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THE JEWS IN EGYPT

AND IN PALESTINE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON

EDINBURGH

GLASGOW

NEW YORK

TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY

HUMPHREY MILFORD

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY

224O

JEWS IN EGYPT

AND IN PALESTINE UNDER

THE FATIMID CALIPHS

A CONTRIBUTION TO

THEIR POLITICAL AND COMMUNAL HISTORY BASED CHIEFLY ON GENIZAH MATERIAL

HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED

BY

JACOB MANN, M.A., D.Lrr. (LOND.)

VOLUME I

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

HUMPHREY MILFORD

1920

THESIS APPROVED FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR

OF LITERATURE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

TO

THE VERY REVEREND THE CHIEF RABBI

JOSEPH H. HERTZ

M.A., PH.D., HONORARY D.H.LiTT.

CONTENTS

 

PAGES

INTRODUCTION

5-7

CORRIGENDA LIST OF MANUSCRIPTS USED, as arranged in the

8

Appendices to be printed in Vol. II LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .

.

.

.

CHAPTER I. From the Conquest of Egypt by

Jauhar (969 C.E.) to the end of al-Hakim's

reign (1021 C.E.)

CHAPTER II.

The Period of Solomon ben

Yehuda (died in 1051 C.E.)

.

.

.

13-7

7S~ l S

CHAPTER III. The Period of Solomon ben

Yehuda (concluded)

106-1512

CHAPTER IV. Conditions in Palestine and in

Syria. Nesiim and Geonim .

.

.

CHAPTER V.

Egyptian Affairs from about

153-201

1050 C.E. to the period of Maimonides (died in December, 1204 C.E.)

.

.

202-250

CHAPTER VI. The Communal Organization .

251-280

ADDENDUM

280

INTRODUCTION

' THE stone which the builders rejected has become the chief

A feeling similar to that of the Psalmist takes

corner-stone.'

hold of one who explores the remarkable literary finds brought

to light from the obscurity of the Cairo Genizah. Documents

and letters, poems and compositions in Hebrew and Arabic,

which the contemporaries preserved for some time after perusal

and then regarded as useless, assigning them to the lumber-room

of a synagogue only out of sheer piety, become now the founda-

tion upon which the history of the Jews in Egypt and in Palestine,

from 950 C.E. and onwards, is to be based. The attempt is made

here to reconstruct the life of these Jewries from the beginning

of the Fatimid reign in Egypt (969 C.E.) till about the time of Maimonides, who died at the end of the year 1204 C.E.

A large number of Genizah fragments, still unpublished, form

the basis of this work.

exhausted all the

available material.

As with the nation of Israel, so with its

No

claim

is

put forward

of having

literature ' scattered and separated among the peoples '. Thus

it came about that the Genizah MSS. found their way into

numerous libraries, public and private, on both hemispheres.

Even those Genizah Collections to which I have had access

and they were the most important could not be completely

explored. The task of examining the many thousands of frag-

ments and extracting all the historical data they contain, requires

many years of labour, and cannot be undertaken by one person.

But how appropriate is the saying of the Rabbis : c The work is

not for thee alone to finish ; but thou art not free to desist from

it.' My chief aim was to produce a skeleton of the contemporary

history of the Egyptian and the Palestinian Jewries.

Persons

and events had to be brought into chronological order and

6

Introduction

sequence.

It is my sincere hope that, as more of the Genizah

fragments see the light of publication, the skeleton presented

here will likewise clothe itself in flesh and blood and approach

the stage of completion.

By the nature of our task, a great deal of spade-work was

necessary as we proceeded from period to period. Where so

much was hitherto unknown, details had to be discussed at

length, data already known put into their proper setting and

many errors, hitherto maintained, rectified.

Contemporary

Egyptian history had of course to be drawn upon in order to

elucidate what the new material gave us.

It was found ad-

visable to

arrange the new

fragments and other data

in

appendices 1 to the chapters in order to preserve in the latter

Yet even this device did

a more or less coherent narrative.

not always make it possible to keep up the proper sequence

of events. Here and there it was necessary to anticipate what

was to be considered later on or to make up for arrears.

The first five chapters incorporate all the new material at

our disposal.

The last chapter

deals with the communal

organization of the Jewries in Egypt and in Palestine, sum-

marizing, and also supplementing what was to be learned from

the preceding investigations.

Four Genizah Collections in this country supplied the new

material given here. The most fruitful was the famous Taylor-

Schechter Collection at the Cambridge University Library. My

deep gratitude is due, and hereby tendered, to the staff of the

Library for the facilities very kindly granted

to me when

examining the Genizah fragments. Of considerable importance

was the collection of Elkan

N. Adler, Esq., M.A., London.

This well-known scholar has placed me under great obligation

My best

for his ready permission to use his valuable MSS.

thanks are finally due to the staffs of the British Museum and of the Bodleian Library for many courtesies shown to me in

the course of my work.

1 They are cited in the following pages as Appendix A. = A. A. (to Ch. I) ;

Appendix B. = A. B. (to Chaps. II and III) ; Appendix C. = A. C. (to Ch. IV) ;

Appendix D. = A. D. (to Ch. V).

Introduction

7

The fragments are cited in the following pages as T.-S. = Taylor-Schechter Collection, Cambridge ; MS. Adler= Collection

of Mr. E. N. Adler;

Oxford MS. Heb. = Hebrew MSS. at

the Bodleian, Oxford ; Bodl. = Neubauer-Cowley, Catalogue of Hebrew MSS. at the Bodleian, vols. I and II ; Or. = Oriental

MSS. at the British Museum, London.

A work of this kind, with no special appeal to the reading

public at large, is not eagerly sought after by publishers, when

the cost of production has increased by leaps and bounds. It

was found necessary to divide the work, and publish first the

results. The Genizah material, as arranged in the Appendices,

forming the basis of the whole treatise, though ready for the press, had to be kept over for a second volume, which, it is to be hoped, will appear in the near future. A full Index will then

be added.

my heartfelt thanks to

It is my pleasant duty to express

Robert Mond, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.E., who helped this volume

to see the light of publication.

My gratitude to the Very Rev. the Chief Rabbi, who took

a keen interest in my work while in the course of preparation,

is expressed in the Dedication that precedes these lines.

*

LONDON, July, 1919.

J. M.

CORRIGENDA

Pp. 20 (11. 6, 18, and 38), 21 (11. 29 and 34), 22

(11. 14 and 23),

136 (1. 32), and

150 (1. 14). For Kzaz read Kazzaz, 'the silk merchant'.

Pp. 20 (1. 23) and 22 (11. r, 7, and 13).

For 'Adiyyah read 'Adayah.

P. 23, 1. 20.

P. 82, 1. i.

P.

P.

For 'Abu'l

al-Kmudi read Abu'l

, al-Kumudi.

For ^Sn^K (so in the manuscript) read bcbsft/N, al-Mufalfal.

For rOIK p read fDIK p, 'the nephew of Sham'an.

82, 1. 4.

82, 1.

13. For for read concerning.

Pp. 96 (1. 17), 192 (1. 13), 196 (1. 5), and 220, note i, 1. 12.

P. 97, note 3, 1. i.

For Sahlan read Sahlan.

For Parnes read Parnas.

P.

101, 1. 10 from bottom. For Bet Sin read Bet-Din.

P. 112, 1. 12.

For high read firm.

P.

P.

P.

150, 1. 14 from bottom. For Mumal read Mu'ammil.

154, 1. 9. For Ibn Aktabu'1-Syad read Ibnu-uhti (i. e. the nephew of) Abu'l Siyad.

154, 1. 14. For Renown read Treasure.

P. u i68, 1. 9.

For Sajir read Saglr.

P. 205, 1. 15 from bottom. For Habrim read Haberim.

LIST OF MANUSCRIPTS USED

AS ARRANGED IN THE APPENDICES TO BE

PRINTED IN VOL. II

APPENDIX A (to Ch. I).

A. A.

i = T.-S. 32. 4

a = Oxford

36,

fols. 9-10 (cp. Bodl. 2776'),

MS.

Heb.

d.

and a small

paper leaf

in T.-S. Box K 8

3 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

d.

75,

fol.

15

4 = T.-S. 1 6. 68

5 = Extracts from several MSS.

6 = Or. 5560, A, fol. i

7 = Or. 5557, P, fols. 55-56, and

T.-S. 8J 3 iio

7 a = Oxford

fol.

8

MS. Heb. b. n,

(cp.

Bodl. 2874,

8*)

8 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

e.

95,

fol. 54, Or. 5560, A, fols.

5 and 6, and T.-S. 8 J 34'

9 - T.-S. 8K 10

jo = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

a.

3,

fol. 21 (cp. Bodl. a873 21 )

11

= T.-S. i8J 4 5

12 = T.-S. 13 J ii 7 and 22"

13 = T.-S. 8G7 1

14 = Extracts from Or. 5554, A,

fols. 28-29,

and

Oxford

MS.

Heb. e. 74, fols. 59-

60 (cp. Bodl. 2862")

15 = The Gaonic family of Ben-

Meir. Extracts from T.-S.

13 J i 2 ; MS. Adler 2952;

T.-S.

8 K 20 s ,

13 J i6 16

,

8J8 6 and 10 J 26 8

16, I = Extracts from a loose leaf

in MS. Adler 2805 and from two paper leaves in

T.-S. Box K6

16, II = Two leaves in MS. Adler

4009

A. A. 16, III = Oxford MS. Heb.

fol. 50

d. 76,

16, IV = Extracts from MS. Adler

223

17 = The Gaonic family ofEbyatar

Hakkohen.

Or. 5557, A,

fol. 7, verso, and Oxford

MS. Heb.

Extract from MS. Adler

3011, fol. i

!8 = T.-S. 13 J I 4 10 19 = T.-S. I3J26 16 and extract

c.

50,

fol.

n.

from

Oxford MS. Heb.

a.

a,

fol.

3

(cp.

Bodl.

20 = T.-S. 12. 16

21 = A paper leaf; MS. Adler

2a = A paper leaf; MS. 'Adler

23 = A vellum leaf; MS. Adler

and an extract from T.-S.

20.97

APPENDIX B (to Chaps. II and III).

A.B. i -T.-S. i 3 Jio 12

2 =

T.-S. 13 J iS 1 and an extract

from Or. 5542, fol. 6

3 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

d.

65,

fol. 40 (cp. Bodl. 2877 40 )

4 = T.-S. I 3 ji3 21

5

6 = T.-S. I 3 j23 12

=

T.-S. i

3

j3i 8

7

=T.-S. i 3 Ji4 6

8 = T.-S. isJiS 14

T.-S.i 3J 3 i 6 10 = Extracts from Or. 5544, fol. 8,

and Oxford MS. Heb. a. 3,

9 =

fol. 17 (cp. Bodl. 2873")

11 = T.-S. 13 J i9 18 and extracts

12

13 = T.-S. I 3 j2o' 5

= T.-S. i 3 Ji4 ao

10 List of Manuscripts used

A. B. 14 = A

loose

leaf in

MS. Adler

2804

15 = MS. Adler 2804, fol. 7

16

17

18

19

= T.-S. I3j24 n

= A paper leaf; MS. Adler

= T.-S. 16. 251 = T.-S. 16. 374

20, I and II = Numerous extracts

from MSS. 20, III = Sahlan b. Abraham as

liturgical

writer.

T.-S.

10 K 2o 5 and extracts

21 = A paper leaf in MS. Adler

2804

22 = T.-S. isJiS* 5 23 = T.-S. I3J20 13

24

25

26

= T.-S. 13 J 17*

=T.-S. 8j2i 6

= T.-S. 13 J 2i 19

27 = T.-S. iojio 9

28 = MS. Adler 2804, fol. 2

29

30

=

T.-S. 13 J i4 23

= A paper leaf; MS. Adler, and

extracts.

31 = Extracts

from

MS. Adler

2804, fol. i ; T.-S. i8J 4 15 - 25

,

32

33

34

35

36

=

I3JI4 16

T.-S. 12. 80

= T.-S. 12. 247

= T.-S. 13 J ii 9

-T.-S. 13 J 9 8

=

T.-S. 13 J I7 1 (now printed

J.Q.R., N.S.,IX, 4 i5)

in

37 = Or. 5346

38 = T.-S. isJiS 1

39 = T.-S. i 3 Ji4 18

40 = T.-S. 20. 181

41 =

T.-S. 10 J i2 17

42

43

44

45

= T.-S. i3Ji6"

= T.-S. 13 J 13"

= Oxford MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 8

(cp. Bodl. 28768)

=

T.-S.

i8J 4 17

46 = T.-S.

47 = T.-S. i8J 4 26

= T.-S. 16. 275

48

49

50

13 J 23^

=

MS. Adler 2804, fol. 8

= T.-S. 12. 217

51 = MS. Adler 2804, fol. 3, and

extract from Oxford MS.

(cp. Bodl.

fol. 3

Heb. a. 3,

A. B. 52=

53=

T.-S. i 3 T.-S. i 3

j26

J 3 i 7

54 = A loose leaf in

2804

MS. Adler

55 = MS. Adler 2804, fol. 6

56= T.-S. I 3

.57 -T.-S. i 3

18

ji3

Jio 28

58 = T.-S. I

3 J33 12

59 = Oxford MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 9

(cp. Bodl. 2876')

60 = T.-S. I3j23 19

61

= T.-S.

T3J23 1

62 =

63 = MS. Adler 2804, fol. 4

64

Oxford MS. Heb. c. 50, fol. 21

=

T.-S. 10 J i4 8

65=

T.-S. I 3

ji5

u

66 = T.-S. isJsi 1

67

68

=T.-S. ioji 5 10

= T.-S. 8 J so 1 , and extracts

69 = T.-S. 10 J 9 26

70 = A loose leaf in MS. Adler

4020

71 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

d.

66,

fol. 69 (cp. Bodl. 28 7 8 9 ),

and T.-S. isJso 3

72 - Oxford

MS.

Heb.

f.

39,

fols. 29 b and 30* (cp. Bodl.

2732)

APPENDIX C (to Ch. IV).

A.C.

i =T.-S. i 3 j26

2

=

T.-S. i8J 3 9

3 = A loose leaf in MS. Adler

2804

4 = A paper leaf; MS. Adler

5 = A paper leaf, MS. Adler, and an extract from Oxford MS.

Heb. c. 28, fol. 59 (cp. Bodl.

6 =

A paper leaf; MS. Adler

7 = T.-S. 13 J 1 1 5

8

9

-T.-S. I3J26 1

= T.-S. i 3 Ji3 17

10 = A paper leaf; MS. Adler

11 = A letter printed by Harkavy

in Osar Tob, 1878, 077-81, where the date is given as

1 1 88 c. E., but really written

between 1051-62 c. E.

as arranged in the Appendices

ii

A. C. 12 = Or. 5544, fol. i, and Oxford

MS. Heb. e.

74,

fols. 71*-

A. D. 3 = A leaf in T.-S., Box K 15;

Oxford MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 6

72* (cp. Bodl. 286226 b

) (cp.Bodl. 28766), and several

13 = T.-S. 13 Ji, 16.248, I 3 j23 13 s6 3 ; T.-S. 1 6. 1 8, z 3 J 19",

,

extracts

4 Numerous extracts from MSS.

and extracts

14

15 = 13 J 16"

16 = MS. Adler 2806, fol. 5, and

= 13 J i9 15

5 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

c.

28,

fol. 41 (cp. Bodl. 2876")

6 = T.-S.

13 J 15*,

and Oxford

MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 70 (cp.

several extracts

17

= T.-S. isj2i 21 and

extracts

several

18 = T.-S. 20. 94

19 = T.-S. isJss 81 , lo 11

20 = Several extracts from MSS.

concerning Nesiim

21 = Karaite Nesiim. T.-S.8K22 2 - 5

,

and extracts from Oxford

MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 42 and

d. 66, fols. 49 b -5o a (cp. Bodl.

28 73 < 2 , 28 78-'0) ; T.-S. 20.

179, 13 J ii 3

22 = MS. Adler 3765, fol. i

23 = MS. Adler 3765, fol. 3, and

T.-S. 6 J 3"

23* = Oxford

fol. 34

MS.

Heb.

d.

79,

7

Bodl. 2876)

"

=T.-S. io.Ji 4

7 a = Oxford

MS.

Heb. e.

74,

fols. 57-58 (cp. Bodl. 2862 2

<>)

8 = T.-S. 32. 8, and extracts

9 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

d.

68,

fols. 27-30 (cp. Bodl. 2836 10 )

10 = Or. 5554, B, fols. 21-22, and

Oxford MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 22

(cp. Bodl. 2873 82 )

11 = Several extracts from MSS.

12 = T.-S. 20. 114.

13 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

c.

fol. 35 (cp. Bodl. 28 7 6 85

)

28,

14

15

= Numerous extracts concern-

ing Masliah Gaon

= MS. Adler 2806, fol. 9

16 = Oxford

MS.

Heb.

c.

28,

24 = T.-S.

12.

extracts

109, and several

fol.

16

(cp. Bodl. 287616,

where wrongly described)

24*= Oxford MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 43

(cp. Bodl. 2873 43a )

17 = The family

of the Nagid

Samuel b. Hananya. Oxford

25 = Extracts from T.-S. 13 J is 23

, MS. Heb.,'

f. 56,

fol.

122

and other MSS.

25*= Several extracts from MSS.

26 = T.-S. 20. 106

26*- T.-S. IOJ24 1

2 7 = Or. 5557, N, fol. 13

28

= Several extracts from MSS.

and

f. 61,

fol. 46

(cf. Bodl.

282i 35

and

28558),

ai*d

numerous extracts

18 = T.-S. 10 J 9 14

19 =T.-S.8Ji 7

I9 a =

IOK20 1

29 = Or. 5535

30 = MS. Adler 2806, fols. 3, 4, and 2 (this is the proper sequence of the pages)

31 = T.-S. 20. 141

32 = T.-S. I3ji6"

20 = The family of the Gaon Sar

Shalom Hallevi. Numerous

extracts from MSS.

21 = A loose leaf in

4020

22 = T.-S.

23 = T.-S. 13 J 2o 18

13 J si 3

MS. Adler

APPENDIX D (to Ch. V).

A.D. i

T.-S. isJn 2 2 = T.-S. 12. 338

=

2= Oxford

MS.

Heb.

c.

13,

fol. ao (cp. Bodl. 2807*6)

24

25

= T.-S. 13 J 20 3 , and a leaf in

=

MS. Adler 2738

T.-S. IOJI4 1 , 8J33 4 , and

extracts a6 = T.-S. i 3 Jn 4

27 =T.-S. isJ2o 9

28 = T.-S.

12 List of Mamiscripts ^lsed in the Appendices

A. D. 29 = The period of Maimonides.

Numerous extracts from

MSS.

30 = T.-S. 18 J 4 20

30* = A leaf in T.-S., Box J a

31

32 = Several extracts

= T.-S. 13 Jp 9

A. D. 33 = Abraham Maimuni and his

34

descendants.

Several ex-

tracts from MSS.

= Contains a critical examina-

tion of printed MSS. relating

to Abraham Maimuni

35 = Numerous extractsfrom MSS.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Arab. Lit. = Arabische Literatur der Jttden, by M. Steinschneider.

Gr.

H. B.

J. E.

J. Q. R.

= Graetz, Geschichte der Juden.

=

Hebr'dische Bibliographic.

= Jewish Encyclopedia.

= Jewish Quarterly Review.

J. Q. R., N. S. = Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series.

J. R. A. S. ~ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.

.

L. P.

= Lane-Poole, History of Egypt in the Middle Ages, second edition, 1914.

Ltgsch. synag. Poesie = Literaturgeschichte der synagogalen Poesie, by Leopold Zunz.

Mtschr.

= Monatsschriftfur Geschichte u. Wissenschaft des Judentums.

Neub., Med. Jew. Chron. = Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles.

Pozn.

R. E. J.

Wiist.

= Poznanski.

Revue des Etudes Juives.

= Wiistenfeld, Geschichte der Fatimiden-Chalifen ' in Abhandlungen

der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen.

Z. A.

=

Zeitschriftfur Assyriologie.

Z.

Z.

D. M. G. = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft.

f. H. B. = Zeitschriftfiir hebraische Bibliographic.

Z.D. P. V. = Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereines.

A. M. = Anno Mundi.

A. H. = Anno Hegirae.

c. E. = Common Era.

Sel.

Seleucid Era.

', by S. Pinsker.

d. = dinar.

CHAPTER I

From the Conquest of Egypt by Jauhar (969 c. E.) to the

end of al-Hakim s reign (1021 c. E.).

(i) THE history of the Jews in Egypt since the Arab con-

Fustat at the head

quest (639-41) till Jauhar's entry into

of the Fatimid army (969) is

almost entirely shrouded in

obscurity.

The earliest reference to the Jews in Fustat, so far

known, is a document of the year 750 c. E. 1

But very little

indeed do we know of the life of the important Egyptian Jewry

during more than three centuries.

The vicissitudes of the

country during this period are concisely arrated by Lane-Poole

in his History of Egypt in the Middle Ages. 2

The Jews no

doubt were treated in the same manner as the other non-Muslim

inhabitants, the people of the tribute (ahl al-dhimmd).

Only

a few stray details concerning the Jews can be gathered. When

Alexandria surrendered to *Amr ibn al-'Asi in 641, one of the

conditions of the capitulation was that the Jews (who doubtless

helped to furnish the tribute-money) should be allowed to remain

in the city. Their number is reported to have been 40,000,

while 70,000 fled before the

used to be distinguished in

This is evident from the following story which we read in the

History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria (in

Graffin-Nau, Patrologia Orientalist", 1910, 15-16). Samad, the

governor of a castle at