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Chapter 1.

Properties of solids

Deforming Force

Q. 1 What is Deformation?

Ans.: The change in shape or size of body after application of external forced is called deformation.

Q. 2 Define deforming force. (W-07, W-08, S-09, W-11, S-12)

Ans.: Deforming force is defined as the external force which changes the shape and size of body after its
application.

Restoring Force

Q. 3 Define Restoring force. (W-07, W-08, W-11, S-12)

Ans.: Restoring force is defined as internal force developed in a body, in order to regain its original size and shape
after application of deforming force.

Elastic body

Q. 4 What is elastic property and elastic body? (S-11)

Ans.: 1. Elastic property: It is a ability of body to regain its original dimensions after removal of deforming force.

2. Elastic body: It is defined as body which regains its original size and shape after removal of deforming forces.

Elasticity

Q. 5 Define elasticity. (S-13)

Ans.: It is defined as a property of the body by virtue of which it tends to regain its original shape or size on removal
of deforming forces.

Plastic Body

Q.6 Define plastic body.

Ans.: Plastic body is defined as if a body does not regain its original size and shape after removal of deforming
forces.

Plasticity

Q.7 Define plasticity. (W-10, S-13)

Ans.: Plasticity is defined as a property of the body by virtue of which it tends to remain deformed and does not
regain its original size and shape after removal of deforming forces.

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Stress

Q. 8 Define stress. (W-07, S-09, W-09, S-10, W-11, W-13)

Ans.: Stress is defined as the internal restoring force per unit cross sectional area of the body.

𝐈𝐧𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐑𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐨𝐫𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐅𝐨𝐫𝐜𝐞 𝐅


Stress = =
𝐂𝐫𝐨𝐬𝐬 𝐒𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐀𝐫𝐞𝐚 𝐀

Q. 9 State SI unit of stress. (W-07, W-08, S-09, S-11, W-11, S-12)

Ans.: S. I. Unit of stress is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐


𝐦

Types of Stress

Q. 10 State types of stress. (S-11)

Ans.: There are four types of stress: 1. Tensile Stress (Longitudinal Stress) 2. Compressive Stress (Normal Stress)
3. Volumetric Stress 4 Shear Stress

Tensile Stress

Q. 11 What is tensile stress?

Ans.: Tensile stress is defined as the deforming force applied along the length of the body unit cross sectional area.

𝑨𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝑭𝒐𝒓𝒄𝒆 𝑭 𝑴𝒈
Tensile stress = = =
𝑪𝒓𝒐𝒔𝒔 𝑺𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒍 𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 𝑨 𝝅 𝒓𝟐

S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐
𝐦

Compressive Stress

Q. 12 What is compressive stress?

Ans.: Compressive stress (Compression stress or normal stress) is defined as the restoring force acting per unit area
normal to the surface of the body.

Volumetric Stress

Q. 13 What is volumetric stress?

Ans.: Volumetric stress is defined as the stress developed in a body due to change in volume of the body when
external force (deforming force) is applied to a body.

𝑨𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝑭𝒐𝒓𝒄𝒆 𝑭
Volume stress = ∴P =
𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 𝑨

 Volume stress = Change in pressure

 Volume stress = dP

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S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐
𝐦

Shear Stress

Q. 14 What is shear stress? State its SI unit

Ans.: Shear stress is defined as stress developed in a body due change in shape of the body without change in its
volume when external force is applied tangentially or parallel to the surface of the body.

𝐅
 Shearing stress =
𝐀

S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐
𝐦

Strain

Q. 15 Define strain. (W-07, S-09, W-09, S-10, W-11, W-13)

Ans.: Strain is defined as the ratio of change in dimensions to the original dimensions of the body.

It has no units.

Q. 16 State and explain three types of stain. (W-10, S-11)

Ans.: There are three types of strain

1. Tensile Strain (Longitudinal Strain) 2. Volumetric Strain 3. Shear Strain

Tensile Strain (Longitudinal Strain)

Q. 17 What is the tensile strain? (W-12)

Ans.: Tensile strain defined as the ratio of change in length of wire to the original length of wire.
(Fig. 1.1)

𝐈𝐧𝐜𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐬𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐋𝐞𝐧𝐠𝐭𝐡 𝐥
Tensile strain= =
𝐎𝐫𝐢𝐠𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐋𝐞𝐧𝐠𝐭𝐡 𝐋

Fig. 1.1

It has no units.

Volumetric Strain

Q. 18 What is the volumetric strain? (W-12)

Ans.: 1. Volumetric strain is defined as the ratio of the change in volume (dv) without
change in shape of body to the original volume (V) of the body when uniform pressure is
applied on a body.

𝒅𝒗
2. If ‘V’ is the original volume and ‘dv’ is the change in volume then, Volume strain = (Fig. 1.2)
𝑽
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It has no units.

Shear Strain

Q. 19 What is the shear strain?

Ans.: 1. Shear strain defined as the ratio of relative displacement between two layers under the action of force to
the distance between two layers. Refer Fig. 1.3,

2. Relative displacement between opposite faces of cylinder is dx.

3. Length of cylinder is ‘L’. Fig. 1.3

𝐑𝐞𝐥𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐝𝐢𝐬𝐩𝐥𝐚𝐜𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐝𝐱
Shearing strain = 𝐋𝐞𝐧𝐠𝐭𝐡 𝐨𝐟 𝐎𝐛𝐣𝐞𝐜𝐭
= = tan 
𝐋

But tan   , as  is very small.

𝐝𝐱
 = 𝐋

Elastic Limit

Q. 20 Define elastic limit. (W-06, S-08, W-10, W-11)

Ans.: Elastic limit is defined as maximum stress which can be applied on a body without permanent deformation of
a body.

Hooke’s Law

Q. 21 State and Explain Hooke’s law of elasticity. (W-08, W-09,S-10, W-10, S-12)

Ans.: Statement of Hooke’s law:

•Hooke’s law of elasticity states that within the elastic limits stress developed in a body is directly proportional to
strain produced in it.

Stress  Strain

𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬
 = Constant
𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧

•Constant of proportionality is called Modulus of Elasticity.

𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬
 Modulus of elasticity =
𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧

S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐 .
𝐦

•Modulus of elasticity is a characteristic of material.

Elastic Coefficient

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Q. 22 Define Young’s modulus of elasticity. (W-06, S-07, W-08, S-09, W-09, S-12, W-13)

Ans.: Young’s modulus is defined as the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain when the body is within elastic limits.

𝐋𝐨𝐧𝐠𝐢𝐭𝐮𝐝𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬 𝐓𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐥𝐞 𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬 𝐌𝐠/ 𝛑𝒓𝟐 𝐌𝐠𝐋


Y= = 𝐓𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐥𝐞 𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧 = 𝒍⁄ =
𝐋𝐨𝐧𝐠𝐢𝐭𝐮𝐝𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧 𝑳 𝒍𝛑𝒓𝟐

S.I Units 𝐍⁄ 𝟐
𝐦

Bulk Modulus

[+] Q. 23 Define bulk modulus of elasticity. (W-06, S-07, W-09, S-12, W-13)

Ans. : Bulk modulus is defined as ratio of volumetric stress to volumetric strain when the body is within the elastic
limits.

It is denoted by ‘K’.

K= =

…. N/m2
K=

Negative sign indicates that when pressure increases volume decreases and vice versa.

•The ratio is always negative.

Compressibility

[+] Q. 24 What is compressibility?

Ans. :

Compressibility is defined as fractional change in volume per unit increase in pressure.

•Compressibility is reciprocal of bulk modulus of elasticity.

….. m2/N
 Compressibility =

•SI unit of compressibility is m2/N.

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[+] Q. 25 Define modulus of rigidity. Write down its SI unit.

(W-06, S-07, S-08, W-09, S-12, W-13)

Ans. : Modulus of rigidity is defined as the ratio of shear stress to shear strain when the body is within elastic limit.
Its SI unit is N/m2.

It is denoted by ‘’.

= =

 = =

… N / m2
 =

Poisson’s Ratio

[+] Q. 26 Define Poisson’s ratio. (W-13)

Ans. : Poisson’s ratio is defined as within elastic limit the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain. It is denoted by
‘’.

 = =

[+] Q. 27 What are the applications of Poisson’s ratio?

Ans. : Poisson’s effect is applicable in following fields :

1. Pressurised pipe flow : When air or liquid filled inside is highly pressurized, it exerts uniform force inside the pipe,
resulting in a radial stress inside the pipe. Due to Poisson’s effect, the diameter of pipe increases and length of the
pipe decreases. The decrease in length shows noticeable effect on pipe joints.

2. Structural geology : Excessive erosion or sedimentation of the earth’s crust create or remove large vertical
stresses on under laying rock. Hence the rock expands or contracts vertically but it gets deformed or contracts
vertically but it gets deformed horizontally also due to Poisson’s effect. Due to this dormant stress is produced in
the rock.

Relation between Y, K and 

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[+] Q. 28 State relation between Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, rigidity modulus of elasticity. (W-06, S-07, W-09,
S-12)

Ans. :

Relation between Young’s modulus (Y), bulk modulus (K) and rigidity modulus () of elasticity is given by,

Or
= Y=

where Y = Young’s modulus of elasticity

 = Modulus of rigidity

K = Bulk modulus of elasticity

Relation between K and Compressibility

[+] Q. 29 State relation between bulk modulus of elasticity and Compressibility. (S-13)

Ans. :

It is defined as the ratio of volume stress to volume strain within elastic limit i.e. it corresponds to changes in
volume.

Volume strain =

and Volume stress = dp

Hence, bulk modulus (k) and can be written as,

Bulk modulus (k) =

= =

Bulk modulus is possessed by solids, liquids and ass. Bulk modulus has the same unity as those of Young’s modulus.
The reciprocal of bulk modulus is called as compressibility.

Behaviour of wire under continuously increasing load

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[+] Q. 30 Using the behaviour of uniform cross section material wire under continuously increasing load by stress-
strain curve, define :

(i) Elastic stress limit

(ii) Yield stress

(iii) Breaking stress (S-11, W-12, S-13)

OR

Explain the behaviour of wire under continuously increasing load. (W-11, S-10)

OR

Explain stress strain diagram. (S-12)

Ans. :

Fig. 1.4

1. During tensile testing of a metal, specimen of a metal is taken in the form of wire or rod. The specimen is pulled
using tensile testing machine by applying loads.

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2. The load values are observed and noted from dial of the machine and corresponding changes in the gauge
length are recorded simultaneously. With the help of an extensometer attached to the specimen of metal.

3. When stress is uniformly and continuously applied to a metal wire or metal bar, the material exhibits strain
linearly up to point A (Fig 1.4.). Thus between points O and A applied stress is directly proportional to the strain.
Therefore region OA is perfectly elastic region and the material obeys Hooke’s law. Point ‘A’ is called as Elastic limit.

4. Point ‘B’ is called “yield point” and stress corresponding to it is known as yielding stress.

5. Region ‘CD’ is called plastic range. In this region steady increase in strain occurs with negligible increase in stress.

6. Beyond ‘D’, the material loses its shape and becomes thinner and thinner in diameter. The material of wire
ultimately breaks at point ‘E’. Hence point ‘E’ is called breaking point of the wire.

Ultimate Stress or Breaking Stress

[+] Q. 31 Define ultimate stress?

Ans. : Ultimate stress or breaking stress is defined as the maximum stress the specimens can with start per initial
cross-sectional area.

Ultimate stress =

Working stress

[+] Q. 32 Define working stress? (S-13)

Ans. :

Working stress is defined as the maximum stress at which specimen is actual subjected per initial cross-sectional
area.

Working stress
=

Factor of safety

[+] Q. 33 Define factor of safety? State the factors on which factor of safety depends ?

(W-06, W-11, S-12, S-13)

Ans. : Factor of safety is defined as the ratio of ultimate stress to the working stress.

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Factor of safety =

Factor of safety depends on :

(a) Wear and tear of material at actual

(b) Magnitude of maximum load subjected on specimen.

(c) Characteristic of load such as fixed or variable.

Elasticity

[+] Q. 34 State the factors affecting the elasticity? (W-12)

Ans. : The elastic properties of solids vary due to following parameters :

1. Effect of stress : Due to application of constant large and repeated cycles of stress on a body, elasticity of body
decrease gradually.

Elasticity 

2. Effect of temperature : Generally, a rise in temperature shows a decrease in elastic properties of metals.

3. Example : At room temperature, carbon filament shows elastic behavior. When it is heated by passing current
through it, carbon filament shows plastic behavior.

4. Effect of hammering and rolling : When crystals are hammered or rolled, the grains are reduced to smaller units
that results in an increase in elastic properties of crystal.

5. Effect of annealing : Annealing is process of heating and then gradually cooling the material.

6. The annealing process of a metal produces a uniform large crystal grains which results in decrease of elastic
properties.

7. Effect of impurities : Addition of imparity increases the compactness of material. Due to this elastic property of
the material also increases.

8. Example : When small amount of impurities like carbon and potassium are added to molten iron and gold, it
increases their elastic property.

Important Formulae

Sr. No. Important Formulae S. I. Units

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1. N/m2
Stress =

2. No unit
Strain =

Y=
3.
N/m2

Y=

4. N/m2
K=–V

Negative sign indicates that when pressure increases volume decreases and vice versa.

5. m2/N
Compressibility = 

6. N/m2
=

7. No unit
Poisson’s ratio (  ) =

Negative sign indicates that as longitudinal strain increases lateral strain decreases and vice versa
Relation between Y, K and .

= + or
8.

Y=

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

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