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Dïng ®¹o hµm ®Ó chøng minh ®¼ng thøc tæ hîp

Bµi tËp:

1. Chøng minh r»ng:


0
C2011 + 32.C2011
2
+ 34.C2011
4
+ ... + 32010.C2011
2010
= 2 2010 (2 2011 - 1)
Tõ ®ã tæng qu¸t lªn b»ng c¸ch thay 2011 bëi mét sè tù nhiªn n
bÊt k×.

2. Cho n lµ sè tù nhiªn. Chøng minh ®¼ng thøc sau:


1
C2010 + 3C2010
3
+ 5C2010
5
+ .. + 2009C2010
2009
= 2C2010
1
+ 4C2010
4
+ 6C2010
6
+ .. + 2010C2010
2010

3. Cho n lµ sè tù nhiªn lín h¬n 1. Rót gän biÓu thøc sau:


n

�2
k =1
n-k
.k .Cnk = 2n -1 Cn1 + 2.2n - 2 Cn2 + 3.2n -3 Cn3 + ... + nCnn

4. T×m sè tù nhiªn n biÕt r»ng:


C21n +1 - 2.2.C22n +1 + 3.22.C23n +1 - ... + (-1) k -1.2 k -1.C2kn +1 + ... + (2 n + 1).2 2 n.C22nn++11 = 2011

5. Chøng minh r»ng:


99 100 101 199
�1 � 1 � 1� 2 �1� 100 �1�
100C � � - 101C100
0
100 � � + 102C100 � � + ... + 200C100 � � = 0
�2 � �2 � �2 � �2 �
b»ng c¸ch xÐt khai triÓn ( x + x) .
2 100

6. Chøng minh r»ng ®¼ng thøc sau ®óng víi mäi sè tù nhiªn n lín
h¬n 2:
2.1.Cn2 + 3.2.Cn3 + ... + n.(n - 1).Cnn = n( n - 1).2n -2

7. B»ng c¸ch xÐt khai triÓn ( x - 1) n , chøng minh r»ng ®¼ng thøc sau
®óng víi mäi n:
n 2Cn0 - (n - 1)2 Cn1 + (n - 2)2 .Cn2 - ... + (-1) n -1 Cnn -1 = 0 .
Sö dông ®¹o hµm ®Ó chøng minh ®¼ng thøc

Lêi gi¶i

8. Chøng minh c¸c ®¼ng thøc lîng gi¸c trong tam gi¸c:

A B C
a. Ta cÇn chøng minh: sin A + sin B + sin C - 4cos cos cos = 0 .
2 2 2

Do A, B, C lµ c¸c gãc cña mét tam gi¸c nªn: A + B + C = p � C = p - ( A + B) .

Cè ®Þnh B, ta xÐt hµm sè biÕn A nh sau:

A B
f ( A, B ) = sin A + sin B + sin [ p - ( A + B ) ] - 4cos
cos cos
[ p - ( A + B )] =
2 2 2
A B A+ B
= sin A + sin B + sin( A + B ) - 4cos cos sin
2 2 2

Ta sÏ chøng minh ®¹o hµm cña hµm sè nµy b»ng 0 víi mäi A. ThËt vËy:

B �1 A A+ B 1 A A+ B �
( A, B) = cos A + cos( A + B) - 4cos
f� ��- � sin � sin + �cos �cos �
2 �2 2 2 2 2 2 �
B 2A + B
= cos A + cos( A + B ) - 2cos � cos = Suy
2 2
A + ( A + B) A - ( A + B)
= cos A + cos( A + B ) - 2cos �
cos =0
2 2
ra víi B cè ®Þnh th× f ( A, B ) lµ hµm h»ng víi mäi A. Cho A = 0 , ta cã:

0 B B B B
f (0, B ) = sin 0 + sin B + sin B - 4cos cos sin = 2sin B - 4sin cos = 0 .
2 2 2 2 2

VËy f ( A, B ) = 0, "A, B �(0, p ) . Ta cã ®pcm.

A B A+ B
b. XÐt hµm sè: f ( A, B ) = cos A + cos B - cos( A + B ) - 4sin sin cos -1 .
2 2 2

( A, B) = 0 vµ f (0, B ) = 0 .
T¬ng tù c©u a., ta chøng minh f �
A B B A+ B A+ B A
c. XÐt hµm sè: f ( A, B ) = tan tan + tan cot + cot tan - 1 .
2 2 2 2 2 2

( A, B) = 0 vµ f (0, B ) = 0 .
T¬ng tù c©u a., ta chøng minh f �

9. Chøng minh ®¼ng thøc:

p "x �[-1, 1];


(a) arcsin x + arccos x = ,
2

p p
Víi x = 1, arcsin1 + arccos1 = +0= .
2 2

-p p
Víi x = -1, arcsin(-1) + arccos(-1) = +p = .
2 2

Suy ra ®¼ng thøc trªn ®óng trong trêng hîp x = �1 .

p
XÐt hµm sè: f ( x) = arcsin x + arccos x - , "x �(-1,1) . Ta cã:
2

1 1
=-
(arccos)� =
, (arcsin)� . Suy ra:
1 - x2 1 - x2

1 1
( x) = -
f� + - 0 = 0 . Suy ra, lµ hµm h»ng víi mäi x �(-1,1) .
1- x 2
1- x 2

2 2 �2� �2�p
Cho x = , ta cã: f ( ) = arcsin � �+ arccos � �- = 0 .
2 2 �2 � �2 � 2

Do ®ã: f ( x) = 0, "x �(-1,1) .

p
Tõ ®ã suy ra: arcsin x + arccos x - = 0, "x �[ -1,1] . Ta cã ®pcm.
2
p
(b) arctan x + arccot x = , "x ��.
2

p
Còng t¬ng tù c©u (a), ta xÐt hµm sè: f ( x) = arctan x + arccot x - , x ��.
2

1 1
=
Chó ý r»ng (arctan)� =-
, (arccot)� .
1+ x 2
1 + x2

1 1
( x) =
Suy ra: f � - + 0 = 0 , tøc lµ hµm h»ng víi mäi x ��.
1 + x 1 + x2
2

p p p p
H¬n n÷a f (1) = arctan 1 + arccot1 - = + - = 0.
2 4 4 2

Do ®ã: f ( x) = 0, "x ��. Ta cã ®pcm.

10. XÐt khai triÓn:

( x - 1) n = Cnn - Cnn -1 �
x + Cnn- 2 �
x 2 - ... + (-1)n -1 � x n -1 + (-1)n �
Cn1 � Cn0 �
xn

§¹o hµm hai vÕ theo biÕn x, ta cã:

( x - 1) n -1 = -Cnn -1 + 2 �
n� Cnn- 2 �
x - ... + (-1) n-1 �
( n - 1) � x n- 2 + (-1) n ��
Cn1 � x n -1
n Cn0 �

Nh©n hai vÕ cña biÕu thøc trªn cho x, ta ®îc:

x ( x - 1) n-1 =
n ��
= -Cnn-1 � Cnn -2 �
x + 2� x 2 - ... + ( -1) n -1 �
(n - 1) � x n-1 + (-1)n ��
Cn1 � n Cn0 �
xn

TiÕp tôc lÊy ®¹o hµm hai vÕ theo biÕn x, ta cã:

( x - 1) n-2 + n.( x - 1) n-1 =


(n - 1).x �
n�
= -Cnn-1 + 22 �
Cnn -2 �
x - ... + (-1) n -1 �
(n - 1)2 � x n- 2 + (-1) n �
Cn1 � n2 � x n-1
Cn0 �

Cho x = 1 , ta ®îc:

0 = -Cnn-1 + 22 �
Cnn -2 - ... + (-1)n -1 �
(n - 1) 2 �
Cn1 + (-1)n �
n2 �
Cn0 hay
(-1) n � Cn0 + (-1) n -1 �
n2 � (n - 1)2 � Cnn -2 - Cnn -1 = 0
Cn1 + ... + 22 �

Ta cã ®pcm.

11. XÐt khai triÓn:

(1 - x) 2010 = C2010
0
- C2010
1
x + C2010
� 2
x 2 - C2010
� 2
x 2 + ... - C2010
� 2009
x 2009 + C2010
� 2010
x 2010

§¹o hµm hai vÕ theo biÕn x, ta ®îc:

-2010 �
(1 - x) 2009 = -C2010
1
+ 2� 2
C2010 x - ... - 2009 �
� 2009
C2010 x 2008 + 2010 �
� 2010
C 2010 x 2009

Cho x = 1 , ta cã:

0 = -C2010
1
+ 2� 2
C2010 - ... - 2009 � 2009
C2010 + 2010 � 2010
C2010
1
� C2010 + 3C2010
3
+ L + 2009C2010
2009
= 2C2010
2
+ 4C2010
4
+ L + 2010C2010
2010
.

Ta cã ®pcm.

12. XÐt khai triÓn:

( x 2 + x)100 = C100
100
x 200 + C100
� 99
� x + C100
x198 � 98
x 2 + ... + C100
x196 �
� 1
x99 + C100
x2 �
� 0
x100

= C100
100
x 200 + C100
� 99
x199 + C100
� 98
x198 + ... + C100
� 1
x101 + C100
� 0
x100

§¹o hµm hai vÕ theo biÕn x, ta ®îc:

(2 x + 1) �
100 � ( x 2 + x)99 =
200 � 100
C100 x199 + 199 �
� 99
C100 x198 + 198 �
� 98
C100 x197 + ... + 101 �
� 1
C100 x100 + 100 �
� 0
C100 x 99

1
Cho x = - , ta cã:
2
199 198 100 99
�1 � 99 �1� �1 � �1 �
0 = -200 �
C 100
100 � � + 199 �
� C100 � � ... + 101 �
� 1
C100 � � - 100 �
� 0
C100 �
��
�2 � �2 � �2 � �2 �
99 100 101 199
�1 � 1 � 1� 2 � 1� 100 �1�
� 100C � � - 101C100
0
100 � � + 102C100 � � + L + 200C100 � � = 0.
�2 � �2 � �2 � �2 �
Ta cã ®pcm.

13. T×m sè tù nhiªn n biÕt r»ng:

C21n +1 - 2·2·C22n+1 + 3·22·C23n +1 - L + (-1) k -1·2 k -1·C2kn+1 + L + (2n + 1)·22 n ·C22nn++11 = 2011.

Tríc hÕt, ta sÏ rót gän:

Sn = C21n +1 - 2·2·C22n+1 + 3·22·C23n +1 - L + (-1) k -1·2k -1·C2kn+1 + L + (2n + 1)·22 n ·C22nn++11

XÐt khai triÓn:

(1 + x) 2 n+1 = C20n+1 + C21n+1 �


x + C22n +1 � x 2 n + C22nn++11 �
x 2 + ... + C22nn+1 � x 2 n +1 .

LÊy ®¹o hµm hai vÕ theo biÕn x, ta ®îc:

(2n + 1) �
(1 + x) 2 n = C21n +1 + 2 � x + ... + 2n �
C22n +1 � x 2 n-1 + (2n + 1) �
C22nn+1 � C22nn++11 �
x 2n

Cho x = -2 , ta ®îc:

2n + 1 = C21n +1 - 2 �� 22 n -1 �
2 C22n +1 + ... - 2n � C22nn+1 + (2n + 1) � C22nn++11 .
22 n �

Do ®ã, víi mäi sè tù nhiªn n th×: S n = 2n + 1 .

Suy ra: Sn = 2011 � 2n + 1 = 2011 � n = 1005 .


VËy gi¸ trÞ n cÇn t×m lµ 1005.

14. Ta cÇn tÝnh:

Sn = 2n-1 Cn1 + 2·2n- 2 Cn2 + 3·2n -3 Cn3 + L + nCnn .

2 n -1
S �1 � �1 � �1 �
Ta thÊy: nn-1 = Cn1 + 2 � � �+ 3 �
Cn2 � � �+ L + n �
Cn3 � Cnn �
��
2 �2 � �2 � �2 �

XÐt khai triÓn:

( x + 1) n = Cn0 + Cn1 � x 2 + ... + Cnn -1 �


x + Cn2 � x n -1 + Cnn �
xn

§¹o hµm hai vÕ theo biÕn x, ta cã:


( x + 1) n -1 = Cn1 + 2 �
n� Cnn-1 �
x + ... + ( n - 1) �
Cn2 � x n -1 + n � x n-1 .
Cnn �

1
Cho x = , ta cã:
2
n -1 n- 2 n -1
�3 � �1 � �1 � �1 �
� � = Cn + 2 �
n� 1
Cn2 � Cnn -1 �
� �+ ... + (n - 1) � � � + n�
Cnn �
�� .
�2 � �2 � �2 � �2 �
n -1
S �3 �
Suy ra: nn-1 = n � 3n -1 .
� � � Sn = n �
2 �2 �

3n-1 .
VËy tæng cÇn tÝnh lµ: S n = n �