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3508B ENGINE CONTROLS

ENGINE

This presentation describes the 3508B EUI fuel system used in the 992G
Wheel Loader.

The presentation will review the EUI fuel system mechanical, and
electrical/electronic components with particular attention to those
components specific to the 992G Wheel Loader.

The engine is mounted with the front of the engine towards the rear of the
machine. To avoid any possible confusion, the sides of the engine will be
referenced to the machine and not to the engine. Thus, the left side of the
engine will be referenced as the right side of the machine.
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Engine Orientation

• Major components This cross sectional view of the engine shows the major internal
1. Newly designed components.
pistons
The Cat 3508B diesel engine is a four stroke design which uses newly
2. Turbocharger designed pistons (1) and turbocharger (2), along with higher injection
pressures, to improve combustion and lower emissions. A 30% torque
3.Aftercooler
rise provides high lugging force during digging and acceleration in high
rimpull conditions.

The aftercooler (3) lowers the temperature of the inlet air below the jacket
water temperature to provide a denser charge which helps improve
combustion.
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• 992G engine right side This view shows the engine from the left side of a 992G Wheel Loader
view (right side of the engine). The view shows the following components:
1. Engine oil cooler
Engine Oil Cooler (1)
2. Coolant flow
switch Coolant Flow Switch (2)
3. Engine oil pump Engine Oil Pump (3)
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2

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• 992G engine left side This view shows the engine from the right side of a 992G Wheel Loader
view (left side of engine). The view shows the following components:
1. Fuel priming pump
Fuel Priming Pump (1)
2. Secondary fuel
filters Secondary Fuel Filters (2)
3. Engine ECM Engine Electronic Control Module (ECM) (3)
4. Primary fuel filter Primary Fuel Filter (4)
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CYLINDER HEADS
MUI AND EUI
MUI EUI

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• MUI and EUI This slide shows the difference between the Mechanical Unit Injection
installation (MUI) and current Electronic Unit Injection (EUI) installation in the
differences cylinder head.

Notice the Helper Spring on the injector pushrod. This arrangement is


designed to keep the follower in constant contact with the camshaft. The
helper spring is required due to the increased injection pressures of
151 MPa (22,000 psi) and the steeper, high lift camshaft lobe profile.
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3508B FUEL SUPPLY CIRCUIT


FUEL
RETURN FUEL PRESSURE
REGULATOR
CYLINDER
HEAD

PRIMING PUMP SUPPLY

DIFFERENTIAL
SECONDARY
PRESSURE FUEL FILTERS
SWITCH

PRIMARY
FUEL FUEL
FILTER TRANSFER
FUEL ECM
PUMP
TANK

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Identify components Fuel Supply Circuit

Fuel is drawn from the tank through the primary fuel filter to the fuel
transfer pump. Fuel from the transfer pump flows through the ECM for
cooling purposes. From the ECM, the fuel flows through the secondary
fuel filters.

Fuel from the secondary fuel filter base flows to the fuel injectors in the
cylinder heads. Return fuel from the injectors flows through the fuel
pressure regulator before returning to the fuel tank.
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Fuel Delivery System


• Fuel delivery system
This view shows the Primary Fuel Filter (1) on a 992G Wheel Loader. It
1. Primary fuel filter
is located on the right side of the machine in the engine compartment.
2. Fuel priming pump
The Primary Fuel Filter removes debris down to 30 microns in size. This
filter serves to protect the transfer pump from debris and extends the life
of the secondary filter.

The element must be replaced every 500 hours or three months.

The fuel priming pump (2) is mounted on the top of the secondary fuel
filters to facilitate priming the system after service.
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• Fuel transfer pump At the rear of the engine oil pump is the Fuel Transfer Pump (arrow).
(arrow)
The Transfer Pump delivers fuel at a minimum pressure of 415 kPa
(60 psi) at low idle. This pressure is controlled by the Pressure Regulator
Valve.

The pump is protected by an internal relief valve which is set at


620 to 760 kPa (90 to 110 psi).

The pump supplies more fuel than is required for combustion. With a fuel
supply ratio of 3 to 1, approximately one part is used for combustion, and
three parts are used to cool the injectors. The excess fuel is then returned
to the fuel tank.
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• ECM (arrow) From the fuel transfer pump the fuel passes throught the engine ECM
(arrow) for cooling. From the ECM the fuel flows to the secondary fuel
filters.
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• Secondary fuel filters The Secondary Fuel Filters (arrow) are located downstream of the transfer
(arrow) pump. The filters remove debris as small as 2 microns. It is essential that
the correct filters are installed.
• 2 micron fuel filter
element
If for example, an early style 10 micron filter is installed, components
such as the injector plunger and barrel, which have clearances as small as
5 microns, will be damaged. Lab tests have shown that when
3 to 8 micron size particles get between these close tolerance moving
parts, damage will occur.

These filters must be replaced every 500 hours of operation or monthly.

NOTE: These strict filtration requirements are not specific to EUI


equipped engines, but are common to most high pressure fuel
systems. High pressure fuel systems are necessary to meet stringent
environmental regulations.
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• Pressure regulator From the secondary filter, the fuel flows through the fuel passages in the
valve (arrow) cylinder heads and the injectors to the Pressure Regulator Valve. This
valve maintains the system pressure at a maximum of 415 kPa (65 psi).

The fuel is returned to the tank downstream of the valve.


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ENGINE ECM FEATURES

• Throttle Lock

• Fan Control

• Ether Injection System

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Engine ECM Features

The following features are controlled by the engine ECM:

Throttle Lock

Fan Control

Either Injection System


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THROTTLE LOCK CIRCUIT

RIGHT BRAKE PEDAL SWITCH


P1 J1 ECM
998-BR F722-OR 13 Throttle Lock RH Brake (NO)
F721-GY 19 Throttle Lock RH Brake (NC)
998-BR 998-BR 29 Digital Return
J3 P3 F706-PU 27 Throttle Lock ON Lamp
THROTTLE F717-YL 14 Throttle Lock Set/Declerate
2 F718-BU 20 Throttle Lock Resume/Accelerate
LOCK LAMP 113-OR BATT+ F719-BR 24 Throttle Lock ON/OFF
998-BR
THROTTLE LOCK
SET/DECLERATION SW
998-BR
THROTTLE LOCK
RESUME/ACCLERATION SW

998-BR
THROTTLE LOCK SW

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Throttle Lock Circuit

• Similar to cruise The Throttle Lock feature is very similar to a cruise control system used
control on automotive and truck applications. The main difference is that this
system uses engine speed as its reference instead of vehicle speed.
Therefore, engine speed is maintained, unlike other applications which
control ground speed.

• Throttle lock The Throttle Lock control is within the ECM. The other components are:
components
Throttle Lock Switch

Throttle Lock Lamp

Set/Deceleration Switch

Resume/Acceleration Switch

Right Brake Pedal Switch



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• Engine speed controls After the engine speed has been set by the throttle lock, the speed can be
reduced 20 rpm by momentarily pressing the Set/Deceleration Switch.
• Set/deceleration
The engine speed can be lowered incrementally by 50 rpm per second by
switch
holding the switch down.

• Resume/acceleration The Resume/Acceleration Switch can be used to increase speed by


switch 20 rpm by momentarily pressing the Resume/Acceleration Switch. The
engine speed can be raised incrementally by 50 rpm per second by
holding the switch down.

• Right brake pedal Depressing the Right Brake Pedal Switch will disable the throttle lock.
switch An invalid brake switch signal will also disable the throttle lock feature.
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HYDRAULIC ENGINE FAN CONTROL CIRCUIT

HYDRAULIC FAN
SOLENOID VALVE CONTROL GROUP
P2 J2 (3408E/E3412E)
P86 J86
2 F700-BU 19 HYDRAULIC FAN
1 E799-BR 07 PWM DRIVE AND SOL RETURN

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Hydraulic Fan Control Circuit

• Fan driven by The 992G Wheel Loader has an optional high ambient cooling fan which
hydraulic motor is driven by a hydraulic motor and controlled by the ECM.
• Hydraulic fan solenoid
The Hydraulic Fan Solenoid Valve controls the supply of oil to the
valve
hydraulic motor to increase or decrease fan speed.

The Coolant Temperature Sensor is used as a reference for fan control as


engine temperature varies. Above 98°C (208°F), the fan speed is
maximum. As the temperature decreases below 95°C (203°F), the fan
speed is minimum.

Fan speed will also change as hydraulic pump output varies with engine
speed.

The fan speed control can be overridden by the service tool for testing
purposes. The fan speed will go to maximum if power to the control
valve fails.
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P2 J2
ETHER INJECTION SYSTEM CONTROL GROUP
(3408E/E3412E)

ETHER SWITCH J3 P3 P1 J1
23 F708-YL 28 ETHER SW LAMP
9 998-BR 29 DIGITAL RETURN
39 721-GY 19 ETHER REQUEST
21 710-BR 40 ETHER CONTROL
200-BK

200-BK FROM
P37 J37
+ 1
CYLINDER
308-YL 310-PK
2
+24V RELAY ETHER
TO ENGINE
START VALVE

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Ether Injection System

The ECM controls the use of ether for cold starting. The ECM uses inputs
from the speed/timing and coolant temperature sensors to determine the
need for ether.

The ECM cycles the ether for three seconds on and three seconds off.
Actual flow is determined by engine speed and temperature. Ether
• Ether injection
parameters injection is disabled when the coolant temperature exceeds 10°C (50°F) or
engine speed exceeds 1200 rpm.

A manual mode allows ether injection when the above parameters permit.
In the manual mode, a precise quantity of ether is injected. The ether
injection status can be read on the ET status screen.
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KEYPAD
SPEEDOMETER/ MODULE
GAUGE CLUSTER TACHOMETER MESSAGE CENTER
SERVICE MODULE
MODULE MODULE
LAMP OK

0 ID
ABC DEF

1 2 3
GHI JKL MNO

4 5 6
VIMS PRS TUV WXY

SERVICE 3F
7 8 9

RS-232 P1 P2 P3

KEYSWITCH
PORT VIMS
SERVICE TOOL
ELECTRONIC
AND
TECHNICIAN/ECAP
SOFTWARE
DISPLAY
DATA LINK KEYPAD
DATA LINK

VIMS VIMS CAT DATA LINK


VIMS MAIN MODULE
INTERFACE INTERFACE
MODULE MODULE ENGINE
CONTROL

ACTION
ALARM

ACTION
LAMP
CAT DATA LINK
SENSORS SENSORS

SENSORS
VITAL INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(VIMS)
IMPLEMENT CONTROL TRANSMISSION CONTROL

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CAT Data Link

• CAT Data Link enables The CAT Data Link is the communication link between the various
communication
between modules machine onboard and offboard electronic modules. The system is also
used for programming and troubleshooting the electronic modules with
the service tools.

The ECM communicates through the CAT Data Link with the Vital
Information Display System (VIDS) or the optional Vital Information
Management System (VIMS) to share engine information such as engine
speed, oil pressure, coolant temperature, and electronic system faults.

The ET Service Tool is connected through the Service Tool Connector


which allows communication with the engine and transmission ECM’s.

Other features which rely on the Data Link are Elevated Low Idle and
Ride Control.
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MODULES CONNECTED BY CAT DATA LINK


• Engine ECM

• Power Train ECM

• Implement ECM

• VIDS/VIMS

• Caterpillar Electronic Technician or ECAP

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In the 992G Wheel Loader, the following modules are connected by the
CAT Data Link:

Engine ECM
• Five systems Power Train ECM
connected by CAT
Data Link Implement ECM
Vital Information Display or Vital Information Management System
Caterpillar ET Service Tool (through the Service Tool Connector)

The CAT Data Link uses a two wire, twisted pair of cables to reduce the
effects of radio frequency interference (RFI).
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• Service tool connector The Service Tool Connector (arrow) is used to connect the ET computer
(arrow) and Communication Adapter to the CAT Data Link system.

• Locations On the 992G, the Service Tool Connector is located on the right switch
panel inside the cab.
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This view shows one of the Exhaust Temperature Sensors. The function
of this sensor is to signal the ECM when excessive exhaust temperatures
are occuring. The ECM then derates the engine up to 20% for protection
against thermal damage.

Even though the engine have been cooled, the Exhaust Temperature
Derate will not be cancelled until the engine is shut down. It is necessary
to stop the engine and restart to de-activate the derate.

This function initiates at 750°C (1380°F)