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Properties of solids

Deforming Force

Q. 1 What is Deformation?

Ans.: The change in shape or size of body after application of external forced is called deformation.

Ans.: Deforming force is defined as the external force which changes the shape and size of body after its

application.

Restoring Force

Ans.: Restoring force is defined as internal force developed in a body, in order to regain its original size and shape

after application of deforming force.

Elastic body

Ans.: 1. Elastic property: It is a ability of body to regain its original dimensions after removal of deforming force.

2. Elastic body: It is defined as body which regains its original size and shape after removal of deforming forces.

Elasticity

Ans.: It is defined as a property of the body by virtue of which it tends to regain its original shape or size on removal

of deforming forces.

Plastic Body

Ans.: Plastic body is defined as if a body does not regain its original size and shape after removal of deforming

forces.

Plasticity

Ans.: Plasticity is defined as a property of the body by virtue of which it tends to remain deformed and does not

regain its original size and shape after removal of deforming forces.

Stress

Ans.: Stress is defined as the internal restoring force per unit cross sectional area of the body.

Stress = =

𝐂𝐫𝐨𝐬𝐬 𝐒𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐀𝐫𝐞𝐚 𝐀

𝐦

Types of Stress

Ans.: There are four types of stress: 1. Tensile Stress (Longitudinal Stress) 2. Compressive Stress (Normal Stress)

3. Volumetric Stress 4 Shear Stress

Tensile Stress

Ans.: Tensile stress is defined as the deforming force applied along the length of the body unit cross sectional area.

𝑨𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝑭𝒐𝒓𝒄𝒆 𝑭 𝑴𝒈

Tensile stress = = =

𝑪𝒓𝒐𝒔𝒔 𝑺𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒍 𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 𝑨 𝝅 𝒓𝟐

S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐

𝐦

Compressive Stress

Ans.: Compressive stress (Compression stress or normal stress) is defined as the restoring force acting per unit area

normal to the surface of the body.

Volumetric Stress

Ans.: Volumetric stress is defined as the stress developed in a body due to change in volume of the body when

external force (deforming force) is applied to a body.

𝑨𝒑𝒍𝒊𝒆𝒅 𝑭𝒐𝒓𝒄𝒆 𝑭

Volume stress = ∴P =

𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 𝑨

Volume stress = dP

S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐

𝐦

Shear Stress

Ans.: Shear stress is defined as stress developed in a body due change in shape of the body without change in its

volume when external force is applied tangentially or parallel to the surface of the body.

𝐅

Shearing stress =

𝐀

S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐

𝐦

Strain

Ans.: Strain is defined as the ratio of change in dimensions to the original dimensions of the body.

It has no units.

Ans.: Tensile strain defined as the ratio of change in length of wire to the original length of wire.

(Fig. 1.1)

𝐈𝐧𝐜𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐬𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐋𝐞𝐧𝐠𝐭𝐡 𝐥

Tensile strain= =

𝐎𝐫𝐢𝐠𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐋𝐞𝐧𝐠𝐭𝐡 𝐋

Fig. 1.1

It has no units.

Volumetric Strain

Ans.: 1. Volumetric strain is defined as the ratio of the change in volume (dv) without

change in shape of body to the original volume (V) of the body when uniform pressure is

applied on a body.

𝒅𝒗

2. If ‘V’ is the original volume and ‘dv’ is the change in volume then, Volume strain = (Fig. 1.2)

𝑽

Basic Science-Physics Page 3 of 12

It has no units.

Shear Strain

Ans.: 1. Shear strain defined as the ratio of relative displacement between two layers under the action of force to

the distance between two layers. Refer Fig. 1.3,

𝐑𝐞𝐥𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐝𝐢𝐬𝐩𝐥𝐚𝐜𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐝𝐱

Shearing strain = 𝐋𝐞𝐧𝐠𝐭𝐡 𝐨𝐟 𝐎𝐛𝐣𝐞𝐜𝐭

= = tan

𝐋

𝐝𝐱

= 𝐋

Elastic Limit

Ans.: Elastic limit is defined as maximum stress which can be applied on a body without permanent deformation of

a body.

Hooke’s Law

Q. 21 State and Explain Hooke’s law of elasticity. (W-08, W-09,S-10, W-10, S-12)

•Hooke’s law of elasticity states that within the elastic limits stress developed in a body is directly proportional to

strain produced in it.

Stress Strain

𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬

= Constant

𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧

𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬

Modulus of elasticity =

𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧

S.I. unit is 𝐍⁄ 𝟐 .

𝐦

Elastic Coefficient

Q. 22 Define Young’s modulus of elasticity. (W-06, S-07, W-08, S-09, W-09, S-12, W-13)

Ans.: Young’s modulus is defined as the ratio of tensile stress to tensile strain when the body is within elastic limits.

Y= = 𝐓𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐥𝐞 𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧 = 𝒍⁄ =

𝐋𝐨𝐧𝐠𝐢𝐭𝐮𝐝𝐢𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐒𝐭𝐫𝐚𝐢𝐧 𝑳 𝒍𝛑𝒓𝟐

S.I Units 𝐍⁄ 𝟐

𝐦

Bulk Modulus

[+] Q. 23 Define bulk modulus of elasticity. (W-06, S-07, W-09, S-12, W-13)

Ans. : Bulk modulus is defined as ratio of volumetric stress to volumetric strain when the body is within the elastic

limits.

It is denoted by ‘K’.

K= =

…. N/m2

K=

Negative sign indicates that when pressure increases volume decreases and vice versa.

Compressibility

Ans. :

….. m2/N

Compressibility =

[+] Q. 25 Define modulus of rigidity. Write down its SI unit.

Ans. : Modulus of rigidity is defined as the ratio of shear stress to shear strain when the body is within elastic limit.

Its SI unit is N/m2.

It is denoted by ‘’.

= =

= =

… N / m2

=

Poisson’s Ratio

Ans. : Poisson’s ratio is defined as within elastic limit the ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain. It is denoted by

‘’.

= =

1. Pressurised pipe flow : When air or liquid filled inside is highly pressurized, it exerts uniform force inside the pipe,

resulting in a radial stress inside the pipe. Due to Poisson’s effect, the diameter of pipe increases and length of the

pipe decreases. The decrease in length shows noticeable effect on pipe joints.

2. Structural geology : Excessive erosion or sedimentation of the earth’s crust create or remove large vertical

stresses on under laying rock. Hence the rock expands or contracts vertically but it gets deformed or contracts

vertically but it gets deformed horizontally also due to Poisson’s effect. Due to this dormant stress is produced in

the rock.

[+] Q. 28 State relation between Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, rigidity modulus of elasticity. (W-06, S-07, W-09,

S-12)

Ans. :

Relation between Young’s modulus (Y), bulk modulus (K) and rigidity modulus () of elasticity is given by,

Or

= Y=

= Modulus of rigidity

[+] Q. 29 State relation between bulk modulus of elasticity and Compressibility. (S-13)

Ans. :

It is defined as the ratio of volume stress to volume strain within elastic limit i.e. it corresponds to changes in

volume.

Volume strain =

= =

Bulk modulus is possessed by solids, liquids and ass. Bulk modulus has the same unity as those of Young’s modulus.

The reciprocal of bulk modulus is called as compressibility.

[+] Q. 30 Using the behaviour of uniform cross section material wire under continuously increasing load by stress-

strain curve, define :

OR

Explain the behaviour of wire under continuously increasing load. (W-11, S-10)

OR

Ans. :

Fig. 1.4

1. During tensile testing of a metal, specimen of a metal is taken in the form of wire or rod. The specimen is pulled

using tensile testing machine by applying loads.

2. The load values are observed and noted from dial of the machine and corresponding changes in the gauge

length are recorded simultaneously. With the help of an extensometer attached to the specimen of metal.

3. When stress is uniformly and continuously applied to a metal wire or metal bar, the material exhibits strain

linearly up to point A (Fig 1.4.). Thus between points O and A applied stress is directly proportional to the strain.

Therefore region OA is perfectly elastic region and the material obeys Hooke’s law. Point ‘A’ is called as Elastic limit.

4. Point ‘B’ is called “yield point” and stress corresponding to it is known as yielding stress.

5. Region ‘CD’ is called plastic range. In this region steady increase in strain occurs with negligible increase in stress.

6. Beyond ‘D’, the material loses its shape and becomes thinner and thinner in diameter. The material of wire

ultimately breaks at point ‘E’. Hence point ‘E’ is called breaking point of the wire.

Ans. : Ultimate stress or breaking stress is defined as the maximum stress the specimens can with start per initial

cross-sectional area.

Ultimate stress =

Working stress

Ans. :

Working stress is defined as the maximum stress at which specimen is actual subjected per initial cross-sectional

area.

Working stress

=

Factor of safety

[+] Q. 33 Define factor of safety? State the factors on which factor of safety depends ?

Ans. : Factor of safety is defined as the ratio of ultimate stress to the working stress.

Factor of safety =

Elasticity

1. Effect of stress : Due to application of constant large and repeated cycles of stress on a body, elasticity of body

decrease gradually.

Elasticity

2. Effect of temperature : Generally, a rise in temperature shows a decrease in elastic properties of metals.

3. Example : At room temperature, carbon filament shows elastic behavior. When it is heated by passing current

through it, carbon filament shows plastic behavior.

4. Effect of hammering and rolling : When crystals are hammered or rolled, the grains are reduced to smaller units

that results in an increase in elastic properties of crystal.

5. Effect of annealing : Annealing is process of heating and then gradually cooling the material.

6. The annealing process of a metal produces a uniform large crystal grains which results in decrease of elastic

properties.

7. Effect of impurities : Addition of imparity increases the compactness of material. Due to this elastic property of

the material also increases.

8. Example : When small amount of impurities like carbon and potassium are added to molten iron and gold, it

increases their elastic property.

Important Formulae

1. N/m2

Stress =

2. No unit

Strain =

Y=

3.

N/m2

Y=

4. N/m2

K=–V

Negative sign indicates that when pressure increases volume decreases and vice versa.

5. m2/N

Compressibility =

6. N/m2

=

7. No unit

Poisson’s ratio ( ) =

Negative sign indicates that as longitudinal strain increases lateral strain decreases and vice versa

Relation between Y, K and .

= + or

8.

Y=

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