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NATIONAL OIL CORPORATION

GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION

GES J.15

INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEMS

Rev Date Description Checked Approved


0 1999 Issued for Implementation DL

Compiled by Teknica (UK) Ltd


GENERAL ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION GES J.15
INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEMS Page 2 of 15
Rev 0 1999

INDEX

SEC TITLE PAGE

1.0 SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION 4

1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Other NOC Specifications 4

2.0 DEFINITIONS 4

2.1 Contractual 4

3.0 DESIGN 5

3.1 Codes and Standards 5


3.2 General 6
3.3 Equipment Selection 6
3.4 Basis of Design 6
3.5 Pressure Maintenance 9
3.6 Instrument Air Compressors 9
3.7 Air Quality 10

4.0 MATERIALS 10

4.1 Headers 10
4.2 Air Tubing and Fitting 10
4.3 Filter/Regulators (Air Sets) 10

5.0 MANUFACTURE 11

5.1 QA/QC System 11


5.2 Identification and Labelling 11

6.0 INSTRUMENT AIR INSTALLATION 11

6.1 General 11
6.2 Air Supply Piping 11
6.3 Transmission and Signal Tubing 12

7.0 INSPECTION 12

7.1 Function/Calibration Checks 12


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INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEMS Page 3 of 15
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SEC TITLE PAGE

8.0 TESTING 13

8.1 General 13
8.2 Air Supply Piping 13
8.3 Transmission Tubing 13

9.0 DOCUMENTATION 14

10.0 WARRANTY 14

Figure 1: Typical Instrument Air Heater Piping Arranement 15


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1.0 SCOPE OF SPECIFICATION

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 This specification covers the minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, material selection,
installation, inspection, testing and documentation of instrument air systems.

1.1.2 This specification applies to instrument air systems for refineries, onshore oil and gas installations and
processing facilities including items purchased either directly or as part of a package.

1.1.3 The scope of this specification includes the main feed header, the header pressure regulator and all
ancillaries to ensure reliable delivery of instrument air to each consumer at the required conditions.

1.1.4 The instrument air compression, drying and conditioning facilities upstream of the header system are
included in GES U.23, the scope of work for the Instrument Air Package including Air Dryers.

1.1.5 The Vendor/Contractor shall comply fully with the provisions laid down in this specification. Any
exception must be authorised in writing by the Owner.

1.1.6 In the event of any conflict between this specification or with any of the applicable codes and standards. the
Vendor/Contractor shall inform the Owner in writing and receive written clarification from the Owner
before proceeding with the work.

1.1.7 This General Engineering Specification will form part of the Purchase Order/Contract.

1.2 Other NOC Specifications

The following NOC General Specifications are an integral part of this specification and exceptions shall be
approved by the Owner:

GES A.06 Site Data

GES J.13 Field Panels and Junction Boxes

GES J.14 Package Unit Instrumentation

GES J.31 Pneumatic Controllers, Recorders and Indicators

GES L.11 3-Phase Induction Motors (Low Voltage)

GES P.01 Piping Material Specification

GES U.23 Instrument Air Package including Air Dryers

2.0 DEFINITIONS

2.1 Contractual

The commercial terms used in this specification are defined as follows:


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Owner

The oil and gas company, an associate or subsidiary, who is the end user of the equipment and facilities.

Vendor

The company supplying the equipment and material.

Contractor

The main contractor for a defined piece of work.

Sub-Contractor

A company awarded a contract by a contractor to do part of the work awarded to the Contractor.

Inspection Authority

The organisation representing the Owner or Contractor that verifies that the equipment and facilities have
been designed, constructed, inspected and tested in accordance with the requirements of this specification
and the Purchase Order/Contract.

Inspector

A qualified individual representing the Owner or Vendor/Contractor or the assigned Inspection Authority,
who verifies that the equipment and facilities have been designed, constructed, inspected and tested in
accordance with the requirements of this specification and the Purchase Order/Contract.

3.0 DESIGN

3.1 Codes and Standards

3.1.1 The design and installation shall comply with this specification and the following Codes and Standards.

3.1.2 Unless specified otherwise in the Purchase Order/Contract, the current editions of the codes and standards
at the time of the order shall be used.

American Petroleum Institute (API)

API RP 552 Transmission Systems (for electronic and pneumatic measurement and control-signal
systems)

Instrument Society of America (ISA)

ISA - S7.0.01 Quality Standard for Instrument Air

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

ASTM A 269 Specification for Seamless and Welded Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service

ASTM A 102 Specification for Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings


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British Standards Institution (BSI)

BS 6739 Code of Practice - Instrumentation in Process


Control System Installation Design anctice

Energy Industry Council

CCI P/I Vendor/Contractor's Committee on Instrumentation


Instrument Installation Testing Procedure

CCI P/2 Vendor/Contractor's Committee on Instrumentation


Instrumentation Installation Specification

3.2 General

3.2.1 The Vendor/Contractor shall be responsible for the design of the instrument air systems to meet the
requirements of this specification.

3.2.2 The main air header, sub-headers and branch headers above half inch nominal pipe size shall be designed in
accordance with the requirements of GES P.01.

3.3 Equipment Selection

3.3.1 All components provided in the instrument air header and distribution systems shall be in accordance with
the codes and standards listed in this specification and take into account:

(a) the criticality of the supplied instrument air (e.g. degradation of air supply quality could cause
instrument failure and affect the integrity of the operational automatic protection systems or cause
loss of production);

(b) the reliability of the instrument air system in terms of availability of supply at the requisite
condition to the specific instruments;

(c) system rating and reserve capacity, including any proposed use of instrument air for services other
than instrumentation (e.g. utility air);

(d) the means of ensuring a no-break supply during system expansion, maintenance or routine
inspections (e.g. receiver vessel inspection);

(e) site environmental conditions (e.g. extremes of ambient temperature);

(f) overall cost.

3.4 Basis of Design

3.4.1 The Vendor/Contractor's basis for design of the instrument air systems shall be approved by the Owner.

3.4.2 Dried, filtered, compressed air from oil-free compressors shall be made available at the dryer outlet
upstream of the instrument air systems, at a pressure which shall not be less than 120 psig (830 kPag) at full
flow capacity.
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3.4.3 The design of the air distribution system shall ensure that the available instrument air supply to the users is
kept within the following limits:-

Design 150 psig (1035 kPag);


Maximum Operating 110 psig ( 760 kPag);
Normal Operating 100 psig ( 690 kPag);
Minimum Operating 90 psig ( 620 kPag);

3.4.4 The system shall be rated for all the connected loads envisaged during normal operations plus a minimum
of 20% future expansion to the system, unless otherwise specified by the Owner.

3.4.5 The Vendor/Contractor shall provide full instrument air demand details including maximum instantaneous
demand, maximum demand duration and average hourly and daily total requirements for Owner's approval.
The data shall be developed from the information provided by the Owner on the instrumentation requiring
the air supply and the sizing of the air receivers provided with GES U.23.

3.4.6 The system storage capacity will be such that, for a period after system failure, all instrument air users can
continue to operate normally. The reserve period shall be half an hour or as approved by the Owner.

3.4.7 The use of local volume chambers to enhance the performance of individual items of equipment shall be
avoided. When shown to be technically acceptable and economic, they may be used subject to Owner's
approval and only for:-

(a) equipment (e.g. high pressure actuators) which may fail before the majority of other users due to
reduction in the air distribution system pressure

(b) intermittently operated high capacity (e.g. large piston actuators) which may otherwise cause an
unacceptable disturbance

(c) air operated emergency shut-off valves with double acting piston actuators which may need to be
operated in the event of air supply failure.

3.4.8 Local volume chambers, when used, shall be supplied via two series-connected non-return valves. The
chamber shall be protected by a pressure relief valve. The design shall permit removal of the relief valve
for statutory testing without compromising the integrity of the supply.

3.4.9 Dry oil-free for purposes other than instrumentation may be taken up stream of the dryer after the pre-
filters.

3.4.10 There shall be no interconnection between the instrument air system and the process.

3.4.11 Main instrument air headers shall be designed and sized to take into account future expansion requirements
without altering operations/production.

3.4.12 Air supply sub-headers shall be a minimum size of 1 inch NPS. Each sub-header shall be provided with
20% spare valved and plugged take-offs with a maximum 10 ft (3m) between connections.

3.4.13 The air supply to field mounted instruments and equipment or housings requiring purge air shall be via
individual isolating valves and air sets. For air distribution within field panels see GES J.13.

3.4.14 The nominal instrument air line header pressure shall be 100 psig (690 kPag)± 10%.

The pressure regulators shall be installed downstream of the dryer using two pressure regulators connected
in parallel on the main header of the plant and supplied as part of this specification.

Where more than one plant is involved (e.g. oil plant, gas plant etc), separate pairs of regulators shall be
provided on the main headers to each plant and supplied as aprt of this specification.
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The regulators shall have a spring range of 90-150 psig (620-1035 kPag) and the set point set at 100 psig
(690 kPag).

The regulator inlet and outlet pressures shall be indicated locally and the main header pressure to each plant
remotely in the control room.

3.4.15 The design of the air distribution system including pipe diameters and lengths shall ensure that the pressure
drop after the regulators and the most remote consumer does not exceed 5% of the system pressure. This
criteria shall be maintained for any future expansion to the system.

3.4.16 The size of the main header and sub-headers shall be calculated using the table below. The header size is
based on an average air consumption of 0.5 SCFM (0.8 Nm3/hr) per user.

Header Size (inches) Max. Number of Air Users


1 20
1½ 50
2 100
3 200

3.4.17 Air consumption figures for the instruments shall be obtained from the manufacturer, but when this is not
possible the following estimated values may be assumed.

AIR CONSUMPTION

USER SCFM Nm3/hr

Controllers, relays, transmitters etc. 0.5 0.8


Diaphragm Control Valves with Positioners 0.75 1.21
Piston Control Valve with Positioners 5.00 8.0

3.4.18 A lockable isolating block valve shall be installed, at the battery limit, for each take-off from the main
header. A lockable isolating block valve shall also be installed in each branch line from a unit header.
All headers shall include facilities (screwed end caps) for flushing out the headers (turn-around).

3.4.19 The instrument air distribution system shall branch into smaller headers serving the various instrument
groups. The distribution system shall approach to less than 6 feet (2m) distance from each instrument.
Branch headers shall be sized as follows:

BRANCH HEADER SIZE MAX. NUMBER OF AIR USERS


(inches)

¼ 1
½ 5
¾ 10

3.4.20 Two separate air branch-headers shall be used; one for control instruments and one for shutdown
instruments.

3.4.21 For shutdown duties the main isolation valves and the instrument take-off valves shall be of the locked
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open type. These valves shall be painted Red.

3.4.22 Each individual instrument shall have its own valved take-off from the branch-header.

3.4.23 Take-off shall be from the top or side of the pipe and shall be via ½" NPT stainless steel ¼ turn shut-off
ball valve. The valve shall be tagged with its associated user tag number. The take-off valve shall be
located in an accessible position.

3.4.24 10% spare take-off connections, complete with valve and screwed caps or plugs, shall be provided.
3.4.25 Lockable plugged ball valves used as a drain valves, shall be installed at all low points where draining of
instrument air piping is required.

3.4.26 Where practical, take offs shall be grouped using a distribution manifold to make the location of take-off
isolation easier.

3.5 Pressure Maintenance

3.5.1 In designing the air distribution system, consideration shall be taken of the requirements for maintaining
production in the event of a fault in the air distribution system casing instrument air line pressure to drop.
In cases where utility/plant air is not required or load shedding cannot be implemented, as a minimum low
pressure alarms shall be provided at 90 psig (620 kPag) and 80 psig (550 kPag).

3.5.2 The pressure downstream of the main instrument air header regulators shall be monitored using a low
pressure switch and if the pressure drops below 90 psig (620 kPag), utility/plant air to the users shall be
isolated/cut-off by closing the pressure control valve on the utility/plant air heater. A low pressure alarm
shall also be generated in the control room indicating the loss of utility/plant air.

3.5.3 If the instrument air pressure drops below 80 psig (550 kPag) consideration shall be given to initiating
partial plant shutdown by either isolating a production train or the production of less valuable products, e.g.
in an oil and gas plant consideration shall be given to shutting down oil or gas production whichever is the
most valuable/important product in terms of production.

To prevent spurious plant shutdown, three low pressure switches shall be provided on the plant instrument
air header downstream of the main pressure regulators. The switches shall be arranged in 2003 (2 out of 3)
voting configuration implemented via the plant ESD system. Low pressure coincidence initiated from two
switches shall cause partial plant shutdown and an alarm shall be generated in the control room. A
discrepancy alarm shall also be generated if only one switch is indicating low pressure.

3.5.4 If the pressure drops below 70 psig (480 kPag) a total plant shutdown shall be generated via the plant ESD
system.

A similar voting arrangement using three low pressure switches on the main instrument air header, in 2003
voting configuration, implemented via the plan ESD system shall be provided. Low pressure coincidence
as well as discrepancy alarms shall be generated in the control room.

3.6 Instrument Air Compressors

3.6.1 Instrument air compressors shall be provided in compliance with Section 5.0 of GES U.23 which details
operational starting/stopping set points of the machines. The units, including the air receivers, are outside
the scope of supply of this specification.

3.7 Air Quality

3.7.1 The quality of instrument air delivered to the instrument air systems header, for distribution to the users
shall meet the requirements of ISA-S7.0.01. The pressure dew point as measured at the dryer outlet and at
maximum air throughput shall be at least 18°F (10°C) below the minimum ambient temperature that the
plant will be exposed to as specified in GES A.06.
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4.0 MATERIALS

4.1 Headers

4.1.1 Header material shall be in accordance with the requirements of GES P.01. Unless otherwise specified, air
supply piping (above ½" NPS) shall be galvanised steel with screwed fittings.

4.2 Air Tubing and Fittings

4.2.1 Stainless steel tubing and stainless steel compression fittings shall be used for header to instrument
interconnections, instrument supplies and instrument interconnections. This shall apply to all installations
including package units.

4.2.2 The tubing shall be seamless and fully annealed, Grade 316 SS per ASTM A269 with Rockwell hardness
not to exceed B-80. Type 304 SS may be used for inland sites, subject to Owner's approval.

Pneumatic tubing shall be ¼" OD with 0.035" wall thickness. If an increased capacity is required
consideration shall be given to the use of _" OD with 0.035" wall thickness, ½" branch headers shall have
minimum 0.065" wall thickness.

4.2.3 As a minimum type 316 LSS shall be used for applications in marine environments and saliferous
atmospheres such as offshore or coastal sites. Consideration should also be given to the use of Cupro-
Nickel (Cu-Ni-Fe) alloy tubing and fittings. The use of alloy tubing and fittings shall be subject to
approval by the Owner.

4.2.4 All stainless steel tubing fittings shall be ASTM A102 Grade 316 SS, flareless double ferrule compression
type and obtained from an Owner's nominated supplier. Nuts shall be flashed with a suitable material such
as nickel or silver to protect the threads against galling (thread stripping).

4.2.5 Hot dipped galvanised or stainless steel shall be specified for trays, supports and associated fittings.
Galvanised material shall not be used in a marine environment. Stainless steel tube shall be mounted on
insulated clips.

4.2.6 The use of PTFE tape as thread sealant is not acceptable downstream of an air set, and only proprietary
anaerobic sealing compounds shall be used on threaded components, e.g. SWAK pipe thread sealant, John
Crane plastic lubricant (PLS No.2) or equivalent.

4.3 Filter/Regulators (Air Sets)

4.3.1 All air sets shall include regulators with internal relief, a sump, preferable transparent or with integral level
gauge, sump drain valve, filter and outlet pressure gauge.

4.3.2 For areas with high corrosive contaminants, the filter regulators shall be of all stainless steel construction
complete with 316 SS fixing bolts.

4.3.3 Brackets shall be mild steel, zinc plated and epoxy painted.

4.3.4 The paint finish for the non-stainless steel filter regulator shall be to Project Standard or to
Vendor/Contractor's own standard, whichever is better.

5.0 MANUFACTURE

5.1 QA/QC System


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INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEMS Page 11 of 15
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5.1.1 The Vendor/Contractor shall submit to the Owner, for approval, details of his proposed quality assurance
and quality control plan.

5.1.2 All instrument air installations and installed items shall be designed, manufactured and erected, inspected
and tested according to the above QA/QC system.

5.2 Identification and Labelling

5.2.1 Galvanised steel instrument air headers, sub-headers and branch headers shall be identified with the
Owner's standard colour code for air headers using painted colour bands or tape and painted stencil with the
header number as identified on the piping diagrams. A stencilled arrow shall also indicate the direction of
air flow.

5.2.2 Stainless steel branch air headers shall be identified with a stainless steel tag attached by stainless steel wire
with the header number as identified on the piping diagrams or the package unit number.

5.2.3 Take-off supplied to instruments shall be identified with a stainless steel tag attached by stainless steel wire
with the instrument tag number. The tags shall be attached at the take-off points on the branch header.

6.0 INSTRUMENT AIR INSTALLATION

6.1 General

6.1.1 All tubing shall be clean, free of oil, grease, dirt of other foreign materials. All pneumatic signal tubing
shall be cleaned by blowing through with dry oil free filtered air before connection to instruments is made.

6.1.2 Signal line applications such as local pressure control loop shall normally use ¼in tube size. For higher air
demands, 3/8 inch tubing size shall be used.

6.2 Air Supply Piping

6.2.1 Branch headers shall be installed so that they are self draining with a minimum slope of 1:25 and with
adequate drainage facilities. On small headers (up to 1") the use of drain valve on the instrument air
filter/regulator is acceptable but on larger headers drain valves must be provided at low points.

6.2.2 It is preferred that all filter regulators shall be of the same make and model number on a project/plant in
order to reduce spare parts inventory. Output range scale shall be dual kPag and psig, or equivalent and as
agreed by the Owner. Filter regulators shall incorporate hexagon screw and locknut for spring adjustment
to prevent accidental resetting.

6.2.3 In line devices such as airsets, solenoid valves, pneumatic instruments, pneumatic control panels and I/P
converters and positioners shall be independently bracket supported and not supported via air tubing.
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6.3 Transmission and Signal Tubing

6.3.1 Tubing shall be mounted to run either vertically or horizontally but not diagonally across walls, ceilings or
floors.

6.3.2 All tubing and fittings shall be installed strictly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Where
special tools or procedures are recommended by manufacturers, these shall be used. Tube fittings shall be
dimensionally and materially compatible with the tubing to which they are connected. Only fittings correct
for the installation shall be used.

6.3.3 Tubing shall be routed and formed so that it may be removed or disconnected without dismounting the
instruments.

6.3.4 All tube ends shall be cut square and debarred so that they remain perfectly round. Where practicable,
bends shall be used instead of elbows. Tubing bends shall be made using proper bending tools. The
number of fittings shall be minimised in order to minimise the possibility of leaks.

6.3.5 Parallel runs shall be neatly arranged with sufficient space for servicing. Connector joints, where necessary
shall be systematically staggered and neatly offset.

6.3.6 Tubing shall be fitted properly to prevent springing or side stress. If three or more tubes follow the same
route for more than 3 feet (1m) supports/clips shall be used for support. Tube clips shall be installed every
3 feet (1m), at change in direction, and where the tube leaves supports for connection to instruments.

6.3.7 Tubing support shall be provided to minimise the effects of its own weight, vibration, wind and thermal
stress. Tubing loops of one coil turn of 4 to 6in diameter may be installed to prevent transmission of stress
or vibration to the instrument. It shall be possible to disconnect the instrument without bending, twisting or
distorting the tubing.

6.3.8 Short length of flexible armoured tube may be used where there is a relative movement e.g. trunnion
mounted air cylinders or where space would not permit a suitable solid connection.

6.3.9 Tubing shall not be located, where in the event of fire, there is a chance of molten zinc falling on the
stainless steel from associated galvanised structure, zinc chromate paint etc. because of the danger of zinc
embrittlement of stainless steel.

6.3.10 Handrailing shall not be used to support instrument tubing.

6.3.11 Caps or plugs shall be used to prevent the entry of foreign material or moisture into the tubes that are
installed but not connected.

6.3.12 Prior to connecting the instruments the complete instrument air distribution system shall be blown down
using clean dry air.

7.0 INSPECTION

7.1 Function/Calibration Checks

7.1.1 Equipment and material inspection shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of GES U.23.
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8.0 TESTING

8.1 General

8.1.1 Site fabricated pipings items shall be pressure tested and witnessed by the Owners's representative, unless
this requirement has been waived, in which case test certificates shall be handed to the Owner's
representative.

8.1.2 The pressure testing on a given loop shall be completed before the final loop testing. If an instrument has
to be disconnected for loop testing, the joint integrity shall be retested.

8.1.3 Shop fabricated package equipment pneumatic instrumentation installation shall be tested as per
specification GES J.14.

8.1.4 In areas of high corrosion (e.g. hydrogen sulphide), after leak testing, all connections shall be covered with
PVC tape or treated with PVC based spray.

8.2 Air Supply Piping

8.2.1 It is assumed that the instrument air compressor and dryers have been commissioned and a clean, dry oil-
free instrument air supply is available. If a permanent air supply has not been established prior to these
tests, then an alternative source of clean, oil-free supply shall be used (e.g. a portable compressor with
dryer).

8.2.2 Branch lines to individual instruments shall be disconnected immediately upstream of, and adjacent to, the
instrument air filter regulator and blown though with clean air, until the branch line is clear of all foreign
material.

8.2.3 The open end(s) shall be blanked off and a test pressure gauge, with appropriate range as approved by
Owner, connected into the system.

8.2.4 Piping shall be pressurised and the pressure equal to 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure trapped in
for a minimum of 10 minutes. Leakage shall be observed by checking the test gauge and by application of
soap solution or similar. Leaking joints shall be remade as necessary and retested.

8.2.5 On completion of the test, the line shall be connected and the joint(s) not previously proven checked with
soap solution or similar. The pipe shall then be tagged.

8.3 Transmission Tubing

8.3.1 Each individual tube shall be disconnected at both ends and blown through with clean, oil-free, dry air.

8.3.2 The tubes shall be blanked off and pressurised to 20 psig (140 kPag) from an existing air supply, via a
pneumerstat or bubble bottle. After pressurising, the bubble rate shall be less than one bubble in 10
seconds. If an air supply is not readily available, the tubes may be pressurised using a foot pump and with
a manometer connected into the system. The reading shall not fall with the pressure source isolated.

8.3.3 The tubing shall then be reconnected and, when an air supply is established, the joints not proven shall be
tested with soap solution. This may be achieved by setting the instrument outputs to maximum.

8.3.4 The tubing shall then be tagged.

9.0 DOCUMENTATION

9.1 The Vendor/Contractor shall supply the following documentation as a minimum:


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Tubing routing plan

Pressure test certification

Function/calibration certification

10.0 WARRANTY

The Vendor/Contractor shall warrant all materials and services supplied against any defect for a minimum
of 12 months from the date of delivery to site, whichever is the shorter period, or for the period stipulated
in the Purchase Order/Contract.

Should any item be found defective, the Vendor/Contractor shall be responsible for all costs associated
with restoring the equipment to the standard specified by the Purchase Order/Contract.

The Vendor/Contractor shall undertake to carry out the repair or replacement in an expeditious manner.

The terms and conditions of the warranty shall be additional to any other requirements specified in the
Purchase Order/Contract.