate forming lead sulphate in a condition difficult to
recover even by prolonged charging.
Stratification:
In this case a layer of strong acid lies at the bottom of the cell for lack of circulation. It

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causes the hydrometer reading to be misleading. It tends to irregular working of the plates. It
could be overcome by circulation either thorough stirring up with a paddle or blowing up with an
air pump.
- 46 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
Impure Meter :
Contamination of electrolyte by adding impure water is a common trouble. If the water
contains lime this will crystalline some of the acid and reduce the specific gravity with a
characteristic formation of lime crystal. If the water contains chlorine the positive plate will have
depreciation. If the water contains iron this local action resulting in self discharging of the plate
even when not doing useful work.
Reversed Cell:
Because of this the cell capacity falls lower and lower until its voltage falls to zero early
on discharge for the reminder of the discharge it is recurring as charge in the wrong direction.
The current in amperes discharging from the rest of the battery. For example if a battery be
discharging at 20 Amps. And one cell falls to Zero Volts, the cell will be charged for the rest of the
discharge at 20 Amps in the wrong direction.
Reversed Battery :
It is due to shear mistake or bad luck. It is to say if the negative instead of positive
terminal of the battery is connected with the negative of the charger. Another possibility is the
wrong coupling of row forming the complete battery. In most cases, the plates are ruined or initial
charge of the battery is commenced and the fault discovered within 12 hours, than the plates may
be recovered. If for a longer duration of charge, say, 50 hours, the positive plates will be
depreciated and negative plates be wrecked. Buckling due to continuous overcharging and
sulphation due to continuous under charging with also take place.
Weak Cells:
Weak Cells should be immediately examined for any possible short circuit or metallic
contact between positive and negative plates. Short circuit should be removed and the cell
should then be given special additional charge by taking it out of circuit and putting back again
after recharging. Continuous presence of a weak cell in battery may sometime cause the
individual cell to reverse its polarity. Rectification of weak cells in time is therefore important.
The replacement of a weak cell or any maintenance of the station battery requiring disconnection
of the cell should always maintenance of the station battery requiring disconnection of the cell
should always be done by availing a total shutdown or suitable bypass clip on connection to short
circuit the cell should be established before attempting to cutout the cell.
PROBLEMS IN BATTERIES
Problems in batteries could be classified under the following categories :
A. Positive :
Buckling
Sulphating
Disintegrating
Corroding
Breaking up
- 47 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
B. Negative :
Paste blowing
Premature gassing
Paste shedding
Paste sulphating
Paste contracting
Reverse polarity
Hydration

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C. Positives and Negatives


Sulphation
Hydration
Bad Color
Sluggishness through
(a) insufficient work. (b) insufficient charge
Local action
D. Electrolyte :
Lower specific gravity
Stratification
Irregular specific gravity
Impure Water
Discoloration
E. Connections :
End or regulating Cells
End cell lower in voltage than the remainder
Inadequate Insulation
Internal short circuits
Weak Cells
Reversed Cells
Reversed Batteries
ANNEXURE – I
Schedule of Maintenance – Lead Acid Batteries
Sl.No. Item of Maintenance Work Periodicity
01. Earth fault indicating device – check reading of D.C.
Voltage
Every Shift
02. Pilot Cell Voltage specific gravity and temperature of
electrolyte
Every Shift
03. Battery cell voltages, specific gravity and temperature
of electrolyte and cadmium test results
Weekly
04. Equalizer Charger Quarterly or when the specific
gravity falls by40 points
whichever is earlier
05. Inspection testing of battery, relays, check up of
instruments
Annual
06. Checking control cables for continuity and insulation
resistance
Quarterly
- 48 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
ANNEXURE – II
Schedule of Maintenance Motor Generators
Sl.No. Item of Maintenance Work Periodicity
01. Feel ball and roller bearing housing for evidence of
vibration and listen for any unusual noise
Weekly
02. Examination and cleaning of commutator surface
checking of brushes in holders for fit and free play and

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examination of brush faces for chipped toes


Monthly
03. Check coupling and other drive details. See if belt
runs steadily and close to motor edge of pulley, clean
inside of chain housing
Monthly
.04. Field Rheostat Movement I.R. value of winding
cleaning of surface and ventilation passages
thoroughly
Yearly
04. Inspection of rotors and checking of air gap Yearly
MAINTENANCE OF BATTERIES
Whether Monthly / Weekly*
Maintenance done (Yes / No)
MONTH
W1
W2
W3
W4
Reason for
Slippage
Whether
overhaul done
as per
Schedule (Yes
/ No)
Reason
for
Slippage
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
* Weekly for Lead Acid Batteries Monthly for Ni-fe Cells
- 49 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai - 7
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 50 -
4. PROTECTION OF SUB STATION EQUIPMENTS
1. Over current relays
Introduction:
Short circuits in system or equipments use
increase of currents. The shorted or faulty portion
has to be isolated as quickly as possible. The over
current relay which picks up with the Time dependent

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over current relays are used for primary protection


of distribution feeders, rotating electrical machinery
and transformers, also back up protection
for highvoltage transmission lines.
Protection requirements :
For the protection of radial feeders and transformers
no directional over current relays are used.
For the protection of ring mains and grid feeders
directional features are included for selectivity. The
above relays have to operate for short circuits in
its own section and provide back up protection to
the next section. Fig., gives a radial System with
source at ‘A’ the relays at station A,B,C & D have to
be set suitably such that only faulty section has to
be isolated. In case if it is not cleared due to some
reason, the adjacent section should be cleared. For
a fault beyond station ‘D’ only relay at station ‘D’
should act and clear the fault. This selectivity between
two stations or more is called gradation or
discrimination.
Types of relays:
a) Attracted armature type:
This will pick up instaneously when the value
of current increase the set value. With the help of
these relays and pick up value adjusted at various
sections, the gradation could be made and are called
current gradation relays, there is difficulty in action
these relays. If there is a fault between BC near B
the relay at section A may also pick up as there will
be no difference in the fault current. Further the magnitude
of the fault current cannot be accurately determined
because of its dependent on fault MVA.
Hence these relays are used only at locations where
the time lag is not desirable. (Fig.2)
b) Definite minimum time relays:
This is a combination of attracted amature
current relay and a time delay relay the currtent
relay is set to pick up for the minimum fault MVA
and on its pick up this energises a timer which is
set for a definite time delay for isolation. With this
definite delay at various sections as shown in Fig.3
gradation could be made between two sections. A
time delay of 0.5 sec. has to be allowed between
two sections for selectivity (discrimination). Due to
this the fault close to source is cleared with longer
time delay. Hence this is also generally not preferred
except under special conditions.
c) Inverse definate minimum time relay:
The current time characteristic of this type
of relay is given in fig.4. the time of operation is less
when the current increases and after a cetain value

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the time is constant, the characteristic could be divided


into 3 parts. The first portion takes care of
pick up, the second portion inverse characteristic
and the third definite minimum time. This is achieved
by means of induction type disc relays which inherently
provides this inverse characteristic. These type
of relays are largely used for both over current and
Earth fault protection. Induction disc type extremely
inverse and very inversed relays are also available
for use at specific locations.
Fig.5 gives the internal connection of a inverse
relay. In these relays there is feasibility to
select the plug settings and time settings for wide
ranges. The plug settings for selecting the pick up
current of the relay. The time multiplier setting is in
the form of an adjustable back stop by which the
gap between the back stop and moving contact fixed
in the disc is adjusted.
Method of connection:
The relays are connected to C. Ts. as shown
in Fig.6. Separate relays are used for phase fault
and earth fault protection. Separate earth fault relays
are required because they can be adjusted to
provide faster and more sensitive protection for ground
faults than phase faults as earth faults are more frequent.
Relays used for various equipment in TNEB
are as follows.
I. Transformers : H.T.2 O/L & 1 E/L L.T.3 O/L .
2. Auto transformers : H. T.3 O/L L.T.3 O/L
3. Radial feeders : 2 O/ L & 1 E/L or 3 O/ L & 1 E/L
4. Grid feeders and ring main : Directional 2 O/L &
1 E/L
Settings:
For over current relays current taps are selected
to allow maximum current safety. The time
settings are such that the fault in the section protected
clear fast with back up protection to adjacent
lines or equipments. For this a time difference of
about 0.5 sec. is required between the two adjacent
sections to allow for the following:
a) Fault interrupting time of the circuit breaker:
This is about 0.25 sec. The relay will be in
pick up condition with the breaker clears the fault.
b) Over shoot or travel:
The relay overshoot occurs due to continued
movement of relay elements even after the actuating
force is removed. This occurs due to the inertia
of moving parts on the time allowable is about
0.1 sec.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 51 -
c) Errors:

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All measuring devices such as C. T. and relays


are subjected to some errors. To allow for this
an additional factor of safety margin is allowed with
a time of about 0.2 sec.
For earth fault relays sensitive settings could
be set as the earth fault relay measures only the
residual current which is independent of load
currents, the earth fault relay is unaffected by load
currents. This permissible low setting on earth fault
relays are very useful as the fault current could be
limited in magnitude by various methods. Normally
for reutral grounds system of TNEB 40% settings
are invariably adopted. The time gradation is similar
to over current relays.
Directional over current and Earth fault relays:
When there is feeding at both ends such as
in grid feeders and ring main stations, directional O/
L & E/L relays have to be used. For this purpose
additional directional feature is included which is
controlled by both current and voltage.
Differential Protection
Introduction:
Differential relays are current relays in which
the magnitude of current and vector difference between
current entering and leaving are compared and
is used for operation of relay. The differential relays
are employed where fast clearance of faults (instantaneous)
are required. These relays are used for protection
of
1. Generators
2. Generator -transformers
3. Transformers
4. Transmission lines by Pilot wires
5. Bus bar protection
Principle of operation:
The differential protection operate on current
balance principle. Referring to Fig.7 the current
incoming and outgoing is balanced and there is no
circulation of current through the relay for fault outside.
For a fault inside, the current circulate in the
relay and relay operates. However this scheme will
be affected by magnetising current, and through fault
currents not balanced due to C. T. ratio mismatch
and tap changing.These mismatches met cause
unbalance and the relay may act. There will be in
rush of magnetising current during charging and due
to presence of 2nd harmonics, the relay may act.
Thc design of over all scheme must take into account
of the above aspects. For this purpose a biased
harmonic restraint differential relays as shown
in Fig.8 are used for transformer protection.

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Biased differential relay:


The circuit for a biased differential relay is
shown in Fig.8. The biased winding provides restraint
force under which fault condition so that any unbalanced
current may not cause the operation of the
relay. During internal faults the whole of the secondary
current will pass through the relay operating circuit.
From Fig.8c it is seen that the current required
to operate the relay increases with increase in spill
current during through fault. For internal fault the relay
operates at the point where both curve crosses.
Harmonic restraint:
When transformers are energised there will
be inrush of large magnetising current. There will be
presence of harmonic components, mostly of 2nd
harmonic. Due to this the differential relay may pick
up. To block tripping, the 2nd harmonics have to be
filtered out.
Points to be considered when applying differential
protection in 3 phase transformers:
a) The C. T. secondary connections must be arranged
such that any phase shift due to the
vector group of the main transformer is
compensated.
b) The C.T. ratios must be chosen to suit the
main transformer ratio.
c) The setting currents should be well above the
anticipated spill current during external fault
conditions.
Diagram currents should be well above the
anticipated are given in Fig.9. The internal diagram
of a biased, harmonic restrained relay is given in
Fig.10.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 52 -
Trip
+
A.C. A.C.
INTERNAL CONNECTION OF O./ L RELAY
3 O./ L. RELAY CONNECTIONS.
3 O./ L. & 1 E./ L.
RELAY CONNECTIONS.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 53 -
Fig .5 C. 2/OL and 1 E.L. Relay
connection.
Fig 7.B. Current balance Scheme.
Fig 8. Biased Differential Relay
T - Transformer B - Biased Winding O - operating Coil
Primary Current
Relay Operating Current
Relay Operating Current
Primary Current

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Operating Current Required


Spill Current
Cu r r e n t
Available
Current
Required
to Operate
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 54 -
Auto Transformer
110 / 11 KV 10
MVA, 600 / .577 A
60 / 1 A
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 55 -
FIG . 5a. Permissive inter trip over reaching scheme.
FIG . 5b. Acceleration scheme.
FIG . 5c. Blocking scheme.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 56 -
Z1 - Zone I Contact
Z2 - Zone II Contact
Z3 - Zone III Contact & Starter
2T - Zone II Timer
3 T - Zone III Timer
TR - Tripping Relay
RR - Receive Relay
S - Signaling send circuit
2R - Reverse looking impedence
relay
STL - Short Time lag relay.
Fig : 5, Transfer Trip Scheme (Under Reaching)
Fig :5 Permissible inter Trip (under Reaching Scheme.)
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 57 -
Distance Protection
General:
In the past when the systems were small and
where radial feeders were adequate, instantaneous
over current and earth fault relays were evolved.
As the system grew complicated IDMT Relays were
developed to provide better discrimination than the
instantaneous relays. Later they were made directional
to give still better discrimination. The above
relays except directional were single quantity. Current
or voltage operated are provided reasonably
sufficient discrimination. At times for short periods,
the transmission lines have to be overloadcd due to
system disturbance or to meet short peaks. Hence
relays to discriminate between over loads and faults
were investigated and a relay where both current and
voltage are used to measure the impedence of the
line. This is the beginning of the distance relays.
Requirement of protective schemes:
The protective scheme should be fast enough for

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the following reasons,


a) The shorter the time a fault is allowed to persist
the more load can be transferred in a power
system without loss of synchronism.
b) Elcctrical apparatus may be damaged if they
are allowed to carry fault current for long period,
c) A persistent fault will lower the voltage resulting
in drawing and over loading of industrial drives,
One method of protecting a circuit is to arrange
the relay to compare the currents entering and
Ieaving such as differential protection (unit
protection). With the help of pilot wires this can be
achieved in case of transmission line also, but is
limited by the distance and cost involved and also
reliability of pilot wires. Due to the above reasons
and also practical limitation of time graded over current
system, the distance relays were developed.
Principle of operation:
A distance relay compares the local current
with the local voltage at the relaying point, the local
current providing the operating torque and the local
voltage providing the restraining torque. So at balance
point two torques are equal,
K1 I2 = K2V2 or V K3 = Z
I
In other words the relay is at the verge of
operating for a constant value of V / I which is an
impedance Z. Since the impedance is proportional
to distance of the fault from the relaying point. This
is also a measure of the distance to the fault, the
relay is called “distance relay” .
A simple example of how the current and
voltage compensation is made is given in fig.1 using
balanced beam relay, The relay is connected at
position R and normally receives secondary current
proportional to load current and secondary voltage
proportional to system voltage. During fault condition,
the relay measures VF which is equal to IF ZF
drop in the line and therefore the voltage to current
ratio at the relaying point for such a fault would be
IF ZF
IF = ZF
Type of distance relay and their application:
The distance relays are classified according
to their polar characteristic, the number of inputs
they have and the method by which comparison
made. The common type compare two input
quantities in either magnitude or phase to obtain characteristics
which are either straight line or circles
when plotted on an R-X diagram.
Impedance Relay:

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The characteristic of an impedance relay if


plotted on a R-X diagram would be a circle within the
origin as the centre and radius equal to the setting
impedance Z. Fig.2a such a relay being non-directional
would operate not only for faults in the protected
section but also for faults behind the relaying
point. It is therefore necessary to add a directional
element to this impedance relay to so that the relay
would operate for faults in the protected scction only.
The torque equation for the dire ctional element
is T = KIVI cos (q -0) when q = phase angle
between V & I.
Q = Max torque angle of the relay.
Reactance relay:
A reactance relay measures component of impedance
Z sin q and would operate for a constant value
of X. The operting characteristic of such a relay would
be a straight line parallel to x -axis fig.3. It could be
seen that the reactance relay is also non-directional
and hence a directional relay is used with a reactance
relay.
MHO Relay:
This is most commonly used relay as a directional
relay. The relay is designed such that it
operates for a constant value of component Z namely
Z
cos (q -Q)
The characteristic of such a relay is a circle
passing through the origin, the diameter circle is
the setting impedance
Z/Cos (q-Q) fig. 3a.
Starting relay:
Distance relay need a starting relay to sense
the fault and pass on this information the measuring
element. There are either over current or under impedance
relays.
Over current starting :
Over current starting relays generally of instantaneous
type normally set above 1.2 times the
full load current. For successful operation, the power
system minimum fault current for a fault at 3rd zone
reach of the distance relay must not be less than
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 58 -
1.5 times the setting of the over current starters.
Under Impedance starting :
There are either plain impedance or MHO type
impedance relay. These relay should be sensitive
enough to detect faults occurring beyond third zone
under minimum generation condition.
The starting relay in addition to sensing the
existence of fault thc type of fault should also perform

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the following:
a). Apply correct quantities to the mea suring element.
b). Select the correct phase for the tripping command.
c). Change the distance step according to the
distance of fault from the relay location.
d) Act as a back -up to the measuring element.
Zone of protection:
To ensure correct co-ordination between
distance relay in a power system it is customary to
choose a relay impedance setting of 80% of protected
line for the 1st zone. This is to provide a margin
against possible over reach which may be caused
by transients C.T.P.T. and line parameter errors.
The II zone covers the whole Iine plus 50% of the
shortest Iine. The III zone is set to cover 25% of the
largest 3rd line. The II & III zones are time delayed
depending upon the system requirements fig. 4.
Theoretically four fault detectors and 18
measuring units are required for providing three time
distance step for the 10 varieties of phase to phase
and phase to ground faults. Because of the cost
and panel space, their number is reduced by using
each measuring unit for more than one purpose.
a) There can be only one distance measurement
unit directional in itself for all kinds of fault,
the correct parameter being feed by the starting
relay. The tripping time of such relays will
be more due to the time delay involved in
switching the auxiliary relays to feed the
measuring quantities to the measuring
elements.
b) There can be several distance measuring elements
six relays, eighteen measurements no
change is made in the input quantities in the
1 or any subsequent steps for such a system.
The system however very expensive and is
recommended for EHV lines only.
The number of relays through six is generally
used can be reduced to four, three are connected for
all faults involving to ground and one relay for phase
to phase faults not involving ground by choosing
appropriate measurement.
Out of step blocking:
During power swing conditions, the load
Impedance may fail to the reach of the starting relay
which may cause tripping. This has to be blocked.
An out of step block relay or power swing relay is
also a MHO relay with an offset characteristic completely
cnclosing the MHO starting relays. It operates
on the principle of rate of change of impedance
presented to the relay, the rate of change of impedance

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is considerably slower than under fault condition.


This relay when it picks up will allow the tripping
for a period of say 80 milli seconds. If within
this period the impedance as seen by the fault detectors
falls with their reach, indicating a fault the
trip circuit is kept prepared for tripping. Otherwise
the trip circuit is disconnected after 80 milli seconds
so that the tripping is not possible.
Carrier Inter trip schemers:
It could be seen that in the distance scheme,
the faults at the end zones are cleared with a time
delay of about 0.4 sec. In case of long lines say of
about 100 KM the faults in 40 KM are cleared with
time delay. To minimise the damage to equipments
it is necessary that faults are cleared as fast as
possible further it may be necessary to reclose the
circuit as quickly as possible to keep the system
standard for successful reclosing the breakers at
both ends should open simultaneously. For this carrier
aided inter trip schemes are provided along with
distance schemes. Some of the carrier inter trip
scheme are given in Fig. 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d & 5e.
Protection of power transformer
Introduction :
Protective gear is applied to transformers
to detect internal faults and the conditions likely to
cause them. Transformer faults are generally caused
by the failure of insulating materials weakened by
impurities, over heating, or mechanical damage resulting
from repeated external short circuits. The risk
of short circuits between phases is very small, but
there is an almost equal risk of inter turn fault is
closed to a line terminal. Transformers are generally
protected externally to approximately 80 per cent of
their specificd insulation level, and failure of this external
protection can allow steep fronted voltage
surges, which may create high stress between parts
in the winding, to enter the transformer; less severe
stress occurs some way down a star connected
winding where the incident wave coincides with that
portion of the wave reflected from the neutral point.
Although the surge condition is more likely to
initiate a fault between parts of the winding, then an
earth fault, the follow through power frequency current
may eventually cause a fault to earth.
Faults in on load tap changing equip ment
can be between tappings of the transformer winding
between phases and to earth.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 59 -
2. Over heating protection:
Overheating is due to exccssive loading, failure

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of the cooling system of core faults e.g. short


circuited laminations persistent over heating causes
premature deterioration of the insulation and there
by shortens the life of the transtormer.
Overheating is detected by measuring the oil
temperature the thermometers may be of the
hydraulic type (mercury-in-steel) vapour pressure,
or liquid-expansion patterns using a Bourden (tupe
indicator), or of the electrical-resistance type. They
are arranged to record the highest oil temperature of
winding hot spots. To take advantage of the short
time over load capacity of transformer the
themometers are designed with a thermal time-constant
similar to that of the windings. Figure 1 shows
a Bourden, the gauge with its bulb in an oil filled
packet at the top of the transformer tank.
With indicators for hot spot temperature
measurement, a heater, energised from a phase
etc., is also mounted in the pocket. The thermometer
thus measures top oil temperature plus an increment
proportional to the load. By design this increment
is arranged to be the same as the difference
between top oil temperature and that of the
winding hot spot. The indicator is generally fitted with
mercury switches to give an alarm at say 90°C and
to trip the circuit breaker if the temperature rises,
any another, 15°C.
Over heating protection is usually fitted to,
medium and large size transformers.
3. Buchholz relay:
Buchholz can be used on transformers fitted with
conservators.
Transformer temperature indicator
1. Bourden take indicating instrument
2. Alarm
3. Trip
4. Capillary tube
5. Oil filled pocket
6. Thermometer bulb,
7. Heats.
8. Main Tank
9. CT around one phase conductor
10. Mercury switches
The action of a fault with in a transformer tank
is to break down the oil into gaseous products, the
gas passes along the pipe line from the transformers
tank to the oil conservator. The severity of the
fault governs to the rate of gassification; for instance,
incipient and low current faults produce a stream, of
gas bubbles which flow towards the conservator,
whereas a severe short-circuit causes a sudden

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surge of oil followed by the exhausting of the gaseous


products. This action is used to operate the
Buchholz relay.
The most common form of the relay is shown
in figure 2. A chamber containing two floats, each
carrying a merury switch is mounted in the inclined
pipe line between the transformer tank and the oil
conservator. Gas rising to the conservator lodges in
the upper part of the relay vessel, and when a given
quantity has collected the upper float will have fallen
sufficiently to operate the mercury switch to give an
alarm. The reason for an alarm rather than tripping
is two fold; firstly, the condition on giving rise to slow
generation of gas do not generally call for immediate
disconnection of the transformer, and secondly,
the release of trapped air also operate the upper float.
False alarm from the later cause are most likely when
the transformer is first loaded after filling or refilling
with oil, an oil surge, indicating a severe fault, deflects
the lower float and the mercury switch connected
there to trips the transformer circuit breaker.
The Bucholz device is the only method of detecting
certain types of fault It is particularly useful
to detect incipient winding faults, failure of laminations
and core bolt insulation, and inter turn
shorts to other forms of protection.
The speed of operation of the relay on surge
obviously varies according to the severity of the fault.
For a fault some distance down the winding it my
below (0.5 sec), but for terminal faults it may be as
high as speed of differential protection.
Evidently faults in the connecting Ieads external
to the transformer and in tap change compartments
and the like which do not communicate with
the main tank are not covered by the Buchholz relay,
Where transformers are not fitted with a conservator
the Buchholz relay is in appIication.
Hermitically sealed transformers are common
in the United states. The American practice is to fit
these with hydraulic relays which respond to the rate
of change of pressure in the gas cushion above the
oil.
4. Faults In the Auxiliary units:
Faults are classified under two ideas.
a) faults in the auxiliary equipments.
b) Faults in transformer windings and
connections.
Transformer oil Level :
Low oil level is dangerous condition. Alarm
is provided by float switch. The magnetic oil level
gauge is used for this purpose.

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T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 60 -


Oil pumps, forced air fans :
Alarms are provided for their failures.
Flow indications :
Alarms are also provided for the failure of oil
flow, water flow indicated by flow meters.
5. Earth Faults :
Current distribution for earth faults with various
tansformers varies with the type of connection.
The fault current varies from a minimum to a maximum
depending upon the location of fault in the
winding from neutral end. Therefore the phase connected
over current relays do not provide adequate
earth fault protection. If the system is solidly earthed
some transformer differential protective equipment’s
adequately covered the majority of faults, but in general
separate earth fault protection is necessary.
a) Frame leakage protection :
Earth faults with in the transformer or tap
changer tank may be detected by a frame leakage
scheme. In British practice this protection is only
used to indicate a faulted unit in a bank of paralleled
transformer. The transformer tank is lightly insulated
from the earh. The metal-frame work is earthed with
a primary of a e.t. in between as shown in figure -3.
The concrete foundation of the tranformer and
the cable boxes are slightly insulated from the earth,
the resistance to earth being about 12 to 20 ohms.
In the event of an through the primary of the c.t.
while so it is sensed by the earth fault relay.
Principles of frame - leakage protection of
transformer
b) Restricted Earth fault protection :
Restricted earth fault protection is sensitive
only to earth faults with in the zone bounded by the
C.Ts. A C.T. is fitted in each connection to the protected
winding, and the C.T. secondary windings are
connected in parall to relay. Fig.4 shows restricted
earth fault protection of star and delta windings. If
there is no neutral earth connection with in the protected
zone, the neutral C.T. is omitted as in figure
(4b). The outputs of the C.Ts. is proportional to the
sum of the zero sequence currents in the line and
neutral earth connection if the latter is within the
protected zone. For internal faults this sum is equal
to twice the total fault current but for external faults
zero sequence currents are either absent or sum to
zero in the line and neutral earth connections.
c) Methods of treating three phase four wire system.
Figure : Restricted earth fault protection. or
sum to zero in the line and neutral earth connections.

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The primary operating current (P .O.C.) required


is governed by the method of system earthing
and the transformer connection. With a star connection
is not possible to protect the whole winding
because the fault current tends to zero the nearer
the fault is to the neutral point. The P.O.C. of 10
percent leaves 10 percent of the winding unprotected,
the lower the P .O.C. there greater is the portion of
the winding protected, but it must not be so low that
operation by the unbalanced capacitance current of
the circuit occurs within the protected zone on the
incidence of an earth fault elsewhere in the system.
For earth faults on a solidly earthed star winding a
P.O.C. of 50 per cent of full load is generally adequate.
6. Over current relays:
Although phase connected over current relays
do not adequately protect transformers against earth
faults they are suitable for phase faults protection,
provided that thc relatively low speed of operation
can be tolerated and that they discriminate correctly
with other relays.
Differential protection is generally uneconomical
for power transformers below about 5 MVA. For
transformers above % MVA, if differential protection
is used as a main protection, over current protection
is used in addition, as a back up for sustained
through faults.
For small transformers, over current protection
may be provided simply by means of a fuse on
H. V. side.
The connections for over current protection is
shown in figure t.
Three over current relay Fig.5.
While selecting the over current protection of
transformer the following aspects need consideration:
a) Magnetising current in rush: IDMT relays are not
affected by the current in rush as they have
enough time lag. Instantaneous over current relays
should be high set to avoid mal operation.
b) The fault current in primary and secondary side
of the power transfonners are different for phase
faults. Lower value should be selected for setting
of over current relays.
c) Primary full load current should be considered
while setting the over current relay.
d) The setting of IDMT over current relay is generally
125 percent of transformer rating to take care
of normal over loads. Enough time delay should
be provided as per the application.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 61 -
A

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B
C
A
B
C
Relay
Relay
a) Neutral point earthed within protected Zone.
Earthing Transformer
Relay
Relay
a) Neutral point not earthed within protected Zone.
Relay
c) Method of treating three phase four wire system,
Figure. restricted earth fault protection or sum to zero in the line and
Neutral earth Connections.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 62 -
e) The setting of instantaneous over current relay
on primary side should be more than asymmetrical
value of fault current for three phase fault, on
the secondary side of transfonner. This setting
is generally adequate to take care of magnetising
current in rush.
7. Differential Protection :-
It is also called as Biased Differential protection
or Merz price protection.
a). Principle of Differential Protection :
It is that which responds to the vector difference
between two or more similar electrical quantities.
In transformer protection, the current transformers
are provided at each end say H.V. and L.V. bushings.
When there is no fault in the windings and for
through faults, the differential current I1 - I2is zero
vide fig.6 i.e. when there is no internal fault, the
current entering is equal in phase and magnitude to
current leaving the winding. The C.Ts. are of such a
ratio that during the normal conditions for external
faults leaving the winding. The C.Ts are of such a
ratio that during the normal conditions for external
faults (through faults) the secondary currents of C.Ts
are equal. These currents say I1 and I2 circulate in
the pilot wires. The polarity connections are such
that the currents I1 and I2 are in the same direction in
pilot wires during normal conditions or external faults.
Relay operating coil is connected at the middle of
pilot wires.
(Normal Conditions and Trough fault)
Fig.6 Principle of differential relay price protection of
transformer.
During normal conditions and external fault
the protection system is balanced and the C.Ts. ratios

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are such that secondary currents are equal.


These currents circulate in pilot Wires. Differential
Current I1 - I2 which flows through the relay coil is
zero.
I1- I2 = c (normal conditions or external fault)
This balance is disturbed for internal faults
when fault occurs in the protected Zone, the differential
current I1 -I2 flows through the relay operating
coil and the relay operates if the operating is more
than the restraining torque.
b) Difficulties in differential relays in Generator
and Transformer protection.
1. Difference in pilot wire lengths :
The current transformers and machine to be
protected are located at different sites and normally
it is not possible to connect the relay coil to the
equipotential points, this difficulty is overcome by
connecting adjustable resistors in series with the
pilot wires. They are adjusted on site to obtain equipotential
points.
2. C.T. Ratio errors during short - circuits :
The current transformer may have almost
equal ratio at normal currents. But during short circuit
conditions, the primary currents are unduly large.
The ratio errors of C.Ts on either side differ during
these conditions due to :
i) Inherent difference in C.T. characteristics
arising out of difference in magnetic circuit,
saturation condition etc.,
ii) Unequal d.c. components in the short circuit
currents.
3. Saturation of C.T. magnetic circuits during
short circuit condition:
Due to these causes the relay may lose its
stability for through faults.
To over come this difficulty, the percentage
Differential Relay, or Biased Differential Relay is
used. It is essentially a current balance type differential
relay with additional restraining coil. The current
flowing in the restraining coil is proportional to
(I1 +I2 )/2 and this restraining current prevents the
operation during external faults. Bccause with the
rise in current, the restraining torque increases and
I1-I2 arising out of difference in C.T. ratio is not enough
to cause relay operation.
4. Magnetizing current inrush in transformer
while switching in :
When the tranformer is connected to supply
a large (6 to 10 times full load) current in rush
takes place. This certainly causes operation of differential
relay though there is no fault in the

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transfonner. To avoid this difficulty, ‘Harmonic, Restraint’


is provided for the differential relay. This relay
filters the harmonic component from the Inrush
current and feeds it to the restraining coil. The
magnetising current contains a large content of several
harmonics. This harmonic content is used for
obtaining restraining torque during short switching
in of transformer.
Tap changing causes change in transformation
ratio of a transformer thereby the C.T. ratios do
not match with the new settings, resulting in current
in pilot wires even during healthy conditions. This
aspect is taken care of by biased differential relay.
5. Biased or percentage Differential relay :
a) Description:
The reason for using this modification of differential
relay is to overcome the trouble arising out
of differences in C.T. ratios for high values of external
short circuit currents. The percentage differential
relay has an additional restraining coil connected
in the pilot wire as shown in figure 7.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. - 63 -
In this relay the operating coil is connected
to the mid point of the restraining coil. The total number
of ampere turns in the restraining coil becomes
the sum of ampere turns in its two halves I1N/2 +I2
N/2 in N turns. For external faults both I1 and I2 increase
thereby the restraining torque increases
which prevents the mal-operations.
The operating characteristic of such a relay
is given in Fig.8. The ratio of differential operating
current to average restraining current is fixed
percentage. Hence the relay is called ‘Percentage
Differential Relay’.
The Relay is also called “Biased Differential
Relay” because the restraining coil is also called a
Biased coil as it provides an additional Flux.
Fig.8 Operating characteristics of percentage
differential relay or biased differential relay.
The percentage or biased differential relay
has a rising pick up characteristic. As the magnitude
of through current increases, the restraining
current increases.
6. C.T. connections for differential relays:
I) In both the cases three current transformers
(C, Ts.) are required at each side of the protected
transformer. The connection of C. T. secondaries
are such that during normal conditions and for
external faults, no current should flow through the
relay operating coil.
There is an inherent phase displacement

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between vectors representing the voltages inducted


in high voltage winding and low voltage windings and
having same marking Ietter and corresponding neutral
points in case of star delta transformers. Hence
Ampere Turns
(I1+ I2) n
2
I1 I2
I1 I2
Protected Zone
Restraining coil at biased coil
with respect to load currents on H.V. side are displaced
in phase with respect to load currents of corresponding
phase on L.V. side.
The power transformers are ground according to the
phase displacement, e.g.
Group I : Star, Star phase displacement = 0°
Group 2 : Star, -Star, phase displacement = 180°
Group 3 : Delta -Star, Phase displacement = Minus 30°,
Group 4 : Delta -Star, Phase displacement = Plus 30°
In thc circulating current differential protection,
the phase displacement in line currents on two sides
introduces phase difference in secondary currents
of C.Ts. on two sides.
The C.T. connections should be such that the
resultant current fed into the pilot wires from either
sides are displaced in phase by an equal to the phase
shift between the primary and secondary currents
to get this arrangement, the following rules are followed
:
1. Secondary C.Ts. Connection in delta side of
power transformer are connected in Star, with
such arrangements, the phase displacement
between currents gets cancelled with the
phase displacement due to Star/Delta
connections of C.T. Secondaries and the
current fed to pilot wires from both sides are
in phase during normal conditions.
2. The neutrals of C.T.Star and Power transformer
star connections are grounded.
C.T.Ratios:
Current ratios of C.Ts. on each side will be
different depending upon line currents of power transformer
and connections of C.T. ratios. The currents
fed into pilot wires from each end should be the same
for normal conditions. Suppose this current is 1 Amp.,
then secondary current of delta connected C.T. will
be 1/3 = 0.577 amps and Star connected C.T. will
have 1 Amp.
The Star - Star transformers come under
group 1 or group - 2, having phase displacement of

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00 or 1800 respestively. The C.T. secondaries on


both sides are connected in delta.
Fig.7 percentage differential relay
Differential
operating current
I1 - I2
Relay operates
in this Region
Chore
effect of
spring
Relay does
not operate
in this Region
I1 - I2
2
Average
resticing
current
5. OPERATING INSTRUCTION FOR RADIAL SUBSTATION
Operating instruction are the guidelines for the substation operators. The main objective
of the operating instruction is to give a definite direction to the operator to act in a quick and
methodical way by following the sequence and correct procedure under the following
circumstances.
a) In case of a planed operation such as issue of line clear on lines and availing of
shutdown on equipments etc.,
b) In case of emergent circumstances such as breakdown of lines and failure of
equipments in order to isolate the faulty section of lines or equipments
immediately and to restore early supply with minimum interruption. Since during
these operations the operator become nervous and acts with tension.
i) It relieves the operator from tension and if he follows the sequences of
operation, wavering of mind is avoided.
ii) It avoids mal-operation thereby safe guard the equipment from failure
damage.
iii) It reduces interruption of supply.
iv) It gives coordination among various persons involved in the same
substation and the nearby substations. This purpose could be achieved
only if the instructions are elaborate, giving each and every information
to be known to the operator. The important points to be covered in the
instructions are
a) Geographical location of substation, the area fed by that
substation.
b) Sources of supply to the substation i.e. Normal feeding and the
alternate feeding.
c) Details of equipment’s in service showing their loading capacity
and their limitations. The CT/PT ratios available and set at etc.
Any other facility such as on load tap changer etc.
d) Isolating arrangements. Their locking and interlocking
arrangements. Earth switches etc.
e) Sequence of operation, paralleling arrangements.
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f) Protections available, connected, annunciation I indications


provided in case each relay operation and resulting methods.
g) Outgoing feeders, the size of conductors, their current carrying
capacity, Breaker capacity, CT ratio available and adopted
sectionalizing switches connected to that feeder with their
location numbers. Single phasing, and paralleling arrangements
available.
h) Complete layout of the substation showing the incoming and
outgoing feeders, Power Transformers CTs / PTs connected
breakers and Lightning arresters.
i) Circuit diagram of AC / DC circuits and its alternate feeding
arrangements.
j) Fire fighting equipments available and their location.
k) Method of issue of line clear and its cancellation and
normalization of feeders and equipments
J) Important loads, essential loads, continuous process industries,
Important VIP areas, offices, hospitals fed by the feeders should
also be made available.
m) As a “Do’s and Do nots”.
n) Brief responsibility of the operator.
The above details give a complete picture of the substation to the operator and basic
knowledge about the equipments and their type of operation, protections provided.
Even though the operating instructions are general guide lines, in case of emergencies it
may need some minor deviations considering safety aspects and the operator has to make own
judgment For example when a 11 K. V ‘feeder trips the normal operating instruction are
A. 11 KV feeder Trips with Bell / alarm and relay indication
1) Accept the alarm.
2) Note down the relay indication.
3) Go to the yard verify whether there is any untoward happening.
4) After confirming that every thing is normal, reset the flag indication.
5) Charge the feeder again.
6) If stood OK, crack the ammeter switch and confirm all the three phases are loaded
equally or as before.
- 65 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
During the above coarse of operations if some body phones up from outside stating that
some conductor had snapped in. that feeder. Are we to follow the sequence of operation as per
the operating instruction and to charge the feeder again or not to charge the feeder? If we charge
the feeder simply following the operating instruction word by word it may end in a brutal killing.
Hence in such junctions the operator must apply his mind and come to a later judgment and
should not charge the feeder. He should inform the concerned area engineer of the above
incident and ask him to verify the correctness of information. He must also make note of the
information received and his judgment and the action taken by him in log Book and appraise his
Asst. Exe. Engineer of the portion immediately and get his ratification for the duration.
It has been a convention to classify the post of the operator as a nonsensitive post. But
the actual position is it is the most sensitive post. The operator has to be vigilant all the eight
hours and he should be sensitive to the change of humming noise of the transforD1er, another
vibration arcing noise, fluctuations in voltages, sudden changes in load pattern etc. There are
cases, the sensitiveness of the operator has made him to sense the arcing inside the breaker and
he had taken a bold decision and switched off the breaker be fore it lead failure. Sometimes the
breaker would have tripped without much noise but the alarm would not have come. Had the
operator been sensitive he would have identified the tripping by noise in the yard and sudden

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change in the reading. Since the operators are to be sensitive throughout his shift.
Before going into actual operation let us see certain Dos and Do not’s.
DOS
1) Before take over the shift check the condition of all equipments in service and make
entry in the log of the conditions.
2) Verify whether any L.C. is pending. If so verify the points of isolation, Earthing etc find
also the availability of keys of the Isolators.
3) Crack the Ammeter crack switch at the time of taking over, after each tripping, after
each charging of the breaker and also after each fluctuation.
4) Watch the hourly reading of the ammeter voltmeter check the loading in all the three
phases each’ time. Record the reason if there is any abnormal changes.
5) Watch for any abnormal noise, fluctuation arcing inside the equipment and Bus bar
clamps, Bushing clamps. Isolators by going round the yard every hour and after every
operation.
6) Check the Battery condition every shift and charging current every hour.
- 66 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
7) During night, switch off the yard lights and watch for hot spot or arcing.
8) When the transformer percentage impedances are not equal, the sharing of loading
will not be equal while they are connected in parallel. In that case the proportionate
loading should be watching.
9) L.C. should be issued only if the local loading conditions are permissible for the issue
of LC even though it was approved well in advance.
10) L.C. should be issued only to the person for whom it is approved for the work for which
it is approved.
11) Instruction for opening and closing of Isolators should be given to the switch Board
operator one after another, only after completion of each operation and physical
verifications.
12) Equipment or line separation from supply should be physically verified before issue of
line clear.
13) Opening of Isolator in all the three limbs should be physically verified.
14) Equipment or line should be earthed only after proper discharging.
15) Each operation should be recorded in the log book in sequence without omission and
ambiguity.
16) Protection relay flag indication should be watched every hour and any abnormal
indications should be Quoted in the log book and intimated to concerned AE/MRT,
AE/maintenance.
17) Tripping of feeders and issue of LC should be recorded in Red Ink along with indications
and observation.
18) When ever main supply fails trip .all the radial feeder breakers and contact the
operator at the feeding and substation or LD center for ascertaining the reason and
for further normalizing of the load.
19) While charging the transformers alone without toad reduce the tap position to avoid
high voltage in the station.
20) After issue of L.C, keep the key in LC key board and the L.C.key board should be
locked and kept under the custody of operator only.
21) In case of issue of L.C. or returning of LC through phone (ascertain) the correct person
by cross checking.
1) The person in the other end should be recalled by the operator after closing
the phone.
2) The nearby person should be asked to talk and identify the person,
3) Name of work proposed and carried out and the approval number or LC

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number should be asked.


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22) Before charging the equipment, the proper removing of Earthing, isolation of men and
materials to the safe distance and suitability for energisation should be checked by
the operator in person.
23) All the Tripping messages and breakdown should be informed to the concerned
jurisdiction staff by the operator and to AEE in charge of SS without delay for
arranging verification.
24) After Isolation “Men on Line” “Do not switch on” Boards shall be fixed at each and
every point of isolation in such a way that the Board cannot be removed unless the
lock is opened. After isolation and discharging green flags and “Safe for work” Boards
shall be put ‘on the equipment.
25) Operator should be conversant with the AC fuses, DC fuses of each equipments and
the current point of isolation.
26) Operation should be conversant with the protection arrangements connected to each
equipment and their purpose and method of resetting.
27) Operator should be conversant with the location of fire fighting equipments and the
mode of operation of these equipments in case of fire.
28) Operator should be conversant with loading of each Power Transformer and feeders
so that when one transformer trip, he can adjust the load to that of other transformer. “
29) The feeders should be energised only through breakers.
30) While issue of LC always open the incoming side isolator first and then the outgoing
side isolator.
Do Nots :
1) Do not fail’ the sequence of operation mentioned in the operating instruction.
2) Do not charge the feeder through the isolator.
3) Do not open the Isolators on load.
4) Do not fail to check the current in all the three phases after every charging or Tripping
of breaker to confirm correct closing or opening of contacts.
5) Don’t fail to crack the Ammeter while taking hourly reading.
6) Do not depend on your subordinate for physical verification wherever required.
7) Do not give instruction for more than one operation at a time even though it is a time
consuming process.
8) Do not issue LC without physically verifying that the equipment or line has been
taken off form both main and auxiliary supply.
9) Do not cancel the LC without physical verification that the earthing has been removed
and men and material have been removed to a safe distance.
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10) Do not fail to confirm that the supply has been switched off in the feeder or equipment
before it is discharged and earthed.
11) Do not Trip anyone LV breaker of the Power Transformers when the Transformers are
loaded above 50 and are in parallel.
12) Do not depend on single auxiliary equipment (i.e.) relays etc. since there are chance
for their failure.
13) Do not charge the transformer if both the HV & LV breakers tripped due to actuation of
differential relay, Buchholz relay.
14) Do not fail to put back AC & DC fuses before charging the feeder.
15) Do not use water or foam on electrical fire.
16) Do not reset the flag indication immediately after accepting the alarm and it should be
reset only before charging the breaker after confirming their entry in the log book.
Now, let us see the operating sequence of a 110 KV radial substation for the

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following emergency operation.


1) Fluctuation of Buckholz relay.
2) 110 KV Bus fault.
3) 11 KV feeder fault
and for the following planned shutdowns.
1) 110 KV G.C. LC without interruption
2) Power Transformer LC
3) 11 KV Feeder
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a) Due to failure of station Only lights & fans will switch off in the control room
and in the yard. But three will be Power
Transformer humming noise. There won’t be any
alarm.
b) Due to Tripping of L.V Breakers In this case O/L Relay indication and LV Breaker
Trip alarm and Lamp indication will come.
Besides there will be no supply. If GC did not trip there
will be Power Transformer Humming noise.
c) Due to Tripping Both GC + i) This may happen due to O/L & E/L in that case
LV Breaker O/L or E/L relay flag along with Breaker Trip alarm
and Lamp indication will come. As the GC has also
tripped there will not be any Power Transformer
- 70 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
Humming Noise. Besides there will be no station
supply.
ii) This may trip due to master relay which will act
under the following condition.
i) Buckholz bottom Relay actuation or .
ii) differential Relay actuation or
iii) Winding Temperature Trip Relay
actuation
iv) Pressure Relief valve actuation. In these
cases the alarm will be a separate Bell or
Hooter the flag will appear in the
corresponding relay trip lamp will appear
in the GC and LV breaker along with alarm.
There will be no station supply
d) Due to tripping of 110 KV Feeder In this case no indications mentioned in’
above three cases will appear. The only
indication will be no humming noise and no
station supply. If thcrc was 110 KV line PT
indication it will vanish. In this case there
will be no alarm or relay flag except if no
relay is available.
e) Due to 110 KV Load shedding as above
Hence whenever there was supply failure the operator has to identify the cause of failure
from the above indication. The normalisation is as below.
a) In case of station supply failure:
He has to check the H.G. fuse and L. T. fuses of the transformer and arrange to renew
the same. If H.G. fuse did not stand station transformer may be faulty. If LT Fuse did not stand
cable or feeder fault is to be rectified,
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b) In case of Tripping of L. V. breaker


1) Accept alarm.
2) Note down Relay Indication
3) Go to the yard. Investigate for any external damage or towards in the LV breaker
11 KV Bus and 11 KV feeder Breaker 11 KV LAS etc.
If there is any untoward inform the concerned for rectification. If there is any
untoward in any section of feeders of L. V. isolate the corresponding section.
4) Hand trip all the feeder breakers.
5) Reset the relay.
6) Charge the L. V. breaker one by one check the station Bus voltage on all the
three phase. Confirm there is no fluctuation.
7) Charge the feeder breakers one by one crack the ammeter of the feeders for
normal loading.
8) Verify the loading in the power transformer in all the three phases if there is
fluctuation, check cause of fluctuation from the feeder ammeters trip the
concerned feeder.
c) Due to tripping of both GC & LV breakers
i) Due to O/L or E/L relay:
1. Accept the alarm
2. Note down the flag indication in all feeders.
3. Go to the yard. Investigate for any external damage in the feeder breaker 11 KV Bus PT
& LAS, LV breakers. Power Transformers and GC breaker. If there is outwards isolate
that defect wise area. Inform the concerned.
4. Hand Trip all the feeder breakers.
5. Reset the relay indication.
6. Charge the G.C. breaker, watch the Humming Noise in the Transformer.
7. If the Humming Noise is normal charge the L. V. Breakers one by one and note down the
Bus Voltages In all the three phases.
8. If the 11 KV bus supply is okay charge the 11 KV feeders one by one. Crack the ammeter
crack switch in each feeder and verify for equal loading or for any fluctuation verify the
loading in the three phases of the power transformer also.
9. While charging the G.C. breaker as mentioned in item (6) above, if the G.C. breaker trips
there may be fault in the zone between G .C. breaker and L. V. breaker including the
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transformers. Had there been any fault inside the transformer the concerned power
transformer relays and master relay would have been acted.
10. Accept the alarm / Hooter/
11. Note down the flag indication. If there was actuation of Power Transformer Relay
&master relay either the differential relay flag or bucholz relay flag or the winding
Temperature relay flag or PRY relay flag would have come along with master relay trip.
12. Go to the yard and verify whether there is physical failure between the GC and LV
breaker zone. In case of transformer fault verify whether there is Gas collection in
i. the Buckholz Relay abnormal temperature or spurt out oil through pressure relief
valve or failure diaphragm etc.
13. If there is transformer fault isolate the transformer by opening the incoming and outgoing
LV side isolator of the particular transformer. If there is no fault in the transformer or any
other external fault is not visible open the incoming side isolator of all the power
transformer.
14. Reset the relay indication.
15. Charge the G.C. breaker alone and verify all the three phases are closed.
16. Close the incoming side isolator of individual power transformer one by one.

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Verify both transformer are having normal humming noise.


During this operation if the G.C. breaker trips again while closing anyone of the
incoming side isolator of the power transformer again. Accept alarm. Isolate
the particular for further detailed examination verify if there gas collection or
external damage in that particular transformer or any other portion in that area.
Reset the flag indication charge the G.C. breaker with the other transformer
alone verify whether Humming noise is as usual.
17. Now charge the L. V. breaker and verify for equal bus voltage in the 11 KV Bus.
18. In case both the transformers are healthy then put on the 11 KV feeder loads
one by me. If one transformer only is healthy, charge the 11 KV feeders such
that total load is with in one transformer capacity.
19. Some times for the 11 KV feeder Fault the relay flag would have come and the
breaker would have tripped. This would have caused tripping of GC & LV. This
would have come to knowledge while noting down the relay indication in (2)
above. Such feeder should be identified at the time of Hand tripping in item (4).
These breakers may not be able to trip for mechanical reason. They should be
test charged before putting them in service.
ii) Tripping of both GC & L V breakers due to actuation of master relay and buckholz
relay or differential relay or winding temperature high relay or pressure relief valve
actuation.
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1) Accept the alarm.
2) Note down the flag indications. (In case of buckholz the alarm could not
silenced until the DC fuse is removed.
3) Go to the yard. Investigate for external damages or spurt out of oil or fire etc. If
there is fire take immediate action to putout the fire by using foam before it
spreads to the nearby transformer give fire alarm or siren so that others could
come for assistance if necessary to inform’ fire service. If no fire or external
damage verify whether there is Gas collection in the Buchholz relay. In case of
winding temperature high form and the cooling oil pumps would not have worked
or would have tripped. Note down there things.
4) Isolate the transformer in which the defect is suspected by opening the incoming
and outgoing isolator. Remove the DC fuse for the above transformer.
5) Hand Trip all the 11 KV feeder breakers.
6) Reset the master relay alone, leaving the relay flags of defective transformer
as it is
7) Charge the G.C. breaker with the Healthy Transformer alone watch the Humming
Noise for health sound verify the 11 KV Bus voltage in all the three phases.
8) Charge the 11 KV feeders one by one such that total load is with in one trans
former capacity.
9) Inform the AEE/ AE maintenance immediately above the suspected transformer
fault for arranging testing of the defective transformer.
10) Sometimes if there is furious actuation of buchholz, differential relay, the same
should be got confirmed from MRF and the transformer should be put in service
only after their clearance.
d) Tripping of 110 KV feeder fault/load shedding
1) In this case there will be no indication except the stoppage of supply, humming
noise in the power Transformer. Also watch to P. T. lamp if any provided in 110
KV line.
2) Contact the feeding end substation and ascertain the cause of failure of
supply if it is fault tripping inform him about the condition of your substation.

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Because the feeder would have tripped for the fault in the station also. If no fault
confirm the same to the feeding end operator. In case of fault tripping he will
ask all the radial S:S. operator to isolate there loads. Then hand trip all the
feeders & G.C. In case of Load shedding, the operator at feeding end will give
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the duration of load shedding. Now also hand trip all the feeder loads and wait
for the receipt of main supply.
3) Again contact the feeding end S.S. operator whether the feeder has been
charged OK and whether you can normalise your SS loads. On receipt of
confirmation first charge the G.C. breaker, then L. V. breakers one by one and
then the 11 KV feeders.
Sometimes the supply would have failed during peak hours when the Power
Transformer is kept at maximum tap. In that case when the main supply is
resumed, there will be high voltage in the substation before switching on 11
KV feeder loads. then high voltage may cause actuation of differential relay or
relay components. Hence the tap should brought to normal tap and the voltage
can be increased after putting the load by operating the OLTC.
4) If the operator in the feeding end says that 110 KV feeder did not stand and
ask for operation of the 110 KV isolator no (2).
5) confirm that the feeder is dead.
6) Open the isolator no. 2 confirm to the operator at feeding end ask him to charge
the feeder up to your substation.
7) If it stood OK, normalize your substation as before.
8) At that time of charging of 110 KV feeder as in operation 6 above, if your notice
any 110 KV Bus fault inform the same side operator about the fault. Inform
AEE/AE maintenance for rectification.
9) If there is 110 KV Bus fault or LAS fault after the G.C. breaker it will be recalled
while’ charging the G.C. breakers.
10) Incase of 11 KV Bus fault or .11 KV Las failure it will be revealed while charging
the anyone of the LV breaker.
e) Tripping of 11 KV Feeder on fault :
1) Accept alarm.
2) Note down Relay Indication.
3) Go to the yard verify for any visible failure and whether all the three limbs have
opened.
4) If there is no outwards. Reset the flag indication.
5) Charge the feeder breaker. If stood okay crack the Ammeter and watch all the
three phases are loaded.’
- 75 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
6) Also go to the yard again verify there is no abnormal noise and all the three
lamps are in closed position.
7) Incase if the feeder trip again on fault after the operation in 5. repeat the
operation I to 6.
8) If the feeder breaker trips second time also, isolate the breaker by opening the
incoming and outgoing side isolators. Test charge the breaker alone. If it stood
okay, Trip the breaker, close the isolators. For all the above operation the time
war operation shall vary substation to substation depending upon the yard and
equipment location. Hence the time should fixed based on achieved experience,
wait for about 10 minutes for receipt of any information from the field about any
fault in the line. In case of Rural feeder we can wait for 20 minutes also.
9) Give third charge if it trips again, declare the feeder faulty. Inform the concerned

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field officers of patrol of the feeder and attending the fault and to give a
confirmation report. Till then keep the AC & DC fuses kept removed.
10) On receipt of. field confirmation report about attending of fault or no fault put
AC & DC fuses. Reset the flag indication charge the breaker. If it stood okay
repeat operation. Crank the ammeter and verify that the feeders are loaded in
all the three phases and go to the yard verify physically all the three limbs are
closed and no abnormal sound is heard.
11) If all the three phases are not loaded there may be jumper opening or improper
closing of breaker. Contact the nearby consumers over phone and ask them to
check they receive supply in all the three phases. If the nearby consumer
receive three phase the line upto that area will be okay. Inform the field people
to check their area for opening of jumpers. Even if the nearby consumer says
he did not get supply in all the three phases, it may be due to impartial closing
of isolator or breaker which would been identified on physical verification
immediately after charging.
12) In such case of breaker or isolator defective inside the SS. Hand trip the feeder
immediately and inform AE/Maint for attending to the defect.
On all these cases the observation by the operator will be of prime importance
and save the failure or accident and helps to resume supply early.
So far we have seen the operator sequences for emergency operators now we will take
up a planned operation i.e. issue of L.C. Any planned shutdown should programmed will in
advance and should be got approved by the competent person. In case of interruption of supply it
should be informed to the concerned area section officers and their concurrence should be
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obtained well informed through Radio and Newspapers. Important and essential service
consumers should be informed.
All the L.C. shutdown approval are issued for a particular work to the particular staff and
for particular period it is always issued with a condition that the LC/shutdown could be availed
only if the local loading condition permits. So the duty of the operator is to verify the shutdown
has been approved and the individual is authorised person and it can be issued on that day and
the condition of Back feeding mentioned in the shutdown approval could be arranged on that day
or whether the interrupts could be permitted. He should also get the concurrence of the AEE incharge
of the substation before issue of L.C. informing of the approval and station local condition.
L.C. on line can be issued on phone if the authorised person first contact the operator in
advance and fix the time and give the phone number from which he will contact. As soon as he
comes on phone again and request for LC he should ask to close the phone. The operator should
call him to confirm the phone location and the person correctly.
L.C. on 110 KV G.C. breaker without interruption
1) Verify the L.C, approval and confirm the field staff are ready to take up the work.
2) Close the 110 KV G.C. breaker bye pass switch No.5 keep the key of the isolator in
the LC, board. Now we are closing the 110 KV Isolator on load. As this is only a
parallel switch it will not give any arcing. Verify the load in the G.C. breaker is reduced
by 50 in all the three phases. If the isolator did not close properly the loading may
differ. In that case open the Isolator again and close correctly.
3) Hand trip the G.C. breaker. Now once again crack the ammeter crack switch and
verify there is no load through the breaker in all the three limbs. In case of partial opening
of any one phase can be identified from this.
4) Remove the Interlock key from the G.C. breaker and put on the incoming side isolator
and open the incoming side isolator No.2 and lock it verify all the three knifes are
opened.
5) Open the outgoing side isolator No.4 and lock it verify all the three knifes are opened

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properly keep the keys in the LC Board. Now the equipments have been isolated from
supply.
6) Use the discharge rod and discharge first all the three phase of outgoing side.
7) Provide the earth rod on both incoming and outgoing sides of the breaker so that they
are fixed to the earth effectively.
8) Remove AC & DC fuses for the breaker.
- 77 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
9) Guard the area of work by tying of rope and fixing of flag. Put on LC board on the
breaker panel.
10) Now issue line clear in the printed numbered LC book. Fill up correctly the name of the
equipment which is safe for working, the portion of the breakers and isolators; Their
number and whether they are locked whether the equipment has been discharged
and earthed whether additional earthing is to be done by the receiver of LC etc. should
be mentioned and should be signed by the issuing officer and receiver with date and
time.
11) This should be recorded in the log book in red ink. On completion of work, the receiver
should give a certificate that the works have been completed. He has removed the
earthing provided by him at site, and the men and materials have also been removed
and also the equipment is safe for energising. On receipt of the certificate duly signed
the operator has to go to the yard and verify physically. Whether the earthing, men’ and
materials has been removed and confirm whether the equjpment is safe for energisation.
Then only he has to cancel the L.C. has been issued to some other person, he has to
wait for return of the L.C. by all. After cancellation of all the L.C. permit. the operator
should start his sequence of operation for normalisation.
1) Remove the earth rods provided on both the incoming and outgoing side and
guarding rope the caution board are all removed.
2) Confirm whether the breaker is fit for energisation.
3) Put the AC & DC fuses and idle charge the breaker alone by local close trip switch.”
4) Close the incoming and outgoing side isolators now the breaker has been charged
upto the contacts on both side, Watch for any abnormal Hissing sound. If any Hissing
sound is heard immediately open the isolators.
5) Put on the interlock switch.
6) Close the breaker from the control room. Crack the ammeter and verify all the three
phases are loaded.
7) Go to the yard watch for any abnormality. Confirm every thing is normal.
8) Open the bye pass switch isolator No.5 see all the three knifes have opened clearly.
Now we are opening the isolator on1oad. In this case since it is in parallel no arcing
will occur. Now the load in the G.C. breaker would have doubled confirm the same in
all three-phases.
The said operations cover the L.C. on G.C. breaker without interruption. If there is no
bye pass switch then there will be a total shutdown. In that the sequence of operation will change.
- 78 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
1) Contact the concerned S.S. and confirm the quantum local they can permit as back
feeding.
2) Hand trip the 11 KV feeder breakers, L:C. breakers & GC breakers on by me.
3) Open the 11. KV bus side isolator of L. V. breaker-and 1.10 KV transformer isolators.
4) Close the isolator in the 11 KV line for availing back feeding.
5) Charge the 11 KV feeder of the concerned feeder and energise the 11 KV bus from
the nearby S.S supply.
6) Now station supply IS resumed. Also charge any other feeder to which back feeding is
to be extended.

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7) In other feeders which are kept hand tripped, the incoming outgoing isolator has to
be opened.
8) Now open the incoming and outgoing isolators after removing the breaker interlock. “
9) Discharge and earth the G.C. breaker on both sides, guard the area, put on
L.C. board and issue LC as mentioned above.
After issue of L.C. inform the operator of the substation back feeding this station
of the local availed by him and to maintain the supply.
After returning of the L.C. the sequence of normalisation are
1) Verify whether the men and materials are removed and the equipment is safe
for energisation.
2) Put’ on AC & DC fuses. Check the local closing and tripping operation.
3) Remove the earthrods,
4) Close the incoming and outgoing isolators. Put on the breaker interlock switch.
5) Verify the 110 KV main supply is available and inform the feeding end operator
about the normalisation operation.
6) Charge the G.C breaker check the 110 KV bus isolator on all the three phases.
7) Close the 110 KV side isolator and transformers one by one confirm the
transformers are healthy.
8) Remove the back feeding by Tripping all the 11 KV feeder breaker and opening
the back feeding isolator.
9) Confirm there is no supply in the 11 KV Bus.
10) Close the L. V. breaker Isolators to the 11 KV Bus close the L. V. breaker one
by one and the 11 KV Bus is energised along with station transformer.
11) Watch the station voltage and 11 KV Bus voltage in all the three phases.
- 79 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
12) Normalise the feeder breakers one by one and check for loading in all the three
phases of 11 KV and L.V breakers.
L.C. on Power Transformer and L.V. breaker
1) Verify the approval of L.C. and confirm that L.C. can be given on that day
depending up on local condition.
2) As the local is to be limited with in one transformer capacity confirm the local in
the S.S. If the loads are more than one transformer capacity certain loads are
to be shed confirm whether the concurrence is obtained for shedding of these
feeders.
3) Hand trip the 11 KV feeders which are to be shed to contain the load.
4) After reduction of the load Hand Trip the L.V breaker of the Power Transformer.
5) Open the incoming and outgoing side isolators 6 & 7.
6) Remove the AC & DC fuses of the power Tr.1 see that the cooling fans are
stopped.
7) Discharge and earth the transformer on both sIides of the transformer and the
L.V breaker. Put on the caution board and garden the area.
8) Issue the line clear in the proper form mention that the nearby transformer is
alive and safe distance is to be maintained while working on dead equipments.
Normalisation
1) After returning of the L.C. verify for the removal of men and material and the
whether the transformer is safe for energisation.
2) Remove the earthing.
3) Put on AC & DC fuses. Don’t forget to put the buckholz & differential relay
fuses.
4) Close the 11 KV isolator no.6 watch for healthy Humming Noise.
5) Close the 11 KV LV side isolator No.7.

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6) Close the L. V. breaker and watch for loading in all the three phases. There will
be reducing in load on the Power Tr.1I verify the sharing are correct in all the ,
three phases.
7) Normalise other 11 KV feeders.
8) Go round the transformer yard verify for healthiness of the Power Transformer
humming noise, loading etc.
- 80 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
L.C. on 11 KV Feeders / Lines
Verify for the L.C. approval and concurrence from the field. As the work spot in case of
line L.C. will be far away the operator could not physically verify the work place before
normalisation. Hence he has to take into confidence of the receiver of L.C. for normalisation
hence it is a must that the individual who availed the L.C. should come in person and return the
LC giving due certificate.
Sometime it may happen that there may not be sufficient time to come to the S.S. for
returning the L.C. In such case LC may be permitted to return over phone. It should be intimated
in advance. In that case the operator has to take all necessary precaution to confirm the L.C. is
returned by the correct individual only. For this he may ask the near by person to identify the
phone number, the persons available there and the L.C. number, works done, removing of men
and materials etc.
The sequence of operations are verify whether back feeding has to arranged for the
loads fed by the feeder or breaker.
If no back feeding is necessary inform the concerned area office that L.C. is going to be
issued and there will be interruption.
I) Hand Trip the 11 KV breaker of that feeder. Crack the ammeter and confirm that
there is no load in all the phases.
2) Open the incoming side isolator first and then the outgoing side isolator and
lock them. Put the key in the LC Board.
3) Discharge both sides and put earth on both side if the L.C..is to be issued on
breaker or in case of line L.C. discharge and earth the line. While discharging
one rod only used for discharging the three phases and for early three rods
should be provided tightly and connected earth.
4) Put on the caution board.
5) Issue LC with instruction to provide discharging and earthing at site since
there may be induction due to neighboring line or lightning.
On return of LC get a certificate whether the earthing has been remove. All men materials
have be cleared to a safe distance and the line is fit for energisation. In case of more than one
L.C. await for receipt of cancellation of all L.C.
- 81 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
I) Remove the earth rod printed on the line/equipment & caution board.
2) Close the incoming side isolator of the breaker and put 011 the A/C DC fuses.
3) Test charge the breaker if OK hand trip the breaker again.
4) Close the isolator oil the outgoing side of the breaker.
5) Close the breaker verify all the three phases are loaded and there is no
fluctuation.
6) Go round the breaker and verify whether there is any abnormality in the breaker
and power transformers.
Some exceptional cases. It may require for the person who has availed the L.C. to go on
other personal urgent works. In such cases second L.C. has to be issued to another person for
the same work that has been asked relieve the individual. Then the original LC has to be returned
by the individual and cancel. At no circumstances the L.C. can be transformed.
- 82 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai

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6. EARTHING PRACTICES IN SUBSTATION


INTRODUCTION
Nothing is quite common or abundantly available throughout world in
the Earthing soil. Most of us think earth as some thing to be used for planting
or to be excavated for a building foundation. Yet, it also has an electrical
property-conductivity that is put to practical use every day in individual plants
and Electrical utilities.
Broadly speaking earth resistance is the resistance of the soil to the
passage of electrical current. Actually earth is a poor conductor compared with
normal conductor like copper. But if the area of path for the current is large
enough, the resistance can be quite low and earth can be a conductor.
Earthing is foremost important for the safety of human beings, Animals,
Consumer Property and utilities equipment. In this article, the importance of
Earthing requirement of good Earthing, the factors which influence the property
of the diverting medium earth, condition monitoring of earth and method to
improve the earth conditions are discussed in depth.
OBJECTIVE OF EARTHING
Prime Objective of Earthing is to provide a Zero potential surface in and
around and under the area where the electrical equipment is installed or
erected.
To achieve this objective the non-current carrying parts of the electrical
equipment is connected to the general mass of the earth which prevents the
appearance of dangerous voltage on the enclosures and helps to provide safety
to working staff and public.
REQUIREMENT OF GOOD
EARTHING
a) Good earth should have low
resistance
- 83 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
b) It should stabilize circuit potential with respect to ground and limit overall
potential rise.
c) It should protect men material from injury or damage due to over voltage.
d) It should provide low impedance path to fault currents to ensure prompt
and consistent operation of protective relays, Surge arrester etc.,
e) It should keep maximum potential gradient along the surface of the substation
within safe limits during ground fault.
FACTORS INFLUENCE THE CONDITIION OF EARTH
The following factors in the earth should be maintained within the limit
irrespective of seasons so that the earth should fulfill the above requirements.
FACTORS
a. Kind of Soil – Soil resistivity
b. Moisture Content
c. Salt Content
d. Condition of Electrode
e. Temperature Co-efficient
CLASSIFICATION OF EARTHING
Earthing can be classified into the following categories based on the
purpose for which the part of the equipment connected to the general mass of
earth.
a. System Earthing
b. Equipment Earthing

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c. Reference Earthing
d. Discharge Earthing
SYSTEM EARTHING
Earthing associated with current carrying parts of the equipment is
called system Earthing. The system security, reliability, performance, voltage
stabilization, all relied only on the system Earthing.
Eg. Earthing Neutral of Transformer, Surge arrester Earthing
- 84 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
System Earthing Methods :
a. Solid Earthing b. Resistance Earthing
c. Reactance Earthing d. d. Thro’ Grounding Transformer
EQUIPMENT EARTHING
Earthing associated with non-current carrying parts of Electrical
Equipment are called as Equipment Earthing. Safety of operator, consumer,
safety of their property are mainly based on Equipment Earthing.
Eg. Body of the Transformer, Body of Motor.
FACTORS THAT CHANGE THE REQUIREMENT OF EARTH ELECTRODE
a. If a plant or electrical facility can expand in system or new plants
continue to be build larger and larger, such change creates different
routes in the electrode.
What was formerly a suitable low earth resistance can become obsolete
standard.
More number of metallic pipes which were buried underground become
less and less dependable as effective low resistance ground connection.
Most of the location, the water table gradually falling. In a year or two
area end up with dry earth of high resistance.
These factors emphasize the importance of a continuous, periodic
program of earth resistance testing.
EARTHING PRACTICES
Transmission lines:
i) E.H. T. lines: For 110 KV lines one aerial earth wire through the
towers and for 230 KV lines and two earth wires are run. As per I.S. code, the
aerial ground wire is to be connected to earth at least in 4 towers in every mile
(1.6 Kms.)
- 85 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
ii) H. T. Lines: These towers (each) are earthed through earth pipes.
The earth rods are driven at the base of the tower if the earth resistance is less
than 15 Ohms. If it is not possible, two rods are driven within} a distance of 200
feet, wherein again the resistance is not to exceed 25 Ohms.
iii) L.T. lines: All stay wires arc provided with guy shackles at a height
not less than 3 meters from the ground. The cross arms arc also earthed at
specified intervals.
Major sub-stations :
Earthing of equipment’s in the major sub-stations is taken much care.
The various Earthing are discussed in the paras to come.
Power transformers:
i) The transformer body or tank is directly connected to earth grid. In
addition, there should be direct connection from the tank to the earth side of
the lightning arresters.
Ii) The transformer track rail should be earthed separately.
iii) The neutral bushing is earthed by a separate connection to the earth

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grid. clearer to the tank sell and collars.


Potential and current transformers:
The bases of the CTs and Pts. are to be earthed. All bolted cover plates of
the bushing are also to be connected the earth grid.
Lightning arresters :
The bases of the L.As. are to be earthed with conductors as short and
straight as Possible (for reducing impedance). The earth side of the L.As. are to
be connected directly frolJ1 the equipment to be protected. Each L.A. should
have individual earth rods, which are in turn connected to earth grid.
Circuit breakers:
the supporting structures, C.T. chambers, P.T. tanks, Cable glands etc.,
are to be connected to earth.
- 86 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Other equipment’s:
All equipment’s, structures, and metallic frames of switches and isolators
are to be earthed separately.
Fences:
Providing separate earth or connecting to the station earth depends upon
the distance of the fence the station earth. If the distance is within feet, an
inter-connection made to the station earth. If not, the metallic fences are
earthed by means of earth rods spaced at not more than 200 feet. The gates
and support pans may be earthed through an earth rod. The cable wires
passing under “metallic fence are to be buried below at a depth of 2’6 or are to
be enclosed in a insulating pipe (P. V.C or asbestos cement) for a distance of not
less than 5 feet on each side of the fence.
Ground wires :
The ground wires over the station arc connected to the station earth. In
order that the station earth potentials during fault condition5 arc not applied to
transmission line ground wires and towers, all ground wires coming to the
stations shall be broken . It an insulated on the fir5t tower external to station
by means of strain disc. insulators.
NATURE OF AN EARTH ELECTRODE
Resistance to current through an earth element has following three
components.
a. Resistance of the earth electrode itself and connection to it.
b. Contact resistance between the electrode and soil adjacent to it.
c. Resistance of the surrounding earth.
TYPE OF ELECTRODES
b. Rod Type / Pipe Type of Electrode
c. Flat / Strip Electrode
d. Plate Electrode
- 87 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Rod Type / Pipe Type of Electrode
Substation :
i) 40 mm twin rod with 10 mtr. length.
ii) 100 mm /150 mm Cast Iron Pipe with 3 mtr. length.
Distribution :
i) 40 mm inner dia 2.9 mm thick 3 mtr. length G I Pipe.
Resistance = R = 100 log e 4 L ohms
2!Ld
Where = Soil Resistivity in ohm – metres

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L = Length of Pipe / Rod in metres


d = diameter of Pipe / Rod in metres
a. Flat / Strip Electrode
Flat or Strip electrode should be buried at a depth of not less then 0.5
mtr.
Resistance = R = 100 log e 2L2 ohms
2!Lwt
- 88 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Where = Soil Resistivity in ohm – metres
L = Length of Flat/Strip in metres
w = Length of Flat/Strip in metres
t = thickness of Flat/Strip in metres
The resistance of Flat / Strip decreases appreciably with increase in its length.
Plate Electrode
In Power Stations & Very Big Substation which are having high fault
level plate type of electrode are used.
Plate Size
1200 x 1200 x 12.5 mm.
600 x 600 x 9.40 mm
Resistance = R = ! ohms
4/A
Where = Soil Resistivity in ohm –" metres
A = Area of both sides of plate in m2.
Earthing conductor :
The metal parts of equipment’s arc connected to the low resistance
electrodes by the ‘earth conductors of suitable size as annexed in Annexure III.
The basic observations to be taken into account are:
i) Bare Aluminum conductor should not be buried in the soil.
ii) The copper strip to be used depends on the size of the bolts
used. If the size of the bolts are greater than 1” dia, strip width to
be selected is not to be less than 2”.
iii) The conductor should carry fault current at least for 1/2
second and the area of cross section in sq. inches is given by the
fault current- 15,000.
- 89 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Joints:
While laying earth conductors joints are to be minimized and they are to
be well-brazed or closely welded. The 1/2" dia. galvanized steel bolts at 11/211
centre are also used for joints.
Earth resistance:
The fault current is to be cleared as quickly as possible and this is done
by having the earth resistance low. The standard values of earth resistance to
be maintained at various sub-stations are given in Annexure IV.
Earth grid:
Bonding all metal parts of the system to be earthed, the earth conductor
and the earth electrodes put all together form and Earth Grid.
General considerations:
i) All earth connections are to be made visible as far as possible.
ii) The earth leads should not be set in concrete.
iii) No series connections are to be made for earths.
iii) Preferably, the Earthing conductors should not be run-in metal

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conduits.
MONITORING THE CONDITION OF EARTH
For monitoring the healthiness of earth, the condition monitoring
equipment used is “EARTH MEGGER”.
Specification :
Rated Voltage : 30 to 250V
Range of Resistance : The preferred effective ranges of the
meters shall be chosen from
those given below
1)0 to 3 ohms and its multiplies of 10
2)0 to10 ohms and its multiplies of 10
Two types :
a). Four terminal Earth Megger which is exclusive used for Soil
Resistivity Measurement. This can be converted as three terminal
by connecting P1 & C1 together.
b). Three terminal Earth Megger.
- 90 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Marking
(i) For 3 Terminal Meter (ii) For 4 Terminal Meter
Current Terminal – C or H Current Terminal C1, C2
Potential Terminal – P or U Potential Terminal P1, P2
Earth Terminal – E
CHECKING AND TESTING
The Earthing systems are to be inspected regularly. Regular checking or
joints and broken connections, if any and rectifying the same will prove to be of
immense help in maintenance of earth grid and equipment’s. The condition of
the electrodes, joints are also to be checked. If the electrodes are’ corroded
immediate steps for replacement are to be taken.
The earth resistance is to be measured periodically as in Annexure V.
The megger, or testers are used for this purpose.
Maintenance of low earth resistance:
As discussed earlier, low earth resistance Path is a must for clearing the
fault current instantaneously. For achieving -low earth values, the following
ways are followed:
i) A number of electrodes are connected in parallel thereby providing a
low resistance.
ii )The ground surrounding the electrodes is treated with common salt
which reduces the resistance by 80%. Calcium chloride and magnesium
sulphate may also be used. In general practice in T.N.B.B. charcoal and
common alt are used for obtaining low resistance value.
STANDARD MEGGER VALUE
Combined Earth Value should not exceed
Individual Value within 10 ohm
a. for Major Sub Station 1 Ohm
b. for Minor Sub Station 2 Ohm
c. Power House 0.5 Ohm
- 91 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
METHODS TO IMPROVE SOIL RESISTIVITY
The following are the methods to lowering the earth resistance.
Using Bendonite Powder
a. Lengthen the earth electrode in the earth

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b. Use multiple rods


c. Treat the Soil- Using Bendonite Powder
Using Fly Ash
Using Safe Earth Electrode(SSE)
Using Erico GEM
EARTH MAT DESIGN
Earthing System in a Sub Station comprises of Earth Mat or Grid, Earth
Electrode, Earthing Conductor and Earth Connectors.
EARTH MAT OR GRID
Primary requirement of Earthing is to have a low earth resistance.
Substation involves many Earthings thro’ individual Electrodes, which will have
fairly high resistance. But if these individual electrodes are inter linked inside
the soil, it increases the area in contact with soil and creates number of parallel
paths. Hence the value of the earth resistance in the inter linked state which is
called combined earth value which will be much lower than the individual
value.
The inter link is made thro flat or rod conductor which is called as Earth
Mat or Grid. It keeps the surface of substation equipment as nearly as absolute
earth potential as possible.
To achieve the primary requirement of Earthing system, the Earth Mat
should be design properly by considering the safe limit of Step Potential, Touch
Potential and Transfer Potential.
STEP POTENTIAL - which is the potential difference available between the legs
while standing on the ground.
TOUCH POTENTIAL - which is the potential difference between the leg
and the hand touching the equipment in operation.
- 92 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
The factors which influence the Earth Mat design are
a. Magnitude of Fault Current
b. Duration of Fault
c. Soil Resistivity
d. Resistivitiy of Surface Material
e. Shock Duration
f. Material of Earth Mat Conductor
g. Earthing Mat Geometry
The Scope is to calculate the following
i. Size of Earth Grid Conductor
ii. Safe Step and Touch Potential
iii. Mesh Potential (Emesh)
iv. Grid configuration for Safe Operation
v. Number of Electrodes required
DATA NEEDED
a. Soil Resistivity
b. Resistivity of Crushed Rock
c. Crushed Rock Surface Layer Thickness
d. Switch Yard overall Dimensions
e. Earth Fault Level
f. Duration consider for earth fault.
I. CALCULATION OF SIZE OF EARTH GRID
CONDUCTOR
Conductor Area A = I

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Tcap x 10 –4 x ln Ko + Tm
tc – r x Pv Ko + Ta
Simplified formula for Steel Grid Conductor
Area A = I x /t
K
- 93 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Where A = area of earth conductor in mm2.
I = short circuit current in KA.
t = duration of short circuit current in seconds.
K factor = 80 for steel.
If mat is made of Flat then
A = Area of Flat
Give allowance of 35 % for corrosion
If it is a conductor
A = !r2
r = /A/!
STANDARD FLATS
i) 10 x 6 iv) 40 x 6 vii) 60 x 6
ii) 20 x 6 v) 50 x 6 viii) 65 x 10
iii) 30 x 6 vi) 50 x 8 ix) 75 x 10
ROD
40 mm Mild Steel Rod
The Mesh Potential always less than the permissible touch & step
potential. Then only the design is considered as safe.
- 94 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Annexure 2
Earth Electrodes
Stations Plate Electrodes Pine electrodes
a) Larger Power Stations G.I. Plates of 120 x 120 cm and i)G.I. Pipes of 152mm
and Major sub- stations 12.5 mm thick diax3.048mts. long
and not less than
12.5. thick.
ii) In case of G .1. or steel
pipes, not smaller than 38
mm internal diameter.
b) Small sub-stations 60 x 60cm G.!. plates of9.4 mm G.I. pipes of 50.8 min
thick internal
diameter and 3.058
mts., long.
Annexure 3
Earth conductors
a) Main and subsidiary connection : Cross Section not less than 161sq.
cm;{Copper)
b) Branch connections : Cross section not less than 64.5 sq. cm.
Periodicity of measuring earth resistance
a)Major Sub-stations Power Stations ..Monthly
b)Distribution Transformers ..Bi-annual
V. CONCLUSION
The various practices and standards are to be followed in respect of
providing Earthing in our systems. If proper Earthing is not done, there is every
likelihood of equipment getting damaged and also have to be personnel -public

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and staff. Hence due attention is to be given in providing and maintaining of


earth grid properly and in good condition.
- 95 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
T & SS Training Institute, - 96 - Madurai.
7. LOAD DISPATCH AND FLOW MANAGEMENT
Introduction
Electricity cannot be stored and has to be generated at the time of need. The load is not fixed.
It will vary in random from time to time. To oversee the timely varying demand and set the generation
so as to meet it with optimum utilization and economic operation of the system a centrally controlled
station is required, This centrally controlled station is called as load dispatch centre for effective &
economic load dispatch and flow management.
Loads can be classified as below.
1. Industrial HT &: LT.
2. Agriculture.
3. Domestic
4. Commercial HT & L T
5. Public Lighting
6. Traction etc.,
Load Forecasting:
The load in the grid will vary from time to time. To arrange for the generation from various
resources tile load at a time has to be forecast so that the load and the generation can be matched.
Load forecasting has to be done taking into account the following points.
• Type of the day-on Sundays load will be minimum and on Fridays load will
be maximum.
• Sunrise / Sun set timings.
When the sun sets earlier the lighting load on the grid will be earlier and vice
versa.
• Temperature and humidity deviation:
At high temperature during summer the consumers will draw more power to
meet their requirement
• Any known shutdown of EHT consumers.
• Agricultural load requirements /
During Winter the agricultural load will be low and during Summer
Agricultural load will be at its maximum.
• Comparing the load in the previous week I month I year with suitable tolerance
for load growth.
By using the above guidelines the load that will be incident in the grid is forecast to meet the
morning and lighting peak’ hours of a day.
Once the load incident on the grid for that day is determined, it is the duty of the engineers of
load dispatch centre to prepare a generation schedule for the period in question as to bow they are
going to meet out the load by utilizing the various generating stations in the state and the state’s share
from the central generating stations.
Generation Scheduling:
a. Hourly load.
b. Spinning reserve to be maintained.
c. Incremental cost of generation of various units.
d. Hydro station characteristics: cascading / conventional.
e. Network limitations.
f. Capacity of other system to buy or sell.
g. Maintenance outage plan of generating stations and transmission lines.
T & SS Training Institute, - 97 - Madurai.

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Generation stations in the GRID:


Hydel
Thermal
Nuclear
Diesel
Gas
Windmill (Non -conventional)
To match the generation with the load and for load flow management the load dispatch centre
is essentially required and that becomes the backbone of the grid system. The load dispatch centre
perform the following functions.
1. It matches the load with the generation.
2. Reliability of supply.
3. Regulation of voltage and frequency.
4. Economic operation.
5. System maintenance scheduling.
Grid System:
A high voltage line in between a sending station and a receiving station is called a
transmission line. The A.C. transmission system may be of radial, ring or inter connected. When the
supply is fed from one end of the source then it is called radial system. In this system if a breakdown
occurs the consumers connected to this system will be affected till the breakdown is rectified. .When
all the generating stations are interconnected from which the supply is given to all the loads is known
as interconnected system. Interconnected system in a state forms the grid of that state. If the-
Interconnected system is connected with the interconnected systems of the nearby states this forms
the regional grid.
India has the following five regional grids
1. Northern region: comprising Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir,
Punjab, Rajasthan, UP, Delhi and Chandigarh. .
2. Western region: Gujarat, MP, Maharastra, Goa, Daman and diu, Dadar Nagar,
Haweli.
3. Eastern region: Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal.
4. Southern region: AP, Kamatka, Tamilnadu, Kerala & Pondicherry.
5. North Eastern region: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Nagland,
Tirupura.and Mizoram. .
Techno economic benefit§ of the integrated operation:
I. Reduction of generating capacity due to diversity of loads.
2. Reduction in standby capacity.
3. Increase in size of generating unit.
4. Optimization of Hydro and thermal generation.
5. Better system reliability and security.
6. Better frequency stability.
7. Load fluctuations compensates one another better
8. Mutual Assistance during emergencies.
Problems encountered in Regional Grid Operation:
1. Low frequency operation.
2. Over-drawls from central stations particularly at low frequencies.
3. Not backing down during high frequency.
4. Inadequate reactive power compensation.
5. Inadequate system reserve.
6. SLDC’S & RLDC’S not adequately equipped.
7. Lack of appropriate interregional tariffs.
8. Communication bottlenecks.

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T & SS Training Institute, - 98 - Madurai.


Nowadays HVDC transmission is vastly catching up due to the following advantages.
1. Only active power is transmitted.
2. Independent of A.C. system frequencies.
3. Fast Control.
4. No increase in short circuit currents.
Facilities to tie the regional grids which are operating at different frequencies -through HVDC
back to back Inter regional links are available in which one regional system is converted to D.C. and
then inverted to A.C. system at the same location to match the other region grid so as to tie both the
regional grids.
Power system reliability includes the following aspects
• Reliability of supply
• Regulation of voltage.
• Regulation of frequency.
Reliability supply is achieved through :
a. Improved power system protection.
b. System interconnection.
c. Larger capacity in generation and transmission lines.
d. More reliable equipments
Regulation of Voltage :
Effects of low voltage and low frequency
a. It will effect the consumers apparatus adversely.
b. Industrial output reduced.
c. Performance of electrical equipments will be poor.
Hence the voltage and frequency are to be maintained with in the specified security limits.
General Guide lines for Voltage Control
• It is not desirable to transmit the reactive power, It should be locally
compensated.
• Voltage is affected by both active and reactive power.
• Generators, synchronous condensers should have sufficient reactive
margins under normal conditions.
• Generating stations should generate maximum VAR without affecting active.
generation and generators should absorb reactive power during off peak hour
and when the voltage is high.
• Generation of Var can be achieved by idle charging of EHV lines.
Over - Voltage Control :
• Request power plants to increase VAR absorption with respect. to capability
curve.
• Avoid injection of V AR beyond 103% of voltage.
• Switching on bus, line and tertiary reactors.
• Switching off capacitors.
• Operating OL TC.
• Operate Hydro generators as synchronous motor.
• Switching of dial EHT lines.
T & SS Training Institute, - 99 - Madurai.
Low-Voltage Control :
• Request the near by power plants to increase the V AR generation.
• Avoid absorption of V AR below 97% of voltage.
• Switch off local bus, line and tertiary reactors.
• Switch on capacitor banks.
• Changing transformer tap positions.

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• Connect synchronous condensers for VAR generation.


• Charge radial EHT feeders.
• Shed low power factor loads.
Frequency Control :
Frequency Control is achieved by matching the load with generation. Here the load
forecasting and generating scheduling plays a vital role. As per IE rule the variation in frequency upto
3% is allowed. If the frequency goes out of the range either low or high, frequency control is done as
detailed below.
High Frequency Control :
• Pumped storage plants can be utilized to contain high frequency.
• The constituents of the grid may be asked to draw their allocated share of
power.
• Under drawing constituents may shut down their machines to have the
scheduled drawl.
• Backing down of generation in thermal station.
• The output of the hydel machines may be reduced to reduce the frequency.
Under Frequency Control
• Increase the active generation in all generating stations.
• The constituents of the grid may be asked to restrict their drawl as per schedule
• Local Shedding to be carried out to improve the frequency.
Load Shedding :
• Manual load shedding
• Automatic load shedding
Manual Load Shedding:
To match the generation with load if the load is more, each sub-station operators are called
upon to reduce the load so as to improve the frequency. At the same time, to aviod long and frequent
interruptions to an area a roaster of all feeders in all the sub-stations can be prepared and load
shedding can be done in rotation among these feeders to improve the frequency.
Automatic Load Shedding :
Manual load shedding will not be more effective at the time of sudden increase of load or
sudden loss of generation. To meet this situation Automatic load shedding is being resorted.
For Automatic load shedding a set of feeders are set to trip at a certain under frequency so as
to have the grid from under frequency conditions.
To meet a sudden huge loss of generation and resultant collapse of the grid an islanding
scheme have been devised.
T & SS Training Institute, - 100 - Madurai.
UF System Protection in TNEB
To get separated from southern grid during disturbance the following inter-state feeders are
tripped with Reverse Power Flow (RPF) and under frequency relay combination.
1. 400 Kv Sriperumpudur - Cuddappah will trip at 100 MW (Export to Cuddappah)
when frequency is less than or equal to 48Hz with time delay of 0.5 sec.
2. 440 Kv Salem- Bangalore will trip at 300,MW (Expert to Bangalore) when
frequency is less than of equal to 48 Hz with time delay of 1.0 sec. ‘
When these 400 KV feeders gets tripped TNEB with Kerala become separated from Andhra
and Kamataka.
If the frequency is not improving due to generation and load mismatch load release through
under frequency relays set at 47:8Hz / Instantaneous obtained. Selected 110Kv feeders would trip on
under frequency relay to effect a load relief of 650 MW.
Apart from this certain other feeders set at 47.60 / lost. are tripped to effect additional 150 Mw
load relief before islanding occurs.
On further decline of frequency persisting sub-islanding scheme to get the following block

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islands will be effected.


I. ETPS (combined with B.B. -GTPS) block - 47.6 Hz / 0.75 sec
2. GMR Vasavi Diesel Generation block - 47.6 Hz I 0.75 sec
3. NCTPS (combined with TCPL generation block) - 47.6 Hz / 2 sec
4. Neyveli Thermal Power station block - 47.6 Hz / 2 sec
5. Mettur Thermal Power Station block - 47.6 Hz / 2 sec
6. TTPS Hydro block - 47.6 Hz / 2 sec
During under frequency conditions (in below 47.6 Hz / 2 sec) islanding will take place and the
grid, will be separated into blocks as specified above and the block subjected to generation loss or
bulk addition of load will only be collapsed and the rest will be’safe and thus this system prevents the
total system failure.
Kinds of grid disturbance :
• Tamilnadu & Kerala separated from the southern grid. (Southern Block f separation).
• Total system black out (Entire system will be collapsed)
• Partial system block out (Particular point on of the grid gets collapsed)
• System split-up (Each block gets separated with out failure.
• Brownout (Voltage collapsed).
Causes for Islanding:
• Sudden loss of generation due to tripping of machines.
• Unexpected addition of heavy load.
• Due to tripping of some important feeders resulting in random flow of power resulting
in system instability.
• Sudden over-drawl of power against the allocated share by the constituents of the
grid.
• More imbalances between generation and load.
As soon as islanding has occurred the frequency is maintained in each block within the limits
either by manual load shedding during under frequency conditions or by charging of the feeders
tripped on under frequency for load relief during high frequency condition. Power supply from the
nearby block is extended to the affected block to synchronize their machines. The loads of the
.islanded block are given supply In steps based on the generation achieved in that block. Nearby
blocks are get tied matching the frequency of both the blocks. -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -101-
8. SAFETY IN SUB - STATION
Prevention of damages to equipment’s and
men working on them due to any accidents is an
essential aspect in any establishment. Prevention
of accident which is an unforeseen one is more essential
aspect of any establishment/ organisation.
As accidents occur mainly due to unsafety
execution, action and circumstances, these accidents
can be avoided by adopting safety precautions,
implementing safety producedures and following
saftety rules.
General safety methods:
1. While execution of any work, that part of equipment
or line is to be isolated from the supply.
2. Using discharge rods, charging, current if any
is to be discharged.
3. Using Earth rods, all phases/ conducting path
are to be property earthed by securing good
earthing.

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4. When even opening an AB switch or closing


AB switch is also advisable and preferable to
wear rubber gloves.
5. Use of belt rope is another safety method to
be adopted to work on elevated places.
Safety methods to be adopted in Sub - Station:
If any work is to be attended to any line, first
and foremost item of work is to get proper approval
from the competent controlling authority for execution
of the work specifying the date, time, duration, place
of work, affected parties etc.,
For Grid feeders and Stations, the authorized
officer for issue of approval is S.E.
(L.D.Centre),Chennai. For 110KV, 66KV radial feeders
superintending Engineer / Distribution is the approving
authority. Similarly for 33 KV Divisional Engineer
in charge of distribution is the approving authority.
Above details with the list of authorisied officers
is enclosed herewith (enclosure I).
Without obtaining proper approval from the
competent authority, no L.C. should be issued nor
availed by anybody. If the above procedure is not
followed, it is nothing but a suicidal. Further it also
amounts to murder of others.
So, after getting proper approval, line clear is
to be issued to the requested party. But the issuer
and receiver should be aware/ have full knowledge
about the SS equipment’s control room panel details
etc.,
The line clear issuing person should clearly
record the following:
a. Which breaker have been tripped.
b. Which A.B switches were opened.
c. Where earthing was done.
d. What is the safer place / Line to carry on the
execution work.
Safety arrangements in control room:
1. Key Board should be in open condition so that
the keys could be taken out quickly during
any urgency.
Line clear keyboard should be in locked up
condition to prevent other persons from using
the keys inside, before the cancellation of the
Line clear permit.
The keys should be placed in the key board
in an orderly manner according to their
numbers. Otherwise, the required lock could
not be opened in time and the possibility of
opening a wrong lock may happen.
2. Rubber mat should be provided on the floor in
front of the panel board.

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3. The following details should be clearly


displayed in the control room
Approved operating instruction for all
equipment’s Break down instructions.
Operating instructions including for the emergency
operations to be carried out in the event
of operation of buck holz relay. Differential
relay. Differential relay, Group control trip, total
supply failure and grid failure. The operator
should be fully conversant with the above
instruction and he must be able to act quickly
and effectively.
4. The Board containing D.C. cable layout. A
cable layout panel wiring diagram and earthing
layout should be displayed in the control room.
This is necessary to attend the faults
immediately after their occurence.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -102-
5. D.C.Earth leakage test system should be
available.
6. There should not be any defective power plugs,
switches and bulb holders in the control room
wiring.
7. One artificial respirator should be available in
ready condition.
8. Stools made of insulating material should be
used for operating high tension communication
equipment’s (Telephones).
9. Adequate number of rubber gloves, belt ropes,
discharge rods, and earth rods in good
condition should be available in the control
room.
Battery room:
1. Battery room should be in locked up condition.
“Naked flame is prohibited inside of the battery
room” and “Smoking prohibited” warnings should
be kept written on the battery room door.
2. One exhaust fan should be functioning.
3. Accurate D.C. cell testing volt meters, hydrometers
and thermometers should be available in
the battery room.
4. Pilot cell voltage, specific gravity and temperature
should be taken every week.
5. The specific gravity should not be maintained
below 1195 at 15.60C and below 1183 at 32.200C
allowed. The battery should not be allowed to
discharge below 1160.
6. Cell voltage should be maintained between 1.95V
to 2.05V. The battery should not be allowed to
discharge below 1.85V.
7. Battery should be allowed neither to overcharge

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nor to undercharge. It should not also be kept


idle.
8. Electrolyte level must be checked in every shift.
It must be ensured that the level is 10mm above
the top of the plates.
9. Weak cells should be rectified then and there.
10. While taking specific gravity readings, care must
be taken not to allow the acid to come in contact
with the eyes.
Safety adopted for transformers:
1. Transformers are to be maintained periodically
as per schedule. Switches on HV side and
LV side are to be isolated after releasing the
load tripping the breakers.
2. Kiosks and OCB: All the Live parts of the Kiosk
should have H.T. insulation tape. To be
protected by wiremesh. It should be vermin
proof. Keys are to be kept with inter lock.
Whenever to open the door of the kiosk, kiosk
should be tripped link should be opened by
the interlock key. The opening of the links
are to be verified physiclly. After doing all the
above precautions, the tank should be lowered
down. Proper care is to be taken and it should
be kept in mind that supply is available at the
roofing.
Oil leak should be arrested. Back feeding is
avoided.
Cotton waste should not be used for cleaning
purpose.
AB switches:
Handle of the AB Switch is to be earthed
properly. Blades should be kept at opening position.
It should not be closed automatically, proper
maintenance is to be done for this.
AB switch blades are to be opened fully.
AB switches are to be kept locked on both conditions.
AB switches are to be opened only after
tripping the breakers.
Lightning arresters:
Lightning arresters are used to bypass the
sudden lightning surges and thereby to protect the
equipment’s.
Only after proper discharging is done on lightning
is done on lightning arresters, it should be
attempted to attend to maintenance.
Fencing is to be provided around lightning
arresters. Door arrangements with lock is to be
provided. Separate earth connections are to be provided
for lightning arresters.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -103-

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5. Current transformers:
Current transformer secondary side is to be
short circuited during maintenance and testing.
Before doing any testing, the current transformers
are to be discharged.
6. Potential transformers:
Potential transformers primary side is to be
earthed during maintenance and testing. Secondary
side is to be earthed at only one place. Whenever
giving connection, or removing meters on the
secondary side of the potential transformer, the fuses
are to be removed and renewed.
7. Capacitors and H.T. Coupling capacitor:
Capacitors should be provided inside fencing.
Before attempting to do any work, proper discharging
is to be done. Then only it should be attempted
for maintenance work. Proper earthing should be
provided during the execution of the work.
After completion of the work, earthing is to be
removed.
8. Earth pits:
Sub-Station earth connections should be
properly maintained so that the earth resistance is
minimum. Water should be poured in the earth pits
daily.
Earth connections, must be capable of protecting
the persons working in the electrical
equipment’s and protect in the equipment’s during
heavy fault current.
Earth resistance should not exceed the following
limits.
Grid Stations: 1 ohm
Other sub-stations - 2 ohm
Distribution transformers 5 ohm.
There must be a clearance of 5 feet, between
the sub-station fence and the electrical equipment’s
/ live points. The fence should be earthed at every
200 feet, separately. Generally the fence earthing
should not be linked with the sub-station earthing.
But if the clearance is less than 5ft. feet fence earthing
must be linked with the sub-station earthing. The
iron gates in the sub-station fence should also be
earthed separately.
9. Fire fighting equipment’s:-
These equipment’s are to be kept on good
and working condition. Proper schedule of maintenance
is to be done for keeping them in good conditions.
These equipment’s should be kept at an easily
accessible place so as to use them immediately
under emergency.
Dry sand heaps are to be available wherever

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necessary. Empty buckets are to be provided.


10. S.S. Yard:
1. S.S. Yard should be provided with fencing.
2. Unauthorised persons should not enter into the
yard.
3. Cable ducts are to be provided with slabs.
4. Best illumination is to be provided for the yard.
5. A warning board with a display that “Umbrella
stick, dogs should not be brought inside the yard”
is to be provided at the entrance of the yard.
6. A separate room is to-be provided for keeping
the empty drums. At the entrance of the room
“No smoking” Board is to be provided.
General:
1. The territory of the work spot which was de
clared safety to work is to be clearly identified
by tying a rope. Inside this boundary is to be
further identified by hanging a green flag.
2. Wherever necessary caution boards like “Men
on working” Don’t switch on “Safe work” etc.,
are to be provided.
3. If any unauthorised, unskilled staff happen to go
near the equipment’s he can do so with the assistance
and under the vigil of an experienced,
authorised staff.
4. Conversation is strictly prohibited while execution
of any work. It should be totally avoided
especially when work is being carried out on any
bus bars and kiosk.
5. Placing the materials, tools and plants and men
are to be at a safety clearance from the live parts.
6. T & Ps like spanners etc are to be lifted and
brought down only by means of ropes and not
by throwing and catching.
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -104-
7. Study and safe ladder with steps at convenient
intervals is to be used. To avoid slippage of the
ladder, necessary precaution is to be taken at
the bottom of the ladder by providing empty gunnies.
8. Lifting of any ladder or rod: (Earth) are to be done
only horizontally. Vertical lifting may cause damages
by interrupting with the safe clearances.
9. The bus and line links are to be kept opened
while doing work on OCB & OMCB.
10. Summing up, 100% care should be taken in
adopting and implementing safety rules and precautions.
Conclusion:
In each and every sub-station, action should be
taken for adopting safety precautions, so as to
avoid accidents. Each and every staff should be
well educated about the safety rules, precautions

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and methods. If everybody is aware of the


safety procedures, rules, etc., accidents can be
eliminated in sub-stations. Copy of Memo
No.EPC/A3/T & P/ Genl. dt.12.12.77 from the
Chief Engineer/ Distribution/ 157 Anna Salai,
Madras -2 Addressed to Superintending Engineer,
Electricity System. GCC North, Central and
South, Transmission, Rural Electrification and
Line Loss and copy to the Chief Engineer General
Operation) Thermal Tuticorin Thermal Power
Project.
9. ABB “CARE”
A) STORAGE “ CARE”
(I) CIRCUIT BREAKER GETS DELIVERED IN FOLLOWING MANNER:
S.No. ITEMS INSTRUCTION
1. POLES OUTDOOR
WELL COVERED
ABOVE HFL
2. ACCESSORIES (DENSITY MONITOR
CABLE ETC)., INDOOR
3. TERMINAL CONNECTOR INDOOR
4. STRUCTURE OUTDOOR
5. DRIVE INDOOR
6. SWITCH CUBICLE OUTDOOR
ON HORIZONRAL
LEVELLED
PLATFORM
7. COPPER PIPES INDOOR
8. CABLES INDOOR
9. COMPRESSOR RECEIVER OUTDOOR
10. DOUBLE ARC CHAMBER OUTDOOR
11. GRADING CAPACITOR OUTDOOR
12. RESISTOR STACK OUTDOOR
REMARK : IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT EQUIPMENT AS
INDICATED ABOVE ARE TO BE STORED INDOOR ONLY. THIS IS TO PREVENT
DAMAGES DUE TO INGESS OF DUST, RAIN WATER, ETC. UNTIL
INSTALLATION OUTSIDE.
- 105 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
GUIDE LINES FOR PACKING ADVICE
SR.
NO.
TYPE OF
BREAKER &
VOLTAGE
RATING
POLES DRIVE
SWITCH
CUBICLE
COMP/
RECEIVER
TERMINAL

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CONNECTOR
CABLE
19
CORE
PIPE LINE
PNEUMATIC
QTY
OF
SFG.
GAS
ETU
DOUBLE
ARC
CHAM
GRADING
CAPACITOR
RESISTOR
STACK
ACCESS
ORIES
STRU
CTUR
E STE/
CB
1 ELF SF 2-1
(1) 72.5 KV /
145 KV
3 1 1 A.B.1 6 LOT LOT
3.5
KG
N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 1 SET
2 ELF SF 2-1
(1) 72.5 KV /
145 KV
3
COVER
ED IN
POLE
1 A, B 1 6 LOT LOT
7.8
KG.
N.A. N.A. N.A. 1 1SET
3. ELF SL 1-1 /
ELF SL 2-1
72.5 KV /
145 KV
3 3 1 A,B 1 6 LOT LOT
8.0
KG
N.A. N.A. N.A. 1 1SET
4. ELF SL 4-1

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245 KV
A,B,C 3 3 1 1 6 LOT LOT
8.0
K.G.
N.A. N.A. N.A. 1 1 SET
5. ELF SL 4-1
(1 POLE)
245 KV)
1 1 1 1 2 LOT LOT
7.0
K.G.
N.A. N.A. N.A. 1 1 SET
6. ELF SL 4-1
(2 POLE)
245 KV)
A,B 2 2 1 1 4 LOT LOT
14.0
K.G.
N.A. N.A. N.A. 1 1 SET
7. ELF SL 4-2
245 KV
3 3 1 1 6 LOT LOT
21.6
KG.
A,B.C, 3 N.A. N.A. 1 1SET
8. ELF SL 6-2 3 3 1 A,B, 1 6 LOT LOT 30.0K A,B,C 3 A,B,C, 6 6 1 1SET
- 106 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
420 KV G.
9. EL (V) FSL
6-2 420 KV
3 3 1 A,B, 1 6 LOT LOT
45.0
K.G.
A,B,C 3. A,B,C, 6 6 1 1SET
PACKING
BOX NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
STORAGE GUIDANCE
OUT
DOOR
COVERE
D ABOVE
RFL
IN
DOOR
IN DOOR
OUT
DOOR
IN DOOR IN
DOOR IN DOOR IN
DOOR

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OU
T
DO
OR
OUT
DOOR OUT DOOR OUT
DOOR
IN
DOOR
OUT
DOOR
1) UNLOADING PRECAUTIONS
i) No impact unloading to be done
ii) Proper equipment like bundle rope, lifting hooks adequate capacity crane.
HFL = HIGHEST FLOOD LEVEL
A B = SEPARATELY PACKED IN 2 BOXES
ABC = SEPARATELY PACKED IN 3 BOXES
ABC * = SEPARATELY PACKED IN 3 BOXES, EACH BOX COMAINING CORONA RINE
* 6 & 7 = CABLE 19 CORE REQUIRED LENGTH IS SUPPLIED BASED ON CONTRACT GA DRAWING ALSO RETER
PACKING ADVICE
* 8 = QTY OR GAS REQUIRED QUANTITY OF SF6 GAS IS SUPPLIED IN THE CYLINDER ALSO REFER PACKING
ADVICE.
- 107 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
Approximate Weight With Packing Case
Pole Arc Chamber Accessor
ies
Drive Switch
Cubicle
72.5 &
145kv
1300 Kg 3 Poles In 1
Box With Arc
Chamber
Covered In Pole 100kg 250kg 350kg
245 kv 100kg WITH Arc
Chamber
Covered in pole 100 KG 250 Kg 350Kg
420 Kv 1400 KG 1550 KG Arc chamber
150 KG capacitor 450
KG resistor stack
100 KG 250 KG 350 KG
B) INSTALLATION “CARE”
1. PRELIMINARY WORK TO BE ORGANISED PRIOR TO INSTALLATION
REQUIRED DOCUMENTS :
! INSTRUCTION MANUAL
! GENERALARRANGEMENT DRAWING
! SCHEMATIC DRAWING ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL
! VERIFY ALL THE MATERIALS AS PER PACKING LIST.
! LIFTING DEVICE (HOIST, SLING MANILA ROPE)
! D’S FIXED SPANNER SET.
! 2 NOS 32-36 MM 42-46 MM.

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! TORQUE WRENCH 10-32 NM 3KGM. - 15KGM.


! TRICHLORETHYLINE.
! STARCH LESS & FIBER LESS CLOTH (MUL -MUL)
! WIRE BRUSH
! ADHESIVE LUBRICANT
! LOCTITE 241
! MOLYKOTE GREASE - (321-R)
2. AIR SYSTEMS :
A). CLEAN THE PIPE LINES AS INDICATED IN SEQUENCE USE “PULL THROUGH”
CLEAN WITH
! WATER JET
! BLOW COMPRESSED AIR
! INSPECT FOR FOREIGN PARTICLES.
B) ERMETTO CONNECTIONS
! USE RIGHT ANGLE CUTTING WITH PIPE CUTTER.
CLEAN, APPLY OIL &THEN TIGHTEN.
OPEN THE JOINT AND INSPECT FOR FORMATION OF GROOVE IN THE PIPE.
FORMATION OF GROOVE INDICATES THAT THE JOINT IS PROPER.
C). ALL PIPE JOINTS MUST BE “CLAMPED”
D) ENSURE NO RUBBING BETWEEN PULL ROD AND CHANNEL. FOR
SPECIFICATIONS OF GAP REFER DRAWINGS (FOR GANG OPERATED BREAKERS
72.5/ 145KV)
- 108 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
3) GAS SYTSTEM & FILLING
A) Verify the Presence of SF6 Gas By once pressing pin of coupling and listen the
sound.
B) Do not permit moisture while assembly is made.
C) Unless alarm is connected do not connect gas pipe lines.
D) Use two spanner while connecting or disconnecting gas pipe lines.
E) Temperature correction to be incorporated while making up of SF6 gas in the
Breaker by referring pressure temperature chart in the instruction manual .
i.e. ABSOLUTE PRESSURE GAUGE PRESSURE
7.0 bar at 20’C 6.0 bar at 20’C
7.3 bar at 20’C 6.3 bar at 30’C and
7.6 bar at 20’C 6.6 at 40’C
f) Approx, Gas weight per circuit Breaker.
Type : 72.5 KV 145KV 245KV 420KV(Without Resistor) 420 (With resistor)
Weight : 3.5 KG 7.8 KG 21.8KG 30.00KG 45.0 KG
G). All pipe joints must be “Clamped”
4) Pole column :
Crane capacity 420KV 245KV 145KV
Max. Weight / Pole 3 Ton 2 Ton 1.5 Ton
Height / Pole 13 Metres 10 Metres 8 Metres
(Height of Crane Hook)
A) Matching SR Nos. of Poles with SR Nos of Breaker and Drive.
B) While lifting pole column protect gas Coupling from damage.
C) Not to insert washer in between “POLE COLUMN & STRUCTURE” for leveling.
D) Density monitor fixing Refer instruction manual.
E) Fixing of Driving Mechanism it Should be in Trip Condition for 245 / 400KV Breakers.
For more details refer instruction manual.
C) COMMISSIONING “CARE”

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A) Check SF6 Leakage with “detector”


(Joints must be covered with polythene bag for at least 2 Hours).
Insert the probe of leak detector inside polythene bag & Check the Leakage.
B) Ensure SF6 Gas going into all 3 phases. Can be achieved by first filling in central
pole to normal pressure. Then connect inter-pipe and observe pressure dropping to
Half. Rise the pressure once again to normal. Connect Remaining inter-pipe and
Observe Pressure Dropping to 2/3. During this period verify density monitor contacts
refer (D) finally make up the pressure to the normal pressure.
- 109 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
C) Check operation of closing interlock while filling air pressure in 245/ 420 KV Breakers.
D) Ensure that 245KV and 420 KV Breakers have their own close blocking devices.
They should never be interchanged.
E) Verify density monitor : Verify contacts & alarm for Refill, While reducing the gas
pressure level. (Refer OPERATING & instruction Manual).
F) Verify Breaker timings
CLOSE R Y B
OPEN
CO
G) “Never By pass” gas density monitor contactor as well as air pressure switch
contacts.
H) Apply very thin layer of Grease on Tip of the Density Monitor Plug. Then insert the
plug inside the socket. Listen Carefully for A ‘Click’ Sound, to confirm full insertion.
I) Check All electrical interlocks are incorporated in the circuit.
J) Flush air pipes several Times.
D) DAILY “CARE”
Drain the condensate during early Morning Hours. Draining Should Continue All
compressor starts.
Record the time in minutes from start of compressor until it stops.
E) QUARTERLY “CARE”
Q.1. External Cleaning of
Insulator
Prior to monsoon and as & when Shutdown
is available or deposits are too thick. Dust /
Dirt to be removed.
Q.2. Switch cubicle cleaning Open the switch cubicle & Remove webs/
dust.
Q.3 Check wiring connection in
switch cubicle
Check wiring connection Tightly secured.
Check healthiness of relay, Contactors, Etc.
Q.4. Compressor Check & Compare the Running Time.
Q.5. Compressed Air Plant Maintenance to be carried out as per
instruction manual check for any leakage,
check oil leakage, check for alarm, non
Return valve to be opened & Cleaned, Verify
motor thermal overload is working or not.
Q.6. Pressure switch in switch
cubicle
Check by reducing the pressure up to
requisite value. The Switch should enter into
blocking zone at specified pressure.

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Q.7. Verification of SF6 Alarm Healthiness of alarm can be verified by


shorting electrical circuit, not by draining SF6
Gas.
- 110 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
T1) Trouble shooting chart for SF6 circuit Breaker
Type of
Condition
Possible Cause Recommended corrective Measures
A. Gas
Alarm
i) If alarm, had come after a very
long time and leakage not heavy.
a) Make up the gas pressure with the help of
gas refilling device & temperature correction
chart Absolute pressure Gauge Pressure
7.0 Bar at 200C 6.0 Bar at 200C
7.3 Bar at 200C 6.3. Bar at 300C
7.6 Bar at 200C 6.6 Bar at 400C
b) If felt necessary then plan the shutdown for
searching the leakage and attending leakage
thereof
ii) If alarm comes on frequently
and the leak rate is high :
ii) CHECK :-
1) Electrical Circuit
2) Gas pipe Braze Joints
3) Gas pipe Couplings.
4) Insulator joints.
5) Lip seal Assembly.
Procedure for Checks :
! Check Healthiness of leak detector
! The joints to be covered with bags for at least 2 Hrs.
! The insert the probe of leak detector inside bag & check.
! If required, replace/ repair the leak joints / gaskets.
This trouble shooting charts are for handy guidelines, do not Hesitate to contact us for any
further clarifications details at the nearest ABB office (Addresses given on the back-cover
page)
Type of condition Possible Cause Recommended corrective Measures
B. Circuit Beaker
Does not Operate
at Impulse to
close.
! No or Low control voltage.
! Close impulse blocked.
! Control Circuit interrupted.
! Magnet ventil plunger sticky.
! Aux. Switch element.
! Density Monitor Cable.
! Tripping Plunger Solenoid in lifted
position.
CHECK & CORRECT :

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! Positions of Switch
! Control Voltage
! Pressure Switch Contacts.
! Density Monitor Contacts.
! Magnet Ventil piston.
- 111 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
C) Circuit
Breaker does not
operate at
impulse to open.
! No or Low control voltage.
! Opening impulse blocked.
! Control circuit interrupted.
! Aux. Switch element.
! Density Monitor cable.
! Magnet ventil plunger stickly.
CHECK & CORRECT :
! Positions of Switch
! Control Voltage
! Pressure Switch contacts.
! Density Monitor Contacts.
! Magnet ventil piston.
D) Circuit Beaker
Operates Without
impulse.
! Short Circuit or fault in connecting
with control Circuit.
! Check Plunger.
CHECK & CORRECT :
! Circuit diagram for voltage Control
lest insulation.
! Insulation of Coils.
E) Circuit Breaker
Hunting
! Faulty anti-pumping relay. CHECK & CORRECT :-
! Control Circuit.
! Anti – pumping relay.
F) Contact
Erosion.
! Overheating.
! Warn arcing contacts large No.of
operations (Refer Manual)
! Clean & Lubricate contact surface
in stipulated manner. Reassemble
and check resistance.
! Refer instruction manual for the no.
of operations versus fault current.
For further guidance please
contact nearest ABB office.
G) Single Pole
operation (pole

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Discrepancy).
! Electrical of Mechanical Fault in
operating Device.
! Locate Faulty pole. Check Driving
Mechanism. As well as Magnetic
ventiles.
! Check Electrical Circuit.
TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART FOR COMPRESSOR
Type of condition Possible Cause Recommended corrective Measures
A) Compressor
Frequently runs or runs
for A longer duration.
Leakage in
! Pipe Line Joints.
! Audible leakage in Circuit
Breaker.
! Replace / Repair leaky joints.
B) Compressor Fails to
start or motor gets
overloaded.
! Non return valve.
! Not Working.
! Replace Non return valve or
springs of Non Return valve or
clean and refill.
C) Oil Contamination in
pressurized air system.
! Dirty Oil/ Oil Level low.
! Cylinder and intercollertins
dirty.
! Change Oil, Fill correct Grade of oil
up to maximum level in the oil level
indicator.
- 112 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
! Blow with compressed air or clean
Manually.
! Open, Clean & Refill after
checking.
D) Oil contamination in
pressurized air system.
! Choked air filter.
! Oil level high.
! Oil viscosity too low.
Breather valve not working.
! Piston rings stuck in grooves
or broken.
! Piston to cylinder clearance
excessive.
! Clean the air filter.
! Drain oil to Correct level.
! Change to recommended grade.

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! Open, clean & refit after checking


! Remove piston and loosen ring.
! Replace if broken. Check all
related parts for wear before fitting.
E) Water or rust
formation in crank
Housing
! Faulty breather ! Check & Replace the Breather
valve if necessary.
F) Unusual water in
Cylinder Piston and
Rings.
! Inadequate air filter
maintenance.
! Incorrect grade of oil.
! Increase frequency of cleaning.
! Change to correct grade of oil as
given in recommended lubricant
chart.
G) Compressor
knocking
! Loose Compressor fan fly
wheel,
! Worn out piston, cylinder,
crank, shaft & connecting rod
bearings.
! Adjust or replace if elongated
! Open and re-tighten.
! Open, clean & refit after careful
check.
! Replace after checking the related
components.
H) Pressure build –up
time excessive.
! Loose belts.
! Leaky joints in pressure
lines.
! Defective seating of inlet &
delivery valve plats
! Adjust or replace if elongated
! Open and re-tighten.
! Open, Clean & Refit after careful
check.
! Replace after checking the related
components.
I) Excessive Belt wean. ! Incorrect motor and
compressor pulley
alignment.
! Check, adjust using a straight edge
or string across the diameter of
both the pulleys.

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! Check belt adjustments.


J) Oil leak through
Breather
! Breather valve not working.
! Piston ring stuck in grooves.
! Piston to cylinder clearance
excessive.
! Open clean and refit breather.
! Loosen the piston rings if broken
change the rings as a set.
! Check and change.
- 113 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -114-
10. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENT OF CURRENT AND
POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS
Er. M.VARADARAJAN B.E.,
CE/ Retd
In Electrical Power system, when a fault
occurs it should be isolated with minimum time delay
and without affecting other portions of the network.
The above task of selective disconnection of
the faulted line or equipment can be achieved only
when careful choice of the following equipments and
detailed analysis of condition of the system are made.
1. Current Transformer
2. Potential Transformer.
3. Circuit Breaker
4. Relay
5. Station Battery
6. Control Cable
7. Station Earthing.
Wrong choice of any of the equipments may
result in delayed clearance or no clearance of the
fault at all.
1. CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
The performance requirement can be classified
under three broad categories, based on application.
(A) Over current protection for HV feeders like
11KV, 22KV, 33KV and 66 KV feeders, transformers.
(B) Protection of EHV feeders like 110KV
230KV and 400 KV.
(C) Differential protection of Bus bar,
Tansformer lines etc.,
(A) OVER CURRENT PROTECTION
The requirment for ‘A’ is normally met by
Indian Standard Specification IS :2705 Part III, and
that for ‘C’ IS : 2705 Part IV. For application ‘B’ is
2705 Part VI are insisted. The salient features of
each specification is disussed.
A) The following are the major requirements.
1. Burden

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2. Accuracy Class
3. Rated Accuracy Limit factor.
1) Burden
The impedance of the secondary circuit
expressed in Ohms and Power factor. The burden is
usually expressed in volt ampere absorbed at a
specified power factor and at the rated secondary
current. The importance of the secondary circut is
normally the vectorial addition of burden of relay,
cable leads and any meters connected in series.
Power factor is normally 0.8 Normal available burdens
are 15 and 39 V.A.
2) Accuracy Class :
Standard accuracy class are 5P, 10P and
15P and their details of error are as noted below :
ratio error Phase displacement Composite error
at rated at rated primary at rated accuracy
Primary current current limited primary Current.
1) 5 P ± 1% +60 minutes 5%
2) 10 P ± 3% 10%
3) 15 P ± 5% 15%
Before commissioning, the adequacy of the
C.T. burden shold be carefully worked out. If the CT
gets saturated due to heavy fault current, the relay
operating time will increase considerably. If it is found
that the CT gets saturated, the following suggestion
can be considered to avoid Saturation.
1) Increase CT Ratio
2) Disconnect the instantaneous on LV side to
reduce the fault current so that each
transformer will feed certain number of feeders
in a Sub-station.
3) Avoid parallelling of transformer on LV side to
reduce the fault current so that each transformer
will feed certain number of feeders in a
Sub-station.
4) Disconnect the instantaneous element in the
earth fault relay element.
5) Change the CT.
B. CT FOR EHV FEEDERS PROTECTION
In the IDMT relay for 11 KV, 22KV & 33KV
feeders the minimum operating time will be above
100ms. The D.C. Transient normally associated with
fault current for 11, 22 and 33 KV system will die
down within 20ms. But in 230 and 400 KV system
the maximum relay operating time is 40 m.s. and
typical relay operating time is about 20 to 30 m.s.
only. The duration of D.C. transient depend upon the
time constant of the system from generating source
to the point of fault. For 230 KV system it may vary
from 16ms to 100 ms. For 400 KV system it may

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vary from 40m.s. to 100 m.s. The D.C. transient will


be reduced to less than 2% of its full value after the
duration of 4 times of its time constant. The presence
of DC transient in the primary fault current will
saturate the current transwformer. In order to avoid
the saturation, the current transformer has to be over
dimensioned. The CT has to be over dimensioned to
(1+ X/ R) times the steady state condition.
The CT requirement for EHV feeder protection
is given as follows:-
1. Knee point voltage
2. Secondary resistance
3. Accuracy class.
The sinusoidal voltage at rated frequency
applied to the secondary terminals of the transformer,
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -115-
all other windings being open circuted, which when
increased by 10%, causes the exciting current to
increase by 50%.
The general formula for the CT Knee point
voltage for EHV feeder protection is :
Vk=(X/ R +1) Lf (RCT+RL+RR)
Where Vk = knee point voltage
X/ R = Reactance to resistance ratio from source to
point of fault.
If = Primary fault current as expressed in terms
of secondary value i.e. Primary fault current
divided by CT transformation ratio.
RCT = CT secondary resistance
RL = Resistance of the cable lead from CT to relay
RR = Resistance of the relay
In Tamilnadu Electricity Board, for 230 KV
system the following are the specifications.
CT ratio : 1200 -600/ 1A, normally adopted 600/1
Accuracy Class 5P20/ Vk= 1200 Volts
Burden = 50VA
CT Secondary resistance : 6 Ohms.
In static relay the resistive burden is about 1
Ohm only. The lead burden seldom exceeds 1 Ohm.
The fault current is about 600/1 CT ratio, If = 10
Amps.
Hence 1200 = (X/R+1) (10) (6+1+1)
X/R = (1200 / 80) -1 15-1=14
In 230 KV system the X/R will vary from 5 to
30. It will be less than 10 in most of the locations
away from the generating station. Here the saturation
can be saved by increasing the CT ratio to 1200.
Further in actual fault condition there is always the
resistance of the Arc. This may vary from 1 to 5
Ohms depending on the fault current. Addition of
the Arc resistance will reduce the X/R ratio. Further,

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the knee point voltage is always in excess of 1200V.


Therefore correct peromance of the relay is always
assured under transient condition also.
Composite error :
Under steady condition, the RMS value of the
difference, initegrated over one cycle between
a) instantaneous value of the primary current and
b) The product of the rated transformation ratio
and the instantaneous value of the secondary
current.
(This includes the effects of phase difference
of any turn correction and distortion of wave
form).
This is generally expressed as a percentage
of the RMS value of the expression given below.
Composite Error = 100 / IP 1/T (Knis-ip)2dt
IP = Primary current
T = Duration of the cycle in second .
K = Rated transformation ratio.
Is = Instantaneous value of the
secondary current
Ip = Instantaneous value of the primary
current.
3. RATED ACCURACY LIMITED FACTOR.
The value of the accuracy limit factor for which
the accuracy requirements of this specification are
most at rated burden. The standard accuracy limit
factors are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30.
400-200/1 Amp. 15 (or 30) VA, 5p15. It means
that when primary current of 200 Amps flow, the
secondary current will be 1 amp and can feed a
burden of 15 ohms (30). When the primary current
reaches, 15 times the rated value, the CT can still
feed the burden of 15(30) Ohms and the composite
error will not exced 5 percent in the transformation.
Practically in TamilNadu Electricity Board it
is normal practice to provide two (three) over current
IDMT relays each with instantaneous element as
shown in the diagram. The burden of the IDMT relay
at 100% plug setting is 3 V.A. For one amp rated
relay it is equal to 3 Ohms. For over current relay
the normal practice is to adopt 100% and for earth
fault relay 40% plug setting.
For O/L element the burden is 3 Ohms (Z)
for E/L elements it is Z=3
(0.4)2 Z=3
Z=3/0.16 = 18.7 Ohms. App.
The burden of instantaneous element is 5VA
or 5 ohms. Hence the total burden in series for an
earth fault will be
Z O/L ins + Z O/L IDMT + Z EL IDMT

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= 5+3+5 +18.7 = 13.7 ohms.


The current practice in TamilNadu Electricity
Board is to use CT of 30 VA.This will develop 450V
at its output i.e. 30 x 15 =450. The impedance (Z)
and current can vary so that the product should not
exceed 450V. In a sub-station where 3 Nos, 110KV/
22KV, 10 MVA transformers with 10% impedance
each are provided, the fault MVA will be 300 when
infinite bus is assumed on HV side, Under actual
condition the fault MVA will be about 2/3 of this value
i.e. 200 MVA. The fault current on LV side will be
about 5,200 Amps. When 300/1 Amp CT is used,
CT secondary current will be 17.3 Amp. Apparently
it may look that with 31.7 Ohms burden, CT will not
develop sufficient voltage to drive this current (31.7 x
17.3 = 548.4v). But in the case of IDMT relay, as
current increases, core in the relay saturates and
the relay burden will reduce to 40% of its value at 10
times the current setting. So the O/L and E./L burden
(3+18.7) = 12.7 ohms will be reduced to 8.68
ohms and the total burden will be 18.68 ohms The
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -116-
CT will have to develop 16.68 x 17.3 = 323.16V
only. The relay will act correctly .
Since the feeder IV will be carrying the total
current of feeder to III, there is a possiblity that under
D.C. transient condition, the CT in this feeder
will get saturated. Assuming that the CT is fully saturated
and there is no secondary current circulating
in feeder IV, then the total current circulation in the
circuit due to feeder I to III will develop a voltage due
to secondary resistance as given below :-
C) CT Requirement for High Impedance Differential
Relays
In this relaying scheme the current entering
the bus is compared with the current leaving the bus.
In case of fault in the bus, the flow of the current is
always towards the bus and the relay operates (A).
In case of fault outside the bus (B) the current entering
the bus is equal to the current leaving the bus.
Hence the relay does not operate. But this is an
ideal condition which is not normally met in actual
condition. For this application, ratio error should be
very minium i.e. the excitation current should be low.
For purpose of analysis figure B is redrawn with two
feeders only.
(i) When CT is not saturated :
ii) When CT is Saturated :
When the CT is not saturated, the voltage
across the relay terminal -AB is Zero. But when CT
IV is fully saturated, the voltage is I (Rct+RL). When

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Rct=6 ohm, RL =1ohm, If I=10 Amp, Voltage accross


AB 70V. The impedance of the relay is approximately
1 ohm. The operating current of the relay is usually
less than 1 Amp. The 70 V will drive a heavy current
through the relay and the relay will operate which
should not occur for a fault out side the bus. In order
to avoid the operation of relay resistance of suitable
value is introduced in the relay circuit.
If in this case a resistance of 140 ohms is
introduced, the current is reduced to 0.5 Amps and
the operation of relay is prevented. Further CT III will
have to develop 2x70 = 140 volts. For differential protection
a separate accuracy class is introduced in
the Indian Standard as ‘PS’ class IS : 2705 part IV.
In this class the following details are specified.
1) Knee point voltage Vk
2) CT secondary resistancce Rct
3) Excitation current at a certain point of Vk
This should be very minimum.
In Tamil Nadu Electricity Board for 230 KV
system for the bus bar protection the following standards
are specified.
1) CT ratio : 1200 / 1A
2) Vk above 1000V
3) Rct= 6 ohms
4) Excitation current below 30 mill Amps at Rk/2
The above specification will ensure current
operation of relay under most severe fault condition.
2. POTENTAL TRANSFORMERS
A. For potential transformers two standards are
specified :
1) Metering
2) Protection
1) Metering : IS: 3156 Part II
Class Percentage Voltage Phase
displacement
(Ratio error) Minutes
0.1 ± 0.1 ± 5
0.2 ± 0.2 ± 10
0.5 ± 0.5 ± 20
1 ± 1 ± 40
3 ± 3 ..
The performance of PT shall be with in this
range from 80% to 120% rated voltage with burden
between 25 and 100% at 0.8 power factor lagging.
2) Protection : IS : 3156 Part III.
Class Percentage Voltage Phase
displacement
Percentage In Minutes
3 ± 3 ± 120
5 ± 5 ± 300

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The performance of the PT shall be within


this range at any voltage from 5 to 120% of rated
voltage with burden between 25 percentage and 100
percentage at 0.8 P.F lagging.
Under fault condition the primary voltage
actually goes down. Only true transformation of primary
voltage is required under reduced voltage level.
Hence no over-dimensioning is required. Because
of this, single core is used both for metering and
protection. With the introduction of static relay, the
load due’ to protective relay is 1 VA, where as the
total burden due to many meters will be as high as
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai. -117-
15 to 20 VA. Hence, normally only one core is specified which is expected to meet the specifation both for
metering and protection.
The following precaution should be taken In selection of PT for protection purpose
Three Nos. single PTs or a PT with a five limbed core should be used. Three limbed core should not be
used for protection purpose. In three limbed PT both positive and negative sequence voltages will be correctly
transformed, but there is no path for zero sequence flux and it will not be correctly transformed.
There are two types of PTs available, viz
(A) Electromagnetic and
(B) Capacitive voltage transformers.
(A) Electromagnetic PT: Electromagnetic PT is just
like any other transformer. Only difference is the large
transformation ratio such as 1000 or 2000.
(B) Capacitive voltage Transformer:
It is actually a capaccitance voltage divider
with, auxilary transformer. The transformation ratio
of auxilary VT is 11KV/ 3/110/3 irrespective of primary
voltage divider suitably adjusted.
Performance-wise there is no problem with
electromagnetic PT. But the cost of electromagnetic
PT is higher than CVT at 230 KV level and very much
higher at 400 KV level. So it is normal practice to
use CVT at 230 KV and higher voltage level.
From the examination of figure B, it can be
seen that the CVT is a series resonance circuit.
During fault condition when the high voltage point is
grounded, the charge in the condenser discharges
and a sub-harmonic resonance frequency voltage is
induced in the secondary of CVT. This voltage becomes
predominant when the primary voltage falls
bellow 10% of this rated value. As per I.S, this voltage
should decay to less than 10% of the peak value
before the short circuit, within one cycle of the power
frequency. For 50 Hz system this time is 20 m.s.
With fast acting relay, this subharmonic voltage will
introduce two problems.
1) Wrong directional response
2) Error in measurement of impedance in case
of distance protection

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This problem is solved by the following methods:


1) The duration of the sub-harmonic voltage can
be considerably reduced by loading the PT
to its full burden.
2) The relay measurement is inherantly delayed
by half to 1 cycle duration.
3) In the relay, the PT voltage is filtered by a
filter, tuned to power frequency. This filter is
automatically introduced when the voltage falls
below 15% of the rated voltage.
So, a careful choice of relaying scheme should
be made when CVT is used.
Further connection of any auxilary PT should
be avoided out-side CVT circuit as it may lead to
series resonance.
In Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, 0.5 class with
500 VA burden is specified for the Bust VT for protection
and metering.
The details given above are an over-all view of
the performance requirement of current and potential
transformers. Since generating capacity, transmission
lines and transformer capacity are increasing
day by day. It is the primary duty of the protection
Engineer to review the entire protection system
periodially and make modification if required to
improve the performance.
REFERENCE
1) IS 2705 part I to IV specification for current
Transformers.
2) IS 3156 part I to IV specification for voltage
Transformers.
3) Protective Relays Application Guide by GSC
Measurements.
- 118 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
11. SEQUENTIAL QUESTIONS
FOR OPERATION OF 110/11KV SUB STATION
Er.H.KAILASARAMAN, M.E., MIE.,
Executive Engineer/TNEB (Retd.)
I. OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS AND OPERATION :
01. What is an operating Instruction?
02. What are the advantages of operation Instructions?
03. Is operation responsible for any happening in the Sub Station?
04. Describe the operational stability to be exercised by the duty operator
05. How a new operator is to be acquainted with the operation of Sub Station?
(PARELLEL AND REVERSE PARALLEL SHIFTS)
II LOG BOOK AND LOG SHEET :
06. Define “ Log Book” and “Log Sheet”
07. What are the events to be recorded in Log Book?
08. Are operational events to be recorded then and there (or) after completing the
specified sequence of operations
09. What are the Parameters recorded in Log sheet

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III. LAYOUT UNDERSTANDING :


10. How will you understand the Layout of SS defining the “feeding
arrangements, controlled isolation arrangement, Power and voltage transfer
using transformer, Protective arrangement” etc.
11. Which are all the areas in a sub station, where operations have to be carried out.
12. Classify the operations to be performed for which the operating instruction should
be available
13. What is the operational equipment to control and isolate the area
14. What is the sequenced procedures to cut off loads and isolate the area
- 119 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
15. Why the isolators are called potential isolators?
16. What are the two types of isolators employed in Sub Station and define their usage
in its specific location.
17. What do you mean by “Inter Lock” and define its benefits
18. What are the statistical practical information to be available for the specific
operations areas, defined in 11
IV. CONTROLLING BREAKERS :
19. What are the types of breakers employed in SS based on various are quenching
mediums
20. What are the types of operating mechanisms employed for the operation of the
above breakers
21. How a closing spring of a “spring and lever operated mechanism” is sequenced for
its loading for a subsequent closing operation – Is spring loading by motor
operation comes with lamp indication in your panel”.
22. How will you release the load of spring while giving line clear
23. How a pneumatic (AIR) operated mechanism is sequenced for operation with Air
pressure in its reservoir and define cut off/cut in pressure
24. Are you conversant with these cut off/cut in pressures relating to the breakers of
pneumatic mechanism, in your SS
25. Are you watching the’ compressor Run’ indication lamps, such breakers in your
control panel
26. What do you infer, if the compressor is continuously running
27. Are you competent to take remedial operation measures, if such exigency arises.
28. Is there any protective arrangement to trip the breaker automatically, if Air
becomes low (or) is the breaker opening operation is locked automatically.
29. In such “Air Lockout” cases, what will you do to isolate the breaker from service.
30. What do you mean by “condensate” in the Air reservoir and measures taken by the
operator to release the same.?
31. Is it necessary to release the air in the reservoir before giving a line clear for the
breaker?
- 120 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
32. In case of SF6 Gas medium breaker, Are you conversant with working pressures
of SF6 gas, exhibited with colour indication (Green, Yellow, Red)
33. Will you trip the breaker with load if SF6 pressure is becoming low beyond the
working limit.?
34. In such “gas lock out case” how will you isolate the breaker from the system.
35. Are you conversant with the operation of all the breaker i.e. ‘close’ and “open” by
(a) locally mechanically
(b) locally electrically
(c) by remote electrically
(d) tripping thro’ relays

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36. What do you understand by


(a) Normal current carrying capacity of breaker
(b) Rupturing capacity of breakers (MVA (or) Amps)
37. What do you know about “ Fault level” of the Sub Station and how it signifies
with the employment of controlling breakers?
V. PROTECTIVES SYSTEMS & SCHEMES ;
38. What is the protective scheme available for 11KV feeders and for 110KV feeders
at sending end ?
39. What are the protective schemes for the power transformer
40. What do you mean about “ back up protection”
41. Define the back up protection for 11KV feeders, Transformers.
42. What are all the equipments and elements available for protection in association
with each controlling breaker?
43. Is potential Transformer (P.T.) associated with protection in the radial sub station?
44. What do you know about “Flag indication” of Relay?
45. Is operation conversant with the significance of flag indication and how to reset it?
46. If a tripping thro’ Relay occurs, when do the operator reset this Flag i.e. “before or
after normalizing”?
47. Why the flags are to be reset before normalizing?
48. What is meant by “Master Relay” and where it is employed?
- 121 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
49. Will there be a “Master Relay” from each transformer (or) for the whole
transformer bank?
50. What will happen, if healthy Transformer is normalized without resetting the Flag
indication of Master Relay?.
51. What are the possible, conditions, when Master Relay Flag could not be reset?
52. What the operator should do to enable for resetting the Master Relay in such
conditions?
53. What is the importance of “Annunciation legend” each controlling area, in the
annunciation panel.?
54. Are you conversant with the available annunciation for each controlling area?
55. What is the significance of “Accept and cancel” the indication in the annunciation
WINDOW?
VI. D.C. SYSTEM AND A.C. SYSTEM :
56. What is the importance of the D.C. System
57. What are the components of a D.C. System
58. What are the probable trouble shooting in the D.C. system and quick remedial
measures the operation should take on such exigencies?.
59. Why should the operate be conversant with location of D.C. fuses in the panel of
controlling areas.
60. Describe the use of A.C. supply system in the various operational areas of SS and
strum its importance
61. Is the operation conversant with measures for availing alternate A.C. supply in
case of exigencies.
62. Why it is important that the operator should know the location of A.C. fuses in the
control panel
63. What the operation should practise for familiarizing such location of D.C. fuses
and A.C. fuses.
VII. SHIFT TAKE OVER :
64. What are all the items to be checked while taking over shift duties
- 122 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai

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VIII. NORMAL OPERATION :


65. What do you mean by normal operating condition
66. What are all the observations and checks to be exercised by the operator for
the normal condition of operation
67. Is the operator conversant with the statistical information about the
operational area as defined in (X-18)
68. Is the operator able to perform the “ON Low Tap Changer” operation by (i)
Remote (ii) Electrically at site (iii) Mechanically at Site.
69. What is meant by Master/Follower control for trip operation
70. Why the transformer should not be set at different taps
71. What is the procedure change the tap if Master/Follower control is not employed?
72. Can the tap be changed for raising the voltage level at the tail end of the feeders
73. What is the significance of tap 9A, 9B & 9C in tap changing?
74. Is the operation familiar with any specific condition imposed for parallel operation
of types due to unequal % impedance.
IX SHUT DOWN/LINE CLEAR OPERATION :
75. What do you mean by shut down operation?
76. What do you mean by Line Clear?
77. What the sequence of procedure to be carried out by the operator for shut down
L.C. work?
78. What are the sequence of procedure for normalizing after completion of shut down
and L.C. work?
79. What is L.C. key board and why it should be kept under lock and key?
80. Is the operation to perform the operation, discharge and earthing personally with
the assistance of SS Shift (or) can it be entrusted to others?
81. What are all the items (T&P and consumables) that can be maintained with the
custody of operator?
82. What is the significance of keeping discharge rod and earth rods in operaor’s
custody ?
- 123 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
83. Who is the issuer and L.C. in sub station and what is his responsibility ?
84. Who is the receiver of L.C. and what is his responsibility ?
85. Why AE/maintenance of sub station issue L.C. ?
86. Who are authorized personnel for issue and receipt of line clear
87. What is the necessity for placing and a ladder in SS equipment under L.C.
88. What are other safety measures to be adopted during L.C. works
89. Do you know that the operator is officially responsible for issue of L.C. in the
entire 11KV feeders
90. Do you also know that be can limit issue of L.C. upto the first series suited of the
11KV feeder the AE/Distribution to avail L.C. of their own, since he is also
incharge of the supply on that feeder
91. Whether AE/Distribution can avail L.C. on 11KV feeders of his jurisdiction (or)
avail back feeding without informing to the operation
92. Whether the operator should be properly informed AE/Distribution to record all
operation performed in the 11KV feeders
93. What are the types of L.C. and the role of the operator and care to be exercised by
him in such L.C.
94. Define L.C. permit form and describe the procedures for issue and return of L.C.
thro’ this form
X. BLINK :
95. What is meant by blink and how it serves for minimizing the interruption

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96. What is normal duration of blink


97. What is return of blink
98. If duration of blink is extended, what the operator is to do
99. Whether the responsibility can be fixed on the personnel who obtained the blink, if
the duration is unnecessarily extended
100. Is the blink can be considered as L.C.
101. What are all the other safety aspects of the blink
- 124 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai
102. List out operating sequence for availing the shutdown in the operational areas
defined in (X) 11
XI. TRIPPING AND BREAK DOWN :
103. Define sequence of instruction for tripping/declaring break down of a 11KV feeder
104. What are the sequence of operation, if L.V. breakers trips as a back up protection.
105. How will you distinguish a tripping of L.V. and G.C. breaker for a transformer
failure or for a through fault.
106. Define sequence of operation if
(a) Temporary alarm of Transformer
(b) MOG alarm of Transformer
(c) Buchholz Relay top float of Transformer
107. What are the operating sequence if “Master Relay” act (Buchholz Relay bottom
and other transformer protective Relays)
108. If power transformer failure is observed, can be test charge the transformer
109. What the operator should do if main supply fails due to load shedding
110. What the operator should do if main supply fails due to tripping of 110KV feeder
111. Can G.C. be tripped directly with load for any emergency.
12. LINE CLEAR
1. All works on electric al equipments, switchgear, and auxiliary equipments shall be
covered by proper line clears issued by the operators.
2. Line clears shall be issued by the Operators on duty to authorized persons only. A
statement of the powers of J.E‘s and S.O.’ s and subordinate staff in respect of the issue
and respect of the issue and receipt of line clears is given below:-
-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x—x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x—x-
Grade of Employee Powers to issue and receive line clear Special authorities
(Electrical) by virtue of the post held action by Divisional
Engineer
( Electrical).
(1) (2) (3)
-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x—x-x-x-x-x-x-x-
1. (a) Junior Engineers All lines and equipments up to Not necessary.
S.O. I Grade upto 230 K.V
With at least
One year experience.
(b) Junior All lines and equipments upto Special authorisation
Engineers & 110 K.V. for 230 K.V.
s.o. S-I Grade and
special-Grade Foremen
2. Section officer II Grade Lines and equipments Lines and equipments
rated 66.K.V. and below. Rated 110. K.V.
NOTE:- (i) Line clears on Lines or equipments should be issued only by the
persons who are in direct charge of the lines or equipments concerned.
(ii) Switch board operators/ attendants in independent charge of station, will be

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treated on par with L.I. but are authorized to only issue and cancel line clears.
(iii) Construction Staff will rank on par with their counterparts in the maintenance
branch and will be authorized to only receive and return line clears.
(iv) When a Wireman has to function as lineman or lineman operator, he should
be authorized by name by the Divisional Electrical Engineer on the recommendations of
Assistant Engineer ( Electrical).
(v) In small stations where Assistant wireman functions as Wireman for normal
duties, authorization should be by the Divisional Electrical Engineer.
(vi) Helpers should not be treated as authorized persons and should work under
the guidance of higher category-officials except selected men in isolated stations who
may be authorized by name, when necessary, by Divisional – Electrical Engineer on the
recommendations of Assistant Engineer, Electrical.
- 125 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
1. The person applying for line clear should satisfy himself that the equipment on
which line clear is being issued for his work is properly and completely isolated on all
sides and it is safe for work.
2. Two numbers key boards should be maintained in all substations, one to keep the
keys of all the equipments/ line in service, and the other for accommodating the keys of
equipments/line out on line clear. The two key boards should be kept under lock and key
by the operator on duty.
3. Only one switch operation shall be done at a time by the Assistant operator taking
that particular single key only from the operator and after each individual operation the
key shall be returned to the operator. The Assistant operators, on receiving the keys from
the operator, shall check that the correct key has been handed over to him for the
operation involved. A number of keys pertaining to a series of switch operations either
for issue of line clear or resumption of normal service should not be handed over to the
Assistant operator, by the operator by only one key shall be given at a time for a
particular switch operation, although this may entail a larger time for completing the
series of operations. This is with a view to avoid non-sequential operations thereby
resulting in wrong operations or omission of certain switch operations.
4. The Operator shall verify the isolation of the equipment by checking the
semaphore indication wherever possible as and when the switchgear keys are returned to
him. The keys of the equipments on the line clear shall be kept in the separate “ Line
clear key board” and handed over to relieving operator at the end of the shift.
5. Key of an equipment or switchgear which is the point of isolation for a particular
equipment on line clear shall not on any account be given to any person including the
person taking line clear, till the line clear is returned.
6. After isolation, “ Men on line—Do not switch on “ board shall be fixed at each
and every point of isolation in such a way that the board cannot be removed unless the
lock is opened. After isolation and discharging green flags and “Safe for work” boards
shall be put on the equipment conspicuously.
7.. When the operations for the isolation of the equipments are over, the operator
shall issue line clear to the person who requisitioned for the same in the standard line
clear form.
8. The line clear shall be returned only by the person who took the line clear. If it is
necessary to transfer a line clear in the course of the maintenance work to some other
person, it shall be done by return of the line clear by the person, it shall be done by return
of the line clear by the person who first took the L.C. and then the Operator should issue
a fresh L.C. to the other person.
9. Before returning the L.C. the person who took the L.C. shall see that the
equipment is clear of all materials and earth and is in normal condition ready for service.

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10. After the return of the L.C. the Assistant Operator should check that the
equipment is clear of men, material, and earth and report the same to the Operator. The
operator shall then cancel the L.C. and give the proper key to the Assistant Operator for
closing the concerned switches, etc., one at a time, the Assistant operator also should see
that the operations are carried out only in respect of the equipment which was on line
clear and has been released for service, now. Then the equipment should be serviced.
- 126 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
T & SS Training -127- Institute, Madurai.
13. VOLTAGE VARIATION IN POWER TRANSFORMERS
1: GENERAL
Rapid growth of industries and
distribution network has resulted in voltage
variation in electrical systems. For the
healthiness of the electrical equipments and
their performance it is very much essential
to maintain the system voltage within the
prescribed limits. Voltage of the system can
be varied by changing the transformation
ratio of the transformer, by adding in or cutting
out turns of primary or secondary windings.
Basically, Tap Chan ging equipment
can be divided into:
a. OFF-CIRCUIT Tap Changer.
b. ON-LOAD Tap Changer.
1.1: OFF-CIRCUIT TAP CHANGER:
The cheapest method of changing the
turns ratio of a transformer is by using OFFCIRCUIT
Tap-Changer. As the name implies,
it is essential to de-energise the transformer
while changing the tap. An OFF-CIRCUIT
Tap-Changer mainly consists of
the following three parts [Fig.1.1] :
a. Operating handle, projecting outside the
transformer.
b. Fixed contacts with connecting ter minals,
arranged in circular form.
c. Insulated shaft with moving contacts.
The various circuit arrangements
using OFF-CIRCUIT Tap-Changer are
a. Linear
b. Single bridging
c. Double bridging
d. Series parallel
e. Star-delta..
To prevent unauthorized operation of
an OFF-CIRCUIT Tap changer, a mechanical
lock is usually provided. Sometimes,
to prevent inadvertent operation, an
electromagnetic latching device or a micro
switch is provided to open the circuit breaker
and thereby to de-energise the transformer,

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while operating the handle and well before


the movement of contacts on tap switch.
1.2: ON - LOAD TAP CHANGER:
Tap changing ON-LOAD has become necessary
* To maintain a constant secondary voltage
with a varible primary voltage.
* To control the secondary voltage with a
variable primary voltage.
* To control the flow of reactive KVA between
two Generation - systems or to adjust reactive
KVA branches of loop circuits.
* To control the division of power between
branches of loop-circuits by shifting the
phase angle position of the output voltage
of a transformer.
Now-a-days, almost all large power
transformers are fitted with OLTC and with
the introduction of OLTC, the operating efficiency
of the electrical system has considerably
improved. The principle of on-load
tap changing was developed in late 1920s
and requires a mechanism which will need
the following two conditions.
* The load current should not be interrupted
during a tap change.
* No section of winding should get short circuited
during a tap change.
All forms of ON-LOAD Tap chan ging
circuit, thus, needed to be provided with an
impedance to prevent short circuiting of tapping
section of the winding during Tap
Changing operation. The impedances can
be either a resistor or centre tapped reactor.
The tap changer can therefore be
classified in general as:
a. Reactor type.
b. Resistor type.
1.2.1: REACTOR TRANSITION TYPE
OLTC:
The simplest form of reactor switching
is shown in figure [1.2.1]. There is only a
single winding on the transformer and a
T & SS Training -128- Institute, Madurai.
switch is connected to each tapping position.
Alternate switches are connected together
to form two separate groups connected
to the outer terminals of a separate
midpoint reactor. The winding of the reactor
is rated for continuous operation.
The sequence of changing of taps is
shown in the table on the diagram. In the first

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position switch S1 is closed and the circuit


is completed through half of the reactor
winding. To change taps by one position,
switch S2 is closed in addition to S1. The
reactor then bridges a winding section between
two taps giving mid-voltage position.
For the next tap changing, the switch S1 is
opened keeping S2 closed, so that the circuit
is then via the second tapping on the
transformer winding. This particular type of
tap- changer necessitated a relatively large
number of current brea king switches which
produced a bulky unit and consequently a
large volume of oil was involved.
A modified type of reactor tap
changer is shown in Figure 12.5. This arrangement
uses two separate selectors and
two diverter switches. The selectors and
diverter switches are mechanically interlocked
and the sequence of operation is as
follows. A tap change from position 1 to 2 is
brought about by opening diverter switch
No.2, moving selector switch No.2 from tap
connection 11 to tapping conne ction 10 and
then closing diverter switch. A tap change
from position 2 to 3 initiates a similar sequence,
utilizing selector and diverter
switches No.3 in place of switch No.2.
The use of centre tapped reactor as
Transition-impedance was more popular in
earlier designs, in spite of the inevitable
shorter contact life. One of the main advantages
of reactor transition is that twice
as many active working positions as that of
the number of tappings in the transformer
could be obtained. This can be an advantage
where large number of tapping positions
is required. Reactor transition type
OLTCs are at present manufactured and
used only in USA.
1.2.2: RESISTOR TRANSITION TYPE
OLTC:
Resistor Transition has consid
erable advantage of longer contact life, due
to relatively short arcing time associated
with unity Power factor switching. With the
introduction of high speed resistor transition
tap changing, it is possible to break the arc
at first current zero. High-speed resistor
type tap changers have now almost completely
superseded the reactor type in many

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parts of the world, since it is easier and more


economical to use resistors mounted in the
tap changer and the tran sformer tank need
only be designed to accommodate the
transformer core and windings.
In general, high speed diverter resistor
tap-changers fall into two categories.
They are:
a. Single-compartment type -which carry out
selection and switching on the same contacts.
b. Double-compartment type -which have
separate tap selectors and separate
divertor (switching) switch.
1.2.2.1: SINGLE COMPARTMENT TYPE
OLTC:
The single compartment type employs a rotary
form of selector switch with:
a. Single -transition resistor (or)
b. Double -transition resistor
Figure [1.2.2.1 a] illustrates the
switching sequence in moving from one tap
to the next tap, employing single transition
resistor. The switching cycle is known as
ASYMMETRICAL PENNENT CYCLE. Tap
changers with single transition resistor are
suitable for power flow in one direction only
and not suitable for power flow in the reverse
direction.
Figure [1.2.2.1 b] illustrates the
switching sequence in moving from one tap
to the next tap employing double transition
resistor. The switching cycle is known as
FLAG CYCLE. Tap changers with double
transition resistor are suitable for bi-directional
power flow.
T & SS Training -129- Institute, Madurai.
Two designs are available in single-compartment
type on-load tap-changers.
In one design the electrical contacts,
transition resistors and mechanical gear
arrangement are housed in a pressure tight
insulation cylinder which is housed along
with the transformer in the same tank. Motor
drive for manual/electrical operation is
mounted on the tank outside.
In the other design, electrical contacts,
transition resistors and Geneva gears
are housed in a steel tank, which in turn is
mounted on the side of transformer tank.
The connection between transformer tapping
leads and tap-changer is through terminal

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board of epoxy resin moulding. This


terminal-board is mounted either on transformer
tank of tap-changer housing, depending
on the design and it also acts as a
barrier to separate the insulating oil of transformer
and tap-changer.
Single compartment tap changers for
currents upto 600 A and 66 KV voltage class
are available at present.
1.2.2.2: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT
TYPE OLTC:
On larger transformers, the ONLOAD
tap changing is more usually arranged
with separate tap-selectors and
divertor-switches. The tap-selectors are
generally arranged in a circular form. The
divertor-switches have contacts, operating
in rapid sequence, with usually four sep arate
‘make & break’ units.
Figure [1.2.2.2a] shows a typical selector
and switching arrangement on the
neutral end of the Star connected winding
with 16 steps & 17 positions of a transformer.
In the diagram the OL TC is shown connected
to tap-4. While changing from tap 4
to tap 5, M1 is opened first and the load
current gets transferred through transition
resistor R1 to A 1. Then A2 closes and two
resistors R 1 and R2 are in series across
taps 4 and 5. A circulating current due to
the Step voltage between taps 4 and 5 pass
through these resistors. The load current
gets divided through each of the resistors
to each of the tappings. A 1, then opens and
interrupts the circulating current and the load
current is transferred to tap 5, passing
through resistor R2. Finally M closes and
takes the load current and completes the
tap change. This sequence of tap change,
in most of the designs, takes place within
40 to 80 milli-seconds.
For a tap change in the opposite direction,
the sequence is reversed. For successive
tap changes in the same direction,
the movement of tap Selector to the next tap
takes place first. However, for the first reversal,
the tap selector does not move. This
feature is obtained by using a ‘Lost motion
coupling’ in the mechanical drive of tap -
selector.
When the tapping range is large, it

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is advantageous to halve the length of the


tapping winding and introduce a reverse or
change-over selector switch. In fig.
[1.2.2.2b], the tapped portion of the winding
is shown divided into 8 sections and a further
untapped portion equal to 8 tapped
sections.
In fig. [1.2.2.2c], the tapped section
of the winding itself is reversed to get double
steps.
1.3: TAPCHANGER SELECTION
While selecting a tap-changer for a
particular transformer, following points are
to be taken into consideration.
-Voltage class of the transformer- winding
and its rating.
-Percentage voltage-variation required.
-Maximum through current.
-Step voltage between adjacent taps.
-The switching capacity (maximum through
current, step voltage).
-Insulation level to ground and between various
tappings.
-Number of steps and basic connection
(linear, reversing or coarse-fine).
T & SS Training -130- Institute, Madurai.
-Temporary overloads.
-Short-circuit strength required.
-Number of operations required (any special
duty).
1.4: LATEST TRENDS IN TAPCHAN
GER DESIGN
At present tap-changers are available
for the highest insulation level of 1475
kVp impulse and 630 KV power frequency
voltages. Efforts are being made to develop
tap-changers suitable for still higher insulation
level class. Further efforts are being
made for developing tap-changers smaller
in size and having high reliability and performance.
The use of vacuum switches in
the diverter switch of tap-changer is being
tried to increase its performance. Also, thyristor-
controlled tap-changer will be available
in future for very special applications,
where excessively high number of operations
is required.
Voltage Variation by Tap Changing
Fig. 12.4. On Load Tap Changing by Reaction Transition .
T & SS Training -131- Institute, Madurai.
Linear Coarse fine Reversing

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Fig : 1:2:2:2A Fig : 1:2:2:2B Fig : 1:2:2:2C


T & SS Training -132- Institute, Madurai.
Divertor Switch
unit
TAP selector
Double Compartment type
Onload Tap Changer Unit
14. SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND MAINTENANCE
I. Introduction
The primary functions of a circuit breaker are interrupting short circuit
current, carrying normal currents, switching ON and OFF normal loads, and
providing necessary insulating between live parts and earthed parts. The
maintenance problems involved with bulk oil circuit breakers were immense.
Minimum Oil technology had replaced bulk oil technology during 1950’s. Similarly
the air -blast technology was developed for obtaining higher performance
characteristics. However, the air -blast breakers are quite expensive, and their
operation and maintenance cumbersome. Hence and need was felt during
1960’s for reduced maintenance.
SF6 was first obtained from Fluorine and Sulphur in 1900 by M/s.
H.MOSSAN and PLEBEAU. Behavior of SF6 in Electrical field was studied by
M/s. H.G. PQLLOCK and P.S. COOPER in 4936 known for over two decades,
perfection on commercial exploitation was attained during 1960’s. This
development made it possible for SF6 gas at low pressure to be used in BIN
circuit breakers for insulating and are’ quenching purposes, Some of the
outstanding properties of SF 6 gas which make its use ideal in EHV circuit.
breakers are:
1. Inertness
2. Non-toxicity
3. Electro negative nature
4. High dielectric strength
5. Unique are quenching property
6. Chemical and thermal stability
7. Good Thermal conductivity
8. Non corrosiveness
9. Non-Flammability
The combined electrical, physical, chemical and thermal properties of SF6
offer the following outstanding features when used in power circuit breaker.
1. Safety
2. Size reduction
- 133 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
3. Weight reduction
4. Simplified design
5. High degree of reliability
6. Switching of capacitive currents without restrike
7. Very tow noise level
8. Easy for handling
9. Easy for installation
10. Maintenance free service
2. Properties of Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6 )
a) Physical properties:
SF6 is a colorless, odorless and non-flammable gas. The fluorine

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atoms are placed at the corners of a regular octa-hedran with the sulphur atom
centrally placed at a distance of 1.58 angstrom units. The bonds are
predominantly covalent and the dissociation equation is
SF6 -- SF5 + F __________
The decomposition potential is 15.7 ev. SF6 gas is a very heavy gas and
its density is approximately 5.5 times that of air. It is highly stable. It is more
compressible than air and follows the law of perfect gases.
b)Electrical properties:
The di-electric strength of SF6 gas is 3 times that of air at
atmospheric pressure and is only marginally reduced by the presence of air as
impurity. The dielectric strength increases with increasing pressure. At a
pressure of three bars, the dielectric strength becomes equal to that transformer
oil. The size and electro negative nature molecule explain this strength. The
molecule provides a large electron collision diameter. This results in capture of
electrons preventing them from attaining sufficient energy to create additional
.current carrying particles. SF6moiecuie also has the ability to store energy in the
vibrational and electronic’ levels of the molecule there by forming stable ions of
low mobility.
- 134 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
The dielectric strength of SF6 remains unaltered over a wide range of
frequencies. since SF6 has no dipole moment, the dielectric constant does not
vary with frequency. AT 27.30c and atmospheric pressure the dielectric constant
is 1.00191 and loss angle is 2 x 10-7.
The dielectric properties of SF6 remain unchanged even at low
temperatures. Unlike solid insulation materials an electrical breakdown in SF 6
gas does not result in permanent deterioration of its properties. Break down in all
filled equipment may result in enormous increased of pressure due to gas
formation but such hazards do not exist in the case of SF6 filled equipment.
c)Arc quenching properties:
The ability to quench arc is unique to SF 6. This results in the high
dielectric strength of the gas and the very rapid recovery of dielectric strength
after arcing occurs. SF6 is approximately 100 times more effective in this respect
than air under similar conditions. The low arc-time constant and its capacity to
absorb free electrons due to electro negative nature makes it an excellent
medium for arc interruption. The complex molecular motion of SF6 enables it to
absorb electric energy and form stable negative ions. Its tendency to form
negative ion around current zero results in the fast disappearance of electrons
liberated during arcing. Unlike oil, arcing in SF6 will produce no carbon deposits
or carbon tracking.
The electro-negative property of SF6 may be due to several factors,
including its large collision diameter. If stray electron electric field can be
absorbed before they attain sufficient energy to create additional current carrying
particles though collision, the breakdown can be slowed or even stopped. The
large collision diameter of SF6 molecule assists in capturing these electrons.
energy can be stored in the vibration levels of the SF6 atom, forming stable
negative ions of low mobility. Thus the gas is electronegative in nature and
shows .great electron binding capacity. Hence SF6 gas displays splendid arcextinguishing
performance .
- 135 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
The arc time constant is directly proportional to the radius of arc makes it
possible to have large number of breakings at full capacity of the breaker. The

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characteristic curve of the arc is such that the extinction power b low. In a typical
case where the extinction power was of the order of 20 KW for an SF6 breaker,
the corresponding value of an air blast breaker was in hundreds of KW.
Some ion formation process with SF6 are :
Resonance capture : SF6 + e - (SF6) - SF5- + F
Positive ion formation : SF6 + e - (SF6+) + 2e -SF5- + F + 2e-
Excitation & dissociation : SF6 + e - (SF6-) + e -SF5- + F + e
Positive & negative ion formation: SF + e - (SF6-) + e -SF5 + F -+ e
d) Heat Transfer characteristics:
SF6 has excellent heat transfer characteristic, an important criterion for
gaseous dielectric in power applications. The higher molecular weight together
with low gaseous viscosity of SF6 enables it to transfer heat by convention more
effectively than the common gases. The co-efficient of heat transfer of SF6 is
approximately 2.5 tip1es that of air under the same conditions. Hence when the
breaker is energized, the temperature rise small.
e)Wide temperature range :
SF6 in the gaseous state follows the ideal gas laws fairly closely.
Consequently the pressure change is only moderate for a considerable change in
temperature. The low sublimation points of SF6 assures greater dielectric
strength even at low temperature the liquification temperature is —270C at a
pressure of 12 Kg / sq. cm. Hence no heater is necessary.
f)Toxity :
SF6 is a non-toxic gas and produces no poisonous effect on human body.
But the decomposition products produced by the discharge (SF4, SF2, S2, F2
- 136 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
etc.) are harmful. These products are minimized by controlling of moisture in the
interrupter and by absorbing the decomposition products by synthetic zeolite.
g)Chemical and Thermal Stability:
SF6 gas is inert and it is one of the least reactive substance known under
normal operating conditions. It may be heated in quartz to 5000C without under
going any decomposition. SF6 does not react with water, acids and alkalis. Tests
conducted have shown practically no corrosion for various metals exposed
to SF6
h) Various constants :
Some of the outstanding properties of SF6 which makes it ideal for high
voltage power applications are:
Molecular weight .. 146.05
Sublimation point at 1 atm .. 63.9°C
Density of gas at 21.19 C at 1 atm .. 6.139
Viscosity liquid at 13.52°C .. 0.305
Gas at 31.16°C .. 0.0157
Critical temperature etc. .. 318.80
Critical pressure bars .. 37.772
Critical volume cu.metre / g .. 1.356
Dielectric strength reI N2 = al at 50 Hs -1.2 Mhs.. 2.3 -2.5
Dielectric constant at 25°C 1atm .. 1.002049 ‘
Thermal conductivity at 30°C, Cal / Sec. -on °C .. 3.36 x 10-5
3. Breakdown phenomenon in SF6 :
Breakdown in gases takes place when the free electrons gain sufficient
kinetic energy Under the influence of an electric field and collide with neutral gas
molecules liberating electrons from their outer shells. A chain reaction like this

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results in an electron avalanche. In the case of electro-negative gases like SF6


this mechanism is slightly modified. The free electrons get attached to molecules
forming negative ions. SF6 + e Z SF6 -e. This negative ions are too massive to
produce collisional ionization. This attachment represents an effective way of
removing electrons which would have otherwise contributed to an electron
- 137 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
avalanche. This particular behaviors gives rise to very high dielectric strength for
electronegative gases.
The breakdown voltage of an electro-negative gas in a uniform field is a
simple function of the product of pressure and spacing. the breakdown
characteristics in non-uniform fields will be different because ionization may be
main aimed locally due to the presence of regions of high stress. This is the
corona effect. This may be due to surface roughness, sharp comers, floating
conducting or semi-conducting particles. In SF6 equipments special care is taken
to ensure that such sharp points do not exist in the breaker so that a fairly
uniform field distribution can be achieved.
4. Principles of interruption with SF6 :
Techniques employed for interruption with SF6 can be classified into two :
a) Double pressure system.
b) Single pressure system.
The latter can be further classified as double flow fixed nozzle and single
flow series piston breakers.
a)Double pressure system:
The functions of insulation and
interruption are performed in separate
chambers. SF6 at a pressure of 14
Kg/sq. cm. is stored in a high pressure
chamber. This is used for quenching the
are SF6 at low pressure (2.5 to 3.5
Kg/sq. cm.) provides the insulation.
When the contacts separate under fault,
gas at high pressure is forced into the
arcing region and then it follows in to the
low pressure region. The gas thus
exhausted in to the low pressure region
is compressed again and returned to the
- 138 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
high pressure reservoir. The arcing takes place between the arcing tip and arcing
ring thus relieving the contact area from the stresses of arc. A filter with actual
alumna is kept at the intake of the compressor so that all the decomposition
products of gas can be absorbed before re-circulating in to the system. A
thermostatically controlled heating system will be provided in the high pressure
reservoir to prevent condensation of gas at low temperature.
b) Single pressure system :
In this case SF6 at low pressure (3 to 6.5 Kg/sq.cm.) provides the
insulation and the energy for interruption. The breaker chamber consists of the
fixed and moving contacts, and the piston arrangement in the puffer type fixed
contact. As the moving contact separates under fault, the piston moves forward
with high speed. This compresses the SF 6 inside the hallow fixed contact and
forces the gas into the arc resulting in quenching. The force with which the gas
could be blast depends on the design of the piston arrangement and the energy

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of the control mechanism.


A further improvement is the Magnetic puffer type breakers where the
operating force on the moving contact rod is increased, by magnetic repulsive
force. The short circuit current is passed through a set of coils fixed on the
support of the moving contact fed. A secondary short circuit ring is positioned
and magnetically coupled with primary winding. This ring acts as piston as well.
This interaction between the. two fields produces a repulsive force and it pushes
the moving contact rod forward. The addition of this simple magnetic drive
mechanism improves the interrupting capabilities of the breaker.
The single pressure system has an inherent advantage of simplicity in
construction. It needs no additional compressor as required in double pressure
system. The manufacturing cost of puffer type equipment is lower.
- 139 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
5. Construction:
The arc extinguishing system employs a synchronized double flow single
pressure puffer type design. This leads to a simple construction.
The SF 6 circuit breaker mainly comprises of the following:
1. Breaker poles it.
2. Base tube and mechanism box
3. Control unit
4. Air compressor electro-hydraulic operating mechanism
1.Movable Cylinder(Puffer cylinder) 2.Moving
Contact
3.Fixed Contct 4.Insulating Nozzle
5.Fixed Piston 6.Gas Trapped in before
compression
7.Compressed gas between 1 & 5
8.The arc-being extinguished by puffer action
Fig:Single Pressure
Puffer Type
- 140 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
5.1.Breaker Pole:
The primary functions of a circuit breaker are carried out of breaker pole.
The breaker pole consists of interrupter unit and support insulator.
The interrupter unit consists of fixed contact tube, guide tube, moving
contact tube, puffer or blast cylinder and piston. The fixed contact tube is
connected to the top terminal via. Contact support.
- 141 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
The guide tube is fastened to the lower terminal. The other ends of the
fixed contact tube and guide tube which are subjected to arcing during the arc
interruption are provided with arc quenching nozzles. the nozzles are made up of
graphite materials which keeps the contact wear to minimum. The moving
contact tube consists of spring loaded finger contacts arranged in the form of a
ring. The front end of the moving contact tube is provided with an arc resistance
insulating ring and arcing ring of high arc resistant materials
The blast cylinder which is made up of high arc resistant insulating
material and the moving contact tube are rigidly coupled to each other and
connected to the operating rod in the supporting insulator. The blast piston
which is made up of aluminum is fastened to the lower terminal pad. The fixed
contact tube, guide tube, moving contact tube, blast cylinder and blast piston are
“all housed inside a porcelain ,insulator. When the circuit breaker is in close

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position current flows from top terminal to bottom terminal through contact
support, fixed contact tube, moving contact tube and guide tube.
The support insulator apart from supporting the interrupter unit provide
insulation between live parts and earthed parts. It houses the operating rod
(insulated), one end of which is connected to the interrupter unit and the other
end is connected to the mechanism.
5.2. Base Tube mechanism box:
The base tube which supports the breaker pole and the mechanism box
acts as a local air reservoirs. The mechanism box enclosed electromagnetic
valve, closing coil, trip coil and operating cylinder. Lower mechanism case
encloses the complete lever system to transmit the operation force from the
mechanism box to the breaker pole.
5.3.Control Unit :
This accommodates the gas pressure switches, gas density detector, gas
pressure gauge, air pressure gauge, air valve heater, auxiliary relays, terminal
blocks, etc. for electrical and pneumatic control and monitoring of the breaker.
The control devices of the air and SF6 gas systems are common for 3 poles of
the breaker.
- 142 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
5.4. Compress
Since the operating energy requirement is greater the MOCBS either air
compressor or electro-hydraulic operating mechanism is used.
6. The principle of Arc extinction:
When the circuit breaker is in closed position the moving contact assembly
bridges the fixed contact tube and the guide tube. When an opening operation is
initiated, the blast cylinder moves towards the stationary blast piston so that the
SF6 gas in the blast cylinder is compressed to a pressure required to quench the
arc. The gas compressed during the above process is released only when the
contacts are separated with moving contact assembly acting as a slide valve. At
the instant of contact separation, arc strikes between the front end of the arc
quenching nozzle of the fixed contact tube and the arcing ring of the moving
contact tube. The compressed gas in the blast cylinder is released in the break
radically as the contacts are separated. As the moving contact assembly moves
further, the arc between the front end of the fixed contact nozzle and the arcing
ring of the moving contact is transferred from the arcing ring of the moving
contacts of nozzle of the guide tube , by gas jet and its own electrodynamics
forces. the arc is further elongated by the gas flow axially into the nozzles and
safety extinguished. While the arc is being interrupted, the blast cylinder which is
made up of arc resistant insulating material enclosed the arc quenching
assembly, there by protecting the porcelain insulator from arcing effects. After arc
extinction, the moving contact assembly and blast is free of any parts of the
chamber which may have a bridging effect or influence the electric field
distributor.
7. Operation principles:
7.1. Opening operation:
When the trip coil is energized, the space of pilot valve is filled with
compressed air and the charging valve moves to right. The space in the
operating cylinder is filled with compressed air from the air received and the
operating piston is rapidly driven to the left. the operating rod connected to the
operating piston is pulled in the opening direction to drive the puffer cylinder at
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the high speed through the insulated operating rod in the supporting insulator.
the SF6 gas in the puffer cylinder is compressed and the SF6 gas blast
extinguishes the arc generated between the moving and stationary contacts.
Simultaneous with the opening operation, the cam rotates and causes the
electromagnet valve to return to its original position. As a result, compressed air
in the space of pilot valve is exhausted into atmosphere and the charging valve is
reset to the original piston. As the open state is retained by the link mechanism
attached to the end of the operating piston.
7.2. Closing operation:
When the closing coil is energized, the arc nature is made to rotate
causing the hook to be disengaged. Thus the sector line rotates to release the
roller and the operating piston is driven in the closing direction by the force of the
closing spring, upon completion of closing, the link mechanism is held in a state
to be ready for the subsequent opening operation.
8. Caution :
When operating the breaker observes the following:
I)Keep correct SF6 gas pressure and operating air pressure as specified.
2)Operate the stop valves properly.
3)Do not allow ingress of moisture and dust into the SF6 gas supplying point.
4)Do not pump the gas piping and air piping with any object.
5)Do not damage the gasket and seal face on the leakage tight joint in the gas
and air system.
6)When opening the circuit breaker by the manual handle. ‘
a) confirm that the main circuit is not energized.
b) Be sure to turn off the control power supply.
c) Confirm that compressed air in receivers is released.
d) Confirm that manual operating rod and handle are removed
before changing the receiver with compressed air.
7)Do not operate any part other than the manual operating handle before filling
SF6 gas at the rated pressure. Do not fill compressed air before filling SF6 gas.
- 144 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
8)When checking interior parts of interrupter, blow air into the system for
sufficiently long time and confirm that sufficient supply of air is available
before starting any work.
9.Gas Leak Detection:
If the gas leaks through any point, this can result in reduction of pressure
and consequent loss of insulation properties Gas Leak detection is done with the
help of a halogen torch type detector. The detector works on the principle that
SF6 absorbs a certain number of electron when passed through an atmosphere
where free electrons flow. The free electrons are generated with in the sector by
a small radio active source in the presence of a carrier gas. these electrons are
collected at the detector anode and give a small base line current which is
amplified. When the probe of the detector is kept near the joints of the SF6 filled
equipment and if SF6 leaks out there will be variation in amplified valve of current
due to electron absorption by SF6. The variation can be directly calibrated to
indicate the magnitude of the leak.
9.2. Detention of presence of conducting particles:
This is done by conducting a dielectric test when the test voltage is
applied there will be an internal corona if metallic particle or sharp comers are
present. The presence of internal discharges is located with the help of an
ultrasonic detector which is very sensitive in detecting noise due to internal

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corona. The sector translates the ultrasonic vibrations into audible frequencies
and directly indicates the intensity of sound in decibels. The probe is pressed
firmly against the grounded enclosure tube while the conductor is energized at
varying AC I DC voltage. If the noise disappears at low voltage, appears at some
intermediate voltage and the intensity continues to increase, it is certain that the
noise is due to internal corona. It has also been observed that in some cases the
- 145 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
small sharp potty branched in areas of high dielectric stress get burnt or the
particles driven to low stress areas. The effect of conducting particles on the
break down strength of SF6 is more serious for power frequency voltage test
than for impulses voltage.
10. Performance of SF6 Breaker:
SF6 gas circuit breaker combines the advantageous features minimum oil
and air blast breakers and exhibits a number of additional advantages over both.
1) It is possible to have large number of breaking operations near full breaking
capacity with out any undue wear.
2) Because of the fast recovery of dielectric strength across the parting
contacts during interruption.
a) These breakers are restrict free while switching of capacitive currents.
b) These breakers are incentive to short time faults and are capable of
breaking at every high values of RRRV and
c) These breakers are suitable for multi-short re closing with out any
reduction in breaking capacity
3) There is no necessity to change any parts in the breaking chamber even
after a period often years of service in the actual system. This means that
there are practically no problem of maintenance for SF6 breakers.
4) The operation is noiseless since the gas is used in a closed circuit. There
will be no discharge of arc products into atmosphere.
5) Puffer type breakers are autonomous and independent because no
auxiliary equipment is required.
6) Fire hazards are eliminated.
11. Maintenance:
SF6 circuit breaker requires very little maintenance involved are those
parts which are subject to wear and aging. The degree of contamination of
insulators should also be checked. The following are the factors which govern the
maintenance of the breakers.
i)No. of short circuit interruptions.
ii)Switching frequency and service conditions.
iii)No. of years of service.
- 146 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Maintenance and Inspection should be carried out in accordance with the
inspection schedule. This schedule have been divided into 3 group. (i) Patrolling
or routine inspection (ii) Ordinary or minor inspection (iii) Detail or Major
inspection. The intervals between maintenance schedule for BHEL and TELK
make SF6 gas circuit breakers are given below:
BHEL Make
Sl.No. Item Period Remarks
1. Routine check Every five years Draining of SF6 if
necessary
2. Minor inspection After 1 500 operation or 10 year —
3. Major inspection After 3000 operation or 20 year Draining of SF 6 if

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necessary
11.1.General Instructions for maintenance :
All the split pins, lock washers, spring washers of bolted joints should be
replaced with new ones when they are opened for maintenance.
All the gaskets, a-rings and rubber washers should also be replaced with
new ones during reassembly.
All the breakers parts dismantled for maintenance should be covered and
protected against ingress, if dirt and moisture while reassembly is in progress.
Small quantities of metallic fluoride power forms because of arc
interruption in SF6 gas. This metallic powder when in dry state is insulating and
harmless. However the powder is hygroscopic and in the presence of water
vapor the dust forms a paste which is conductive. This metallic fluoride powder
should be cleaned with the help of a clean non-fluffy cloth as soon as the
interrupter is opened for inspection and surviving to prevent the formation of
conductive paste which is very difficult to remove. The cloth once used should be
thrown into dust bin. During cleaning of the metallic fluoride gloves should be
worn.
- 147 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
For cleaning and degreasing, the materials as recommended should be
applied during maintenance.
11.2. Patrolling Inspection:
1. Gas pressure: Read the pressure and convert it to 20°C Record the gas
pressure, temperature and convert gas pressure. If gas leak is detected,
supply SF6 Gas before the gas pressure drops to the lock out pressure.
2. Air pressure: Check whether or not the pressure gauge indicate the
specified value
Check whether or not any leakage noise audible around the sealed
piping joints.
3. Operation counter: Check and Record the number of operation.
4. Space heater: When humidity is high or temperature is low, turn on the
heater for the mechanism box and control unit.
5. Others: Check for sings of abnormal noises and contamination of
insulators.
11.3. Ordinary inspection:
This has to be carried out in the de-energized condition without
discharging gas. Perform an operation test to check the minimum operating
pressure before starting the inspection cautions (a) Turn off the power surfaces
of control circuit to the circuit breaker. (b) Exhaust the compressed air thoroughly
from the circuit breaker.
1. Gas leak - Check on the gas system of interrupter unit, gas piping and
control unit using a gas leak detector.
2. Mechanism:
a) Electromagnetic valve: Check the hook clean up the hook by applying a
thin coat of HITALBE 2800.
b) Operating cylinder: Apply HITALUBE 289 grease to the piston rod
c) Main valve rod: Retighten nuts.
d) Oil dash pot : Check the oil level. Transformer oil level should be as
high as the plug level.
- 148 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
3. Control unit :
a) Airing valve: Measure the discharge air of300 to 700 C/C Min. which is

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satisfactory.
b) Auxiliary switch: Check positive contact and each part for normal
tightening.
c) Air pressure gauge: Calibrate the pressure gauge.
d) Pressure switch: Check the local pressure and release pressure.
e) Trip-free contactor : Check the contacts. When roughened, correct with
smooth out file or sand paper.
4. Air piping: Retighten the union nuts and bolts.
5. Porcelain insulator: Wipe the insulator surface by wet cloth when
excessively dirty, apply insulator cleaner the surface. Measure the
insulation resistance, which should not be less than 100M under dry
condition.
6. Operating system: Confirm that the stroke of hinge piece in the operating
cylinder is 102 mm ± 2mm.
7. Other: Check terminals for looseness and tighten them if necessary clean
up box interior and paint rusty parts.
8. Checking: After filling the system with compressed air, confirm that all the
stop valve in the air system are kept open.
9. Testing: Conduct operation test. Measure the insulation resistance of
control circuit.
11.4. Detailed inspection:
The following diagram shows the detail inspection procedure for Insulation
resistance measurement.
Operation Test
Close G.C.B.
Exhaust air from air receiver
Collect SF6 gas in the interrupt unit
Open GCB by manual operating handle
- 149 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Check the GCB as per the maintenance procedure
Check control unit and mechanism box Check interruption
Filling with air Evacuation Fill with SF6 gas.
Air leak check Gas leak check.
11.5. Details of maintenance procedure:
1)Stationary contact: Visually inspect, when contact space is found uneven,
remove it and polish with sand paper. then measure the dimension of stationary
contact. When the wear becomes 3 mm or over replace the contact with a new
one. Apply thin coat of HITSLUBE 280 Grease to the contact.
2)Moving contact: When it is degraded by large current interruption remove it
and polish with sand paper. Apply three coat of HIT ALUBE 280 Grease to the
contact.
3) Arcing contact: When the surface is found- uneven, polish the surface with a
smooth out file. Measure the dimension of arcing contact, when the amount of
wear becomes 2 mm or over, replace the contact with a new one. Apply thin coat
of HIT ALUBE 280 grease to the contact.
4) Insulation nozzle and insulation cover: The nozzle and cover can be
removed together with the moving contact. Use wiper to clean up the interior and
exterior. Measure the inner diameter of the nozzle. and cover. When the
dimensions are enlarged by 1 mm or more, replace it with a new one. “
5) Absorbent: Remove the conductor and take out the absorbent case. Replace
the absorbent with a new one. Exchange it quickly just before vacuum drying.

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Don’t expose it to the open air.


6) Operating cylinder : Remove the cylinder cover. Inspect gaskets. Apply
grease to he operating piston guide, main valve guide, main valve rod, pilot valve
and operating piston.
7) Operating cylinder: Remove the oil plug and oil. Then supply new oil to the
position of oil plug. When drained oil is found contaminate, disassemble and
check the oil dash pot.
8) Operating mechanism: Check Pins, Links, Levers, operating rod and split
pins check nuts and lock plates for possible looseness. Apply Hit lube 280
grease to pins.
- 150 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
9) Closing Link Mechanism: Clean up and apply thin coat of HIT ALUBE 280
grease to the hook, pins and roller. Check the state of hook arrangement under
both closed and open position.
10) Electro-magnetic valve: When the lever is pressed with fingers, the hook is
disengaged. Clean up and apply a turbine oil to the hook. Check nuts and bolts
for looseness. Check the split pins.
11) Airing valve: Contact a hose to the discharge part and use a measuring
cylinder to measure the discharge amount under water. The measured valve
should be 300 to 700 Cg/min at the air celled to 15 Kgs. cm.
12) Auxiliary switch: Check the contacts; check terminal for tightening. Apply a
thin coat of grease to the pin.
13) Pressure gauge: Clean up and calibrate.
14) Pressure switch :Setting pressure rise or reduce according to whether the
adjusting screw is turned clockwise or counter clock wise. Check the operating
pressure.
15) Trip-free contractor: If contacts are considerably uneven, repair them using
a smooth out file or sand paper.
16) Ratings of various circuit breakers SF6 : SF6 gas circuit breakers are
manufactured in India by M/s.BHEL in collaboration with Siemens of West
Germany, MIs. TELK in collaboration with Hitachi of Japan andM/s. Alind in
collaboration with DELLE ALSTHOM of France. The ratings of these SF6
breakers are given below:
BHEL TELK ALIND
1. Rated voltage KV 123 -420 245 132 -220
2. Rated current KV 1200 -4000 2000 2000
3. Rated breaking current KA 25 -63 31.5 22 -31.5
4. Breaking Time Ms 40 -65 40 40
5. No. of breaks 1 or 2 1 1 or 2
6. Breaker weight Kg 2100 -7700 4500 3000 -5000
7. Inspection after 8 -10 yrs. 6 years 10 years
- 151 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
15. SURGE ARRESTERS AND INSULATION CO-ORDINATION
- 152 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
I.Introduction:
Electrical systems by nature involve two forms of protection over current and over voltage
since over current protection of electrical equipment’s are well known to all, it is not elaborated
here. Over voltage protection on the other hand, remains a relatively new subject to many
engineers. Both types of protection equally necessary for safe system operation.
The importance of over voltage protection for a power system can not be over
emphasized. Major equipment failures, expensive repairs, personnel safety and plant down time

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are certain consequences of inadequate protection from voltage surges.


Surge arresters are designed to limit dangerous system over voltages. Whether lightingor
System- produced-to safe values when they occur on power systems. An arresters is a voltage
limiting device. The functions are to discharge energy associated with a system over voltage
condition, limit and interruption the power fellow current that follows the transient current through
the arresters and return to an insulating state prepared for the next over voltage occurrence.
In performing its voltage limiting function, certain protective characteristics of the arrester
must be coordinated with the prevailing insulation levels on the system being protected. Insulation
- 153 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
is a basic factor that must be considered in the application of arresters on a system. Insulation coordination
is only a small part of the over all subject of arrester application. Several other factors
must also be considered by the engineer when selecting surge protection. The location of the
arresters, the inter-connection of ground leads, the insulation level of the protected equipment
and the rating of the surge arresters are important in protecting equipment from harmful over
voltage.
II.Surge Arrester operation:
The basic operation of a surge arrester is single. In its noffi1al state, an arrester must act
as an insulator. When a high voltage surge occurs. The arrester must cease to be an insulator
and must turn into a short to-ground-in million thus of a second. The operation of the most widely
used type of surge arresters the value, type of arrester is dealt with. Other
types of arresters, such as expulsion arresters and line Oxide arresters
(Gapless arresters) are either on the decline or too new for a general
discussion at this time. The active elements of a valve type arrester are the
spark gap and the valve block. these are housed in a porcelain shell for
atmospheric protection and external insulation.
The gap assembly consists of a number of inseries
air gaps with sufficient dielectric strength to
withstand the highest power frequency on the system.
During severe over voltage conditions, the gap must
always, breakdown at a voltage level some what below
the insulation withstand voltage level of the equipment it
is protecting, other wise equipment damage and or plant
down time will result. the gap therefore serves as the
switch which turns on the arrester. the voltage level at
which the arrester goes from the passive (insulating) to the active (conducting) state, is called the
spark over voltage.
The valve block controls what happens after the arrester has been turned on. If only a
gap is used, once a surge has been diverted to ground, a dead short circuit exists between line
and ground and the 50 hertz-system energy tries to flow to ground causing a fuse, re-closer or
breaker to operate to interrupt the system fault current.
The valve element does exactly as its name implies. It conducts when surge current is
flowing and it ceases to conduct when 50 Hz line current begins to flow. the valve block is able to
do this because It is made of a non-linear resistance material, silicon carbide. The valve block
offers a very high resistance to 50 Hz current while displaying a low resistance to surge current.
In addition, it also consumes the surge energy passes through it.
- 154 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
Spark over and discharge voltage are the two protective characteristics of an arrester
which are used in calculating margins of protection when studying insulation co-ordination. These
protective characteristics are published by arrester manufacturers.
III. Arrester Classification :
There are three classifications of surge arresters used for over voltage protection in a

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system.
1.Distribution Type:
The arresters are generally used in distribution system for equipment protection.
Standards distribution arresters are used for protecting oil. Insulated distribution transformers,
these arresters are also used as line entrance arresters, for 11KV and 22KV lines. They are the
lowest in cost.
2.Intermediate Type :
These units cost approximately two or three times as much as equivalent distribution
units. For this, the arrester offers lower maximum spark over and discharge voltage
characteristics that afford a greater margin of protection plus the capability of discharging large
surge levels. These arresters also have a pressure relief system to safely vent internal pressure if
the unit falls before the porcelains shell has a chance to rupture. These arresters are used for the
L.V. protection of Power transformers in sub-transmission sub-station i.e.110/33/22/11KV and
66/22/11KV sub-station.
3.Station Type:
These arresters offer the best protective characteristics and the highest thermal capability
but they cost about twice as much as equivalent intermediate units. Like intermediate arresters,
station arresters have a pressure-relief system to safely vent internal pressure if the unit fails
before a porcelain shell has a chance to rupture. These arresters are generally used in 230KV,
110KV and 66KV systems.
4.Basic insulation level:
Basic Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) is the voltage level that equipment insulation is
capable of withstanding without sustaining damage. The voltage withstand of insulation is
function of time. Inorder to establish volt-time impulse insulation levels of transformers standard
impulse tests standard voltage withstand tests are conducted on selected units as type test.
Transformers are subjected to impulse voltage tests (at rated BIL) and a chopped wave test (15%
above BIL). A steep front - of wave test (65% above BIL) is also performed on some units. A
curve plotted through these three points defines the minimum insulation withstand curve for
- 155 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
insulation co-ordination (Fig.3) The true withstand level for the transformer lies above the plotted
curve.
5. Surge arrester application:
With an understanding of how an arrester performs its functions and a knowledge of
equipment insulation, we can now move into the application area and consider the several factors
that comprise surge arrester application as it relates to over voltage protection of transformers,
The selection of surge arresters merit are carefully considered. Various factors have to be taken
into account in order to arrive at a reliable and at the same time economical means of protection.
The important points are:
i)Selection of rated voltage.
ii)Selection according to the standards, codes, recommendations for insulation
coordination.
i)Arrester rating :
The voltage rating of an arrester is defined as the highest 50 Hz voltage at which the
arrester is designed to operate and reseal effectively after a surge has passed. Because of the
system grounding and connection, this, voltage is typically higher than the phase to ground
voltage / on the healthy phases will increase temporarily and it depends upon the earthing factor
or the system. The selection of an arrester voltage rating for station depends upon grounding
system connection and system voltage rating.
Also the voltage impressed across an arrester during a surge discharge is directly
proportional to the arrester voltage rating that is, a 10,000 Amps surge produces a higher
discharge voltage if it is flowed through a 10KV arrester than it does flowed through a 9KV

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arrester generally it is desirable from the stand point of equipment protection to select the lowest
voltage rating for the application.
ii)Arrester location:
Surge arresters should always be located as close as possible to the terminals of the
equipment protected. In the case of transformer protection, mounting the arresters directly on the
transformer is the best of insurance. An appreciable distance between the surge arrester, and the
protected equipment reduces protection, afforded by the arresters and also increases the voltage
impressed upon the transformer at time of surge discharge. Also because of the extra travel
distance between the equipment and its arrester, surge wave could rise above the equipment
damage point before the arrester comes to its rescue.
n addition, the arrester connecting leads should be kept as short as possible because of
their voltage contribution to discharge the voltage. During current flow to ground through an
arrester, the interconnecting leads provide a voltage contribution because of current passing
through an impedance. Depending on surge magnitude, rate of rise type of conductor, a typical
value of voltage contribution to discharge voltage by interconnecting leads is i.e. 1.6 KV / foot.
- 156 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
In practice, the protection range is given by the following simple formula.
L = U - Ua x V Where
2XS
L = Protection range of arrester in meters
(measured along the line)
U = Impulse withstand voltage of protected equipment in KV.
(BIL of equipment)
Ua = Spark over voltage of an arrester in K. V. (Peak) of the system.
During earth fault conditions, the voltage
V = Velocity of wave progression with
V line = 300 meters /micro sec.
V cable = 150 meters /micro sec.
S = Steepness of incoming wave front in KV / sec.
(The protection range of an arrester increases with the difference between the impulse
voltage IV’ and the spark over voltage Va. Therefore, an arrester with protective level tends to
extend the protective range)
Example: In a 230 KV Over Head line system
U = BIL of power transformer -900 KV crest
U = Impulse spark over of arrester -550 KV crest
V line 300 / micro seconds; S = 1000 KV / micro sec.
@ L = U-Ua (1000-550)
------- v = ---------------- X 300 = 52.5m
2 XS (2 X 1000)
The electrical circuit length between the surge arresters and the transformer bushing
technical should not exceed the limits given below: T.N.E.B. practice —(Thumb rule)
Rated system voltage Maximum distance between surge arresters and
transformer bushing terminal inclusive of lead
length
KV Meters Feet
230 60.0 200
110 36.57 110
60 24.38 80
iii)Interconnection of Grounds:
It is essential that the arrester ground terminal be interconnected with the transformer
tank and secondary neutral to provide reliable surge protection for the transformers.

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Iv)Insulation coordination: .
Now let us consider the selection of an arrester according to standards, codes or
recommendations for insulation coordination. Calculating the margin of protection is the major
part of an. insulation co-ordination study. Insulation coordination is the process of comparing the
- 157 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
impulse strength of insulation with the voltage that can occur across the arrester for the severity
of surge discharge for which the protection is desired. For a transformer, this means a
comparison of the volt-time insulation withstand curve with the impulse and switching surge spark
over and discharge voltage curve of the arrester.
After determining the rated voltage of an arrester, the protective level has to be carefully
selected. For complete protection of the equipment, the “protective level” viz. the level to which
the over voltages are omitted by the arrester, must be lower than the withstand level by a factor of
at least 1.2 for lightning surges and 15 for switching surges. The value thus selected must be
checked against that given in I.S.S. or the technical details furnished by the arrester
manufactures.
To arrive at the discharge voltage of an arrester for these calculations discharge voltage
for a 10,000 Amps. surge is normally used. The following formula define these two margins of
protection calculations:
CWW -FOW SO BIL -DV + IX)
MP1 = CWW x 100% MP2 = BIL x 100%
Where
CWW = Chopped -waved withstand voltage of transformer winding = 1.15 BIL
FOW SO = Front of wave spark over of surge arrester in KV (Crest)
BIL = Basic Impulse Insulation level of the transformer.
DV = Discharge voltage of the arrester at 10 KA surge.
IX = Voltage contribution of connecting leads at the rate of 1.6 KV / ft.
MP = Margin of Protection
Insulation co-ordination in an important aspect to be considered when surge protective is
to be afforded to transformers with reduced BILS
The table below gives the Rod gap setting adopted for various voltages: Gap settings:
Gap settings in MM (inches)
System voltage Gap on Transformer Gap on terminal Tower Gap on next three
Bushing approach towers
230 1143 (45) 1118 (44) 1118 (44)
110 635(25) 597(23.5) 622(24.5)
66 394 (15.5) 330 (13) 356 (14)
- 158 - T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
vi Protection against direct strokes:
i) Protection against direct strokes can be handled by shielding the station equipment’s by
the provision of either
a) Mast or rods or
b) a net work of overhead ground wires in such a way that equipment’s and
switches of all lie in the protected zone.
ii) The protected zone for a rod mast is generally assumed as a cone with a base radius
equal to the height of the rod or mast above ground.
iii) For small sub-stations it may be sufficient to run one or GI wires across the station
from adjacent line towers. Extra wires may be run from the tower to the structure and
over the station.
iv) The grounds of the station shield should be solidly tied to the station ground bus to
prevent difference of surge potential between the shield and other g-rounded parts of
the Station.

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.
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- 160 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
16. FIRE SAFETY AND FIRE FIGHTING
I. GENERAL :
1. In India alone about 15,000 people die in Fire and
blast. More than Rs.180 crores are being paid as
compensation and about 1.5% production is lost in
fire.
2.The fire can exist in two different stages. The initial
stage i.e. incipient stage of fire and the later state
i.e. blaze stage of fire. If the small fire is not controlled
in the initial stage it goes to the uncontrollable
stage i.e. Blaze stage fire.
Detection will be done by the people available
at the spot with the help of good given detectors
like eyes, nose, ears and skin and warning will
be given with the help of mouth but the third stage
immediate attack is very important and it can be
done only by training and skills in fire fighting. Once
the fire goes beyond the stage of control, then only
fire brigade can control the fire. We can only assist
the fire brigade in bringing down the fire under control.
In order to carry out the various jobs involved
in fire fighting cycle there must be a group of trained
people available in the form of Fire Squad.
Basic reason for any fire accident is ignorance
and even if people have knowledge about fire,
they neglect it i.e. negligence. 60% of the fire accidents
are caused, in fact, due to electrical faults i.e.
due to usage of substandard materials, nonstandard
wiring, improper maintenance, loose connection,
over loading and keeping combustible materials under
neath main switches or very close to equipments
emenating heat.
The Fire spreads from one place to another
place beause of the heat transfer. There are three
different principles of heat transfer.
Convection - Heated smoke and air
particles travelling upwards.
Conduction - Transfer of heat through Solid
Particles.
Radiation - Transfer of heat through air particles.
For keeping fire under control at the time of
emergency all the above three principles can be used
in the combined away. When a particular department
is on fire and when the fire is in blaze stage
the adjacent areas can be saved by closing all the
possible doors and windows, removing the flammable
materials from the adjacent areas and also by continuous

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cooling of the surrounding areas. In this


manner, convection, conduction and radiation are
taken care and heat transfer can be prevented and
fire can be kept under control.
The combustible materials when in hard
solid form cannot easily catch fire. But when it is
thin, weak and in filamentary nature it can immediately
catch fire. For materials in dust form, even a
small spark or arc can cause fire with blast. The
records in offices kept for years together would have
lost strength, decoloured, mutilated and decomposed
which will be susceptable for easy catching
of fire. If windows and doors are kept opened entry
of air will aggrevate even a small fire.
Important phone numbers should be
painted on wall above the phone unit for immediate
reference during emergency.
Adequate means of escape from fire must
be provided for all personnel in a works, factory or
office building, and the following four requirements
should be satisfied:
1. No one should need to go towards the fire in
order to escape.
2. All escape routes should be as short as
possible, of adequate capacity, and should
lead to open air at ground level, either direct or
by way of a fire resisting enclosure.
3. Protected parts of escape routes should not
be exposed at any point to penetration by
smoke or fire.
4. Escape routes should be clearly marked with
arrows at every corner and intersection.
By observing the following pre-cautions
and safty rules we could prevent fire accident to a
very great extent.
i) DO NOT THROW LIGHTED CIGARATTE -
BUTTS indiscriminately . Throw them at the appropriate
places and ensure that the buring end is
put out effectively.
ii)DO NOT SMOKE CIGARATTES IN YOUR SEAT
in the midst of files. No objection to smoke at a
secluded place.
iii) DO NOT ACCUMULATE UNWANTED waste
materials, such as waste paper, waste cloth etc.
They may be disopsed off then and there in the
bins provided for.
- 161 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
iv)DO NOT LIGHT A MATCH IN YOUR SEAT CARELESSLY
: When it is necessary let it be done with
required precention.

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v) DO NOT USE NAKED WIRES for tapping power


from the sockets. When two ends of cables are to
be connected inevitably, use proper insulation tape.
vi) DO NOT OVERLOAD the switches and sockets
(Viz) do not use 3 way sockets from one single outlet
due to excessive current, the cable/wires slowly
gets heated up and is likely to cause fire quite after
some time.
vii)DO NOT TAKE flammable materials like Kerosene,
Petrol near the electrical machinery, as innocent
sparks coming out are likely to cause ignition
of the kerosene or petrol.
viii) DO NOT HANDLE crackers in the office.
ix) DO MAKE SURE that you switch-off the fan, light
and any other installation near you when you leave
the office.
II. ON SEEING FIRE:
1. Cry “Fire”, “Fire” thus giving an alarm to all.
2. Panic should not be created, as it is more
dangerous than fire.
3or4. If fire fighting equipments are available, they
can be used to extinguish fire without
panic.
3or4. Nearby combustible materials should be
removed as to prevent spreading of fire.
5. Fire service may be informed, if necessary.
6. When fire service personnels arrive, the job
should be left to them without causing
hinderance.
7. If electricity is involved, switch off thesupply
and confirm it.
8. The liquid type extinguishers should not be
used unless the electricty is cut off.
9. All persons in that area or floor should be
evicted safely without panic.
10. Sraircases or steps away from fire should
be used.
III. FIRE TRIANGLE
Fire is a chemical reaction called COMBUSTION
(usually oxidation resulting in the release of heat
and light)
To initiate and maintain this chemical reaction,
or in other words for an out break of fire to occur and
continue, the following are essential:
a. Fuel - i.e. a combustible substance either
solid, liquid or gas.
b. Oxygen - usually air which contains, approx
20% oxygen.
c. Heat - Required Heat. It varies from material
to material
The familiar fire triangle depicts the situation.

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Fire prevention is nothing but avioding the combination


or mixing of three elements i.e. fuel, oxygen
and heat.
IV. METHODS OF FIRE EXTINGUISHING
Based on the fire triangle there are different
methods of fire extinguishing
STARVATION - REMOVAL OF FUEL
BLANKETING / SMOTHERING - REMOVAL OF
OXYGEN
- 162 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
COOLING - REMOVAL OF HEAT.
Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the above three elements like fuel, oxygen or heat.
Starvation - Removal of Fuel
This is a method in which the surrounding materials are
removed from the seat of fire and making the fire to starve.
Without supply of fuel the fire will be starved and
extinguished.
Blanketing / Smothering - Removal of Oxygen.
In this method in which the oxygen supply to the fire
areas will be cut off. Naturally the fire will be off because
of lack of oxygen. It is not necessary to prevent the total
oxgen supply to the fuel area. This action can be achieved
by using cotton blankets, plywood sheets or corrugated
boxes over the fuel. Even closing the doors and windows
will also serve the same purpose of cutting off the oxygen
supply to the affected area. There are different
exitinguishing medias through which the removal of
oxygen can be achieved.
Cooling - Removal of Heat.
Water is normally used for cooling the fire because it has
the greatest heat absorbing properties. Water is the best
fire fighting media for solid fires like wood, leaves, cotton
and charcoal. Since water is the best conductor of electricity
it should not be used in electrical equipments.
Water density is more than the density of other burning
liquid fuels, hence in direct form it should not be used for
any liquid fuels.
V. Fire Extinguishers :
Fire Bucket wiht round bottom for holding water or sand.
Chemical fire Extinguishers :
Sl. Type of Contents of Max. Pressure Where Where
No. Extinguisher Container Range Developed to use not
Inner Outer Inside
1. Soda Acid Sulphuric Sodium 7M 7kg/Sq.cm. A B,C,D,E
Acid bi -
Carbonate
(Solution)
2. Foam Aluminium -do- 7M 3.5 Kg/ B.A. C,D,E
Sulphate Sq.c.m
Solution

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3. Dry CO2 -do- 3M 25Kg/ B,C,D,E -


Chemical Catridge (Power) Sq.c.m.
Power
- 163 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
4. CO2 ------- CO2 Very 53Kg/ B,C,E -
Close Sq.c.m
5. Halon ------ Halon - do - -------- A,B,C,E ----
VI. Classification of Fire:
S. Class of Combustible Suitable Method Suitable
No Fire materials way to Extinguisher
extinguish
1.“A” (Solid Fire) Paper, wood 1. Seperation Starvation 1. Fire bucket with
Cloths,Rubber 2. Water Cooling sand or water
3. Dry sand or Blanketing 2. Soda Acid
powder 3. Dry Powder
2.“B” (Oil Fire) Combustible 1. Foam Blanketing 1. Foam
Liquid petrol 2. Dry powder or 2. DCP
Grease sand 3. CO2
3. CO2
3.“C” (Gas) Gas 1. Spread powder Blenkrting 1. DCP
sand 2. Fire bucket sand
4.“D” (Iron) Magnesium/ - do- - do - -do-
Potassium etc.
5.“E” Electricity 1. Powder - do- - doinvolved
2. CO2
3. Halon gas.
VII. METHOD OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS OPERATION
METHOD OF OPERATION
1. Remove the pluger guard
2. Turn extinguisher upside down and drive the
plunger striking knob with a sharp blow on the floor.
3. Hold in upside down position
4. Direct the jet to the base of fire
Effective jet length in Meters: 8 - 10
Discharge time in Seconds : 70 - 75
- 164 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
METHOD OF OPERATION
1.Lift the “T” handle
2.Turn to right hand side
3.Shake well
4.Hold upside down and direct the jet to the
base of fire.
Effective jet length in Meters:7 - 8
Discharge time in Seconds :90
Fire Extinguisher - Form 9 Litres I.S.S. 933/ 1976
METHOD OF OPERATION
1. Uncoil the rubber hose
2.Open the wheel value
3.Gently lower the engine untili

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the handle rests on the ground.


4.Direct the discharge jet to the
base of fire.
Effective jet length in Meters: 10
Discharge time in Seconds : 90 - 120
Foam Trolley 45 Litre Capacity
METHOD OF OPERATION
1. Uncoil the rubber hose
2. Open the wheel value
3. Gently lower the engine untili the handle
rests on the ground.
4. Allow the pressure in the gauge to build
up to 5.5Kg/Cms2.
5. Open the hand control nozzle & Direct the
jet to the fire
Effective jet length in Meters: 15
Discharge time in Seconds : 120 - 210
- 165 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
METHOD OF OPERATION
1.Keep Extinguisher upright and remove safety clip
2.Hold nozzle in hand, strike the Knob
3.Direct jet towards the near edge of fire with a rapid
sweeping motion.
4.Drive the fire towards the far edge until the flames
are extinguished
Effective jet length in Meters: 3 - 4
Discharge time in Seconds : 12 - 15
Fire extinguisher - D.C.P. 5KG. Capacity
I.S.S.2171
METHOD OF OPERATION
1.Remove the safety pin & uncoil the rubber
hose.
2.Open CO2 cylinder wheel valve.
3.Direct jet near edge of the fire with rapid
sweeping. Drive the fire towards the far
edge until flames are extinguished.
For 22.5Kg. Capacity :
Effective jet length in Meters: 5 - 6
Discharge time in Seconds : 40 - 60
For 70Kg. Capacity :
(With on/off spray - type applicator)
Effective jet length in Meters: 6.5 to 8
Discharge time in Seconds : 75 to 90
DRY CHEMICAL POWER (TROLLEY MOUNTED)
EXTINGUISHERS : 22.5Kg + 70Kg CAPACITIES
- 166 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
METHOD OF OPERATION
Carry Extinguisher close to the fire
1.Remove Safety pin.

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2.Hold the handle firmly


3.Turn wheel valve in Anti clock wise Direction.
4.Direct the discharge to the base of fire.
Discharge time in Seconds : 16
METHOD OF OPERATION
1.Move the extinguisher close to the fire.
2.Uncoil the Discharge hose assembly.
3.Remove the safety pin.
4.Turn wheel valve in anticlock wise direction
5.Direct Discharge to the base of fire.
Discharge time in Seconds : 20 - 35
Fire Extinguisher Co2 9.K.g Capacity
METHOD OF OPERATION
1.Move the extinguisher close to the fire.
2.Uncoil the Discharge hose assembly.
3.Remove the safety pin.
4.Turn wheel valve in anticlock wise direction
5.Direct Discharge to the base of fire.
Discharge time in Seconds : 40 - 60
FIRE EXTINGUISHER : CO2 - 3-2 k.g.
I.S.S. 2878
- 167 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
METHOD OF OPERATION
1.Remove the locking pin
2.Keep the discharge nozzle in position
approach to the fire as close as possible
3.Press the squeeze grip valve and direct
jet to the base of fire. The discharge can
be controlled by pressing and releasing Grip.
METHOD OF OPERATION :
1.Tilt the extinguisher and ensure there is no
blockage in the nozzle.
2.Remove the safety clip, keep your body
and face away and strike the knob hard.
3.Hold the extinguisher and direct the jet to
the base of the fire.
Effective jet length : 30 feet
Discharge time in Seconds : 60
Portable : 9 ltrs
Trolley type : 45 Itrs and 150 Itrs.
Water Co2 9 Ltrs. IS 940
SODA ACID TYPE :
NOTE :- The Bureau of Indian Standards has withdrawn ISI Mark for Soda Acid model because of the
operational risks involved during the usage of extinguisher and has advised to replace it with water CO2 Fire
Extinguishers.
- 168 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
METHOD OF OPERATION:
1. Hold the hose near the branch pipe in one
of your hands.

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2. Remove the safety clip and strike


the knob hard by Keeping the face and
body away.
3. Hold the extinguisher and direct the
jet to the base of the fire.
Effective jet length in : 30 feet
Discharge time in Seconds : 60
Portable type : 9 Itrs
Mechanical Foam 9 Ites. IS 10204 Trolley type : 45 Itrs and 150 Itrs
‘AFFF’ (Aqueous film forming Foam) Solution is mixed in water
CHEMICAL FOAM EXTINGUISHER
Note : The Bureau of indian Standards has withdrawn ISI mark for this model because of the operational risks
involved during the usage of the extinguisher and has advised to replace it with Mechanical Foam Fire Extinguishers.
.
METHOD OF OPERATION:
1. To operate the extinguisher remove the
locking pin.
2. Hold the discharge hose firmly and press
the squeeze type valve.
3. The powder is released through the dis
charge hose and will spread out.
4. While operating direct the powder to the
base of the flame and move the jet from
side to side in sweeping motion.
(Mono Ammoniom Phoophat Powder and Nirtrogen sab
66
ABC Powder stored pressure type IS : 13849
The Stored Pressure ABC Powder type fire extinguishers are multipurpose type suitable for flmmable
liquids, gases and for fires in electrical equipments.
It is available in capacities like 1Kg, 2Kg, and 5 Kg.
- 169 -
T & SS Training Institute, Madurai.
VIII. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS :
1. The lids of all extinguishers should be checked for tightness. If two or more threads are exposed out
the cylinder should not be used. The high pressure developed in the cylinder could be withstood only
if the lid is completly screwed on to the body. Otherwise the lid would come out as a blast and cause
serious injury to the operator.
2. All extinguisher should be used in the direction of the wind.
3. There are three pin holes on the periphyery of the lid. When there is any block in the cylinder nozzle
or hose the contents will not come out while using. Then the cylinder lid may be unscrewed very
slowly. When the holes come up, the pressurised gases will come out thro’ these holes. Only after
the gas completely goes out, the lid can be fully opened. On no account we should think that there is
no pressure inside the cyclinder, if contents do not come out during usage.
4. Whenever newly filled, the gas catridge and Co2 cylinder should be checked for its correct weight.
IX. MAINTENANCE OF EXTINGUISHER :
a. Monthly - cleaning and checking for nozzle block and lid tightness.
b. Quarterly - open the lid. check for free movement of plunger. Clean the outside of the inner container.
c. In foam type the solution should be poured seperately in utensils and stirred. Few drops may be taken
out sepertely and mixed together for checking proper formation of white coloured foam.
d. Once in 6 months - The gas catridge should be ckecked for weight. If there is more than 10% loss in
weignt of gas, the cylinder may be used in Fire mock drill and then refilled.

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e. One in two years- The cylinder should be ckecked for pressure test. Soda Acid and Foam type should
withstand pressure of 17.5Kg/Sq.cm for 2.5 minutes and carbondioxide cylinder should withstand
pressure of 210 Kg/Sq.cm, for 2.5 minutes.
f. Once in two years 50% of stock of Soda Acid and foam type extinguishers, DCP once in 3 years and
Co2 once in 5 years should be used during demonstration / Fire mock drill.

Posted 21st November 2015 by kishorereddy kattukolu

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