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How QTP identifies objects?

--Complete Refresher

Here I am reproducing one of the most important extract from QTP help section. If
you understand this part be assured you of your success in QTP Job interviews, other
question that follow will be of very elementary nature.

When QuickTest uses the learned description to identify an object, it searches for an
object that matches all of the property values in the description. In most cases, this
description is the simplest way to identify the object, and, unless the main properties
of the object change, this method will work.

If QuickTest is unable to find any object that matches the learned object description,
or if it finds more than one object that fits the description, then QuickTest ignores
the learned description, and uses the Smart Identification mechanism to try to
identify the object.

While the Smart Identification mechanism is more complex, it is more flexible.


Therefore, if configured logically, a Smart Identification definition can probably help
QuickTest identify an object, if it is present, even when the learned description fails.

The Smart Identification mechanism uses two types of properties:

· Base Filter Properties—The most fundamental properties of a particular test object


class; those whose values cannot be changed without changing the essence of the
original object. For example, if a Web link's tag was changed from {A} to any other
value, you could no longer call it the same object.

· Optional Filter Properties—Other properties that can help identify objects of a


particular class. These properties are unlikely to change on a regular basis, but can
be ignored if they are no longer applicable.

Understanding the Smart Identification Process

If QuickTest activates the Smart Identification mechanism during a run session


(because it was unable to identify an object based on its learned description), it
follows the following process to identify the object:

1. QuickTest "forgets" the learned test object description and creates a new object
candidate list containing the objects (within the object's parent object) that match all
of the properties defined in the Base Filter Properties list.

2. QuickTest filters out any object in the object candidate list that does not match
the first property listed in the Optional Filter Properties list. The remaining objects
become the new object candidate list.

3. QuickTest evaluates the new object candidate list:

o If the new object candidate list still has more than one object, QuickTest uses the
new (smaller) object candidate list to repeat step 2 for the next optional filter
property in the list.
o If the new object candidate list is empty, QuickTest ignores this optional filter
property, returns to the previous object candidate list, and repeats step 2 for the
next optional filter property in the list.

o If the object candidate list contains exactly one object, then QuickTest concludes
that it has identified the object and performs the statement containing the object.

4. QuickTest continues the process described in steps 2 and 3 until it either identifies
one object, or runs out of optional filter properties to use.

If, after completing the Smart Identification elimination process, QuickTest still
cannot identify the object, then QuickTest uses the learned description plus the
ordinal identifier to identify the object.
If the combined learned description and ordinal identifier are not sufficient to identify
the object, then QuickTest stops the run session and displays a Run Error message.

Reviewing Smart Identification Information in the Test Results

If the learned description does not enable QuickTest to identify a specified object in a
step, and a Smart Identification definition is defined (and enabled) for the object,
then QuickTest tries to identify the object using the Smart Identification mechanism.

If QuickTest successfully uses Smart Identification to find an object after no object


matches the learned description, the Test Results receive a warning status and
indicate that the Smart Identification mechanism was used.

If the Smart Identification mechanism cannot successfully identify the object,


QuickTest uses the learned description plus the ordinal identifier to identify the
object. If the object is still not identified, the test or component fails and a normal
failed step is displayed in the results.

Walking Through a Smart Identification Example


The following example walks you through the object identification process for an
object.

Suppose you have the following statement in your test or component:


Browser("Mercury Tours").Page("Mercury Tours").Image("Login").Click 22,17

When you created your test or component, QuickTest learned the following object
description for the Login image:
However, at some point after you created your test or component, a second login
button (for logging into the VIP section of the Web site) was added to the page, so
the Web designer changed the original Login button's alt tag to: basic login.

The default description for Web Image objects (alt, html tag, image type) works for
most images in your site, but it no longer works for the Login image, because that
image's alt property no longer matches the learned description. Therefore, when you
run your test or component, QuickTest is unable to identify the Login button based
on the learned description. However, QuickTest succeeds in identifying the Login
button using its Smart Identification definition.

The explanation below describes the process that QuickTest uses to find the Login
object using Smart Identification:

1. According to the Smart Identification definition for Web image objects, QuickTest
learned the values of the following properties when you recorded the click on the
Login image:

2. QuickTest begins the Smart Identification process by identifying the five objects
on the Mercury Tours page that match the base filter properties definition (html tag
= INPUT and image type = Image Button). QuickTest considers these to be the
object candidates and begins checking the object candidates against the Optional
Filter Properties list.

3. QuickTest checks the alt property of each of the object candidates, but none have
the alt value: Login, so QuickTest ignores this property and moves on to the next
one.
4. QuickTest checks the name property of each of the object candidates, and finds
that two of the objects (both the basic and VIP Login buttons) have the name: login.
QuickTest filters out the other three objects from the list, and these two login
buttons become the new object candidates.

5. QuickTest checks the file name property of the two remaining object candidates.
Only one of them has the file name login.gif, so QuickTest correctly concludes that it
has found the Login button and clicks it.

Step-by-Step Instructions for Configuring a Smart Identification Definition


You use the Smart Identification Properties dialog box, accessible from the Object
Identification dialog box, to configure the Smart Identification definition for a test
object class.

To configure Smart Identification properties:

1. Choose Tools > Object Identification. The Object Identification dialog box opens.

2. Select the appropriate environment in the Environment list. The test object classes
associated with the selected environment are displayed in the Test object classes list.
Note: The environments included in the Environment list are those that correspond
to the loaded add-in environments.

3. Select the test object class you want to configure.

4. Click the Configure button next to the Enable Smart Identification check box. The
Configure button is enabled only when the Enable Smart Identification option is
selected. The Smart Identification Properties dialog box opens:
5. In the Base Filter Properties list, click Add/Remove. The Add/Remove Properties
dialog box for base filter properties opens.

6. Select the properties you want to include in the Base Filter Properties list and/or
clear the properties you want to remove from the list.

Note: You cannot include the same property in both the base and optional property
lists.

You can specify a new property by clicking New and specifying a valid property name
in the displayed dialog box.

Tip: You can also add property names to the set of available properties for Web
objects using the attribute/ notation. To do this, click New. The New Property dialog
box opens. Enter a valid property in the format attribute/ and click OK. The new
property is added to the Base Filter Properties list. For example, to add a property
called MyColor, enter attribute/MyColor.
7. Click OK to close the Add/Remove Properties dialog box. The updated set of base
filter properties is displayed in the Base Filter Properties list.

8. In the Optional Filter Properties list, click Add/Remove. The Add/Remove


Properties dialog box for optional filter properties opens.

9. Select the properties you want to include in the Optional Filter Properties list
and/or clear the properties you want to remove from the list.
Note: You cannot include the same property in both the base and optional property
lists.

You can specify a new property by clicking New and specifying a valid property name
in the displayed dialog box.

Tip: You can also add property names to the set of available properties for Web
objects using the attribute/ notation. To do this, click New. The New Property dialog
box opens. Enter a valid property in the format attribute/ and click OK. The new
property is added to the Optional Filter Properties list. For example, to add a
property called MyColor, enter attribute/MyColor.

10. Click OK to close the Add/Remove Properties dialog box. The properties are
displayed in the Optional Filter Properties list.
11. Use the up and down arrows to set your preferred order for the optional filter
properties. When QuickTest uses the Smart Identification mechanism, it checks the
remaining object candidates against the optional properties one-by-one according to
the order you set in the Optional Filter Properties list until it filters the object
candidates down to one object.