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Definition of Science Observations

 An organized way of using evidence to learn  To gather…


about the natural world.
 Information
 The body of knowledge that scientists have
built up after years of testing proposed  Evidence
explanations.  Data
Goals of Science Inference
 Investigate and understand nature  Follows an observation
 Explain events in nature  A logical interpretation based on prior
 Make useful predictions knowledge and experience

 Never stop questioning  Uses what you know to figure something out

Importance of Science Observations

 Science helps us to understand the world  This step could also be called "research." It is
around us and to appreciate it's complexities the first stage in understanding the problem

 It underlies our health, our work, our  Example: The tomatoes in the garden. You like
to garden, and notice that some tomatoes are
communications, our entertainment and our
transport bigger than others and wonder why.

 It permeates our lives and informs our actions Hypothesis

 Science is a way of thinking, fun, dynamic,  A tentative statement that proposes a possible
constantly changing explanation to some phenomenon or event

Importance of Science  Attempts to


explain a set
 Science contributes to our understanding of of observations
health and disease and enables medical
progress  May arise from
logical inferences
 It shows us our impact on the environment and
our world Conclusion

 It empowers us to make technological  This is a summary of the experiment's


results, and how those results match up to
advancements
your hypothesis.
 As scientific knowledge grows, so does our
understanding of the universe A Good Scientist
 What qualities make for a good  Matter: Anything that has mass and volume
scientist?
1. MIXTURE – has variable composition, the
 Curious proportions that make up the mixture vary and
can be separated by physical methods
Honest

 Open minded
 Mixtures can be classified as homogeneous or
 Persistent heterogeneous.
 Skeptical – A. HOMOGENEOUS – having visibly (to the
 Patient and careful naked eye) indistinguishable parts
Example: wine, air
 Recognize limitations
of science – B. HETEROGENEOUS – having visibly
distinguishable parts
 Believe in cause and effect
Example: wood, soil
 Concern for mankind
SOLUTION – a homogeneous mixture
Chemistry Unit Notes
Examples: air (a gaseous solutions), wine (a
Branches of Chemistry liquid solution), brass (a solid solution of
copper and zinc)
 Organic Chemistry - the study of carbon and its
compounds; the study of the chemistry of life. . PURE SUBSTANCES – have constant
composition and can only be separated by
 Inorganic Chemistry - the study of compounds
chemical reactions
which do not contain a C-H bond. Many
inorganic compounds are those which contain
metals.
Elements and compounds are pure substances.
 Biochemistry - the study of chemical processes
that occur inside of living organisms.

 Analytical Chemistry - the study of the ELEMENTS - substances that cannot be


chemistry of matter and the development of decomposed into simpler substances by
tools used to measure properties of matter. chemical or physical means

 Physical Chemistry - the branch of chemistry


that applies physics to the study of chemistry. COMPOUNDS – substance with constant
Commonly this includes the applications of composition that can be broken down into
thermodynamics and quantum mechanics to
elements by chemical processes
chemistry.
 Mass: Amount of matter in an object
Basic Vocabulary
 Weight: Measure of the force of attraction Types of Chemical Bonds
between objects due to mass and gravity
 Ionic- Two elements bond by transferring
 Volume: Amount of space an object takes up electrons to create ions that attract together (+
is attracted to - after an electron is transferred)
 Density: Measurement of how much mass is
contained in a given volume  Covalent- Two elements bond by sharing
electrons (strongest bond type)
 Intensive properties: do not depend on the
amount of matter that is present. Examples of  Metallic- Two metals bond and form a
intensive properties include boiling point, “common electron cloud”. This is a cluster of
density and state of matter. shared electrons (weakest bond type)

 Extensive properties: do depend on the  Predicting Bonds


amount of matter that is present. Examples of
extensive properties include volume, mass and  Ionic Bond = metal to non-metal
size.  Covalent = non-metal to non-metal
More Vocabulary  Metallic = metal to metal
 Atoms: Smallest particle of an element that Chemical vs. Physical Change
has all the properties of matter: BEFORE
– Physical Change: A change that can occur
– Protons- particles in the nucleus with positive without changing the identity of the
charge substance.
– Electrons- particles orbiting around nucleus – Ex. Solid, Liquid, Gas (Phase change)
with negative charge
– Chemical Change: Process by which a
– Neutrons- particles in the nucleus with no substance becomes a new and different
charge substance
 Elements: Simplest form of a pure substance – Ex. Fire
 Compounds: Two or more elements chemically – Chemical Reactions
combined to form a new substance
– Chemical Reaction: a process in which the
 Valence Electrons physical and chemical properties of the original
 An electron on the outermost energy shell of substance change as new substances with
different physical and chemical properties are
an atom
formed
 Important to understand because this is a key
factor in how atoms will BOND with each other – Chemical Reaction Basics

 Octet rule – stable atom will have 8 electrons – H2 + O2 --> H2O


in that outer shell
– Reactants- substance that enters into a  Atoms cannot be created or destroyed in a
reaction chemical reaction.

– Products- substance that is produced by a  What goes in must come out.


chemical reaction
 So we must balance equations to conserve
– Evidence of Chemical Change mass.

 EPOCH is an acronym that stands for evidence Solution Chemistry


that a chemical reaction has occurred.
 Mixtures: Matter that consists of two or more
 – Effervescence (bubbles and/or gives off substances mixed but not chemically combined
gas)
 Solutions: Homogeneous Mixture in which one
 – Precipitate (solid crystals form) substance is dissolved into another

 – Odor (change of smell is detected)  Solute = Substance that gets dissolved (ex.
Kool-Aid powder)
 – Color change
 Solvent = Substance that does the dissolving
 – Heat (reaction either heats up or cools
(ex. Water)
down)
 Acid: Compound with a pH below 7 that tastes
 Does sighting evidence of a chemical reaction sour and is a proton donor.
mean that a chemical reaction has
undoubtedly taken place?  Ex. Citrus foods

 Types of Reactions  Base: Compound with a pH above 7 that tastes


Romance Chemistry :) bitter and is a proton acceptor

 Synthesis- Marriage/Dating  Ex. Cleaning Products (soap)

 A + B = AB Acids and Bases

 Decomposition- Divorce/Breakup - Solutions can be acidic or basic

 AB= A + B - Acids and Bases have unique properties


when dissolved in water
 Single-Replacement- Dance Cut In
- Acids = sour taste
 A + BC = AC + B
- Bases = bitter taste
 Double-Replacement- Dancing couples switch
partners. - Indicators are substances that change
color when mixed with a solution,
 AB + CD = AC + BD which helps to determine if a substance
Conservation of Mass is an acid or a base. (pH paper, Litmus
paper, cabbage juice)
Acids  3rd Law – For every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction.
 Proton donors (H+)
1st Law of Motion
 Acids contain hydrogen and produce
(Law of Inertia)
positive ions (H+) when dissolved in
water An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object
in motion will stay in motion at constant
 Acids = good electrolytes velocity, unless acted upon by an unbalanced
 Examples of acids: force.

– Lemon Juice 2nd Law

– Citric Acid F=mxa

– Carbonic Acid 3rd Law

– HCl For every action, there is an equal and


opposite reaction
Bases
According to Newton, whenever objects A and
 Proton acceptors B interact with each other, they exert forces
upon each other. When you sit in your chair,
 Bases contain hydroxide ions (OH-)
your body exerts a downward force on the
when mixed with water.
chair and the chair exerts an upward force on
 Bases = weak electrolytes your body.

 Examples of bases:  Consider the flying motion of birds. A


bird flies by use of its wings. The wings
– Ammonia of a bird push air downwards. In turn,
the air reacts by pushing the bird
– Soap
upwards.
Bleach (chlorine)
 The size of the force on the air equals
Newton’s Laws of Motion the size of the force on the bird; the
direction of the force on the air
Newton’s Laws of Motion (downwards) is opposite the direction
of the force on the bird (upwards).
 1st Law – An object at rest will stay at
rest, and an object in motion will stay in  Action-reaction force pairs make it
motion at constant velocity, unless possible for birds to fly.
acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Age of the Earth
 2nd Law – Force equals mass times
acceleration. Relative Dating
It is a basic idea, which scientists utilize to The boundary between horizontal layers of old
determine the order in which rock layers sedimentary rock and younger, overlying layers
formed. that are deposited on an eroded surface

Law of Superposition Crosscutting Relationships

fault or intrusion is always younger than all the


According to the Law of Superposition, layer 1
rocks it cuts through above and below the
was the first layer deposited, therefore it is the unconformity.
oldest layer. The last layer deposited was layer Priciple of Cross-cutting
12, and thus it is the youngest layer.
it states that the geologic feature which cuts
Principle of Original Horizontality another is the younger of the two features.

sedimentary rock layers that are not horizontal 5 Types of cross-cutting


have been tilted or deformed by crustal
Structural
movements that happened after the layers
formed. A fault or fracture cuts through an older rock.

Unconformities Stratigraphic

A break in the geologic record is called an An erosional surface or unconformity cuts


unconformity. An unconformity shows that across older rock layers, geological structures,
deposition stopped for a period of time, and or other geological features.
rock may have been removed by erosion
before deposition resumed. Sedimentological

*Unconformities Occur where currents have eroded or scoured


older sediment in a local area to produce, for
These are gaps or empty spaces between example, a channel filled with sand.
layers of rock
Paleontologic
Nonconformity
Occur where animal activity or plant growth
An unconformity in which stratified (layers) of produces truncation. This happens, for
rock rests upon unstratified rock. example, where animal burrows penetrate into
pre-existing sedimentary deposits.
Angular unconformity
Geomorphic
The boundary between a set of tilted layers
and a set of horizontal layers Occur where a surficial feature, such as a river,
flows through a gap in a ridge of rock. In a
Disconformity
similar example, an impact crater excavates
into a subsurface layer of rock.
Principle of faunal succession  Proterozoic (2.5 BYA to 542 MYA)

is based on the observation that sedimentary  Evolution of eukaryotic and


rock strata contain fossilized flora and fauna, multicellular life.
and that these fossils succeed each other
vertically in a specific, reliable order that can Eon
be identified over wide horizontal distances.  Phanerozoic (542 MYA to present)
The earlier fossil life forms are simpler than  Evolution of life which still continuing
more recent forms, and more recent forms are up to this this present time.
most similar to existing forms
Paleonzoic Era
The Geological Time Scale
 Silurian Period (443 to 417 MYA)
Geological time scale
 the diversification of jawed and
 Is a record of the life forms and bony fish
geological events in Earth’s history.
Paleonzoic Era
 Through studying rock layers and fossils
world wide.  Devonian Period (417 to 359 MYA)

 Radioactive dating helped determine  the first major vegetation had already
the absolute divisions in the time scale. happened.

Timeline Divisions  Also the age of fishes

 Eon (billion years or more) Paleonzoic Era

 Era (hundred million years)  Carboniferous Period (359 to 299 MYA)

 Period (tens of millions of years)  Amphibians were the dominant land


vertebrates, of which one branch would
Eon eventually evolve into reptiles
 Hadean (4.6 to 3.8 BYA) Paleonzoic Era
 Molten Earth was bombarded by  Permian Period (298.9 to 252.2 MYA)
meteors
 the largest mass extinction recorded in
Eon the history of life on Earth. Formation
 Archean (3.8 BYA to 2.5 BYA) of Pangea.

 The oceans had formed and Era (Phanerozoic Eon)


microscopic bacteria spread Mesozoic Era – (the age of Dinosaurs “the
Eon middle life”) which is divided into 3 periods
• Triassic Period Cenozoic Era

• Jurassic Period  Neogene Period (23.3 to 2.58 MYA)

• Cretaceous Period  mammals and

Mesozoic Era  birds continued to evolve into roughly


modern forms.
 Triassic Period (252.2 to 200 MYA)
 The last Ice Age.
 Life of reptiles begun.
Cenozoic Era
Mesozoic Era
 Quaternary Period (23.3 MYA to
 Jurassic Period (200 to 145.5 MYA) Present day)
 The age of reptiles.  Divided into two Pleistocene and
 The first bird also appeared Holocene. Modern

Jurassic Period) Mesozoic Era  humans

Mesozoic Era  evolved about 190,000 years ago

 Cretaceous Period (145.5 to 66 MYA) Continental Drift

 The longest period of • 1910s Theory


the Phanerozoic Eon, spanning 79 • By Alfred Wegener
million years. The end of Dinosaurs.
• Before Plate Tectonics
Era (Phanerozoic Eon)

Cenozoic Era – (the age of new life) which is


divided into 3 periods

• Paleogene Period

• Neogene Period

• Quaternary Period

Cenozoic Era

 Paleogene Period (66 to 23.3 MYA)

 Mammals

 began a rapid diversification during this


period.
– 100 km thick

– Less dense than the material below it so


it “floats”

What is the Asthenosphere?

• The plastic layer below the lithosphere =


asthenosphere

• The plates of the lithosphere float on the


asthenosphere

Continental Drift + Sea Floor Spreading = Plate Tectonics

2 Types of Plates

• Ocean plates - plates below the oceans

• Continental plates - plates below the continents

Plate Boundaries

Theory of Plate Tectonics Divergent Boundaries

Plate Tectonics • Boundary between two plates that are moving apart
or rifting
Plate Boundaries

Causes of Plate Tectonics
• RIFTING causes SEAFLOOR SPREADING
Plate Tectonics
Features of Divergent Boundaries
What is the Lithosphere?
• Mid-ocean ridges
• The crust and part of the upper mantle =
lithosphere • rift valleys

• fissure volcanoes
Convergent Boundaries • Have Collision Zones:

• Boundaries between two plates that are colliding – a place where folded and thrust faulted
mountains form.


• There are 3 types…

Type 1

• Ocean plate colliding with a less dense continental


plate

• Subduction Zone: where the less dense plate slides


under the more dense plate

• VOLCANOES occur at subduction zones Causes of Plate


Tectonics

Convection Currents

• Hot magma in the Earth moves toward the surface,


cools, then sinks again.

• Creates convection currents beneath the plates


that cause the plates to move.

Type 2

• Ocean plate colliding with another ocean plate

• The less dense plate slides under the more dense


plate creating a subduction zone called a TRENCH

Type 3

• A continental plate colliding with another


continental plate
is an earthquake along a thrust fault that does not
show signs on the Earth's surface

Harmonic Tremor

describes a long-duration release of seismic energy, with


distinct spectral (harmonic) lines, that often precedes or
accompanies a volcanic eruption

Earthquake Interplate Earthquake

An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of is an earthquake that occurs at the boundary between two
energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. tectonic plates.

Mechanism of Earthquake Megathrust Earthquake

1st Begins in Faults it occur at subduction zones at destructive plate boundaries,


these earthquakes are among the world's largest, with
2nd Stick and slip or moment magnitudes that can exceed 9.0.
“Slip-Stick Phenomenon” Slow Earthquake
3rd Release of Seismic Wave a discontinuous, earthquake-like event that releases energy
over a period of hours to months, rather than the seconds to
Seismic Wave
minutes characteristic of a typical earthquake.
 Energy wave produced
Reverse Faults
during earthquake
Formed when rock strata are pushed together
Types of Seismic Wave

• P-waves, or primary waves and the

• S-waves, also known as secondary waves.

Types of Earthquakes

Aftershock

is a smaller earthquake that occurs after a previous large


earthquake.

Foreshock Tear Faults or Strike and Slip

is an earthquake that occurs before a larger seismic event Also known as a strike-slip fault. They are formed when plates
(the main shock) and is related to it in both time and space. slide past each other horizontally.

Blind Thrust Earthquake


• Dormant

• Volcanoes

• “quiet” for the last hundred to thousands of years,


but still have potential to erupt.

• Extinct Volcanoes

• No eruption in historical times

• No signs of erupting again

Parts of volcano
What is a volcano?

A conical mountain formed around a vent where


lava, pyroclastic materials, and gases are erupted.

Types of Volcanoes
The OCEAN
. Volcanic activity:
 It is a body of saline water that composes a large
– Active part of a planet's hydrosphere.
– Dormant 5 Principal Oceanic Areas
– Extinct  Atlantic Ocean,
Active  Arctic Ocean
volcanoes  Indian Ocean
• activity in the last few centuries  Pacific Ocean
• Ex: Vesuvius, 79 A.D.  Southern Ocean
• (50 times in 2000 yr) In Ocean Zones
• Ex: Mt. St. Helens (1980)
Ocean Zones • Earth, Moon, and Sun are lined up
(shoreline to open ocean)
• High Tides are higher and Low Tides
 Intertidal Zone are lower than normal

 Neritic Zone

 Oceanic Zone

 Benthic Zone
Gravitational Effect of the Moon
Intertidal Zone
 Neap Tides
 Area between high tide line and low tide line
• Earth, Moon, and Sun form right
 Organisms adapted to harsh, changing angles
environments
• High Tides are lower and Low Tides
Neritic Zone are higher than normal
 Area over the continental shelf

 Area of greatest density and diversity of marine life

Oceanic Zone

 From the continental break out to open ocean

Benthic Zone

 The Ocean Floor

 Underlies all the other zones The Hydrologic Cycle

Tides There are five processes by which water moves


throughout each of the earth’s spheres
 The rise and fall in sea level is called a tide.
a condensation
 Caused by a giant wave.
aprecipitation
 One low-tide/high-tide cycle takes about 12 hrs
and 25 min. a infiltration

 Tidal range is the difference in ocean level a runoff


between high-tide and low-tide
aevapotranspiration
Gravitational Effect of the Moon
WATER
 Spring Tides
What is cool about WATER?

 Most of the earth's surface consists of water.


At least 70%.

 Saltwater 97%

 Glaciers 2%

 Freshwater 1%

 By weight, the average man is approximately


60% water.

The birth of water

Properties of Water

Universal Solvent

Water is the solvent of Life!

Solute – substance dissolved in a solvent to form a


solution
Properties of Water
Solvent – fluid that dissolves solutes
Covalent bonding vs. Hydrogen bonding
Example: Ice Tea – water is the solvent and tea and
sugar the solutes

Properties of Water

Cohesion, Adhesion and Surface Tension

cohesion = water attracted to other water

molecules because of polar properties

adhesion = water attracted to other materials

surface tension = water is pulled together creating

the smallest surface area possible

Properties of Water
Capillary Action  protects life on Earth by
absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming
Because water has both adhesive and cohesive the surface through heat retention.
properties, capillary action is present.
 It reduce temperature extremes
Capillary Action = water’s adhesive property is the cause between day and night.
of capillary action. Water is attracted to some other
material and then through cohesion, other water Different layers of the Atmosphere
molecules move too as a result of the original adhesion.
 Troposphere
Ex: Think water in a straw
 Stratosphere
Ex: Water moves through trees this way
 Mesosphere
High Heat Capacity
 Thermosphere
In order to raise the temperature of water, the average
molecular speed has to increase.  Exosphere

It takes much more energy to raise the temperature of Troposphere


water compared to other solvents because hydrogen  begins at the surface and extends to between
bonds hold the water molecules together! 9 km (30,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km
Water has a high heat capacity. (56,000 ft) at the equator.

“The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass  it is where all weather takes place.
required to raise the temperature by one degree Stratosphere
Celsius.”
 extends from the tropopause to about 50 km
Hydrophilic (32 mi; 170,000 ft).
Loves the water. It allows other substance to blend  Temperature increases with height due to
in. increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation by
Hydrophobic the ozone layer.

Water-repelling. Substances are keeps away from The Ozone Layer


the water.  The stratosphere contains a thin layer of ozone
Earth’s Atmosphere which absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet
radiation from the Sun.
Atmosphere of Earth
Mesosphere
 is a layer of gases surrounding the
planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.  It extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km
(50–53 mi; 260,000–280,000 ft).

 It is the layer where most meteors burn up


upon entering the atmosphere.
 is the coldest place on Earth and has an  Carbon Dioxide - .037%
average temperature around −85 °C (−120 °F;
190 K)  Other gases make up the rest

Thermosphere Weather & Climate

 the thermosphere extends from 80 km above Weather & Climate Definitions


the Earth's surface to outer space. • Weather- “the state of the atmosphere with
 The temperature of this layer can rise to 1,500 respect to heat or cold, wetness or dryness,
°C (2,700 °F) calm or storm, clearness or cloudiness”.

 The International Space Station orbits in this • Climate – “the average course or condition of
layer, between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 the weather at a place usually over a period of
mi) years as exhibited by temperature, wind
velocity, and precipitation”
Exosphere
High Pressure
 The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere
extends from the exobase upward. • Higher pressure than what is

 It is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. normal for that altitude.

 The particles are so far apart that they can


travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding • Brings clear skies and fair weather.
with one another.
– The sinking cold air warms as it does
so and becomes stable.

Low Pressure

• A low pressure region (depression

or cyclone) is caused by rising air.

• Clouds, rain, and very strong winds

occur.

4 Basic Cloud Types


Composition of Atmosphere
Cirrus
 Nitrogen - 78%
a wispy white cloud at a high altitude (4 to 8 miles), also
 Oxygen - 21% announcing a soon change in weather.

 Water Vapor – 0 to 4% Cumulus


thick, fluffy clouds that look like a big pile of cotton balls, • Cold Front – is the leading edge of a cooler
usually announcing a nice or sunny day mass of air, replacing (at ground level) a
warmer mass of air.
Nimbus
• Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) - band
• a dark, gray cloud, usually holding rain or of clouds, usually thunderstorms, that circle
another form of precipitation the globe near the equator.
Stratus Global Wind System
a cloud that forms in low (sometimes fog), dark layers, • These are wind patterns named after the
that usually covers all of most of the sky direction from which they blow
Elements of Weather • The globe is encircled by six major wind belts.
• Wind - Caused by the earth’s surface Type of Breezes
being heated unevenly by the sun.
• Sea Breeze - a wind that blows from the ocean
• Temperature – The hotness or coldness of the inland towards land.
atmosphere.
• Land Breeze - a wind that blows from the land
• Precipitation - Moisture from the sky e.g. rain, towards ocean.
snow etc.
ECOLOGY
• Humidity - The amount of water vapor in the air.
 The study of living organisms in the natural
• Cloud cover - The amount of cloud in the sky. environment
• Sunshine – Sun’s exposure.  How they interact with one another
• Air pressure - The "weight" of the air .  How the interact with their nonliving
Temperature & Humidity environment

• Temperature - Air higher in pressure is usually Hierarchy of Living Organisms


cooler air and air lower in pressure is usually Population
warmer air.
A group of organism of the same species which live in the
• Dew point - Temperature at which the moisture same habitat at the same time where they can freely
saturates the air. interbreed
Other terminologies Community
• Monsoon – seasonal changes in atmospheric All the populations of the different species living and
circulation. Amihan or northeast wind “Cool inter-acting in the same ecosystem
breeze” Habagat or southwest wind “Humid”. Ecosystem

Community + Abiotic environment, interacting


Biomes

Is a group of ecosystems with similar climates and SAVANNA


organisms
 MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

LAND
Hierarchy of Living Organisms
RAIN FORESTS
Organism- Population-Community-Ecosystem
 There are 2 main types of rain forests:
-Biomes Temperate Rain Forests and Tropical Rain
Forests.
An area’s biome is determined mostly by its climate
(temperature and precipitation) TEMPERATE RAIN FORESTS

There are 4 major land biomes and 2 major water biomes  Temperate”= having moderate temperatures.

There are 5 major land biomes and 2 major water  Northwestern coast of U.S. is a temperate rain
ecosystems forest.

 Land  Receives more than 300 cm of rain per year.

 FOREST  Huge trees: Cedars, Redwoods, Douglas Firs.

 RAIN FORESTS DESERTS

 TAIGA FOREST  Desert = An area that


receives less rainfall per
 DECIDUOUS FOREST year.
 TEMPERATE RAIN FORESTS  Some deserts receive NO
 TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS precipitation at all during
one year.
 Water
WATER
 FRESHWATER
FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS
 RIVER
 Freshwater ecosystems include streams,
 POND/LAKE rivers, ponds and lakes.

 ESTUARY POND / LAKE

 DESERT  Bodies of standing or still freshwater.

 TUNDRA  Lakes are larger and deeper than


ponds.
 GRASSLAND
 Ponds: Shallow enough for sunlight to is a non-mutual symbiotic relationship between species,
hit bottom (allowing plants to grow where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense
there). of the other, the host.

 Lakes (and large ponds): Too deep for Two types:


plants to grow on the bottom, so algae
grows and floats on top of water. • Endoparasite

 Estuary: Where freshwater of a river meets • Exoparasite


saltwater of the ocean. Competition
MARINE ECOSYSTEMS This relationship is when two species are competing for
 Marine ecosystems include estuaries, intertidal the same resources.
zones, neritic zones, and the open ocean. Two types:
Activity • Intraspecific Competition
Predation • Interspecific Competition
 An interaction in which one organism kills Ecological Niche
another for food is called predation.
Is a term describing the relational position of
 The organism that does the killing is the a species or population in its ecosystem to each other.
predator.
Energy and organisms
 The organism that is killed is the prey.
Autotrophs
Mutualism
Organisms which can synthesise their own complex,
 A relationship in which both species benefit is energy rich, organic molecules from simple inorganic
called mutualism molecules (e.g. green plants synthesis sugars from CO2
Commensalism and H2O)

 A relationship in which one species benefits and Heterotrophs


the other species is neither helped nor harmed Organisms who must obtain complex, energy rich,
is called commensalism organic compounds form the bodies of other organisms
 Example: The red-tailed hawks’ interaction with (dead or alive)
the saguaro. The hawks benefit by having a Detritivores
place to build their nest, while the cactus is not
affected by the hawks. Heterotrophic organisms who ingest dead organic
matter. (e.g. earthworms, woodlice, millipedes)
Parasitism