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18th May 2015 Boiler Auxiliaries and Aux.

Systems

PART 2 Boiler Auxiliaries and Aux. Systems

CONTENTS
CHAPTER1 FAN SYSTEM
CHAPTER2 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PULVERIZED COAL
CHAPTER3 ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS AND FLY ASH
HANDLING SYSTEM
CHAPATER4 COAL FEEDER OPERATION
CHAPTER 1 FAN SYSTEM

CONTENTS:
1 General Introduction Of Fan
2 First Start-Up of Fan
3 Operation and Maintenance of Fan
4 The shut-down of fan
5 The start-up of fan
6 Fan Fault Treatment
1 General Introduction Of Fan

1.1 FDF
This product is one of the series of dynamic Vane adjustable axial flow fan. It is manufactured by Chengdu Power
Machine Factory. The product type is Y1-19/9.5. It made with advanced technology features that impeller Vane
angle and fan efficiency can be adjusted during running. Meanwhile, because of wide high-efficiency area, economic
running can be achieved with obvious energy saving under changeable working pressure. In addition, reasonable
design makes it run safely with low noise.
1.1.1 Brief Introduction of Fan Structure
The fan is mainly composed of the following parts: rotor assembly, bearing train, suction box, fan housing, diffuser,
hydraulic regulation piping, automatic control system, coupling, flexible connection and base plate, etc.
Additionally, silencer will be provided with fan in order to decrease noise.
1.1.1.1 Rotor Assembly
Rotor assembly contains hub, Vane, hydraulic regulator, regulating fork and regulating drive unit.
Impeller is made up of hub and Vane. Vane regulator and hydraulic regulator are connected together in the hub.
When adjusting the angle of the Vane, fan outside servo motor drives regulating equipment, hydraulic regulator
which is drove by regulating fork,push hub regulator to run vanes,six high strength bolts as connection of vanes
and hub fix vanes on vane shaft in hub. Thrust bearing is mounted on Vane shaft to make regulation more flexibly.
Hydraulic regulator is designed to be hydraulic follow system, its movement is stable, and with a litter hysteresis.
The hydraulic vat is supplied by the hydraulic regulating oil station. Regulating fork is assembled with joint bearing,
so it can’t be locked. Regulating drive equipment is mounted with regulating limit bolt and regulating angle
displayer, regulating range of Vane angle is 45°.
1.1.1.2 Bearing Train
Bearing box is carbon steel whole fabricated construction, has enough rigidity, and is very convenient to assembling
regulate. Main bearing uses roll bearing supporting, and greasing.
1.1.1.3 Stator Assembly
Stator assembly contains guide orbit、air inlet box、main air housing、diffuser and so on.The inside surface
machining of housing can keep that there is correct clearance between Vane top and casing.Housing has measuring
door set.The diffuser supports on glide abutment can make it glide along orbit,bring a big convenience to fan
assembly and overhaul. There is a inlet orifice on the diffuser, through which the repairman can go inside of fan to
work. there is a guide pin in the joint of inlet air box、housing and diffuser to make assembly and overhaul easy to
regulate.
1.1.1.4 Self-Control Regulating System
Self-control regulating system contains fan instrument and hydraulic regulating oil station.Instrument includes two
platinum resistance thermometers and two temperature controllers used to measure and protect bearing temperature
in chain;difference press transformer to measure fan inlet flow;switch to regulate over-load protection;Stall
probe to protect fan stall and vibration measuring instrument to monitor bearing vibration etc. oil station
configuration see its operating Manual.
1.1.1.5 Flexible Connection
Using flexible connection is to avoid metal and metal contact directly between fan and flue and absorb heat expand
of fan and nearby flue at the same time, and also allow a little warp during equipment assembly.
1.1.2 Specification and performance of fan
1.1.2.1 Performance parameter of fan
TB BMCR TMCR
No description Unit
TB1 TB2 BMCR1 BMCR2 TMCR1 TMCR2
1 Inlet
 50 50 50 50 27 27
temperature
2 Outlet air

temperature
3 Standard kg/
3
density Nm
4 Inlet 3
kg/m 1.043804 1.043839 1.045177 1.045202 1.125445 1.125607
density
5 Suct. Static
Pa -419.47 -416.17 -291.3 -289.01 -279.41 -265.32
Pressure
6 Disch.
Static Pa 3146.99 2971.53 2185.41 2063.56 2218.3 1585.49
Pressure
7 Diff.
Pa 3566.47 3387.7 2476.71 2352.57 2497.71 1850.81
Pressure
8 Fan
% 88.1 88.1 85 86.3 79
efficiency 85.8
9 Modified
0.9872 0.9878 0.9911 0.9915 0.9910 0.9933
factor
10 Shaft powe Kw 595 558 355 336 310 229
11 Motor
kW 710
power
12 Fan rotary r/min 1490
13 Fan rotary 2
kg·m 240
inertia
14 Weight for
kg 12000
one fan
1.1.2.2 Parameter of motor
Motor type: YKK500-4
Rated power( kW): 710KW
Rated voltage( kV): 6.6
Rated speed(r/min): 1490
1.1.2.3 Lube oil quality of main bearing:
The main bearings use thin oil lubrication. The lube oil physical parameter is: when 20 temperature the max. oil
viscosity do not surpass 14E, the lower is good; when 50  temperature the oil viscosity about 3.2E should be
better, the lowest is not less than 2.8E; when 100  temperature the lowest oil viscosity is not less than 1.4E (this is
the most important target and must be guaranteed); The smallest viscosity index VI is not less than 80; The
solidification point is lower than minus 25 ; The flash point should be above 170 . Add in the anti- oxidation,
abrasion against, rust against, anticorrosion and antifoam additives. The hydroscopicity and water content in the lube
oil should be as low as possible.
The oil and the water separation should be good. The recommendation is the N46 turbine oil.
1.1.2.4 Lube oil change of main bearing
The oil level indicator should be inspected frequently. When the oil level below the lowest markline, the lube oil
should be supplemented. All bearing assemblies should be tested in the workshop. After test the lube oil should be
drained out. When fan commissioning in the jobsite, the lube oil should be filled again and replace the oil after
commissioning. In the future the fresh oil should be replaced after overhaul every 1~2 years interval. After the 
new bearing replaced, change over the lube oil after 1 hour running. Later replacement should be done according
to the above stipulation.
1.2 IDF
1.2.1 Main structure of fan
Y4-2x60-14NO.35.5F induced draught fan is the type with double suction and double-support, and mainly
consisting of the following parts;
1.2.1.1 Rotor assembly
1.2.1.2 Casing
1.2.1.3 Inlet box
1.2.1.4 Air inlet
1.2.1.5 Damper
1.2.1.6 Linkage unit
1.2.1.7 Journal bearing and thrust bearing
1.2.1.8 Inlet/ outlet flexible connection
1.2.1.9 Coupling and guard
1.2.1.10 Oil pipeline
Connect oil pipes between hydraulic coupler and motor bearing.
1.2.2 Main technical parameter of fan
Fan type: centrifugal type with double suction
Air-in angle of inlet box:
Fan lutlet angle :
Impeller diameter:
Max. speed of fan main shaft:
Max. circumference speed of impeller:
Max. fan efficiency:
GD2 of fan rotor :
Total fan weight:
Total rotor weight :

1.2.3 Fan operation


1.2.3.1 Fan’s operation. Make preparation below before fan starts:
(1) Clean sundries in the fan. Close inspection door and adjustment door.
(2) Jigger checks clearance size between each fan parts. If there is friction
and strike phenomenon for rotor parts and stator parts.
(3) People can’t stand beside impeller and coupling in case danger. Protective cover should be added to coupling.
(4) Check if oil level is within normal level.
(5) Check electrical equipment’s circuit. If the meter is in normal condition.
(6) When fan starts, rotary speed reaches normal condition, adjust the angle of the adjustment door to its required
position.

1.2.3.2 Stop for check at once as soon as condition below occurs:


(1) Find that fan has fierce noise.
(2) Bearing temperature rises sharply.
(3) Fan has serious vibration and strike phenomenon.
(4) Motor currency is too high, and temperature rises sharply. The corrective action is useless.
(5) Cooling water stops. Bearing penetrates water and leaks oil seriously.

1.2.3.3 Notice in fan’s normal operation.


(1) If the volume is too much or it should be decreased, adjustment could be used to adjust.
(2) Check thermal meter and oil sign’s sensitiveness.
(3) If abnormal condition occurs when fan starts, stops and operates, it should be stopped for check.
(4) Check and repair regularly, dispose malfunction to improve normal operation.
(5) Change lubricant after check. In normal condition, it should be changed every 3 to 6 month. All should be
changed 1 to 2 weeks after first operation.

1.3 PAF
This product is one of the series of dynamic Vane adjustable axial flow fan, its type is AP2-18/13, the product made
with advanced technology features that impeller Vane angle and fan efficiency can be adjusted during running.
Meanwhile, because of wide high-efficiency area, economic running can be achieved with obvious energy saving
under changeable working pressure. In addition, reasonable design makes it run safely with low noise.
1.3.1 Brief Introduction of Fan Structure
The fan is mainly composed of the following parts: rotor assembly, bearing train, suction box, fan housing, diffuser,
hydraulic regulation piping, automatic control system, coupling, flexible connection and base plate, etc.
Additionally, silencer will be provided with fan in order to decrease noise.
1.3.1.1 Rotor Assembly
Rotor assembly contains hub, Vane, hydraulic regulator, regulating fork and regulating drive unit.
Impeller is made up of hub and Vane (This fan has double-stage vane). Vane regulator and hydraulic regulator are
connected together in the hub. When adjusting the angle of the Vane, the servo motor outside fan drives regulating
equipment, hydraulic regulator which is drove by regulating fork,pushes hub regulator to run vanes, four or six
high strength bolts are adopted to fix the vanes on vane shaft in hub for connection of vanes and hub. Thrust bearing
is mounted on Vane shaft to make regulation more flexibly.
Hydraulic regulator is designed to be hydraulic follow system, whose movement is stable, and with small lag. The
max hydraulic vat axial force refers to Vane angle adjusting speed list of the manual special part. Hydraulic vat is
supplied by hydraulic regulating oil station. Regulating fork is assembled with joint bearing, so it can’t be locked.
Regulating drive equipment is mounted with regulating limit bolt and regulating angle displayer, regulating range of
Vane angle is 45°.
1.3.1.2 Bearing Train
Bearing box is carbon steel whole fabricated construction, has enough rigidity, and is very convenient to assembling
alignment. Main bearing uses roll bearing supporting, and greasing. Bearing box is mounted with lube oil pipe,
connected with lube oil console outside fan.
1.3.1.3 Stator
Stator assembly contains guide orbit、air inlet box、main air housing、intermediate air housing, diffuser and so on,
and mainly adopts bar section welding construction. The inlet air box is provided with support for mounting
coupling. The inside surface machining of housing can keep that there is correct clearance between Vane top and
casing.Housing has measuring door set. The diffuser supports on glide abutment can make it glide along orbit, bring
a big convenience to fan assembly and overhaul. The intermediate air housing adopts horizontal split, for
convenience to overhaul the main bearing train in the main air housing. There is an inlet orifice on the diffuser,
through which the repairman can go inside of fan to work. There is a guide pin in the joint of inlet air box, housing
and diffuser to make assembly and overhaul easy to align.
1.3.1.4 Self-Control Regulating System
Self-Control Regulating System contains fan instrument, lube oil console and hydraulic regulating oil station.
Instrument includes platinum resistance thermometers and temperature controllers used to measure and protect
bearing temperature in chain;difference press transformer to measure fan inlet flow; switch to regulate over-load
protection; Stall probe to protect fan stall and vibration measuring instrument to monitor bearing vibration etc. Oil
station configuration refers to its operating Manual.
1.3.1.5 Flexible Connection
Using flexible connection is to avoid metal with metal contact directly between fan and flue and absorb heat
expansion of fan and nearby flue at the same time, and also allow a little warp during equipment assembly.
1.3.2 Specification of equipment
1.3.2.1 Performance parameter of fan
TB BMCR TMCR
No Description Unit
TB1 TB2 BMCR1 BMCR2 TMCR1 TMCR2
1 Inlet
 50 50 50 50 27 27
temperature
2 Outlet air 
temperature
3 Standard kg/
3
density Nm 1.285 1.285 1.285 1.285 1.285 1.285
4 Inlet 3
kg/m
density 1.045 1.045 1.046 1.046 1.126 1.126
5 Suct. Static Pa
Pressure -310.71 -331.13 -239.01 -254.71 -231.42 -249.15
6 Disch.
Static Pa
Pressure 15277.25 17862.48 11751.73 13740.37 12727.51 12828.75
7 Diff.
Pa
Pressure 15587.96 18193.6 11990.74 13995.08 12958.93 13077.9
8 Fan
%
efficiency 87.4 84.9 88.2 88.2 88.4 88.2
9 Fan
%
efficiency 87.4 84.9 88.2 88.2 88.4 88.2
10 Shaft
kW 1942 868 1166 792 969
power

11 Motor
kW 2000
power

12
Fan rotary r/min 1490

13 Fan rotary 2
kg·m 1250
inertia

14 Weight for
kg 15000
one fan

1.3.2.2 Parameter of motor


Motor type: YKK630-4
Rated power( kW): 2000KW
Rated voltage( kV): 6.6
Rated speed(r/min): 1485

2 First Start-Up of Fan

2.1 First Start-Up of FDF and PAF


After all parts have been assembled and fan assembling size is passed test, fan and motor base finish secondary
grouting and all anchor bolts have been tightened, fan should test run for 8~10 hours, to prove the test running
condition of all fan parts accord with the request.
2.1.1 Check items before test running
2.1.1.1 Fan inlet and outlet flue should be cleaned to make sure inner is clean through, there must not be structural
material、steel plate scrap、 scrap bolts、nuts etc. such things that are easy to be sucked in by fan. Otherwise it will
bring a big danger to fan operation.
2.1.1.2 There must be emergent stop switch on operating site.
2.1.1.3 Check if main bearing is normal and if lube grease accord with request.
2.1.1.4 Hydraulic regulating oil station has passed running test.
2.1.1.5 Main motor has pasted running test.
2.1.2 Starting up
2.1.2.1 Before fan starting up check the following item
a. Fan vane angle should be on close position (10°)
b. Inlet and outlet regulating air valve should be on all close position.
2.1.2.2 It asks for the following equipment feedback sign to start hydraulic regulating oil station:
a. Oil pump motor
b. Fan motor cooler
2.1.2.3 Start main motor and check if its turning is correct, if it is wrong, stop and rectify it. Go on running to work
rotate speed if it is correct, and open inlet and outlet air valve.
2.1.2.4 Regulate vane to requested angle by servomotor.
2.1.3 The measuring items during test running
2.1.3.1 Main bearing temperature: Measure it and make one record every half hour. Main bearing temperature must
be under 90.
2.1.3.2 Main bearing vibration value (when it is difficult to measure main bearing box vibration, measure fan main
air housing): Vibration values involve vertical、horizontal、radial directions data,vibration speed virtual value is
as per the specification thermo-engineering check point layout drawing.
2.1.4 Stop
2.1.4.1 Set fan vane angle to close position (10°)
2.1.4.2 Close fan inlet and outlet air damper.
2.1.4.3 Cut off main motor power supply.
2.1.4.4 Close oil pump and oil cooler fan of hydraulic regulating oil station.

2.2 First Start-Up Of IDF


The running-test must be done after fan assembly and it is satisfied.
2.2.1 Preparation before running-test
2.2.1.1 Check if anchor and connection bolts are tightened.
2.2.1.2 Check if the inlet pipelines of fan are cleaned up without any foreign matters.
2.2.1.3 Install temperature instruments and vibration instruments and final check.
2.2.1.4 Set up the emergent shutdown button at jobsite and confirm it works well.
2.2.1.5 Check if the oil level of bearing box and cooling water system are conformable to the requirements.
2.2.1.6 Act according to the manual of hydraulic coupler, see hydraulic coupler manual.
2.2.1.7 Act according to the manual of motor (see motor manual), no-load running of motor shall be done to check if
the rotating direction of motor is in accordance with that of fan
2.2.2 Running-test steps:
2.2.2.1 Barrel the rotor to check if rotor collides with stators;
2.2.2.2 Start cooling water system;
2.2.2.3 Close fan damper;
2.2.2.4 Start motor to observe if the rotating direction of fan is correct if the rotating direction is wrong, must shut
down the fan to adjust.
2.2.2.5 Forbid to stand the radial direction of impeller and near to coupling when fan starting and running .stop fan
immediately after the first starting within five minutes. Observe if all parts are in abnormal situation or the sound of
collision. Madding sure that there is no problem, test run formally. After fan reaches the rated speed open the damper
gradually. After running1-2 hours under the rated load, shut down the fan and check bearings and the other parts
without problems, and then run 8-24 hours, if there is no problem it can be put into operation. During fan running
the bearing temperature rise shall be less than 40℃.
2.2.2.6 Stop the fan after the test running time reaches the specified time. Power off the motor but the cooling water
system shall continue to circulate until fan speed at zero and bearing temperature less than 50℃.

3 Operation and Maintenance of Fan

3.1 Operation and Maintenance of FDF and APF


3.1.1 Alarm during operation
3.1.1.1 See alarm interlock logic drawing for detail
3.1.1.2 Stall
Alarm by differential pressure switch,when differential pressure measured by stall probe is higher than virtual
value. The setting value of differential pressure switch should be gotten by test. The test is: set vane angle as stall
warning angle, then connect stall probe with a “U” pipe, start up fan, close fan inlet or outlet damper slowly, record
differential pressure of “U” pipe when fan become run unsteadily, at the same time open damper quickly and
regulate vane angle to make fan run normally and stop. The recorded differential pressure of “U” pipe is the setting
value of differential pressure switch. Link high pressure side hole with high pressure side (Hi-PR) of differential
pressure switch and link lower pressure side hole with lower pressure side (Lo-PR). If alarm stall during operating,
regulate vane angle quickly. Find out stall reason to resolve it and restore vane angle to requested value,must stop
fan if alarm last 100s and still can not be cleared. If extension line of performance curve at some degree is in
superposition of surging limit, the alarm at this angle and the smaller ones should be cleared automatically.
3.1.1.3 Regulating Force
Alarm by limit switch when regulating force is over load.
3.1.1.4 Vibration
The fan vibration speed and its virtual value refers to the specification of thermo-engineering check point layout
drawing, alarm or stop as per its requirements.
3.1.2 Notice Items of Fan during parallel connection Operation
3.1.2.1 Start-up of two fans in synchronism
Two fans should start-up under the condition that the moved vane is closed, when it reaches the rated speed, open the
outlet damper of two fans at the same time and adjust upwards the angle of moved vane to the rated working
condition, pay attention to make the load of fan uniform and in that case, the fan are running smoothly.
3.1.2.2 Start the other one while one fan is running
If need to start the other one when one fan is running because of change of unit load,start up and regulate fans
according to the following process.
Fan should be started in the condition of vanes closed, outlet damper is closed before starting.When fan reach rated
rotate speed, open outlet damper, regulate up fan moving vane angle, at the same time regulate down moving vane
angle of the first fan, pay attention to the up and down ranges should be equal matched to keep system load until two
fans loads are equal, then regulate two fans moving vane angle in synchronism according to need.
3.1.2.3 To ensure effect of fans running in synchronism, mount return valve (or blow valve) in every fan outlet
during system designing. So it is easy to start the other fan when one fan is running. Open return valve (or blow
valve) to make fan is under small resistance, regulate fan moving vane angle to match with the first fan equally.
Then close return valve (or blow valve) gradually, at the same time open fan outlet damper gradually, regulate return
valve (or blow valve) to all close, regulate in synchronism after fans outlets are full open and their loads are same.
3.1.3 Fan Lubrication
3.1.3.1 Thrust bearing of vane shaft uses lube grease,the grease can use No.2 supramoly composite calcium grease
or some other grease with same performance.
3.1.3.2 Main bearing uses lube grease,and supplied by lube oil console forcedly.
a. The lube oil physical property parameter is as follows:
Oil viscosity at 20℃ is under 14E,it is better to be low.
Oil viscosity at 50℃ is better around 3.2E,the lowest is at least not lower than 2.8E.
Oil viscosity at 100℃ is at least not lower than 1.4E(this is the most important index which must be kept)
Viscosity index is at least not lower than 80.
Freezing point should be lower than the cold 10℃.
Flash point should be higher than 170℃.
Add some antioxidant, anti-chafe, anti-rust, anticorrosive, foam-eliminating additives.
Make hygroscopy performance of lube oil and water content in oil as lowest as possible. Separability of oil and
water must be good.
Recommend YB-N46 (tube oil 30#).
b. Replacing of lube oil for main bearing
Check oil level indicator regular, when the oil level falls to the lowest indicating line, lube oil should be
supplied.
All bearing trains have been made running test in the manufactory, after that oil should be drain out. When
taking running test at site, lube oil should be added again, and after running test, the oil should be replaced. From
then on, during operation, every 1~2years, after every overhaul, new oil should be replaced. After changing new
bearing, lube oil should be replaced immediately after operating for 1 hour. The later replacements are performed
as per the above provision.
3.1.3.3 Regulating shaft bearing in regulating drive equipment uses lube grease,the grease can use No.2 general
lithium grease or No.2 aircraft grease.
3.1.3.4 The addition and replacement of lube grease
a. Change thrust bearing lube grease of vane shaft in every overhaul.Usually the longest use is under 16000 hours.
b. Change regulating shaft bearing lube grease in regulating drive equipment in every overhaul.Usually the longest
use is under 16000 hours.
3.1.3.5 Hydraulic Oil of Hydraulic System
a. Hydraulic oil physical property parameter:
Oil viscosity at 20℃ is under 18E.
The optimum oil viscosity at 50℃ is about 3.5 E.
Oil viscosity at 100 ℃ is at least equal to or above 1.4E.
Viscosity index is at least not lower than 95.
Freezing point should be lower than the cold 25℃
Flash point should be higher than 170℃
Add some antioxidant, anti-chafe, anti-rust, anticorrosive, foam-eliminating additives.
Add EP extreme pressure anti-wear agent.
Make hygroscopy performance of lube oil and water content in oil as lowest as possible.
Recommend hydraulic pressure oil YB-N46 (tube oil 30#).
b. The replacing of hydraulic pressure regulating oil
Generally, the hydraulic pressure regulating oil can be changed annually.

3.2 Operation and Maintenance of IDF


If there is no problem about test run, fan can be put into formal run after replace lube oil in bearing box. During
operation regulate the damper if the flowrate and pressure of fan can’t meet the actual requirements of flow. The
vibration and temperature status of bearing assembly should be inspected and noted regularly during operation.

4 The shut-down of fan

4.1 The shut-down of forced draft fan


4.1.1 If single side forced draft fan is stopped operating in the operation of the boiler, rotating blade of stop-waited
forced draft fan should be closed slowly, the openness of rotating blade of opposite operating forced draft fan is
increased, secondary air amount and air pressure needed for the combustion in furnace are kept.
4.1.2 Program control shut-down mode is chosen for forced draft fan, the button of start is pushed, it is cautious and
monitored that shut-down process is carried out according to the program step-by-step.
4.1.3 Rotating blade of stop-waited forced draft fan is closed to “0”position.
4.1.4 Forced draft fan motor is stopped operating.

4.2 Shut down of IDF


There are the two kinds of fan shut down, normal and abnormal. In normal operation, shut down fan without closing
the inlet damper on, make fan shut down with load, which can make the stop time shorter. Abnormal shut down is
the urgent step for fan run abnormally, such as: If fan vibration and temperature value reach stop value or some other
urgent accidents, do not close the inlet damper on fan.

4.3 The shut-down of primary air fan


4.3.1 When single side primary air fan is stopped in the course of the operation of boiler, blade of stop-waited
primary air fan should be closed slowly, the openness of blade of opposite side operating primary air fan is
increased, primary air pressure is kept normal.
4.3.2 Program control shut-down mode is chosen for primary air fan, the button of start is pushed, it is cautious and
monitored that shut-down process is carried out according to the program step-by-step.
4.3.3 blade of stop-waited primary air fan is closed to “0”position.
4.3.4 Primary air fan motor is stopped operating.
4.3.5 Outlet baffle plate of primary air fan is closed by hand-operated.

5 The start-up of fan

5.1 The start-up of forced draft fan


5.1.1 Forced draft fan section should be inspected before the start-up of forced draft fan.
5.1.2 It is confirmed that one induced draft fan has operated, the blade of start-waited forced draft fan is closed to
“0” position, various points temperatures of forced draft fan are normal.
5.1.3 Program control start-up type is chosen for forced draft fan, the button of start is pushed, start-up process of
forced draft fan should be carried out according to the program step-by-step.
5.1.4 Forced draft fan motor is started.
5.1.5 Outlet baffle plate of forced draft fan is opened after motor current is normal, outlet baffle plate of opposite
forced draft fan is closed.
5.1.6 Rotating blade of forced draft fan is put into automatic operation, air amount is raised to required value slowly.

5.2 The start-up of primary air fan


5.2.1 It is inspected that the boiler has no condition of MFT, various points temperatures of primary air fan are
normal, opposite primary air fan does not operate, outlet baffle plate should be closed, when the first primary air fan
is started, at least one forced draft fan operates, two forced draft fans must be started when the second primary air
fan is started.
5.2.2 Program control start-up mode is chosen for forced draft fan, it is cautious and monitored that start-up process
is carried out according to the program step-by-step.
5.2.3 Outlet baffle plate and the blade of start-waited primary air fan are closed.
5.2.4 Primary air fan motor is opened.
5.2.5 After motor current is normal, outlet baffle plate of primary air fan is opened.
5.2.6 The blade of primary air fan is put into automatical operation, primary air pressure is slowly raised to required
value for normal operation.

5.3 The start-up of pulverizer seal draft fan


5.3.1It is inspected that inlet hand-operated baffle plate of pulverizer seal draft fan is opened, outlet baffle plate of
seal draft fan is closed.
5.3.2 One seal draft fan is started, outlet baffle plate is opened.
5.3.3 Another seal draft fan is placed in interlock reserve position.

6 Fan Fault Treatment

6.1 FDF and primary fan fault treatment


The temperature of main bearing is over-high
1 If the temperature rise is exceed 5℃for each minute?
If it is exceed If it is not
Fault on the main bearing Go on running
The oil level is too low
The oil cooling effect is not good
2 If the oil level of bearing is normal (oil pool lubrication)
If it is If it is not
Go on running Add oil for complementarily
Check the connection tube of oil level
measuring meter
3 For the lubricated grease or oil, check if it has been polluted or changed color
Have been polluted and changed Haven not
color
Renew the grease or lubricated oil Go

The fan vibration is big


1 If the sound of main bearing is normal
If it is If it is not
Go on running Fault on the main bearing(replacing the
bearing)
2 Vibration of fan
If the vibration is big If it is not big
Correct the dynamic balancing again Go on running
3 If the consuming of air amount for inlet and power of fan is normal
If it is normal If it is not
Go on running a. Stall for fan
b. The moved vane angle is different of two
fans which running shunt-wound
c. The resistance is too big for the inlet
&outlet air channel
d. Damper may be closed
e. Fault maybe happened on the automatic
system
4 The grating of metal can be heard from the main air housing
If there is grating If not
Shut-down the motor to check if Go on running
collision happened between the vane
and the main body canister
Rotate the vane in axial direction
5 A big drop in the inlet air quantity or motor currrent
If dropped If not
Possibly the blade has been Go on running
damaged or wore abrasion

Some problem happened to the regulating system


1 If the oil pressure is normal of the hydraulic pressure adjusting system
If it is If it is not
Go on running a. Oil pump does not work
b. Check the filter carefully
c. Check if there is leakage occurs on the tube of
hydraulic system?
d. Check if there is leakage occurs on the
hydraulic urn or turning seal?
2 Check if we have the servo motor been corrected?
If we have it been corrected If we have not
Go on running Do the correcting work the servo motor
3 If the driving and adjusting equipment does work or not?
If it does If it dose not
The hydraulic urn conks Big abrasion happened on the thrust bearing of
footstalk type or happened on the bearing of
transmission shaft which for the adjusting the
hydraulic pressure and through the diffuser

6.2 IDF fault treatment


Faults Possible causes Trouble-shooting method
Strong Fan shaft and motor shaft are Re-align
vibration misalignment. Coupling clutch
bearing are skew out of standard
Friction between inlet box and Adjust clearrnce
impeller
Connecting bolts between Check and tighten bolts
main shaft and impeller and
coupling bolts are loosing
clutch is misalignment or bolts
loosing
Bolt on bearing and base are Check and tighten bolts
loosing
Unbalance rotor Check if it caused by abrasion and
dust, and do dynamic balance
again it necessary
High Strong vibration bearing Refer to the above listed
temperature Improper lube oil or lower oil Check oil quality, add oil
rise of level or small cooling water andincrease water flow
bearing flow
Rotor unbalanced Refer to this list
Two bearing boxes or coupling Re -align
is misalignment
Over current When start, inlet damper is Check and close damper
and high open
temperature Flowrate is above design value Check limited working points
rise of motor Lower motor input voltage or Check and deal
power single phase cut-off
Coupling connects Check , align and adjust
misalignment
CHAPTER 2 Operation and Maintenance of Pulverized Coal
CONTENTS
1 General
2 Functional description of the subassemblies
3 Request of operation
4 Start-up and putting out operation
5 Technical data for operation, protect program and alarm
6 Inspection prior to start and preservice inspection
7 Faults and remedy
1 General

The boiler adopt ZGM123N type mill, it is a vertical mill with three grinding rollers and one grinding track. A
grinding table rotates round a vertical axis in driven by a planetary gearbox. The three grinding rollers, mounted in
fixed position, are passed down on the table under hydraulic loading. Raw coal enters through the center of the mill
and is deposited on the grinding table. Centrifugal force feeds the coal radially outward where it is ground between
the roller tyres and grinding track.
The grinding force, is statically determined by three grinding rollers, which is generated by hydraulic loading. It
starts from loading, to grinding rollers, grinding track, towards the foundation.
The pulverized coal is flowed by centrifuged force into the zone over the nozzle ring surrounding the table, where
the coal particles are swept upwards by the stream of hot primary air into the classifier.
The intimate contact with the hot primary air causes the moisture contaminated in the coal to evaporate
spontaneously. The oversize particles rejected by the classifier fall back onto the grinding table for further grinding.
The fine particles, i.e. finished product, are carried out of the classifier with the air.
Pyrites and tramp iron that cannot be carried upward by the primary air drop down through the ring and into the
primary air plenum chamber. Revolving scraper blades attached to the bottom of the grinding table push this foreign
material outward to an external disposal system.
The mill is to be driven by a squirrel-cage induction motor. The torque of grinding table is drived by the vertical
bevel-planetary gearbox which also stands the horizontal and vertical load caused by upper parts weight and
grinding load.
The lubrications unit of the gearbox is used filtrating/cooling the oil inside the gearbox. In order to insure a good
lubricant condition for the subassemblies inside gearbox.
The hydraulic unit provide grinding load,lift or put down the rollers by three tensioning cylinders.
Commonly one sealing fan is provided for one mill, optionally one sealing fan is available for several mills(for one
boiler). Sealing air was used for sealing at grinding table carrier/pivoting bearing of tie rod /rollers. If the rotary
classifier is equipped, the rotary classifier needs some sealing air.
When mill is needed for maintenance, the turning gear should be connected to mill motor tail.

2 Functional description of the subassemblies

2.1 Foundation anchoring parts


Foundation anchoring parts include the gearbox plate/the motor plate/the anchoring boxes/the tension rods seat/the
turning gear. Anchoring boxes for fastening of gearbox plate, and motor frame have been aligned prior to concrete
work and connected positively to the reinforcement rasp. to the foundation plate.
2.2 Main motor
The motor is an asynchronous one with high starting torque. The rated speed is 990r/min. Before the mill starting,
the rotation direction should be checked.
2.3 Coupling
The power is transferred through Coupling from motor to gearbox, the direction of rotation must be inspected before
mill operating.
2.4 Gearbox
The vertical mill drive is a bevel gear planetary gear unit with triple power transmission path for driving a vertical
mill. The power is transferred through gearbox from motor to Grinding table carrier. High axial forces are generated
during the milling process have to be lead into the foundation via the gear unit housing. If more information
required, please consult the instruction book of gearbox.
2.5 Mill base
The mill Base consists of the Base and the waste box, including the following main functions: accommodation of the
ring fastening the base bottom seal and accommodation of the gearbox.
It supports the great subassemblies for example the Casing and the Classifier etc. It still endures the torque of level
direction acted on the Casing from the guiding element in mill operating.
Rejected box will be installed on the side of the base.
2.6 Reject box
Reject box includes hydraulic (pneumatic) door and rejected box body.
The hydraulic (pneumatic) door can isolate hot air room and reject box. The pressure of springs inside the door can
insure the sealing of the hydraulic (pneumatic) door. The sealing between the hydraulic (pneumatic) door and
cylinders uses a filling graphite box. There are location indicators on the hydraulic (pneumatic) door. If there are two
hydraulic (pneumatic) doors, they should be interlocking operated.
Caution: The relational regulation and the safety rules must be observed in operation of the hydraulic (pneumatic)
door. Only the hydraulic (pneumatic) door is closed, the hand door can be permitted to open, otherwise the hot air
will be released. On the other hand, only the hand door is closed, the hydraulic (pneumatic) door can be permitted to
open.
If the coal mill runs in negative pressure circumstance, the hydraulic (pneumatic) door is cancelled.
2.7 Base sealing equipment
For positive pressure running mill, Base sealing equipment includes up-connection flange, down-connection flange,
up-sealing loop, down-sealing loop, graphite sealing loop and spring etc..
The whole base sealing equipment will be installed on the top board of the mill base. The graphite ring consists of
20 segments, which are encircled with a spring, and form a floating seal. The life of the graphite seal ring is long and
it has a good sealing effect. It can be compensated itself. And its replacement and maintenance is easy.
Because the mill is running on the positive pressure, for the reliable sealing effect, the pressure of the sealing air
must be higher than hot air, P≥2kPa, the value is under control. The most of the sealing air enter the hot air room,
only little leak into the atmosphere. Sealing air prevents hot air and powder leaking, so that the surroundings of mills
are improved.
If the coal mill runs in negative pressure circumstance, the base sealing equipment uses labyrinth gland.
2.8 Grinding table carrier and Scraper
The grinding table carrier, for the torsion-proof and rigid connection to the output flange of the gearbox with 20 M48
bolts, transfers the torque. Grinding table turns driven by the grinding table carrier with 3 transmitted pins. At one
time, the grinding table carrier must support the load force and the weight of parts inside the mill.
Two scrapers for the waste are screwed to the Grinding table carrier, running with the grinding table carrier. The
normal clearance between the scraper to the bottom of hot air house is 6~10 mm. When it became greater for wear,
the clearance can be adjusted through bolt is tightened.

2.9 Grinding table and nozzle ring


The grinding table and nozzle ring is composed of rotary parts and static parts. The rotary parts consists of the
supporting tray, segment (12 pieces), taper cover etc. running with the grinding table carrier. The nozzle lamina cast
together with the supporting tray revolves with the grinding table. The static parts are fixed on the mill housing.
The inserted segments in the supporting tray are fixed with the cuniform bolt.
A taper cover on the supporting tray serves for distributing the raw material and prevents dust and water from
penetrating into the space below.
2.10 Grinding roller
The grinding roller consists of the thrust piece, roller shaft, roller type, hub, bearing, and rotary shaft seal etc.
The grinding roller is located between the grinding table and the frame fixed by the frame, the incline angle is 15°.
The type is shaped symmetrically in order that it can be rotated in a determined condition of wear for the purpose of
an optimum utilization.
Since the life of rolling bearing is decisively influenced by the lubricating condition, and operating in the area of
high temperature (120), SHC gear oils of highly viscosity for highly temperature must be selected. The maximum
filling volume of each roller is 36 l. The oils is enclosed by two seals, the first seal encloses outside, the second seal
encloses inside oils, the free space between two seal rings is filled with grease for lubricate the lip of first seal ring.
The grinding roller accommodates two bearing, the bigger cylindrical roller bearing ensures radial load and the self-
aligning roller bearing ensures axial load.
The force is loaded to the roller via the roller hub connected movable pipe of sealing air system. The sealing air flow
from inside the thrust piece into a circular duct ahead of the rotary shaft seals in order to protect seal ring from the
outside coal powder and cool roller.
In order to compensate for the influence of different pressure and temperature condition, a ventilation filter is
provided for as connection between bearing space and circular sealing air duct. A detective hole for measuring oil
level is provided on the rolling shaft. The thread bolt must be installed after using.
2.11 Loading Frame
The guiding block is provided on the loading frame with equilateral triangle frame. The grinding pressure is
transmitted to the loading frame via the tensioning hole by the hydraulic pressure system. The fulcrum house
accommodated the cylindrical roller is provided on the bottom of the frame. In order to fix and against torsion in
operation, the guiding frame is provided on the loading frame. The clearance is adjusted based on the center of 3
tensioning hold seat.

2.12 Fulcrum assembly


The fulcrum assembly consists of the fulcrum seat and the fulcrum roller.
The fulcrum seats are fixed on the bottom of the loading frame. The fulcrum rollers connect the roller frame and
loading frame, and transfer the load force to the rollers. The grinding rollers can adjust themselves horizontally to
the grinding pad on the grinding table. Thereby, the move of extrusion and grinding can be carried out, and the
grinding efficiency is improved. The other function of the fulcrum rollers is lifting the grinding rollers if need via the
hydraulic system.

2.13 Casing
The mill casing consists of the casing, hot gas entrance, door of maintenance, all kinds of inspection door, seal
equipment of tie rod, inert gases tube, guiding equipment, etc.
The casing is welded to the base, and screwed to the classifier by bolt. Adequate plates against wear and tear are
welded internally. The hot gas guide casing is composed of the bottom of casing, upside of base, grinding table
carrier and rotary nozzle ring. In order to guide loading frame and prevent it’s rotation following grinding roller and
control the center of 3 grinding roller shafts via loading frame, the guiding equipment of loading frame is provided
at the upside casing. A door for person enter, 3 inspection doors for the grinding rollers (for filling oil and mounting
measure elements), 2 inspection doors for the hot gas casing (for maintenance scrapers and removing the waste
during accident) are provided on the casing.
There is seal equipment of tie rod, which should prevent the coal powder releasing and permit tie rod freely up-down
moving. Hot gas for drying and transmitting the coal powder is provided via hot gas entrance where there is an
entrance of inert gases. The inert gases must be spray into the mill via the pipeline during normally stopping/running
the mill or urgent shutting off the mill, in order to prevent self-ignition or exploding in the mill.
If the mill needs a lower output, there is a setting for control the location of the loading frame. Through adjusting
trays, the clearance between the rollers and grading table will be kept 5~8mm, for avoiding liberation of the mill at
low output. If the rollers are worn, the clearance will be adjusted accordingly. If the mill doesn’t need a lower output,
all the adjusting trays can be taken out, the clearance of 5~8mm is needless.
2.14 Loading elements
Loading elements consist of up tie rod, down tie rod, sphere bearing, measuring staff guage of wear, connecting
block etc.
The tie rods consist of up tie rod, down tie rod, they are fixed by connecting block.
The tie rod is connected to loading frame by sphere bearing on the top, and get out from the seal equipment on the
casing and connected with loading hydraulic cylinders via connection cover on the bottom. The measuring
equipment for displaying depth of coal and the status of wear is provided on the rod.
2.15 Hydraulic cylinders
Three hydraulic cylinders are provided to the mill, which are arranged at 120°point of a circle, a accumulator is
instanced on the each of cylinders. The cylinders connect tie rod with connecting block. In order to fixing the
cylinders with tie rod base plates, the joint bearing is provided on the bottom.
The diameter of the cylinder is 220mm,piston rod is 140mm, action distance is 400mm, and its rating pressure is 20
Mpa.
2.16 Classifier
There are two types of Classifiers, one is static baffle separator, the other is rotary classifier.
The static baffle separator can endure a pressure for exploding is 3.5 bar. The main parts consist of classifier casing,
baffle door, inside cone, handling setting for baffle door, out way of the powder, and coal intake pipe. The function
of the classifier is selecting powders whose sizes meet the requirement of the boiler. Throng adjusting the angle of
the baffle door, the sizes of powders can be controlled. The scope of the adjusting angle is 25°~80°, the size of
particular can be adjusted ranging between R90 10% to 40%, the working angle commonly is 50°, but the best angle
need to be confirmed by mill performance experiment.
The rotary classifier of dynamic and static type mainly consist of classifier casing, static shutter, rotor, pipe of
transmission coal, drive parts, cone of collecting powder, seal pipe etc. The dust/air mixture comes into the classifier,
first through the static shutter, where the coarse dust particles are separated and return to the grinding space. Whilst
the others are led into the rotor space by the traction, the centrifugal force of eligible particles equate with the
traction by adjust the rate of rotor, but the unqualified dust particles are driven to the grinding space by the
centrifugal force. When the speed of the rotaty classifier rotor is 40~140rpm, the size of particular can be adjusted
ranging between R90 2% to35%. The motor is to be driven by the transducer, then the center hollow shaft is
transmitted by gear and rotary support, thereby the rotor is rotated. The suitable rotary speed need to be confirmed
by mill performance experiment.
2.17 Classifier platform
The platform is used during maintenance or mill installation. Person can reach to the top plate of the classifier.
2.18 Seal air pipes
The seal air from seal fan is separated into roller seal space, tie rod seal space and Base seal via non return valve on
the bus pipe and rubber flexible joint. The seal air of grinding rollers go into mill from top of classifier bottom-
flange, then into 3 yoke via circular air pipe and vertical air pipe with joint bearing. In order to prevent the inflection
for grinding liberation, one end of vertical air pipe is fix on the yoke, the other end is connected to the circular air
pipe. The steel cover jointed to bearing is prone to wear for the inflection of the swing of joint bearing, therefore it
often must be inspected and maintained, if need, it must be changed. There is a butterfly valve for adjusting the
volume of seal air.
If the rotary classifier is equiped, the rotary classifier needs some sealing air.
2.19 The inert gas system
The inert gas must be spray into the mill via the pipeline during normally stopping/running the mill or urgent
shutting off the mill, in order to prevent self-ignition or exploding in the mill. The inert gas can use steam, N2 or
CO2.The entrance of the inert gas can be respectively installed at the hot air room, mill casing and classifier. If using
steam as inert gas, the water collector(provided by user)is necessary.
2.20 Hydraulic oil pipes
The hydraulic oil pipes are provided for connecting hydraulic plant, hydraulic cylinders and reject box cylinder.
They consist of inlet pipes and outlet pipes.
2.21 Lubrication pipes system
Lubrication pipes are provided for connecting oil supply system and reducer. They consist of inlet oil pipes and
return oil pipes.
2.22 Hydraulic plant
The hydraulic plant provides power for the hydraulic cylinders, and carries out the function of loading and uplift/fall
of grinding rollers during running/stop. For further information see Hydraulic unit operating manual provided by
manufactory.
2.23 Lubrication unit system
Lubrication unit is used for circulating and cooling the lubricant for gearbox.

2.24 Seal air pipes for grinding rollers


The seal air of grinding rollers go into mill from top of classifier bottom-flange, then into 3 yoke via circular air pipe
and vertical air pipe with joint bearing. In order to prevent the inflection for grinding liberation, one end of vertical
air pipe is fixed on the yoke, the other end is connected to the circular air pipe. The seal air pipes for grinding rollers
need be inspected and maintained, if need, it must be changed.
2.25 Bottom housing-platform
The bottom housing-platform is used during maintenance or mill installation.

3 Request of operation

3.1 General
In order to prevent dust fires and dust explosions, the relational regulation and the safety rules must be observed in
operation.
The warning brand must be shown and the inlet/outlet valves of the mill must be shut during repairing, meanwhile
motor is forbidden to switch on. Prevent the accident endangered lift take place!
During work at the mill, it has to be ensured that the electric valve of inert gas inlet cannot be switched on and the
manual valve should be switched on
The mill has the task to crush hard coal of one size to pulverized coal. But, foreign matters, such as metal
substances, stones, blocks, and coarse foreign materials can interfere with the employ life of the mill and cause
damages. Thus, those parts are not permitted in the mill. The strip and line type foreign matters cannot get into the
mill that can entwine the classifier rotor, static vane baffle etc., since these not only interfere with the function of the
classifier, but also cause a risk of fires by producing dust deposits. Therefore, the perfect sundries cleanup
establishment should be provided to transmitting coal units.
The grinding tools – grinding rollers tyres and grinding table segments- are made of materials of high hardness and
corresponding sensitivity to breakage, therefore these prevent from collision, impact and heated. For this reason, it is
not permitted to operate the mill unless the mill operates at the speed of the turning gear or the grinding rollers have
be put up. It is forbidden to operate the mill without material to be ground at operating speed (the grinding rollers
have be loaded).
Check waste volume in the waste box during every start. Observe current consumption of the drive motor. The
program protection must be provided, and operate under the alarm limited range. Pay attention to the libration.
The mill manufacturer may not be held responsible for any damage caused by transgression beyond limit values!

3.2 Capability regulation in operation


3.2.1 The regulation of coal powder size
The change of coal powder size relates to the angle of the classifier blades (or speed of rotary classifier rotor),
grinding force, supply coal quantity, hot gas quantity etc..
In case of first operation, the speed of classifier rotor and loading force just be decided temporarily, the angle of the
classifier blades is 50°(the speed of classifier is 84rpm), for loading force to see fourth section. The best condition of
operation and the most economical size of coal powder can be obtained after operating 1000 hours, which need
performance experiment. This test mainly includes: regulation of the angle of the classifier blades (or speed of
rotor), appropriate grinding force and proper hot air quantity.
During operating, the classifier should be inspected regularity, in order to prevent that the classifier function is to be
effected from rotor wear or foreign matters getting into.
3.2.2 The loading and its speciality curve of grinding roller
The hydraulic loading is adopted in the ZGM123G mill, which can change the grinding rollers loading force by
changing the pressure of the accumulator and hydraulic cylinders.
Range of throughout: 25 %~100 %
Force of loading: 25 %~100 %,or 90kN~360kN
Pressure: 4.0 MPa~15.9Mpa

The maximal loading force is 360kN, during the debugging process the maximal value can be reduced properly. For
this system, since the full-load operation is economical, the best loading force should be obtained by mill
performance experiments.
3.2.3 The request of the gas-coal scale
The quantity of supply coal and hot air may be adjusted according to the hot air -throughout curve. The quantity of
hot air may be properly adjusted from standard, therefore, while the Mill Technical Protocol is being subscribed, the
user may constitute the “standard air curve” according to the request of boiler factory and design institute, in order to
insure that the hot air quantity adapt to the system. Because of the different of the throughout in the variable project,
the 2 sect beeline of standard curve is different.
It is very important to set up proper scale of the quantity of supply coal and hot air. Unless the quantity of supply
coal and hot air is exact, not only the adjusting of load but also the operation of mill will be effected. Therefore the
scale of the quantity of supply coal and hot air should be inspected according to the curve during the first operating.
Then the measure equipment should be proofed termly, in order to prevent the quality trouble that measure is not
exact.
Note: During the first operating, while there isn’t self-regulation of the hot air quantity, at first increase the hot air,
then increase the coal during increasing the throughout that be manually adjusted by the operating personal. In order
to prevent the adjustment is too fast or the waste material is too much and even the coals is jammed, must decrease
the coal at first, then hot air during decreasing the throughout.
3.2.4 Manually waste
Empty waste box periodically after the hydraulic gate valve has been closed. The interval depends on condition of
operation. At first operating, check waste box every other half-hour. During the mill open/stop every time, must to
check and empty waste box. Empty waste box every 1~2 hours in normal operation.
The waste volume should be very small, but it will increase the following condition:
a. Mill startup
b. Mill emergency shut-down
c. Material to be ground is poor
d. The grinding rollers, segments and nozzle ring have been badly worn during operating evening
e. The increase of mill throughout is overly rapid in operation, and the hot air volume is less than requested value
The waste increase for mill emergent shut and startup is natural. When the increasing of nozzle wear, the wear parts
must be changed in time.
3.3 The sealing request
3.3.1 The pressure of mill inner and outside is different. In order to prevent that the outside coal powder enter into
inner oil space, the sealing system is provided that mainly seals the grinding rollers, base, tie rod and rotary classifier
etc.. Sealing request of every part:
3.3.1.1 Static and dynamic classifier seal: it is about 45 percent of total sealing air which is used for avoiding that
coal powder enter into the oil box of classifier drive via the rotary clearance between static parts and dynamic parts.
3.3.1.2 Seal of grinding rollers: in order to prevent that the flying coal powder influent the rotary shaft seals, the
sealing air should be kept period of time after mill shut-down, besides the normal sealing air in operation.
Continuance time can be seen in the process request of mill startup/shutdown, the quantity of sealing air is about 50
percent of total sealing air.
3.3.1.3 Tie rod seal: It is used for preventing that powder deposit on the clearance between joint bearing and sealing
ring, which is about 5% percent of total.

3.3.2 Technical data of ZGM113G mill sealing system:


3.3.2.1 Differential pressure sealing air/mill air in mill startup >2kPa
3.3.2.2 Differential pressure sealing air/mill air in operation 1.5kPa
3.3.3 Caution:
3.3.3.1 Ensure the request sealing air quantity, it is forbidden that it is used for other purposes.
3.3.3.2 The sealing pipeline and joint box should be inspected in order to insure the clear inside after assembling and
inspecting mill. The sealing pipeline joint should be opened up in order to prevent the dust can enter the mill during
testing sealing fan. In order to remove the matter adhered on the pipe wall, it may as well to knock on the sealing
pipeline. Do not forget to join the joint after test.
3.3.3.3 In order to prevent the measure equipment misplay and influent the operation, the measure equipment of hot
air and sealing air and alarm equipment of differential pressure should be inspected periodically in operation.

4 Start-up and putting out operation

The following several operating are lodged in Logic Diagram of Start and Putting Out Operation for ZGM Mill.
 Mill start-up
 Normally putting out operation
 Shut-down
 Emergency shut-down
4.1 The sequence of start-up (the following is reference data on lubrication system)
4.1.1 Lubrication system startup
The lubrication system should be put into operation before mill startup. When the oil temperature is <25, the low
speed pump should be started, then open the electric heater. When the temperature exceeds 28, the pump should
be switched to high speed. when the temperature exceeds 30, the heater should be shut. As the pressure of supply
oil exceeds the sum of the value of switching and 0.13Mpa, and the temperature of the gearbox oil reach 28, the
oil temperature of thrust bearing space is <50, it is indicated that startup of the lubrication system has completed.
The upper process is to be automatically completed by the controller of oil system.
4.1.2 Prior to startup, the following should be prepared.
4.1.2.1 Mill inlet door closed
4.1.2.2 Mill cold air door closed
4.1.2.3 Sealing air valve of coal feeder opened
4.1.2.4 Coal scuttle valve opened
4.1.2.5 Isolation valve on mill outlet opened
4.1.2.6 Hot air pressure achieved
4.1.2.7 Turning gear come away
4.1.2.8 The pressure of hydraulic plant adjusted
4.1.2.9 The operation of lubrication and hydraulic plant in order
4.1.2.10 The system of control in order
4.1.3 Pressure of sealing air
Start the sealing fan to make the pressure difference of sealing air and hot air achieves the value that is required for
mill startup (ΔP≥ 2kPa).
4.1.4 Start hydraulic unit oil pump
Start pump and adjust proportional overflow valve.
4.1.5 Inert gas
Because of the accumulated coal on the grinding table, in order to prevent exploding, the inert gas should be plunged
into mill for 6~10minutes before putting in the hot air.
4.1.6 Hot air
The hot air is switched on in order to clean the mill, afterwards, the quantity of hot air should be adjusted to the
lowest value that mill requires..
4.1.7 Temperature of temperature of mill outlet is switched on in order to start mill
4.1.8 Mill startup condition is ok.
4.1.9 Coal feeder startup
After mill startup for 10 minutes, set coal feeder to min. volume flow, then startup.
4.1.10 The mill throughout is adjusted to normal.
4.1.11 The temperature of mill outlet adjusted
4.1.12 The proportion of air and coal adjusted
The mill throughout is adjusted based on the boiler load, which is linearly correlated with the hot air quantity that
can be adjusted according to the category of coal. The every operating must be according with the automatic
process, then “mill startup” will be completed. In peculiar, the manual operating can be carried out according to
Logic Diagram of Start and Putting Out Operation for ZGM Mill. The manual buttons should be pressed after the
every control process is affirmed until the mill is started (motor startup).
4.2 Putting out of operation
4.2.1 Prior to putting out of operation, set coal feeder to min. volume flow, at the same time reduce classifier outlet
temperature based on the putting out of mill process of Logic Diagram of Start and Putting Out Operation for ZGM
Mill.
4.2.2 As classifier outlet temperature ≤60, switch off coal feeder, uplift the grinding rollers, the mill should be
putted out of operation after 60~120 minutes operation, then the grinding rollers descend.
4.3 Shut-down and emergency shut-down
Eliminate failures of mill or correlative system in time, if this is impossible, stop mill normally or by ‘emergency’
4.3.1 shut-down
The shut-down is performed according to the shut-down process of Logic Diagram of Start and Putting Out
Operation for ZGM Mill.
Further criteria for shut-down include:
a. Coal feeder stop or below min. volume flow
b. Suddenly librates
c. Lubrication units failures
d. Different pressure of sealing air and hot air ≤1.5kPa
e. Hot air quantity below min.volume
f. Classifier outlet temperature: t 2≤60 or t 2≥100(or according to project actual condition)
g. Grinding rollers oil temperature ≥110
h. Gearbox inlet oil pressure ≤1.0 kPa
i. Thrust bearing oil space temperature ≥70
j. Motor winding temperature ≥130.
4.3.2 Emergency shut-down
The emergency shut-down is performed according to the emergency shut-down process of Logic Diagram of Start
and Putting Out Operation for ZGM Mill.
4.3.2.1 Further criteria for emergency shut-down include:
a. System protection action
b. Hot air quantity below the 85% of min. volume
c. Classifier outlet temperature: t 2≤55 or t 2≥100(or according to project actual condition)
d. Grinding rollers oil temperature ≥120
e. Motor stop
4.3.2.2 The following equipment should be operated as emergency shut-down
a. Mill inlet damper emergency shut
b. Hot air damper and cold air ‘closed’
c. Coal feeder power supply switch off
d. Inert gases plunged into mill
4.3.2.3 Following operation should be done:
a. Mill is operated non-loading in order to remove coal and prevent coal self-igniting.
b. The sealing fan, lubrication units and hydraulic unit ‘closed’
4.3.2.4 If the failures have been eliminated after emergency shut-down, mill operation can be carried out again. The
following should be done.
a. Inspect mill and assistant equipment.
b. Waste
Then mill operation normally can be carried out.

5 Technical data for operation, protect program and alarm

5.1 Technical data for mill startup


different pressure of sealing air and hot air: ≥2kPa
grinding rollers oil temperature: ≤100
classifier outlet temperature: 70~100
temperature of gearbox oil bath: ≥28
thrust bearing oil space temperature ≤50
gearbox inlet oil pressure: ≥0.13 Mpa
5.2 Technical data for mill shut-down
Grinding rollers oil temperature: ≥110
Coal feeder volume flow: ≤20 %
Gearbox inlet oil pressure: ≤0.10 MPa
Classifier outlet temperature: ≥100
Classifier outlet temperature: ≤60
Thrust bearing oil space temperature: ≥70
Motor bearing temperature: ≥90
Motor winding temperature ≥130
5.3 Technical data for emergency shut-down
Classifier outlet temperature: ≥105 (or according to project actual condition)
Classifier outlet temperature: ≤55
Grinding rollers oil temperature ≥120
Hot air volume below 85% of the min. volume

6 Inspection prior to start and preservice inspection

6.1 Inspection prior to start-up (the provided qualification)


No. Item Request
1 Turning gear Turning gear is disconnected.
2 Coal feeder volume flow Measure of volume has been inspected.
3 Hot air volume Measure of volume has been inspected.
4 Voltage of drive power Voltage of drive power is accord with the
regulation.
5 Voltage of control power Accord with regulation.
supply
6 Classifier rotor and speed Speed of Classerifier rotor accords with
of classifier rotor operation request to roll over.
7 Sealing damper Closed
8 Hydraulic units Have been separately debugged.
9 Sealing fan Have been separately debugged.
10 Lubrication plant, gearbox Have been separately debugged according to
factory request.
11 Motor Have been separately debugged according to
factory request.
12 The different pressure of The different pressure ≥2kPa.
sealing air and hot air
13 Lubrication condition Accord with request.
14 Control and alarm signal All of Control and alarm signal have been
carried out.
15 Classifier baffle The rotor rotates easily, and without hanging
matter on it.
16 Loading pressure of The accumulator has been filled to the setted
grinding rollers value with nitrogen. (scale pressure limiting
valve has been adjusted.)
17 Guiding equipment The foreign matters in the clearance of
guiding block and guiding board must be
cleared out, the clearance accord with request.
18 Grinding rollers No oil leakage
19 Rotary nozzle and coarse The foreign matters in the clearance of rotary
particle guiding flow ring nozzle and guiding flow ring must be cleared
out, the clearance is accordant with drawing.
No. Item Request
20 Foreign matter and tools The foreign matters in mill must have been
shouldn’t appear in mill. cleared out.
21 Scrapers The screws on scrapers must have been
welded.
22 Hot air chamber and waste Hot air chamber and waste box have been
box cleared out.
23 Door of waste box Before start mill, the upside door (if provided)
of waste box was open

6.2 Mill startup


6.2.1 Automatic operating, it is performed automatically according to the process of Logic Diagram of Start and
Putting Out Operation for ZGM Mill.
6.2.2 Manual operating, the manual operating can be carried out according to Logic Diagram of Start and Putting
Out Operation for ZGM Mill. The manual buttons should be pressed after the every control process is affirmed until
the mill is started (motor startup).
6.3 Inspecting in operation
No. Item Request
1 Vibration < 50μm.
2 Noises < 85dB (1 m),no special noises
3 Ruler for Measuring Measure the thickness of grinding coal.
wear
4 Remove the Waste Remove the waste periodically, it is forbidden that
the waste flows over the box.
5 Base sealing Notice if waste leak from the sealing interval.
equipment
6 Tie rod Inspect if the sealing ring move freely and leakage.
7 Sealing fan Inspect noises, vibration and filter. The different
pressure of sealing air and hot air should be ≥1.5
kPa.
8 Hydraulic plant Inspect the leakage and pressure of hydraulic
system etc..
9 Lubrication plant According to the factory request.
10 Gearbox According to the factory request.
11 Main motor According to the factory request.
12 Grinding rollers Oil temperature of grinding rollers:≤100,oil
level reaches above the min. Mark, there isn’t
metal powders and coal powders in oil.

7 Faults and remedy

During startup/shut-down, operating and maintenance of the ZGM mill, must observe the relational regulation, it is
forbidden that any equipment relating to control and alarm are shut off, wrong connected and stopped.
The following table contains the most frequent faults and provides information on how to remedy them.
No. Faults Possible reason Prevision and remedy
1 Abnormal There are foreign Shut-down, remove the foreign Caution! Prior to startup,
operation matters between matters, inspect if the parts inspection is carried out
grinding parts. drop off in the mill. (caution! in order to assure start
When the iron block and rigidly all right and operation
matters etc. get into mill, safely, which mainly
should eliminate it otherwise aims at the mill of
the grinding parts will be initially installed and
damaged.) that has been examined
No coal or few coal The pipe for transmitting and repaired. The
in mill. coal may be jammed. problems in the
The guiding troubleshooting and
Replace it or adjust interval; eliminating faults table
board wear or
Replace; are some of main that
interval too large
Mill Shut-down and are easy appeared in
Grinding parts
hydraulic plan, blow or inspect operation, for future
damaged.
accumulator. information on the
Nitrogen
quantity too small accessorial equipment
or gasbag damaged failures and remedy see
in accumulator the correlative operating
introduction.
2 The different The filter on the Mill Shut-down, clean the
pressure of hot air sealing fan inlet is filter.
and sealing air dammed.
decrease The location of non Regulate it to correct location.
return valve on
sealing pipeline is
Repair or replace.
wrong.
The sealing
Eliminate faults.
pipeline leak or
damage.
The sealing parts
are invalid.
3 Grinding rollers The intensively Eliminate the source of
cover break. vibration in vibration.
operation.
The casing examine Prevent grinding rollers from
door is opened too the influence of largely
early after putting different temperature.
out of operation, Replace grinding rollers cover.
cold air get into.
4 In operation: the Faults of control Transform the hot air
temperature of equipment for hot Control to manual work and
classifier is too low air temperature eliminate the faults.
or too high. Failure of hot air As above;
The temperature control Emergency shut-down, the
increasing too fast. Fire of the internal inert gas valve has been switch
mill on until the temperature is
Temperature of reduced.
classifier exceeds
110

5 Lower oil level of Sealing parts failure Shut-down, repair or replace


grinding rollers sealing parts, fill oil until
reaching the regular level.
6 Higher temperature Lower oil lever See no. 5.
of grinding rollers Bearing failures Shut-down, replace the
grinding rollers bearing.
Repair or replace.
Grinding rollers
sealing air pipeline
failures or wear
7 Shutter break off Bolts break off. Retighten or replace.
8 Overabundance Emergency shut- Waste increasing belongs to
for Waste volume down or initial normal condition in startup and
flow startup of mill. shut-down.
Coal quality is
too poor. Replace the nozzle in time
as the waste increasing for
Grinding rollers, nozzle ring wear.
segment and nozzle
have been wear
badly. Adjust hot air volume.
The increasing of
throughout is too
fast in operation.
Too small hot air
volume

9 Door of waste box Seal is mangled or Fix seal and repeat it


don’t sealed there is eyewinker
10 Hot air is giveaway sealing air volum is Check Sealing fan
from botttom lack seal was fret Replace seal
housing
11 Thrust tile oil Oil isn’t enough Check bumb and pipe
temperature is high Cooler is trouble
12 Thrust tile is Mill start Replace it and check gear
damaged Frequently Thrust box
tile oil temperature
is high
13 Gearbox See the gearbox instruction.
abnormity
14 Lubrication plant See the lubrication plant
abnormity instruction.

CHAPTER 3 ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS


CONTENTS
1 General
2 First Start-Up
3 Normal Start-Up (Restart-Up) Procedur
4 Normal Shut-Down Procedure
5 Inspection And Redressal In Normal Operation
6 Equipment Maintenance
7 Trouble transact
8. ESP Integrated Controller III
9.Driven device for rapping system
10. High voltage silicon transformer for rectifier for ESP
1 General

1.1 ESP is a highly-efficient, energy-saving equipment for air cleaning with high superiority such as high collection
efficiency, large gas volume to be treated, long service life, low-cost maintenance. At present, public demands on
environmental protection are more and more stringent, ESPs are more commonly used. During the operation of an
ESP, its operators’ manual must be strictly followed.

1.2 Application conditions of conventional ESP


The range of ESP application as follows:
Gas volume to be treated: ≤4.5×106m3/h
Flue gas temperature: ≤400(>250is within high temperature
model)
Specific resistance: 1×105Ω.cm 1×1014Ω.cm
Spacing of same electrode: 250mm~600mm
Pressure drop across ESP proper: -4.0×104 Pa ~0 Pa(among of this)
-1.0×104 Pa~0Pa is as normal model: -4.0 ×104Pa ~-1.0Pa ×104Pa (is as high
Pressure model)
Passage spacing: 250mm ~600mm
Dust concentration of inlet flue gas: ≤100g/Nm3(under normal status)
1.3 Principle of electrostatic precipitator
The principle of dust collection in an ESP as follows:
When passing through the high voltage electrostatic fields, dust particles will be charged by colliding with positive
ions, negative ions and electrons among electrodes or in the ion dispersion movement.
The particles with electrons and ions on them will move and accumulate on the electrodes of opposite polarity under
the influence of the electric field .By means of rapping, the layer of dust particles on the electrodes will be dislodged
into the bottom hoppers.
Practice has shown that the higher the strength of electrostatic field, the more effective as
ESP will be and it is preferable to capture dust particle in an ESP operation with negative corona, therefore, our
ESPs are designed as the structure of high voltage negative corona electrodes with flow chart as follows:

2 First Start-Up

2.1 An experienced engineer should be appointed to be a general director of the trial run. And the items to be
checked should be planned and strict records on site should be kept and special personnel should be designated to
register. To avoid damages caused by condensation of moisture in flue gas or by not inspecting all the
parts/components during operation, the following checks should be made:
2.1.1 All the doors of thermal insulated boxes are locked;
2.1.2 All the inspection doors are closed and interlocked;
2.1.3 Check the open& close of flue duct dampers to ensure reliable operation both manually and electrically;
2.1.4 Check the functions of alarm on the electric control panels by pressing the ‘TEST ’buttons thereon to simulate
alarming;
2.1.5 Check to see if the power net voltage is correct;
2.1.6 Check to confirm that no one is inside the ESP or in other dangerous areas with high voltage;

2.2 After all the pre-operation items of inspection have been made with acceptable results, perform the following
operations:
2.2.1 Turn on the electric heaters in the each insulator compartment;
2.2.2 Start up the motors for rapping and ash discharge and observe each parts and keep them running for 30
minutes;
2.2.3 Detach the earthing devices from the high voltage parts to have an open circuit between the discharge and
collecting system;
2.2.4 Turn off the HV isolating switches on the power units and lock them in the operation positions.
2.3 Energization—Turn on the automatic voltage-adjusting system and observe the rising for no-load voltage.
2.4 Keep records of the changes of primary and secondary voltage and current. Since the no-load current has
something to do with the temperature and humidity of the air. At the very time of trial run with no-loads, pay
attention to the capacity of the equipment and values of voltage and current.
2.5 After the trial run with no-loads is over, analyze and eliminate all the breakdown occurred under the trial run.
2.6 Plot the voltage-current characteristic curves for each electric field. Mark the values of voltage corresponding to
a certain degree of rising in current on a sheet of coordinate paper until the current reaches its rated value.
Connecting these points together will form a piece of curve, which is called voltage-current characterist is curve and
can be used as reference for the check of erection quality and comparison with later no-load curves of the same
electric field.
2.7 Keep records of the on-load primary and secondary voltage and current.
2.8 Plot the on-load V-A curves and work out analysis to them by the same methods.
2.9 Re-check the air leakage in the ESP casing and inspection door etc.
2.10 Shut the ESP down
2.11 Check the inner wall of the support insulator and the shaft insulator and two sides of the gas distribution screen
to see if there are phenomena of rapid dust accumulation and damages.
2.12 Eliminate all the troubles occurred during the on-load trial run.

3 Normal Start-Up (Restart-Up) Procedure

3.1 Make sure that pre-operation inspection is over, all the safety measures are taken and all the operators are in
place.
3.2 All the heaters have been turned on for at least 8 hours prior to start-up of ESP, which ensure inside the all
hoppers and various insulators (support insulators, shaft insulators, etc) are dry and to avoid any damage caused by
electric creepage owing to condensation. Check all electric heaters to see if the current is correct.
3.3 Open all the dampers in inlet and outlet flue ducts (but with the exception of those in inlet and outlet
interconnecting sections).
3.4 Start up the I.D. fan.
3.5 Lead flue gas into the ESP to eliminate the moisture on various internals. This period of warm-up depends on the
temperature and humidity within each field and is usually ended when the temperature at the outlet of the last field
reaches higher than gas dew point. At this time be sure to let go the moisture from within the insulator
compartments. When the temperature of gas at ESP outlet remains lower than dew point, never put the high voltage
T/R into operation. When the Boiler fire with oil, never put the high voltage T/R into operation (Expect the ESP for
the oil fired Boiler).
3.6 Start up the ash discharge system.
3.7 Start up all the rapping devices.
3.8 Turn on all the functions of the low voltage operating system. Set alarms, safety interlocking, temperature
detector and controller, ash level indicator, ash discharger, etc. are all in a mode of auto-controlled operation.
3.9 The ESP can’t put into operation until the boiler is in steady operation with firing coal and the temperature inside
ESP is higher than gas dew point. And it should be operated with zero spark rate.

4 Normal Shut-Down Procedure

4.1 Temporary shutdown


4.1.1 Switch off the I.D. fans and wait for three to five minutes;
4.1.2 Switch off, in the order of electric field, the high voltage power source to each bus section and have the control
cubicles locked.
4.1.3 Shut off all the dampers in both inlet and outlet flue ducts;
4.1.4 Keep on running for heating systems during temporary shutdown;
4.1.5 Any person isn’t allowed to enter into field of ESP.
4.2 Long-term shutdown
4.2.1 Complete the procedures steps1), 2) and 3)in 4.4.1 above;
4.2.2 Turn off the high voltage isolating switches to each bus section and turn it in the earthing position and have it
locked;
4.2.3 Shutdown all systems of heating, temperature measuring controlling and ash level controlling;
4.2.4 Keep on operating the rapping and ash discharge systems after high voltage power supply is cut off until all the
smoke and dust are cleaned and removed inside the ESP;
4.2.5 Turn off the main power switch, excluding lighting

5 Inspection And Redressal In Normal Operation

5.1 There should be sufficient staff on duty in the ESP control room. They should make regular checks to the
operation of the equipment. For occurrence of abnormal phenomena, analyze the causes of breakdown and solve
them. For each work shift, at least two checkers should be made to the transformers and all rotary devices to see if
they function properly and check oil inspection of speed reducer and adequately grease.
5.2 Main items to be inspected are as follows:
5.2.1 Check to see whether the operating current of each heating system is correct.
5.2.2 Check all the indicating lamps and alarms to see if they function properly;
5.2.3 Check to see if the values of primary current A and primary voltage V and secondary current mA and
secondary voltage KV as indicated by the rectifiers are correct.
5.2.4 Check to see if the ash discharge system has any problem in discharging the collected ash;
5.2.5 Regularly check to see if the rapping shafts turn normally and the hammers hit properly (as can be heard from
outside of ESP).
5.3 Observe and optimize the spark ratio, rapping sequence and ash discharge program of each electric field until a
satisfactory collection efficiency isobtained.
5.4 The staff on duty must keep records of the operation status of the equipment with carefulness, especially values
of the primary and secondary current and voltage, which are to be recorded per two-hours.

6 Equipment Maintenance

To achieve the reliable operation of ESP in long term with required collection efficiency, professional personnel
should be appointed to be is charge of ESP operation and maintenance. These people must know the design,
principles, functions and performance of the ESP and are able to operate and to maintain and to troubleshoot the
ESP.
During each shutdown of ESP, a general check should be made to clean its inside and correct the deformed plates
and electrodes and clean the insulators of dirt and measure the earth resistance and eliminate all defects occurred
during its previous operation. Normally an ESP needs a minor overhaul once a year, of which items includes the
replacement of worn parts. The ESP need major overhaul every third year(or followed by overhaul schedule of the
boiler).
Overall cleaning and adjustment are done in electric field and replacement of some defective or worn
parts/components are made, moreover, lubricants are to be changed at regular interval.

6.1 Routine checks and maintenance


6.1.1 After entering the ESP, first check if there are any phenomena of dust accumulation and clean these.
6.1.2 Check the side panels, access doors and insulator compartments at the top of ESP to observe if there are
phenomena or air leakage, condensation, corrosion or dust accumulation, if there are, eliminate them.
6.1.3 Check the motor temperatures oil level in speed reducers, shaft bearings and rapping hammers to see if they
are in good order and if the hammers hit on the correct locations. Lubricate the motors as per manufacturer’s
manual.
6.1.4 Sometimes the gas distribution screens may have dust accumulations or blockages somewhere due to low gas
velocity thereon. Check and clean manually.
6.1.5 Check the discharge frames and discharge electrode to ensure that they are not deformed and that there is no
dust deposition.
6.1.6 Check the collecting plates and shock bars to ensure that they are not bent and that there is no dust deposition.
6.1.7 Support insulator is used to support and insulate for discharge system. Possible cracks result from high voltage
breakdown due to accumulated dirt and moisture, thus clean inner and outer wall of the insulator and search for tiny
crack by using a flashlight. In order to suck thermal air to reduce contamination from internal support insulator, two
slot holes(5mm to 10mm) of its cover plate are left.
6.1.8 Clean the shaft insulators in discharge rapping shafts and search for possible flaws with a flashlight.
6.1.9 With reference to the manufacturer ’s manual, check the HV T/R sets to see if the functions of the high voltage
isolating switches, relays, heaters, instruments for temperature measuring and controlling, alarms, earthing devices.
etc. are normal and eliminate the breakdown if there are any.

6.2 Warning
Take strict precautions against excessive accumulation of ash in field of ESP
6.2.2 Heavy dust accumulation in electric fields are usually caused by failure of dust discharge system or its
insufficiency of conveying capacity. Maybe dust adherence or ‘bridging’ in hoppers on account of hopper heaters
with breakages and poor thermal insulation, and it make the ash can’t discharge smoothly I time. Huge amount of
dust piled in hoppers, when it continuously accumulates and touch electrode, it will inevitably result in short circuit
in electric fields. The rapping system of collecting system will be damaged. The collecting plate will be moved out
from its suspension frame. The emitting frame will be deformed. It accordingly makes the electrical field
malfunction and result in severe problem. We should pay extra attention to this situation. At this period, the field has
been stopped running, but the boiler is still working. Large numbers of dust hereby still fall into hopper by gravity. If
there is excessive deposit of dust in the hopper and that is not discharged in time, it will result in a severe and
nonreversible damage of ESP. So the exigent method for discharging the dust should be made to prevent the ESP
from being further damaged, the details as follows:
6.2.2.1 Avoid over deposit of dust in hopper. Check the actual operation condition of conveyor system, when the
high level detector alarms, and take measures to make the dust conveying unhindered. It will reduce the level of dust
and conceal the alarm.
6.2.2.2 When dust deposit in any of hoppers is over its upper level and make theswitch break out, exigent measures
must be taken to discharge the dust in extremely short time. The dust discharging should be done in 3 hours and the
deposit level is lower than the upper opening of the hopper in 8 hours to make the field working again.
6.2.2.3 If the dust discharging is not done in 8 hours, mandatory measures must be taken, for example, cutting a hole
near the outlet of hopper, open the hand hole for discharging the dust, ect.
6.2.2.4 If every great efforts has been made in 48 hours, and the dust in hopper is still beyond the upper opening of
hopper, and the switch is still out of work, the generator and boiler have to be compulsively shut down to makesure
of safety and avoid worst results.
6.2.2.5 Pay extra attention to the safety when the dust be discharged from hopper, especially the bridging dust,
because it will drop suddenly if effected by other outer force. Besides this other accidents such as scald should also
beavoided.
6.2.2 No safety measure, No allowance for entering into electrical field Nobody is allowed to go to the ESP roof,
otherwise the professional person of ESP.

7 Trouble transact

7.1 The secondary working current is large, secondary voltage can’t rise up, and no flash.
7.1.1 Possible Causes
1) Possible earthing from HV part by foreign electric conductive material.
2) The character of high specific resistance of dust and flue gas change the corona voltage.
3) HV sampling loop in control cabinet has malfunction and discharge tube are under soft breakdown condition, or
the meter gets stuck.
4) The discharge tube comprised of paralleled HV sampling resistance in T/R is under soft breakdown condition.

7.1.2 Remedies
1) Examine the field and insulator compartment, then remove the foreign material.
2) Change the type of coal or adopt gas extender.
3) Repair the HV loop and change the broken component.
4) Change the broken component.

7.2 The secondary current is normal or a little bigger, the second voltage can’t rise up.
7.2.1 Possible Causes
1) Insulator is seriously contaminated or its heating elements are out of order and poorly insulated, resulting in
condensation on the insulator surface, hence decreasing the insulation property and surface creepage or flue gas
temperature in field is lower than that of dew point, this leads to the same consequences as above.
2) Heavy dust deposition on both collecting and discharge systems, thereby shortening their actual distance.
3) The erection error of voltage distance is too big.
4) Poor welding in casing or access doors are not sealed well, result in cold air rushing in and to deform the internals
and to decrease voltage distance.
5) Collecting plates and emitting wire are swinging, and it causes severe flashover at low voltage.
6) Full of dust in hoppers and dust approach or contact discharge system, resulting in reduction of insulation
property between opposite electrodes.
7) Lower output voltage from T/R;
8) Larger voltage drop in other parts of the loop (such as wit poor earthing).
7.2.2 Remedies
1) Repair or replace the heating elements or insulation equipment. Clean the surface of the insulator. When flue gas
temperature is lower than its dew point, the equipment can’t be put into operation.
2) Check and adjust it.
3) Check and adjust it.
4)Make remedial welding in the leakage of casing and shut the access doors tight.
5) Examine the fixation mechanism of collecting and emitting system
6) Make the ash discharge and transmission systems work properly, clean the dust blockage in hopper, check heating
elements of hopper, and keep the dust never be clogged in hopper.
7) Check HV T/R
8) Check the system loop.

7.3 Severe flashover and trip occur in field


7.3.1 Possible Causes
The depositing dust in hopper increases greatly and even exceeds the upper opening of hopper and buries lower parts
of the collecting plate and emitting wire and make the insulation character greatly decrease.
7.3.2 Remedies
After the field trips, It should discharge the dust in 3 hours, and make the dust be lower than the upper opening of
hopper, keep the field can work normally again. If the dust can not be cleaned in 8 hours, forcible measurements
must be made such as cut a hole on lower part of the hopper, open the hand hole for clean the dust,etc. If every great
effort has been made in 48 hours, the dust is still not lower than the upper opening of hopper and the field is still in
trip situation, the boiler and generator have to be compulsively shut down to make sure thesafety, and to avoid worst
results.

7.4 Irregular changes of secondary current


7.4.1 Possible Causes
Dust deposits on electrodes and sparkover occurs where the voltage distance is smaller.
7.4.2 Remedies
Remove the accumulated dust
7.5 Periodical changes of secondary current
7.5.1 Possible Causes
The remaining part swings after a string of discharge electrode is broken
7.5.2 Remedies
Replace the broken wires.

7.6 There is secondary voltage but no or extremely little secondary current.


7.6.1 Possible Causes
1) Excessive dust loading cause corona blockage.
2) Severe dust deposits on collecting and discharge systems;
3) Higher ground resistance and poor high voltage loop;
4) Broken circuit in the measuring loop of ampere meter in HV loop.
5) Poor contact between HV outlet and electric field.
6 Pointer of milli-ampere meter gets stuck.
7.6.2 Remedies
1) Improve the technological process to reduce dust loading in flue gas.
2) Intensify rapping and remove deposited dust.
3) Reduce the ground resistance to the specified value.
4) Rectify the broken circuit.
5) Check the connections and make them in full contact.
6)Repair the meter.

7.7 Excessive spark.


7.7.1 Possible Causes
1) Wet air leaks in through access door, damp gas from leaking boiler or dirty
insulators.
2) Poor contact of secondary side in T/R or the diode of rectifier bridge is open-circuit.
3) Uneven gas distribution.
4) Passage distance becomes smaller.
5) The hopper is full of dust or there is dead angle of dust depositing in field, that result in bad dust discharging.
6) The damping resistance breaks and discharges.
7.7.2 Remedies
1) Take corresponding corrective measures.
2) Find out the reason then repair or change.
3) Change the gas flow screen.
4) Adjust the passage distance.
5) Clean the depositing dust.
6) Change the damping resistance.

7.8 The primary and secondary current & voltage are all normal, but collection efficiency is lower.
7.8.1 Possible Causes
1) The error of voltage distance is too big.
2) Uneven gas distribution, gas screens blocked by dust.
3) Excessive air leakage causes change in operation condit ion: increase of gas velocit y, decrease of temperature,
weak charging possibility of dust particles, etc.
4) Much higher specific resistance of dust particle, back-corona may exist, slow charge neutralization in dust layers
on electrodes and rapping is unable to dislodge them due to significant adherence.
5) The control parameter is not set in reason.
6)Condit ions of gas entering the ESP do not accord with the original ones, result ing in changes of operation
conditions.
7) Mechanical problem such as abnormal rapper.
8) Gas flow by-passes due to fallen gas baffles in hoppers.
7.8.2 Remedies
1) Adjust it,
2) Remove the dust or replace the gas screens.
3) Make remedial welding where there is air leakage.
4) Condition the gas quality
5) Repair or replace the power supply.
6) Collection efficiency should be calculated by using correction curves under the actual working conditions.
7) Repair as needed, if rapping is not sufficient, make it rotate freely or instead of heavier hammers
8)Check gas baffles and solve the problem.

7.9 Stuck ash discharge device, or tripped safety device


7.9.1 Possible Causes
1) Hammer Drop
2) Foreign substance in discharge mechanism and blocks of coke fall into ash discharge device.
3) Broken chain, in case a drag chain conveyor is used.
7.9.2 Remedies
Shut down the equipment to repair

7.10 Control is out of order, and the alarm trip.


7.10.1 Possible Causes
1) The SCR is breakdown.
2) The touching off line of SCR disturbs or pinouts is short circuit.
3) The primary side of T/R is earthed or short circuit. The sampling loop of secondary side of T/R or the minus HV
is earthed. Or the sampling loop of circuit and voltage is short circuit.
7.10.2 Remedies
Find out the reason then repair or change.

7.11 T/R output is out of control


7.11.1 Possible Causes
1) Breakdown of SCR
2) Disappeared feedback and sample resistance damaged .
3) The setting of parameter is wrong.
7.11.2 Remedies
1) Replace the parts.
2) Check related elements and loops.
3) Adjust the parameter.

7.12 Control and main loops do not function


7.12.1 Possible Causes
1) Safety interlocking is not in place.
2) Interlocking for HV isolating switch are not in the exact position;
3) Broken closing winding and loop;
4) Poor contact of auxiliary switch
7.12.2 Remedies
1) Check the access doors and cubicle doors of for their exact closure.
2) Check the HV disconnecting for their exact closure.
3) Check the line and replace the winding
4) Repair the switch.

7.13 No indicationfrom lamps on panel when energized.


7.13.1 Possible Causes
1) Poor contact of loopelements;
2) Burnt bulbs
3) Burnt fuse.
7.13.2 Remedies
1) Check the line and loop elements
2) Replace the bulbs.
3) Replace the fuse.

7.14 No indication of meters on panel during voltage adjustment


7.14.1 Possible Causes
1) Faults inside the meters
2) No outlet impulses;
3) Broken quick-break fuse;
4) Open circuit in thyristor elements;
5) Broken sampling loops for AC & DC;
6) Poor contact of change-over switch for measurement in AC voltmeter.
7.14.2 Remedies
1) Check and calibrate the meters.
2) Use an oscilloscope to determine the amplitude and number of outlet impulses.
3) Replace.
4) Check the secondary wiring and contact points of switches.
5) Check the touch point of switch.

7.15 There is signal on flashover indicator but no corresponding actions on other meters of the panel.
7.15.1 Possible Causes
1) Foreign interference.
2) Signal transform is blocked by flashover and failed elements.
7.15.2 Remedies
1) Check the shield earthing status.
2) Add a by-pass and replace elements.

7.16 Secondary voltage won’t rise automatically upon a flashover, but init iates an alarm
7.16.1 Possible Causes
1) Excessive width of the first blocking pulse upon the flashover.
2) The given value of rate of voltage rise+v /t is too low.
7.16.2 Remedies
1) Change the parameters to adjust the pulse width.
2) Enlarge the given level.

7.17 During on –load voltage step-up, there is normal voltage but zero current.
7.17.1 Possible Causes
1) Open circuit in currentsampling loop.
2) Internal line breaks inthe ammeter.
7.17.2 Remedies
1) Check the secondary wiring.
2) Measure the sampling voltage.

7.18 During voltage step-up, primary voltage adjustment is normal, but secondary voltage exists and disappears
alternatively and is accompanied by noise of discharge.
7.18.1 Possible Causes
1) Open circuit and false soldering point in T/R secondary winding and silicon stack.
2) Insufficient safety distance from HV inlet to ESP casing.
3) Open circuit in DC sampling voltage dividing loop.
7.18.2 Remedies
1) Lift the T/R core for checks and eliminate the defaults.
2) Check and relocate the HV inlet.
3) Lift the T/R core for checks and repair.

7.19 Tripping of alarm for oil pressure; odour of ozone from T/R.
7.19.1 Possible Causes
Breakdown and shortcircuit of T/R secondary winding or silicon stack.
7.19.2 Remedies
Lift the T/R core andreplace the damaged parts.

7.20 Tripping and alarming of signal. from oil level


7.20.1 Possible Causes
T/R oil level below the oil lower limit.
7.20.2 Remedies
Make troubleshooting and add oil to suitable level.

7.21 Tripping of alarm for oil pressure


7.21.1 Possible Causes
Flue gas within gas relay.
7.21.2 Remedies
Open the discharge valve to get rid of the gas.

8. ESP Integrated Controller III

8.1. Introduction
The EPIC III (Electrostatic Precipitator Integrated Controller) system is an ALSTOM Power third generation
microprocessor based control system for electrostatic precipitators. With a separate control unit and display unit, a
new degree of design freedom is achieved.

8.2. First start up (including initial set up)


This chapter is a step by step instruction of how to make the first start up of EPIC III.
2.1. General instructions
The EPIC III must have been correctly installed before start up, In order to understand this chapter you must be
familiar with the RTU, If you do not know how to use an RTU, please read the RTU manual.
The necessary equipment for start up comprises:
• One hand held RTU, which has been correctly set up.
• Voltage meter
• Oscilloscope
• Network node address list
• Circuit diagram of the installation.
2.2. First start up
It is recommended that during the first start up the readings are checked using a very low current.
1. Set Mode= START UP in [Operation].
2. Go to [Operation] [Active set] and make the following settings:
Volt peak limit = 30kV
Current limit = a low value compared to T/R ratings
Charge ratio = 1:1
EPOQ = OFF
Rapp Intens. 1
Rapp all OFF
Spark rate limit = 10 spm
Current step= 15%
Short quenching = 2 pls
Quench mod. = SHORT
Opacity contolled = OFF
3. Go to [Set up] [T/R] and set:
Ignition angle limit = 30%
4. Turn High voltage ON in [Operation]
5. Observe the current readings and the Limiter indicator in [Operation].Current and voltage values should increase
until this indicator shows a limit value.
6. Increase the limiting parameters one by one until normal operation is obtained.
7. Make external measurements and compare the following analog readings on RTU in [Readings]:
Line volt rms
Primary current rms. (Be sure to use a true RMS meter).
Secondary voltage
Secondary current.
Auxiliary (If used).
3. Daily operation
The daily operation assumes that setup has being performed correctly and also that correct mode settings have
being set during tuning of the ESP.
Daily operation is mainly performed from the [ESP-Master] window, controlling all T/Rs at the same time using
convenient group commands. If for some reason one T/R need to be controlled as a single unit this can be performed
from the [Operation] window in the actual unit.
3.1. ESP-Master operation
1. From the [Node List], that always can be reached by repeatedly pressing the key, select the EPIC III unit that is
appointed master for the other nodes. This is shown by the indication MU to the right of the unit name in the [Node
list]. If no master is appointed, the MU sign will not show.
2. Select [Master] window in the master unit.
3. Check that the Total corresponds to the actual No. of T/Rs for this ESP.
This shows that the master unit has contact with all other EPIC/SIR controllers.
4. Select required mode of operation, this will change all T/Rs to selected mode.
5. Start all T/Rs with ESP mode = ON command. The T/Rs will start one by one and begin operation during control
of the parameters in selected mode. Remember that different T/Rs can have different parameters set for a certain
mode.
6. If the process calls for a change of mode. For example, from Mode 1 to Mode 2 this is easily done by the Mode
change command.
7. The [ESP-Master] window shows how many units are running in the actual mode on the right.
8. Stop of all T/R's is effected by ESP mode = OFF command. The T/Rs
will stop one by one.
3.2. Operation of single T/Rs
If more information about a single T/R is needed or there is a need to control a T/R separately, this can be done by
selecting the actual unit from the [Node list] and then selecting the appropriate window for the task. The most
common windows for daily operation are,
3.2.1. [Operation]
In this window alarms can be reset. The T/R can be individually turned ON and OFF. The active mode can be
individually selected. The reason for any limitation of current is displayed. The most important measurements are
displayed.
3.2.2. [Operation] [Oper. active set.]
In this window is it possible to change parameters for the mode that is in operation.
3.2.3. [Readings] and [Readings spark]
In this window more detailed readings are available.
3.2.4. [Alarm Table 1-5]
This windows are used to find out which alarms are active - if this has been forgotten since the alarm message was
displayed.
4. Trouble shooting
This chapter tells you what to do when there is a malfunction. It is of great importance that you read the following
instructions before trying to do anything yourself.
4.1. Alarm messages
This is a description of alarm messages from EPIC III displayed on the RTU.

There are three ways to locate an alarm:


1. An alarm message is displayed on the RTU as the above.
2. The [Alarm Table] shows all acknowledged and blocked alarms.
3. The [Node list] shows an alarm clock icon beside the alarming node.
When an alarm message is displayed the following steps must be taken:
1. Register the alarm and write down the alarm code number.
This is very important especially for those alarms that need external service assistance.
2. Check [Alarm Table] menu and see if more alarms are active and write them down.
3. Remedy the fault or faults according to the priority of the alarm and follow the instructions in the “Alarm
messages list”.
4. Reset all alarms in the [Operation] menu.

9.Driven device for rapping system

The planetary gearing principle of cycloidal gear pin meshing is applied in the cycloidal - pin wheel reducer. This kind of reducer
can be widely used in various drive mechanism in the fields of lifting, transport, mines, making, petroleum, chemical industry, food
industry, pharmacy, textile industry, printing and dyeing, etc.

10. High voltage silicon transformer for rectifier for ESP

As a corollary product for high voltage energization equipment of electrostatic recipitator, HV silicon transformer for rectifier
(hereinafter referred to as “T/R”) has formed ratings of 60, 72, 80, 90, 100 kV of medium and high impedance. The running is
stable repairing rate is low, and cost-effective. The T/R is hermetically sealed and fills silicon oil, silicon oil of high burning point
(polydimethyl siloxane) being insulating and cooling medium.
10.1 Operation and maintenance
When HV silicon T/R running, person on duty should make a periodic routine examination, these examinations
include:
A. Watch the variations of meters on the control cabinet, select corresponding LV input terminal according to
existing working voltage, thus the output voltage and transformer impedance could match very well, and it could
guarantee reliable operation and save energy. For silicon HV T/R with rated output voltage of 72kV, when working
voltage is less than 60kV, the input power should choose 60kV; when working voltage is between 60kV and 66kV,
the input power should choose 66kV; and working voltage is greater than 66 kV, choose 72kV.
B. Check transformer oil level, color, temp rise and electromagnetic noise at regular intervals and watch if there is
oil leakage.
C. Clean HV and LV porcelain insulators and oil tank routinely, no damage, no sparks marks or other abnormities.
10.2. Trouble shooting
CHAPTER 4 COAL FEEDER OPERATION
1.SYSTEM COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
The Stock Equipment Company Model EG3690 gravimetric feeder has electronic weighing and STOCK 196NTR
microprocessor controls.
2.STARTUP
2.1 Preliminary Startup Measures
2.1.1 If the bunker is empty, open and close the valve above the feeder to deposit any foreign material in the bunker
or downspout on the feeder belt.
2.1.2 Open all feeder doors and remove all debris from on the belt and inside the feeder.
2.1.3 Carefully remove the fiberglass tape and load cell shipping brackets and install the load cells in place of the
brackets to support all the weight of the weigh roller.
2.1.4 Inspect the gear reducers for proper oil level.
2.1.5 Align the weigh roller, Weigh Roller Adjustment and check the weigh span and weigh rollers for freedom of
rotation.
2.1.6 Check that the cleanout conveyor chain tension is adjusted to provide two inches of sag per the procedure
2.1.7 Inspect the electronics controls for proper installation and that all P.C. cards and cable connectors are firmly in
their sockets.
2.1.8 Measure the input voltage at the main feeder disconnect. If the voltage is correct, apply power. Verify that the
green OFF indicator is energized.
2.1.9 A blank alphanumeric display or a flashing red STATUS TRIP indicator signals a potential problem with
cabling or the CPU board, or may indicate a missing programming chip.
2.2.1 Initial System Operation
Follow these special operating instructions the first time the feeder is energized to operate according to typical
operating procedures.
2.2.1.1 Be sure that the calibration weight(s) is disengaged from both load cells.
2.2.1.2 Carefully load the feeder belt slowly opening the inlet valve to load the belt at a controlled rate. This
procedure minimizes compaction of the material and thereby reduces the force necessary to start the belt moving
which prolongs its life.
2.2.1.3 Clear the totalizers. Press and maintain: TOTAL RESET.
2.2.1.4 Reset the restart counter. Press: SELF TEST 05 CLEAR.
2.2.1.5 When first placed on line, the feeder should be operated with full tension on the belt for an hour to remove its
initial stretch. During this time, belt operation must be closely observed and tension corrected.
2.2.1.6 With the feeder in operation, and when the bunker has been filled and the pulverizer is operating, pressurize
the feeder and adjust the seal air flow.
2.3 TYPICAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
2.3.1 When filling the bunker, first close the inlet valve to minimize the filling pressure on the feeder and to avoid
compaction of the material at the feeder inlet. This precaution is unnecessary if the bunker is refilled while at least 8
to 10 feet of material remains in it.
2.3.2 When starting the feeder, open the inlet valve slowly to load the belt at a controlled rate and to minimize
compaction at the feeder inlet.
2.3.3 Energize the feeder controls at the disconnect switch in the control cabinet. Observe that the display and one of
the two LEDs (REMOTE or OFF) is illuminated.
2.3.4 If the OFF LED is illuminated, press the REMOTE key. Upon receipt of a customer–generated feeder start
command and a demand signal from the combustion control system, the feeder begins to operate and the green
RUNNING LED is also illuminated.
2.3.5 Turn the CLEANOUT CONVEYOR selector switch to the RUN position for continuous operation whenever
the feeder is activated
2.3.6 As material fills the feeder belt, the green FEEDING LED is illuminated.
2.3.7 When the microprocessor has verified the operation of the weighing system electronics, the feed rate and the
totalized weight are displayed.
2.3.8 The feeder will operate as outlined above and will respond automatically to the changing demands of the
combustion control system until it is de–energized.
During normal operation, only the three green status LEDs are illuminated. If any of the amber or red status LEDs
are illuminated, then a problem has been detected and the feeder requires attention.
2.3.9 For a brief feeder stop with a loaded belt, press the OFF key.
2.3.10 For a clean shutdown with an empty belt, close the inlet valve while the feeder is still running. When the belt
is emptied, then press the OFF key. This procedure is recommended whenever the feeder will be inactive for a long
period of time, since it eliminates the possibility of material compaction at the feeder inlet due to consolidation
caused by its own weight.
2.3.11 To jog the feeder belt, press the OFF key followed by the JOG key on the microprocessor keyboard for as
long as motion is required.
2.3.12 To operate the feeder in the LOCAL mode for inspection or servicing, press the LOCAL key. The feeder will
run at the speed programmed into the setup parameter at Address 01.
2.3.13 Determine if the optional belt reversing circuit is provided by performing the following steps.
a. Refer to Section 4.0, Certified Drawings and determine if the belt reversing circuit is shown. Confirm that the K2
relay contact is wired to the motor speed control.
b. Press the OFF key, the F2 key, and then either the:
• LOCAL key for continuous operation, or the
• JOG key for operation as long as the key remains pressed.
c. Press the OFF key to release the controls for normal belt operation.
2.3.14 If necessary, clear material from the feeder and the downspout or bunker above it by
performing the following steps:
a. Open the inlet end door.
b. Remove the inlet end skirt.
c. Bolt the emergency discharge chute to the feeder floor.
d. Operate the feeder belt drive motor in reverse. This bypasses the feeder discharge and pulverizer inlet.

Posted 18th May 2015 by kishorereddy kattukolu

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