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UNIVERSITATEA “Babeş-Bolyai” – Cluj-Napoca

Facultatea de Drept

TEST DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ PENTRU STUDENŢII DE LA DREPT (1)

A. CITIRE-ÎNŢELEGERE /READING COMPREHENSION/

I. Read the following text/Citiţi următorul text:

SOURCES OF LAW AROUND THE WORLD


(Sursele Dreptului în lume)

The earliest existing written laws are found in the Code of Hammurabi who
ruled Babylon from 2123 to 2081 B.C. Like most early legal systems, this code was
based on the dominant religion of the culture and dealt harshly with those who broke
its rules of behaviour. For example, adultery was punishable by death, and the law of
retaliation demanded that if a defective building collapsed and the owner was killed,
the building architect was put to death.
The concept of retaliation also was found in the Hebrew system, which
borrowed heavily from the Babylonian code. Both the Babylonian and the Hebrew
systems relied on capital punishment and slavery as punishment for breaking civil and
criminal law. Like the Babylonians, the Hebrews believed the law was of divine origin.
However, the basis for the Hebrew law was the Pentateuch (the first five books of the
Old Testament) and the Talmud (the written traditions governing Jewish life). Many
early Hebrew laws were solutions to practical problems. For example, dietary
restrictions on eating certain foods, such as pork, reflected the dangers presented by
lack of refrigeration.
As the Roman Empire developed, so did a complex system of laws geared
toward governing an increasingly urban population. The Roman philosopher Cicero
defined three elements of law – legislation, administrative edicts and judicial reasoning
– which dominate in all legal systems today. Roman law spread throughout Europe,
and after the fall of the Roman Empire, the rulers of the rising Eastern Empire,
continued to develop the concepts of Roman law. In AD 528 the Emperor Justinian
collected these laws and published them as the Code of Justinian or Corpus Juris
Civilus. This code is the cornerstone of today’s civil law systems dominant throughout
Europe, South America, Scotland and Quebec. In the United States, only Louisiana
bases its laws on a civil system, reflecting its heritage as a French colony.
The Law of Islam, developed in the seventh century, is an all-embracing body of
religious duties that regulates the life of every Muslim. Today, Middle East nations
struggle to reconcile Islamic law and Western law. Typically, religious law prevails in
matters of family, inheritance, and criminal law and Western law prevails in commercial
and finance matters. Thus, religious law treats a man’s wife as his chattel or
possession, while Western law governs the negotiation of trade agreements between
Middle East countries and Western nations.

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II. Completaţi propoziţiile de mai jos, alegând unul din cele trei răspunsuri
sugerate /Complete the statements below choosing one of the three suggested
answers/:
1. The Code of Hammurabi was based on _____:
a) rules of behaviour b) the dominant religion of the culture c) the law of retaliation
2. Retaliation means _____:
a) insulting somebody b) hurting someone c) repaying an injury
3. The Hebrew system relied on _____:
a) the concept of retaliation b) the Babylonian system of law
c) on capital punishment and slavery as punishment for breaking the law
4. The elements of law deriving from Roman law which dominate in all legal
systems today are_____:
a) legislation, administrative edicts and judicial reasoning b) retaliation,
religion and culture
c) religion, legislation and administration
5. The Code of Justinian is the cornerstone of the civil law system in countries
such as_____:
a) France b) England c) U.S.A.
6. The Law of Islam regulates_____:
a) family matters b) succesion, criminal and family matters c) religious matters
20 puncte

B. SCRIERE /WRITING/
I. Încercuiţi varianta corectă care completează adecvat spaţiile libere /Circle the
correct variant to fill in the blanks/:
1. Last year he played hockey much better than he ___ now.
a) played b) plays c) does d) will play
2. This pen ___ to his late (= no longer alive) friend.
a) is belonged b) belongs c) has belonged d)
belonged
3. If he ___ surprised at our visiting at the museum, he didn’t show it.
a) were b) was c) had been d) has been
4. The management decided that the festivity hall ___ open all day long.
a) remain b) will remain c) should remain d)
remained
20 puncte

II. Reformulaţi fiecare din următoarele propoziţii fără a schimba sensul


acestora /Rephrase each of the following sentences so that the meaning stays the
same/:
1. The correctness of his English is absolute.
He speaks English
______________________________________________________________.
2. My friend said “Don’t stop the car here. The policeman is looking at us”.
My friend told
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3. They missed the train because they got up late.
If
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4. I regret attending that boring lecture.
I wish
___________________________________________________________________
20 puncte

III. Scrieţi un scurt eseu (cca 150 cuvinte) despre textul pe care l-aţi citit
anterior (A,I) /Write a short essay (cca 150 words) about the text you have read
before /
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20 puncte

C. VORBIRE-ASCULTARE/SPEAKING - LISTENING
Discutaţi următoarea temă: De ce ai ales să studiezi Dreptul?
Discuss the following topic:
Why did you choose to study law?
20 puncte
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