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1. The remainder when 2x3 + kx2 + 7 is divided by x – 2, is half the remainder when the same expression
is divided by 2x – 1. Find the value of k.

ေပးခ်က္၊ ၊ The remainder when 2x3 + kx2 + 7 is divided by x – 2, is half the remainder when the same
expression is divided by 2x – 1.
ေမးခ်က္၊ ၊ Find the value of k.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = 2x3 + kx2 + 7
When f ( x ) is divided by x – 2 and 2x – 1,
1
the remainders are f ( 2 ) and f ( ).
2
By given,

1 1
f(2)= f( )
2 2

1
2f(2)=f( )
2

1 3 1 2
2 ( 2( 2 )3 + k( 2 )2 + 7 ) = 2 ( ) +k( ) +7
2 2

1 1
2 ( 2( 8 ) + k( 4 ) + 7 ) = 2 ( )+k( )+7
8 4

1 k
2 ( 16 + 4k + 7 ) = + +7
4 4

1 k
32 + 8k + 14 = + +7
4 4

128 + 32k + 56 = 1 + k + 28 ( ႏွစ္ဘက္လုံး 4 ျဖင့္ေျမွာက္ပါ )

184 + 32k = k + 29

31k = 29 – 184

31k = – 155

k=–5 Ans; k = – 5

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2. The remainder when ax3 + bx2 + 2x + 3 is divided by x – 1, is twice that when it is divided by x + 1,
show that b = 3a + 3.

ေပးခ်က္  The remainder when ax3 + bx2 + 2x + 3 is divided by x – 1 is twice when it is divided by x + 1

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ေမးခ်က္  show that b = 3a + 3.


Solution
Let f ( x ) = ax3 + bx2 + 2x + 3
When f ( x ) is divided by x – 1 and x + 1,
the remainders are f ( 1 ) and f ( – 1).
By given,

f(1)= 2f(–1)

a( 1 )3 + b( 1 )2 + 2 ( 1 ) + 3 = 2 [ a( – 1 )3 + b (– 1) 2 + 2 (– 1 ) + 3 ]

a+b+2+3=2(–a+b–2+3)

a+b+5=2(–a+b+1)

a + b + 5 = – 2a + 2b + 2

a + 2a + 5 – 2 = 2b – b

3a + 3 = b

b = 3a + 3

Ans; b = 3a + 3

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3. The expression x3 + ax2 + b has the same remainder of when divided by x + 1 and x – 2. Given that the
remainder when the expression is divided by x – 4 is 10, find the values a and b

ေပးခ်က္  ( 1 ) x3 + ax2 + b has the same remainder of when divided by x + 1 and x – 2


( 2 ) the remainder when the expression is divided by x – 4 is 10
ေမးခ်က္  the values a and b
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 + ax2 + b
When f ( x ) is divided by x – 2 and x + 1,
the remainders are f ( 2 ) and f (– 1).
By given,

f ( 2 ) = f (– 1)

( 2 )3 + a ( 2 )2 + b = (–1)3 + a (–1) 2 + b ( တန္ဖိုးတူ b ႏွစ္လုံးေခ် )

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8 + 4a = – 1 + a

3a = – 9

a = – 3 f ( x ) = x3 – 3x2 + b

When f ( x ) is divided by x – 4 ,

the remainder = f ( 4 )

 f ( 4 ) = 10

( 4 )3 – 3( 4 )2 + b = 10

64 – 48 + b = 10

16 + b = 10

b=–6

Ans; a = – 3 , b = – 6

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4. The remainder when f ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c is divided by x – 1 , x + 1 , x – 2 are 1 , 25 , 1 respectively.
Show that f ( x ) is a perfect square.

ေပးခ်က္  when f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c is divided by x – 1 , x + 1 , x – 2 are 1 , 25 , 1

ေမးခ်က္  Show that f ( x ) is a perfect square


Solution
f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c
When is divided by x – 1 , x + 1 and x – 2 , the remainders are f ( 1 ) , f ( –1 ) and f ( 2 ).
By given,
f ( 1 ) = 1 , f ( –1 ) = 25 , f ( 2 ) = 1
f(1)=1
a(1)2+b(1)+c=1
a+b+c=1 (1)

f ( –1 ) = 25
a (–1 ) 2 + b (–1 ) + c = 25
a – b + c = 25 (2)
(+) a+b+c= 1 (1)

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2a + 2c = 26
a + c = 13 (3)

a+b+c= 1 (1)
(– ) a +c= 13 (3)
b = – 12

f(2)=1
a(2)2+b(2)+c=1
4a + 2b + c = 1
If b = 12,
4a – 24 + c = 1
4a + c = 25
(–) a +c= 13 (3)
3a = 12
a = 4 in Eq ( 3 )
a + c = 13
4 + c = 13
c= 9
If a = 4 , b = – 12 , c = 9
f ( x ) = 4x2 – 12x + 9 = ( 2x – 3 )2
 f ( x ) is a perfect square.

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5. The expression ax3 – 6ax + b leaves the remainders of 1 and 2 when divided by x – 1 and x – 2
respectively. Find the values a and b and find the remainder when the expression is divided by x + 4.

ေပးခ်က္  ax3 – 6ax + b leaves the remainders of 1 and 2 when divided by x – 1 and x – 2
ေမးခ်က္  ( 1 ) the values a and b
( 2 ) the remainder when the expression is divided by x + 4.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = ax3 – 6ax + b
When f ( x ) is divided by x – 1 and x – 2 ,
the remainders are f ( 1 ) and f ( 2 ).
By given,
f(1)=1 ,f(2)=2
f(1)=1
a( 1 )3 – 6a( 1 ) + b = 1
a – 6a + b = 1
– 5a + b = 1 (1)

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f(2)=2
a( 2 )3 – 6a( 2 ) + b = 1
8a – 12a + b = 2
– 4a + b = 2 (2)
( – ) – 5a + b = 1 (1)
a = 1 in eq ( 1 )
– 5a + b = 1
– 5( 1 ) + b = 1
b =6

 f ( x ) = x3 – 6x + 6
When f ( x ) is divided by x + 4 ,
the remainder = f ( – 4 )
= (– 4 )3 – 6(– 4 ) + 6
= – 64 + 24 + 6
= – 64 + 30
The remainder = – 34
Ans; a = 1 , b = 6 , the remainder = – 34

6. Given that the polynomial x2 – 10x + 14 leaves the same remainder when divided by x + 2b or x + 2c
where 3b – 2c = 0 and b ≠ c. Find the value of b and c.

ေပးခ်က္  x2 – 10x + 14 leaves the same remainder when divided by x + 2b or x + 2c


3b – 2c = 0 and b ≠ c.
ေမးခ်က္  the value of b and c
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x2 – 10x + 14
When f ( x ) is divided by x + 2b or x + 2c ,
the remainders are f (– 2b ) and f (– 2c ).
By given,
f (– 2b ) = f (– 2c )
(–2b )2 – 10(–2b ) + 14 = (–2c )2 – 10(–2c ) + 14
4b2 + 20b = 4c2 + 20c
4b2 – 4c2 = 20c – 20b
b2 – c2 = 5c – 5b
( b + c )( b – c ) = 5( c – b ) = – 5 ( b – c )
( b + c )( b – c )1 = – 5 ( b – c )1  (1) ( b ≠ c and b – c ≠ 0 )

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Eq ( 1 ) x 2 2b + 2c = –10
(+) 3b – 2c = 0 ( given )
5b = – 10
b =–2 in Eq ( 1 )
b+c=–5
–2 + c = – 5
c=–5+2=–3
Ans; b = – 2 , c = – 3

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7. Given that the expression x2 – 10x + 14 leaves the same remainder when divided by x + 2b or x + 2c,
Where b ≠ c , show that b + c + 5 = 0.
2003 ဧရာှတီ ( No 105 )

ေပးခ်က္  x2 – 10x + 14 leaves the same remainder when divided by x + 2b or x + 2c


b ≠ c.
ေမးခ်က္  to show b + c + 5 = 0.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x2 – 10x + 14
When f ( x ) is divided by x + 2b or x + 2c ,
the remainders are f (– 2b ) and f (– 2c ).
By given,
f (– 2b ) = f (– 2c )
(–2b )2 – 10(–2b ) + 14 = (–2c )2 – 10(–2c ) + 14
4b2 + 20b = 4c2 + 20c
4b2 – 4c2 = 20c – 20b
b2 – c2 = 5c – 5b
( b + c )( b – c ) = 5( c – b ) = – 5 ( b – c )
( b + c )( b – c )1 = – 5 ( b – c )1  (1) ( b ≠ c and b – c ≠ 0 )

b+c=–5
b+c+5=0

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8. Given that the expression x2 – 10x + 14 leaves the same remainder when divided by x + 2b or x + 2c,
where b – c = 1 . Find the value of b and c.

ေပးခ်က္  x2 – 10x + 14 leaves the same remainder when divided by x + 2b or x + 2c


b–c=1
ေမးခ်က္  the value of b and c

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Solution
Let f ( x ) = x2 – 10x + 14
When f ( x ) is divided by x + 2b or x + 2c ,
the remainders are f (– 2b ) and f (– 2c ).
By given,
f (– 2b ) = f (– 2c )
(–2b )2 – 10(–2b ) + 14 = (–2c )2 – 10(–2c ) + 14
4b2 + 20b = 4c2 + 20c
4b2 – 4c2 = 20c – 20b
b2 – c2 = 5c – 5b
( b + c )( b – c ) = 5( c – b ) = – 5 ( b – c )
( b + c )( 1 ) = – 5 ( 1 ) = – 5  (1) (b–c=1)
b+ c=–5
(+) b– c= 1 ( given )
2b =–4
b =–2 in Eq ( 1 )
b+c=–5
–2 + c = – 5
c=–5+2=–3
Ans; b = – 2 , c = – 3

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9. Given that the remainder when f ( x ) = x3 – x2 + ax is divided by x + a where a > 0 , is twice the
remainder when f ( x ) is divided by x – 2a , find the value of a. Find also the remainder when f ( x ) is
2 4
divided by x – 2. Ans; a = or a = 4
17 17
2010 ရန္ကုန္ ( No 33 )
ေပးခ်က္  f ( x ) = x3 – x2 + ax is divided by x + a is twice the remainder when f ( x ) is divided by
x – 2a , a > 0
ေမးခ်က္  the value of a and the remainder when f ( x ) is divided by x – 2
Solution
f ( x ) = x3 – x2 + ax ( ပုစာၦတြင္ ေပးထားျပီးသားျဖစ္သျဖင့္ let မထားေတာ့ပါ။ )
When f ( x ) is divided by x + a and x – 2a , the remainders are f ( – a ) and f ( 2a ).
By given,
f ( – a ) = 2f ( 2a )
(– a )3 – (– a )2 + a(– a ) = 2 [ ( 2a )3 – ( 2a )2 + a( 2a ) ]
– a3 – a2 – a2 = 2 [ 8a3 – 4a2 + 2a2 ]
– a3 – 2a2 = 2 [ 8a3 – 2a2 ]
– a3 – 2a2 = 16a3 – 4a2

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0 = 16a3 + a3 – 4a2 + 2a2


17a3 – 2a2 = 0
a2 ( 17a – 2 ) = 0
a2 = 0 ( or ) 17a – 2 = 0
a = 0 ( or ) 17a = 2
2
a = 0 ( or ) a =
17
a>0
2
a=
17
ေပးခ်က္ 
ေမးခ်က္ 

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10. When the expressions ax3 + 5x2 + bx + 4 and bx3 + 9x2 + ax – 6 are divided by x + 3 , the
remainders are – 14 and – 12. Find the value of a and b.

ေပးခ်က္  ax3 + 5x2 + bx + 4 and bx3 + 9x2 + ax – 6 are divided by x + 3 ,


the remainders are – 14 and – 12
ေမးခ်က္  the value of a and b
Solution
Let f ( x ) = ax3 + 5x2 + bx + 4
g ( x ) = bx3 + 9x2 + ax – 6
When f ( x ) and g ( x ) are divided by x + 3 , the remainders are f (– 3 ) and g ( – 3 )
By given,
f (– 3 ) = – 14 , g ( – 3 ) = – 12
f (– 3 ) = – 14
a(– 3 )3 + 5(– 3 )2 + b(– 3 ) + 4 = – 14
– 27a + 45 – 3b + 4 = – 14
– 27a – 3b = – 14 – 49
– 27a – 3b = – 63
9a + b = 21 (1)
g ( – 3 ) = – 12

b(– 3 )3 + 9(– 3 )2 + a(– 3 ) – 6 = – 12


– 27b + 81 – 3a – 6 = – 12
– 27b + 75 – 3a = – 12

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– 27b – 3a = – 12 – 75
– 27b – 3a = – 87
a + 9b = 29
Eq ( 1 ) x 9 81a + 9b = 189
– 80a = – 160
a = 2 in Eq ( 1 )
9a + b = 21
9(2)+b = 21
b = 3
Ans; a = 2 , b = 3

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11. The expressions x3 – ax + a2 and ax3 + x2 – 17 have the same remainder when divided by x – 2. Find
the possible values of a and the remainder.

ေပးခ်က္  x3 – ax + a2 and ax3 + x2 – 17 have the same remainder when divided by x – 2.


ေမးခ်က္  the possible values of a and the remainder
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 – ax + a2
g ( x ) = ax3 + x2 – 17
When f ( x ) and g ( x ) are divided by x – 2 , the remainders are f ( 2 ) and g ( 2 )
By given,
f(2)=g(2)
( 2 )3 – a( 2 ) + a2 = a( 2 )3 + ( 2 )2 – 17
8 – 2a + a2 = 8a + 4 – 17 = 8a – 13
a2 – 2a – 8a + 8 + 13 = 0
a2 – 10a + 21 = 0
( a – 3 )( a – 7 ) = 0
a – 3 = 0 or a – 7 = 0
a = 3 or a = 7
if a = 3,
g ( x ) = 3x3 + x2 – 17
The remainder = f ( 2 ) = g ( 2 ) = 3 ( 2 )3 + ( 2 )2 – 17 = 3 ( 8 ) + 4 – 17 = 28 – 17 = 11
if a = 7,
g ( x ) = 7x3 + x2 – 17
The remainder = f ( 2 ) = g ( 2 ) = 7 ( 2 )3 + ( 2 )2 – 17 = 7 ( 8 ) + 4 – 17 = 60 – 17 = 43
Ans; a = 3 or a = 7 , The remainder = 11 or 43

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12. The expression x3 – x2 – 4x + 24 and x3 – 7x + 6 have the same remainder when divided by x + k.
Find the possible values of k.

ေပးခ်က္  x3 – x2 – 4x + 24 and x3 – 7x + 6 have the same remainder when divided by x + k

ေမးခ်က္  the possible values of k


Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 – x2 – 4x + 24
g ( x ) = x3 – 7x + 6
When f ( x ) and g ( x ) divided by x + k , the remainders are f (– k ) and g (– k ).
By given ,
f (– k ) = g (– k )
(– k )3 – (– k ) 2 – 4(– k ) + 24 = (– k )3 – 7(– k ) + 6
– k3 – k2 + 4k + 24 = – k3 + 7k + 6  ( ႏွစ္ဘက္လုံးရွိ – k3 အခ်င္းခ်င္း ေခ်ပါ။ )
0 = k2 + 7k – 4k + 6 – 24
k2 + 3k – 18 = 0
( k + 6 )( k – 3 ) = 0
k + 6 = 0 ( or ) k – 3 = 0
k = – 6 ( or ) k = 3
Ans; k = – 6 or k = 3

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13. Given that x3 – 2x2 – 3x – 11 and x3 – x2 – 9 have the same remainder when divided by x + a ,
determine the values of a and the corresponding remainders.

ေပးခ်က္  x3 – 2x2 – 3x – 11 and x3 – x2 – 9 have the same remainder when divided by x + a


ေမးခ်က္  the values of a and the corresponding remainders
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 – 2x2 – 3x – 11
g ( x ) = x 3 – x2 – 9
When f ( x ) and g ( x ) divided by x + a , the remainders are f (– a ) and g (– a ).
By given ,
f (– a ) = g (– a )
(– a )3 – 2(– a )2 – 3(– a ) – 11 = (– a )3 – (– a )2 – 9
– a3 – 2a2 + 3a – 11 = – a3 – a2 – 9  ( ႏွစ္ဘက္လုံးရွိ – a3 အခ်င္းခ်င္း ေခ်ပါ။ )
0 =2a2 – 3a + 11 – a2 – 9
a2 – 3a + 2 = 0
( a – 1 )( a – 2 ) = 0

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a – 1 = 0 ( or ) a – 2 = 0
a = 1 ( or ) a = 2
When a = 1 ,
the remainder = g (– a ) = g (– 1 ) = (– 1 )3 – (– 1 )2 – 9 = – 1 – 1 – 9 = – 11
When a = 2 ,
the remainder = g (– a ) = g (– 2 ) = (– 2 )3 – (– 2 )2 – 9 = – 8 – 4 – 9 = – 23
Ans; a = 1 and the remainder = – 11 or a = 2 and the remainder = – 21

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14. The remainder when x4 + 3x2 – 2x + 2 is divided by x + a is the square of the remainder when x 2 – 3
is divided by x + a . Find a.

ေပးခ်က္  The remainder when x4 + 3x2 – 2x + 2 is divided by x + a is the square of the remainder
when x2 – 3 is divided by x + a
ေမးခ်က္  Find a
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x4 + 3x2 – 2x + 2
When f ( x ) is divided by x + a , the remainder = f ( – a )
= (– a )4 + 3(– a )2 – 2(– a ) + 2
= a4 + 3a2 + 2a + 2
Let g ( x ) = x2 – 3
When g ( x ) is divided by x + a , the remainder = g ( – a )
= (– a )2 – 3
= a2 – 3
By given ,
a4 + 3a2 + 2a + 2 = ( a2 – 3 )2
a4 + 3a2 + 2a + 2 = a4 – 6a2 + 9 ( ႏွစ္ဘက္လုံးရွိ a4 အခ်င္းခ်င္း ေခ်ပါ။ )
3a2 + 2a + 2 = – 6a2 + 9
6a2 + 3a2 + 2a – 9 + 2 = 0
9a2 + 2a – 7 = 0
( 9a – 7 )( a + 1 ) = 0
9a – 7 = 0 ( or ) a + 1 = 0
7
a= ( or ) a = – 1
9
7
Ans ; a = or a = – 1
9
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15. The remainder when 3x3 – 3x2 – 2ax + 5 is divided by x – a is three times the remainder when

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19 + ax – 5x2 – x3 is divided by x + a , find the positive value of a.

ေပးခ်က္  3x3 – 3x2 – 2ax + 5 is divided by x – a is three times the remainder


when 19 + ax – 5x2 – x3 is divided by x + a and a is positive
ေမးခ်က္  the positive value of a.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = 3x3 – 3x2 – 2ax +5
when f ( x ) is divided by x – a , the remainder = f ( a )
= 3a3 – 3a2 – 2a2 + 5
= 3a3 – 5a2 + 5
Let g ( x ) = 19 + ax – 5x2 – x3
when f ( x ) is divided by x + a , the remainder = g (–a )
= 19 + a(– a ) – 5(– a )2 – (– a )3
= 19 – a2 – 5a2 + a3
= 19 – 6a2 + a3
By given,
f ( a ) = 3 g (–a )
3a3 – 5a2 + 5 = 3 ( 19 – 6a2 + a3 )
3a3 – 5a2 + 5 = 57 – 18a2 + 3a3
– 5a2 + 5 = 57 – 18a2
18a2 – 5a2 + 5 – 57= 0
13a2 – 52 = 0
a2 – 4 = 0
a2 = 4
a=±2
but a > 0
a=2
Ans; a = 2

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16. Find the factor of x4– 14x3 + 71x2 – 154x + 120.
2011 မြန္၊ကရင္၊တနသၤာရီ ( No 29 )

ေပးခ်က္  f( x ) = x4– 14x3 + 71x2 – 154x + 120.


ေမးခ်က္  to find the factors of f ( x )
Solution
Let f( x ) = x4– 14x3 + 71x2 – 154x + 120.

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f ( 1 ) = 1 – 14 + 71 – 154 + 120 ≠ 0
f ( –1 ) = 1 + 14 + 71 + 154 + 120 ≠ 0
f( 2 ) = ( 2 )4 – 14( 2 )3 + 71( 2 )2 – 154( 2 ) + 120 = 16 – 112 + 284 – 308 + 120
= 16 + 120 + 284 – 112– 308 = 420 – 420 = 0
f(–2 ) = (–2 )4 – 14(–2 )3 + 71(–2 )2 – 154(–2 ) + 120 = 16 + 112 + 284 + 308 + 120 ≠ 0
f( 3 ) = ( 3 )4 – 14( 3 )3 + 71( 3 )2 – 154( 3 ) + 120 = 81 – 378 + 639 – 462 + 120
= 81 + 639 + 120 – 378 – 462 = 840 – 840 = 0
x – 2 and x – 3 are factors of f ( x ).
( x – 2 )( x – 3 ) = x2 – 5x + 6
x2 – 5x + 6 is a factor of f ( x )

x2 – 9x + 20
x2 – 5x + 6 x4– 14x3 + 71x2 – 154x + 120.
x4 – 5x3 + 6x2
– 9x3 + 65x2 – 154x
– 9x3 + 45x2 – 54x
20x2 – 100x + 120
20x2 – 100x + 120
0

 f ( x ) = ( x – 2 )( x – 3 )( x2 – 9x+ 20 )
= ( x – 2 )( x – 3 )( x – 4 )( x – 5 )  ( factorize the polynomial completely )
 The factors are ( x – 2 ),( x – 3 ),( x – 4 ) and( x – 5 )
Ans; The factors are ( x – 5 ), ( x – 4 ), ( x – 3 ) and ( x – 2 )

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17. Show that 3x – 2 is a factor of 6x3 – x2 – 20x + 12 , ( factorize the polynomial completely ) and find
the other factors. Hence solve the equation 6x3 – x2 – 20x + 12 = 0.

ေပးခ်က္  f( x ) = 6x3 – x2 – 20x + 12


ေမးခ်က္  to show that 3x – 2 is a factor of f( x ) , factorize f( x ) completely , to find the other factors ,
to solve the equation6x3 – x2 – 20x + 12 = 0
Solution
Let f( x ) = 6x3 – x2 – 20x + 12
2 2 2 2 2
f( )= 6( )3 – ( ) – 20( ) + 12
3 3 3 3

8 4 40
=6( )–( )– ( ) + 12
27 9 3
8 4 40
= 2( )–( )– ( ) + 12
9 9 3
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16 4 40
= – – + 12
9 9 3
16−4−120
= + 12
9
12−120
= + 12
9
−108
= + 12
9
= – 12 + 12 = 0
 3x – 2 is a factor of f( x )

2x2 + x – 6
3x – 2
6x3 – x2 – 20x + 12
6x3 – 4x2
3x2 – 20x
3x2 – 2x
– 18x + 12
– 18x + 12
0

 f ( x ) = ( 3x – 2 )( 2x2 + x – 6 )
= ( 3x – 2 )( 2x – 3 )( x + 2 )  ( factorize the polynomial completely )

 The other factors are ( 2x – 3 ) and ( x + 2 ).  (ေပးထားေသာ factor ကိုဖယ္ျပီး က်န္တာေရး )

6x3 – x2 – 20x + 12 = 0
( 3x – 2 )( 2x – 3 )( x + 2 ) = 0
3x – 2 = 0 ( or ) 2x – 3 = 0 ( or ) x + 2 = 0
3x = 2 ( or ) 2x = 3 ( or ) x = – 2
2 3
x= ( or ) x = ( or ) x = – 2
3 2

2 3
Ans; the other factors are 2x – 3 and x+2 , x = or x = or x = – 2
3 2

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18. Solve the equation x4– 9x2 = 4x – 12.
Solution
x4– 9x2 = 4x – 12
x4– 9x2 – 4x + 12 = 0

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Let f( x ) = x4– 9x2 – 4x + 12


f ( 1 ) = 1 – 9 – 4 – 12 = 0
f( –1 ) = ( –1 )4 – 9( –1 )2 – 4( –1 ) + 12 = 1 – 9 + 4 + 12 ≠ 0
f( 2 ) = ( 2 )4 – 9( 2 )2 – 4( 2 ) + 12 = 16 – 36 – 8 + 12 ≠ 0
f( –2 ) = ( –2 )4 – 9( –2 )2 – 4( –2 ) + 12 = 16 – 36 + 8 + 12 = 0
x – 1 and x + 2 are factors of f ( x ).
( x – 1 )( x + 2 ) = x2 + x – 2
x2 + x – 2 is a factor of f ( x )

x2 – x – 6
x2 + x – 2 x4 + 0x3 – 9x2 – 4x + 12
x4 + x3 – 2x2
– x3 – 7x2 – 4x
– x3 – x2 + 2x
– 6x2 – 6x + 12
– 6x2 – 6x + 12
0

 f ( x ) = ( x – 1 )( x + 2 )( x2 – x – 6 )
= ( x – 1 )( x + 2 )( x + 2 )( x – 3 )  ( factorize the polynomial completely )
= ( x – 1 )( x + 2 )2 ( x – 3 )
x4– 9x2 – 4x + 12 = 0
( x – 1 )( x + 2 )2 ( x – 3 ) = 0
x – 1 = 0 ( or ) ( x + 2 )2 = 0 ( or ) x – 3 = 0
x = 1 ( or ) x + 2 = 0 ( or ) x = 3
x = 1 ( or ) x = – 2 ( or ) x = 3

Ans; x = – 2 or x = 1 or x = 3

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19. Given that f ( x ) = x3 + px2 – 2x + 4 3 has a factor x + 2 , find the value of p. Show that x – 2 3
is also a factor and solve the equation f ( x ) = 0. Ans; p = – 2 3 , x = 2 3 or x =– 2 or x = 2

ေပးခ်က္  f ( x ) = x3 + px2 – 2x + 4 3 has a factor x + 2


ေမးခ်က္  p = ? , to show x – 2 3 is also a factor , to solve f ( x ) = 0
Solution
f ( x ) = x3 + px2 – 2x + 4 3
x + 2 is a factor of f ( x ).
f(x)=0

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(– 2 )3 + p( – 2 )2 – 2( – 2)+4 3 =0
–2 2 + 2p + 2 2 +4 3 =0
2p = – 4 3
P=–2 3
f ( x ) = x3 – 2 3 x2 – 2x + 4 3
f( 2 3)=(2 3 )3 + 2 3(2 3 )2 – 2( 2 3)+4 3
=(2 3 )3 + ( 2 3 )3 – 4 3)+4 3=0
x – 2 3 is also a factor of f ( x ).

x2 – 2
x–2 3
x3 – 2 3 x2 – 2x + 4 3
x3 – 2 3 x2
– 2x + 4 3
– 2x + 4 3
0

 f ( x ) = ( x – 2 3 )( x2 – 2 ) = ( x – 2 3 ) ( x – 2)(x+ 2)
f(x)=0
(x–2 3)(x– 2)(x+ 2)=0
x – 2 3 = 0 ( or ) x – 2 = 0 ( or ) x + 2 = 0
x = 2 3 ( or ) x = 2 ( or ) x = – 2
Ans; p = – 2 3 , x = 2 3 or x =– 2 or x = 2

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20. The expression x2n – k has x + 3 as a factor and leaves a remainder of – 80 when divided by x + 1.
Calculate the values of n and k where both are integers. With these values n and k , factorise x 2n – k
completely.

ေပးခ်က္  x2n – k has x + 3 as a factor and leaves a remainder of – 80 when divided by x + 1


n and k are integers
ေမးခ်က္  n = ? , k = ? , factorise x2n – k completely
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x2n – k
When f ( x ) is divided by x + 1, the remainder = f ( – 1 )
f ( – 1 ) = – 80
( – 1 )2n – k = – 80
1 – k = – 80
k = 81
 f ( x ) = x2n – 81

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x + 3 is a factor of f ( x ).
f(–3 )=0
( – 3 )2n – 81 = 0
( (– 3) 2 )n – 81 = 0
9n = 81 = 92
n=2
 f ( x ) = x4 – 81 = ( x2 )2 – 92 = ( x2 + 9 ) ( x2 – 9 ) = ( x2 + 9 )( x + 3 )( x – 3 )
Ans; n = 2 , k = 81 , f ( x ) = ( x – 3 )( x + 3 )( x2 + 9 )

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21. Given that f ( x ) = x2n – ( p + 1 ) x2 + p , where n and p are positive integers. Show that x – 1 is a
factor of f ( x ) , for all values of p. When p = 4, find the value of n for which x – 2 is a factor of f ( x ) and
factorize f ( x ) completely.

ေပးခ်က္  f ( x ) = x2n – ( p + 1 ) x2 + p , n and p are positive integers.


ေမးခ်က္  x – 1 is a factor of f ( x ) , for all values of p. When p = 4, find the value of n for which x – 2 is
a factor of f ( x ) and factorize f ( x ) completely
Solution
f ( x ) = x2n – ( p + 1 ) x2 + p
f ( 1 ) = 12n – ( p + 1 ) 12 + p = 1 – p – 1 + p = – p + p = 0
 x – 1 is a factor of f ( x ) , for all values of p.
When p = 4,
f ( x ) = x2n – ( 4 + 1 ) x2 + 4 = x2n – 5x2 + 4
x – 2 is a factor of f ( x )
f(2)=0
22n – 5( 2 )2 + 4 = 0
4n – 20 + 4 = 0
4n – 16 = 0
x2 + 3x + 2
n 2
4 = 16 = 4
x2 – 3x + 2 x4 + 0x3 – 5x2 – 0x + 4
n=2
4 2 x4 – 3x3 + 2x2
f ( x ) = x – 5x + 4
x – 1 and x – 2 are factors of f ( x ) 3x3 – 7x2 – 0x

( x – 1 )( x – 2 ) = x2 – 3x + 2 3x3 – 9x2 + 6x

x2 – 3x + 2 is a factor of f ( x ). 2x2 – 6x + 4
 2x2 – 6x + 4
 f ( x ) = ( x – 1 )( x – 2 ) ( x2 + 3x + 2 ) 0
f ( x ) = ( x – 1 )( x – 2 )( x + 1 )( x + 2 )
( or )

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f ( x ) = x4 – 5x2 + 4 = ( x2 – 1 )( x2 – 4 ) =( x – 1 ) ( x + 1 ) ( x – 2 )( x + 2 )
Ans; n = 2 , f ( x ) = ( x – 1 )( x + 1 )( x – 2 )( x + 2 )

22. Show that the expression x3 + ( k + 1 )x2 + ( k – 6 )x – 6 has a factor ( x + 1 ) for all values of k. If
the expression also has a factor of x + 3 , find k and the third factor.

ေပးခ်က္  the expression x3 + ( k + 1 )x2 + ( k – 6 )x – 6 , the expression has a factor of x + 3


ေမးခ်က္  Show that x3 + ( k + 1 )x2 + ( k – 6 )x – 6 has a factor ( x + 1 ) for all values of k.
k = ? , the third factor.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 + ( k + 1 )x2 + ( k – 6 )x – 6
f (– 1 ) = (– 1 )3 + ( k + 1 ) (– 1 )2 + ( k – 6 ) (– 1 ) – 6
=–1+k+1–k+6–6
=k–k =0
x + 1 is a factor of f( x ) for all values of k.
x + 3 is a factor of f( x ).
f (– 3 ) = 0
(– 3 )3 + ( k + 1 ) (– 3 )2 + ( k – 6 ) (– 3 ) – 6 = 0
– 27 + 9k + 9 – 3k + 18 – 6 = 0
6k – 6 = 0
6k = 6
k=1
 f ( x ) = x3 + ( 1 + 1 )x2 + ( 1 – 6 )x – 6 = x3 + 2x2 – 5x – 6
( x + 1 )( x + 3 ) = x2 + 4x + 3
x2 + 4x + 3 is a factor of f( x ).

x–2
x2 + 4x + 3 x3 + 2x2 – 5x – 6
x3 + 4x2 + 3x
– 2x3 – 8x2 – 6
– 2x3 – 8x2 – 6
0
The third factor = x – 2
Ans; k = 1 , the third factor = x – 2

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24. Given that 4x4 – 9a2x2 + 2( a2 – 7 )x – 18 is exactly divisible by 2x – 3a , show that a3 – 7a – 6 = 0


and hence find the possible values of a.

ေပးခ်က္  4x4 – 9a2x2 + 2( a2 – 7 )x – 18 is exactly divisible by 2x – 3a


ေမးခ်က္  show that a3 – 7a – 6 = 0 , a = ?
Solution
Let f ( x ) = 4x4 – 9a2x2 + 2( a2 – 7 )x – 18
2x – 3a is a factor of f ( x ).
3𝑎
f( )=0
2
3𝑎 4 3𝑎 2 3𝑎
4( ) – 9a2( ) + 2( a2 – 7 ) ( ) – 18 = 0
2 2 2
81𝑎 4 2 9𝑎
2
4( ) – 9a ( ) + 2( a2 – 7 ) ( 3a ) – 18 = 0
16 4
81𝑎 4 81𝑎 4
– + ( a2 – 7 ) ( 6a ) – 18 = 0
4 4
6a3 – 42a – 18 = 0
a3 – 7a – 6 = 0
Let g ( a ) = a3 – 7a – 6
g(1)=1–7–6≠0
g (–1 ) = (– 1 )3 – 7(– 1 ) – 6 = – 1 + 7 – 6 = 0
a – 1 is a factor of g ( a ).

a2 + a – 6
a– 1
a3 – 0a2 – 7a – 6
a3 – a2
a2 – 7a
a2 – a
– 6a – 6
– 6a – 6
0

a3 – 7a – 6 = 0
( a – 1 )( a2 + a – 6 ) = 0
( a – 1 )( a + 2 )( a – 3 )= 0
a – 1 = 0 ( or ) a + 2 = 0 ( or ) a – 3 = 0
a = 1 ( or ) a = – 2 ( or ) a = 3
Ans; a = – 1 or a = – 2 or a = 3

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25. Find the value of k for which a – 3b is a factor of a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4. Hence for this value of k, factorize

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a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4 completely.

ေပးခ်က္  a – 3b is a factor of a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4


ေမးခ်က္  k = ? , factorize a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4 completely.

ဤပုစာၦမ်ဳိးတြင္ f ( ? ) ကို မည္သည့္ကိန္းရွင္ထားရမည္ကိုသိရန္အတြက္ စားကိန္းကို ၾကည့္ရပါမည္။


စားကိန္း a – 3b ရွိ ေရွ႕တန္ဖိုးမွာ ‘a’ ျဖစ္သျဖင့္ f ( a ) = a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4 ဟု ထားရပါမည္။
အကယ္၍ ေရွ႕တန္ဖိုး ‘b’ ျဖစ္ေနပါက ( ဥပမာ - b – 2a ျဖစ္ေနပါက ) f ( b ) = a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4
ဟု ထားရပါမည္။

Solution
Let f ( a ) = a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4
a – 3b is a factor of a4 – 7a2b2 + kb4
 f ( 3b ) = 0
( 3b )4 – 7( 3b )2b2 + kb4 = 0
81b4 – 63b4 + kb4 = 0
18b4 + kb4 = 0
kb4 = – 18b4
k= – 18
f ( a ) = a4 – 7a2b2 – 18b4
f (–3b ) = ( –3b )4 – 7( –3b )2b2 + kb4
= 81b4 – 63b4 – 18b4 = 0 ဤပုစာၦ တစ္ခုလုံးတြင္ f ( x ) ဟု
2 2
( a – 3b )( a + 3b ) = a – 9b မွားမေရးမိရန္ အထူးသတိထားပါ။
2 2
a – 9b is a factor of f ( x )

a2 + 2b2
a2 – 9b2 a4 – 7a2b2 – 18b4
a4 – 9a2b2
2a2b2 – 18b2
2a2b – 18b2
0

 f ( a ) = ( a2 + 2b2 )( a + 3b )( a – 3b )
Ans; k = – 18 , f ( a ) = ( a2 + 2b2 )( a + 3b )( a – 3b )

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26. If x – k is a factor of the expression kx3 + 5x2 – 7kx – 8 , where k is a positive integer, find the
numerical value of k. Hence find the other factors of the expression.

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ေပးခ်က္  x – k is a factor of kx3 + 5x2 – 7kx – 8 , k is a positive integer


ေမးခ်က္  k = ? , the other factors of the expression.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = kx3 + 5x2 – 7kx – 8
x – k is a factor of f ( x ).
f(k)=0
k( k )3 + 5( k )2 – 7k( k ) – 8 = 0
k4 + 5k2 – 7k2 – 8 = 0
k4 – 2k2 – 8 = 0
( k2 + 2 )( k2 – 4 )= 0
k2 – 4 = 0 ( or ) k2 + 2 = 0
k2 = 4 ( or ) k2 = – 2 ( impossible )
k=±2
k>0
k=2
 f ( x ) = 2x3 + 5x2 – 14x – 8 and x – 2 is a factor of f ( x ).

2x2 + 9x + 4
x–2
2x3 + 5x2 – 14x – 8
2x3 – 4x2
9x2 – 14x
9x2 – 18x
4x – 8
4x – 8
0

f ( x ) = ( x – 2 )( 2x2 + 9x + 4 ) = ( x – 2 )( 2x + 1 )( x + 1 )
The other factors are ( 2x + 1 ) and ( x + 1 )
Ans; k = 2 , the other factors are x+4 and 2x+1

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27. If f ( x ) = 2x4 + x3 – ax2 + bx + a + b – 1 has factors x – 2 and x + 3 , find the constants a and b.
Hence factorize f ( x ) completely. ( or )
Given that x2 + x – 6 is a factors of 2x4 + x3 – ax2 + bx + a + b – 1. Find the values of a and b.

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ေပးခ်က္  f ( x ) = 2x4 + x3 – ax2 + bx + a + b – 1 has factors x – 2 and x + 3 ( or )


x2 + x – 6 is a factors of 2x4 + x3 – ax2 + bx + a + b – 1
ေမးခ်က္  the values of a and b.
Solution
f ( x ) = 2x4 + x3 – ax2 + bx + a + b – 1
x – 2 and x + 3 are factors of f( x ).
 f ( 2 ) = 0 and f (– 3 ) = 0
f(2)=0
2( 2 )4 + ( 2 )3 – a( 2 )2 + b( 2 ) + a + b – 1 = 0
32 + 8 – 4a + 2b + a + b – 1 = 0
– 3a + 3b + 39 = 0
– 3a + 3b = – 39
– a + b = – 13  ( 1 )
f (– 3 ) = 0
2(– 3 )4 + (– 3 )3 – a(– 3 )2 + b(– 3 ) + a + b – 1 = 0
162 – 27 – 9a – 3b + a + b – 1 = 0
134 – 8a – 2b = 0
8a + 2b = 134
4a + b = 67  ( 2 )
(– ) – a + b = – 13  ( 1 )
5a = 80
a = 16 in eq ( 1 )
– a + b = – 13
b = – 13 + a = – 13 + 16 = 3
if a = 16 , b – 3 ,
f ( x ) = 2x4 + x3 – 16x2 + 3x + 16 + 3 – 1
f ( x ) = 2x4 + x3 – 16x2 + 3x + 18
( x – 2 )( x + 3 ) = x2 + x – 6
x2 + x – 6 is a factor of f( x ).

2x2 + x – 3
x2 + x – 6 2x4 + x3 – 16x2 + 3x + 18
2x4 + 2x3 – 12x2
– x3 – 4x2 + 3x
– x3 – x2 + 6x
– 3x2 – 3x + 18
– 3x2 – 3x + 18
0

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 f ( x ) = ( x – 2 )( x + 3 )( 2x2 + x – 3 )
= ( x – 2 )( 2x – 3 )( x + 1 )( x + 3 )
Ans; a = 16 , b = 3 , f ( x ) = ( x – 2 )( 2x – 3 )( x + 1 )( x + 3 )

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1
28. The equation 6x3 + px2 = qx – 10 has roots x = 2 and x = .Find the values of the constants p and q
2
and the third root.

1
ေပးခ်က္  6x3 + px2 = qx – 10 has roots x = 2 and x = .
2
ေမးခ်က္  the values of the constants p and q and the third root
Solution
6x3 + px2 = qx – 10
6x3 + px2 – qx + 10 = 0
Let f ( x ) = 6x3 + px2 – qx + 10
1
x = 2 and x = are roots f ( x ) = 0 root တန္ဖိုးေပးထားရင္ တန္း အစားသြင္း
2
( သို႕ )
( x – 2 ) and ( 2x – 1 ) are factors of f ( x ).
1
 f ( 2 ) = 0 and f ( )=0
2
f(2)=0
6( 2 )3 + p( 2 )2 – q( 2 ) + 10 = 0
48 + 4p – 2q + 10 = 0
4p – 2q = – 58
2p – q = – 29  ( 1 ) တစ္တန္းလုံးအား 8 ျဖင့္ ေျမွာက္ပါ။
1
f( )=0
2
1 3 1 2 1
6( ) + p( ) – q( ) + 10 = 0
2 2 2
1 1 1
6( ) + p( ) – q( ) + 10 = 0 တစ္တန္းလုံးအား 8 ျဖင့္ ေျမွာက္ပါ။
8 4 2
6 + 2p – 4q + 80 = 0
2p – 4q = – 86
Eq ( 1 ) x 2  4p – 2q = – 58
(–) p – 2q = – 43  ( 2 )
3p = – 15
p = – 5 in Eq ( 1 )
2( – 5 ) – q = – 29
– 10 – q = – 29
q = – 19

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f ( x ) = 6x3 – 5x2 + 19x + 10


( x – 2 )( 2x – 1 ) = 2x2 – 5x + 2
2x2 – 5x + 2 is a factor of f ( x ).

3x – 5
3x – 5 = 0
2x2 – 5x + 2 6x3 – 5x2 + 19x + 10
3x = 5
3 2
6x – 15x + 6x 5
x =
– 10x2 + 25x + 10 3

– 10x3 + 25x + 10
0
5
 The third root =
3
5
Ans; p = – 5 , q = 19 , The third root = –
3
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29. If x4 + px3 + qx2 – 16x – 12 has factors x – 2 and x + 1 , find the constants p and q and the
remaining factors.

ေပးခ်က္  x4 + px3 + qx2 – 16x – 12 has factors x – 2 and x + 1 ,


ေမးခ်က္  the constants p and q and the remaining factors

Solution
Let f ( x ) = x4 + px3 + qx2 – 16x – 12
x – 2 and x + 1 are the factors of f ( x ).
f ( 2 ) = 0 and f ( – 1 ) = 0
f(2)=0
( 2 )4 + p( 2 )3 + q( 2 )2 – 16( 2 ) – 12 = 0
16 + 8p + 4q – 32 – 12 = 0
16 + 8p + 4q – 44 = 0
8p + 4q – 28 = 0
8p + 4q = 28
2p + q = 7  ( 1 )
f ( – 1) = 0
( – 1)4 + p( – 1)3 + q( – 1)2 – 16( – 1) – 12 = 0
1 – p + q + 16 – 12 = 0
–p+q+5=0
p–q= 5 (2)
(–) 2p + q = 7  ( 1 )
3p = 12

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p = 4 in Eq ( 2 )
4–q = 5
q = –1
f ( x ) = x4 + 4x3 – x2 – 16x – 12
( x – 2 )( x + 1 ) = x2 – x – 2
x2 – x – 2 is a factors of f ( x ).

x2 + 5x + 6
x2 – x – 2 x4 + 4x3 – x2 – 16x – 12
x4 – x3 – 2x2
5x3 + x2 – 16x
5x3 – 5x2 – 10x
6x2 – 6x – 12
6x2 – 6x – 12
0
f ( x ) = ( x – 2 )( x + 1 )( x2 + 5x + 6 )
= ( x – 2 )( x + 1 )( x + 2 )( x + 3 )
The remaining factors are x + 2 and x + 3
Ans; p = 4 , q = – 1 , The remaining factors are x + 2 and x + 3

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30. Given that the expression ( b – a )x2 – x – ab is divisible by x + 2 and x – 3, find the values of a
and b.
ေပးခ်က္  ( b – a )x2 – x – ab is divisible by x + 2 and x – 3,
ေမးခ်က္  the values of a and b.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = ( b – a )x2 – x – ab
x + 2 and x – 3 are the factors of f ( x ).
 f (– 2 ) = 0 and f ( 3 ) = 0
f (– 2 ) = 0
( b – a ) (– 2 )2 – (– 2 ) – ab = 0
4( b – a ) + 2 – ab = 0
4( b – a ) + 2 = ab
f(3)=0
( b – a ) ( 3 )2 – ( 3 ) – ab = 0
9( b – a ) – 3 – ab = 0
9( b – a ) – 3 = ab
 4( b – a ) + 2 = 9( b – a ) – 3
2 + 3 = 9( b – a ) – 4( b – a )

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5( b – a ) = 5
b–a=1
 a = b – 1 in Eq ( 1 )
4( b – a ) + 2 = ab
4+2=(b–1)b
6 = b2 – b
b2 – b – 6 = 0
( b + 2 )( b – 3 ) = 0
b + 2 = 0 ( or ) b – 3 = 0
b = – 2 ( or ) b = 3
if b = – 2 , a = – 2 – 1 = – 3
if b = 3 , a = 3 – 1 = 2
Ans; a = – 3 and b = – 2 or a = 2 and b = 3

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****
31. If x2 – 5x + 6 is a factor of the polynomial f ( x ) = x3 + ax2 + ( a2 – 25 )x – 6 , find a .

ေပးခ်က္  x2 – 5x + 6 is a factor of the polynomial f ( x ) = x 3 + ax2 + ( a2 – 25 )x – 6 ,


ေမးခ်က္  a = ?
Solution
f ( x ) = x3 + ax2 + ( a2 – 25 )x – 6
x2 – 5x + 6 is a factor of f ( x ).
x – 2 and x – 3 are the factors of f ( x )
 f ( 2 ) = 0 and f ( 3 ) = 0
f(2)=0
( 2 )3 + a( 2 )2 + ( a2 – 25 )2 – 6 = 0
8 + 4a + 2a2 – 50 – 6 = 0
2a2 + 4a – 48 = 0
a2 + 2a – 24 = 0
( a + 6 )( a – 4 )= 0
a + 6 = 0 ( or ) a – 4 = 0
a = – 6 ( or ) a = 4

f(3)=0
( 3 )3 + a( 3 )2 + ( a2 – 25 )3 – 6 = 0
27 + 9a + 3a2 – 75 – 6 = 0
3a2 + 9a – 54 = 0
a2 + 3a – 18 = 0

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( a + 6 )( a – 3 )= 0
a + 6 = 0 ( or ) a – 3 = 0
a = – 6 ( or ) a = 3
a=3
Ans; a = – 6

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32. Given f ( x ) = 2x3 + ax2 – 7a2x – 6a3 , determine whether or not x – a and x + a are factors of f ( x ).
Hence , find the roots of f ( x ) = 0 in term of a.
2013 ဧရာှတီ ( No 6 ) / 2005 ပဲခူး ( No 89 )
ေပးခ်က္  f ( x ) = 2x3 + ax2 – 7a2x – 6a3 ,
ေမးခ်က္  whether or not x – a and x + a are factors of f ( x ) , the roots of f ( x ) = 0 in term of a.
Solution
f ( x ) = 2x3 + ax2 – 7a2x – 6a3
f ( a ) = 2( a )3 + a( a )2 – 7a2( a ) – 6a3
= 2a3 + a3 – 7a3 – 6a3 = 3a3 – 13a3 ≠ 0
( x – a ) is not a factor of f ( x ).
f ( – a ) = 2( – a )3 + a( – a )2 – 7a2( – a ) – 6a3
= – 2a3 + a3 + 7a3 – 6a3 = 8a3 – 8a3 = 0
( x + a ) is a factor of f ( x ).

2x2 – ax – 6a3
x+a
2x3 + ax2 – 7a2x – 6a3
2x3 + 2ax2
– ax2 – 7a2x
– ax3 – a2x
– 6a2x – 6a3
– 6a2x – 6a3
0

f(x)=0
2x3 + ax2 – 7a2x – 6a3 = 0
( x + a )( 2x2 – ax – 6a3 ) = 0
( x + a )( 2x + 3a )( x – 2a ) = 0
x + a = 0 ( or ) 2x + 3a = 0 ( or ) x – 2a = 0
3𝑎
x = – a ( or ) x = ( or ) x = 2a
2
3𝑎
the three roots are – a , and 2a.
2

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3𝑎 3𝑎
Ans; x = – a , x = and x = 2a , the three roots are – a , and 2a.
2 2
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33. Let F ( x ) = f ( x ) + g ( x ). If ( x – 2 ) is a common factor of both f ( x ) and g ( x ) then show that
( x – 2 ) is also a factor of F (x ).

ေပးခ်က္  F ( x ) = f ( x ) + g ( x )
x – 2 is a common factor of f ( x ) and g ( x )
ေမးခ်က္  Show that ( x – 2 ) is also a factor of F (x ).

Solution
F(x)=f(x)+g(x)
x – 2 is a common factor of f ( x ) and g ( x )
f(2)=0,g(2)=0
F(2)=f(2)+g(2)=0+0=0
( x – 2 ) is also a factor of F (x ).

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****
34. f ( x ) = 2x3 + px2 + qx – 20 , where p and q are constants . Given that x + 2 is a factor of f ( x ) and
that x + 2 is also a factor of f ’ ( x ) , find the values of p and q.

ေပးခ်က္  f ( x ) = 2x3 + px2 + qx – 20 , where p and q are constants


x + 2 is a factor of f ( x ) and x + 2 is also a factor of f ’ ( x )
ေမးခ်က္  the values of p and q.

ဤပုစာၦသည္ အခန္း ဿ၀ သင္ျပီးမွ တြက္တတ္မည့္ပုစာၦ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ f အေပၚတြင္ ( ’ ) သေကၤတေလး တင္ေရး


ထားျခင္းကို ဖန္ရွင္ f အား derivative လုပ္ခိုင္းျခင္းဟု နားလည္ထားရမည္ျဖစ္ျပီး ဤသို႔လုပ္ခိုင္းပါက ဖန္ရွင္ f ရွိ
ကိန္းရွင္ x တစ္ခုခ်င္းစီရွိ ထပ္ညႊန္းတန္ဖိုးအား x ေရွ႕ရွိ ေျမွာက္ေဖာ္ကိန္းအား ေျမွာက္ေပး၍ x အား ထပ္ညႊန္း ‘1’
ေလ်ွာ့ ျပန္ေရးေပးရမည္။ ( ကိန္းလုံးတစ္လုံးခ်င္းစီအား ပါှါေရွ႕ခ် ပါှါ ‘တစ္’ေလ်ွာ့ျပန္ေရး )
ကိ္န္းရွင္ x မပါေသာ ကိ္န္းလုံးမ်ားအား 0 ယူရမည္။

Solution
f ( x ) = 2x3 + px2 + qx – 20
 f’( x ) = 6x2 + 2px + q + 0 = 6x2 + 2px + q

x + 2 is a factor of f ( x ) and f ’( x )

 f ( – 2 ) = 0 and f’( – 2 ) = 0
f(–2)=0

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2( – 2 )3 + p( – 2 )2 + q( – 2 ) – 20 = 0
– 16 + 4p – 2q – 20 = 0
4p – 2q – 36 = 0
4p – 2q = 36
2p – q = 18  ( 1 )
f’( – 2 ) = 0

6( – 2 )2 + 2p( – 2 ) + q = 0
24 – 4p + q = 0
– 4p + q = – 24  ( 2 )

– 4p + q = – 24  ( 2 )
(+) 2p – q = 18  ( 1 )
– 2p = –6
p = 3 in Eq ( 2 )
2( 3 ) – q = 18
q = – 12
Ans; p = 3 , q = – 12

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35. Given that x + 5 is a common factor of x 3 + px2 – qx + 15 and x3 – x2 – ( q + 5 )x + 40. Find the
values of p and q . Hence factorize x3 + px2 – qx + 15 completely.

ေပးခ်က္  x + 5 is a common factor of x3 + px2 – qx + 15 and x3 – x2 – ( q + 5 )x + 40.


ေမးခ်က္  the values of p and q , factorize x3 + px2 – qx + 15 completely.
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 + px2 – qx + 15
g ( x ) = x3 – x2 – ( q + 5 )x + 40.
x + 5 is a common factor of f ( x ) and g ( x ).
 f ( – 5 ) = 0 and g ( – 5 ) = 0
f(–5)=0
( – 5 )3 + p ( – 5 )2 – q ( – 5 ) + 15 = 0
– 125 + 25p + 5q + 15 = 0
– 110 + 25p + 5q = 0
25p + 5q = 110
5p + q = 22  ( 1 )
g(x)=0
( – 5 )3 – ( – 5 )2 – ( q + 5 ) ( – 5 ) + 40 = 0
– 125 – 25 + 5q + 25 + 40 = 0
5q – 85 = 0

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5q = 85
q = 17 in Eq ( 1 )
5p + 17 = 22
5p = 5
p=1
 x3 + px2 – qx + 15 = x3 + x2 – 17x + 15

x2 – 4x + 3
x+5
x3 + x2 – 17x + 15
x3 + 5x2
– 4x2 – 17x
– 4x2 – 20x
3x + 15
3x + 15
0

x3 + x2 – 17x + 15 = ( x + 5 )( x2 – 4x + 3 ) = ( x + 5 )( x – 1 )( x – 3 )
Ans; p = 1 , q = 17 , f ( x ) = ( x + 5 )( x – 1 )( x – 3 )

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36. Given that x –  is a common factor of x2 – 5x + k and x2 – 6x + 3k where k ≠ 0, Find the numerical
values of .

ေပးခ်က္  x –  is a common factor of x2 – 5x + k and x2 – 6x + 3k where k ≠ 0,


ေမးခ်က္  the numerical values of 
Solution
Let f ( x ) = x2 – 5x + k
g ( x ) = x2 – 6x + 3k
x–  is a common factor of f ( x ) and g ( x ).
 f (  ) = 0 and g ( ) = 0
(  )2 – 5(  ) + k = 0  ( 1 )
(  )2 – 6(  ) + 3k = 0
f (  ) = g ( )
(  )2 – 5(  ) + k = (  )2 – 6(  ) + 3k
6 – 5 = 3k – k
 = 2k

k= in Eq ( 1 )
2

(  )2 – 5(  ) + =0
2

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22 – 10 + =0


22 – 9 = 0
 (2 – 9 ) = 0
k≠0,≠0
 2 – 9 = 0
9
=
2
9
Ans; =
2
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38. The expression ax2 + bx – 1 leaves remainder of R when divided by x + 2 and a remainder of 3R + 5
when divided by x – 3. Show that a = 3b – 1 . Given also that the expression is exactly divisible by 2x – 1,
evaluate a and b.
( or )
The expression ax2 + bx – 1 leaves remainder of R when divided by x + 2 and a remainder of 3R + 5 when
divided by x – 3. Show that a – 3b + 1 = 0
( or )
The remainder when the expression ax2 + bx – 1 is divided by x + 2 is 5 more than three time of the
remainder when it is diided by x – 3. Show that a = 3b – 1 . Given also that the expression is exactly
divisible by 2x – 1, evaluate a and b.

ေပးခ်က္  ax2 + bx – 1 leaves remainder of R when divided by x + 2 and a remainder of 3R + 5 when


divided by x – 3. the expression is exactly divisible by 2x – 1,
ေမးခ်က္  Show that a = 3b – 1 , evaluate a and b
Solution
Let f ( x ) = ax2 + bx – 1
When f ( x ) is divided by x + 2 and x – 3 , the remainders are f ( – 2 ) and f ( 3 ).
By given,
f(–2)=R
f ( 3 ) = 3R + 5
f ( 3 ) = 3f( – 2 ) + 5
a( 3 )2 + b( 3 ) – 1 = 3 (a( – 2 )2 + b( – 2 ) – 1) + 5
9a + 3b – 1 = 3 ( 4a – 2b – 1 ) + 5
9a + 3b = 12a – 6b – 3 + 6 = 12a – 6b + 3
9a + 3b = 12a – 6b + 3
6b + 3b – 3 = 12a – 9a
9b – 3 = 3a
a = 3b – 1  ( 1 )
f ( x ) = ( 3b – 1 )x2 + bx – 1

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2x – 1 is a factor of f ( x )
1
f( )=0
2
1 1
( 3b – 1 ) ( )2 + b( ) – 1 = 0
2 2
1 1
( 3b – 1 ) ( ) + b( ) – 1 = 0
4 2
3b – 1 + 2b – 4 = 0
5b – 5 = 0
b = 1 in Eq ( 1 )
a=3–1=2
Ans; a = 2 , b = 1

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39. x + 4 is a factor of f ( x ) = a ( x + 1 ) 2 + b ( x + 1 ) + 9. The remainder when f ( x ) is divided by
x + 3 is – 11. Find the value of a and b. Find also the solution set of the equation f ( x ) = 0.

ေပးခ်က္  x + 4 is a factor of f ( x ) = a ( x + 1 ) 2 + b ( x + 1 ) + 9. The remainder when f ( x )


is divided by x + 3 is – 11.
ေမးခ်က္  Find the value of a and b. Find also the solution set of the equation f ( x ) = 0.
Solution
f ( x ) = a ( x + 1 )2 + b ( x + 1 ) + 9.
x + 4 is a factor of f ( x )
f(–4)=0
a ( – 4 + 1 )2 + b ( – 4 + 1 ) + 9 = 0
a( – 3 )2 + b( – 3 ) + 9 = 0
9a – 3b = – 9
3a – b = – 3  ( 1 )
When f ( x ) is divided by x + 3 , the remainder is f ( – 3 )
f ( – 3 ) = – 11
a ( – 3 + 1 )2 + b ( – 3 + 1 ) + 9 = – 11
a( – 2 )2 + b( – 2 ) = – 20
4a – 2b = – 20
2a – b = – 10  ( 2 )

2a – b = – 10  ( 2 )
(–) 3a – b = – 3  ( 1 )
–a =– 7
a = 7 in Eq ( 1 )
3( 7 ) – b = – 3
b = 24

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f(x)=0
7( x + 1 )2 + 24( x + 1 ) + 9 = 0
7( x2 + 2x + 1 ) + 24x + 24 + 9 = 0
7x2 + 14x + 7 + 24x + 33 = 0
7x2 + 38x + 40 = 0
( 7x + 10 )( x + 4 ) = 0
10
x=– , x=–4
7
10
 The solution set = { – 4, – }
7
10
Ans; a = 7 , b = 24 , The solution set = { – 4, – }
7
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40. If x + 2 is a factor of x3 – ax – 6 , then find the remainder when 2x3 + ax2 – 6x + 9 is divided by
( x + 1 ).

ေပးခ်က္  x + 2 is a factor of x3 – ax – 6 ,
ေမးခ်က္  the remainder when 2x3 + ax2 – 6x + 9 is dividedby ( x + 1 )
Solution
Let f( x ) = x3 – ax – 6
x + 2 is a factor of f( x )
f( – 2 ) = 0
( – 2 )3 – a ( – 2 ) – 6 = 0
– 8 + 2a – 6 = 0
2a – 14 = 0
2a = 14
a=7
 2x3 + ax2 – 6x + 9 = 2x3 + 7x2 – 6x + 9
Let g ( x ) = 2x3 + 7x2 – 6x + 9
When g ( x ) is divided by ( x + 1 ) , the remainder = g ( – 1 )
= 2 ( – 1 )3 + 7 ( – 1 )2 – 6 ( – 1 ) + 9
= – 2 + 7 + 6 + 9 = 20
Ans; a = 7 , The remainder = 20
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41. The polynomial 2ax3 + 2bx2 – 5x + 4a is exactly divisible by x2 – 3x – 4. Calculate the values of a
and b. What is the remainder when it is divided by x – 5 ?

ေပးခ်က္  2ax3 + 2bx2 – 5x + 4a is exactly divisible by x2 – 3x – 4.


ေမးခ်က္  the values of a and b , the remainder when it is divided by x – 5 ?

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Solution
Let f ( x ) = 2ax3 + 2bx2 – 5x + 4a
x2 – 3x – 4 is a factor of f ( x )
( x + 1 ) and ( x – 4 ) are the factors of f ( x ).
f(–1)=0
2a ( – 1 )3 + 2b ( – 1 )2 – 5 ( – 1 ) + 4a = 0
– 2a + 2b + 5 + 4a = 0
2a + 2b = – 5  ( 1 )
f(4)=0
2a ( 4 )3 + 2b ( 4 )2 – 5 ( 4 ) + 4a = 0 ( တစ္တန္းလုံးအား 4 ျဖင့္ စားပါ၊ )
2a ( 4 )2 + 2b ( 4 ) – 5 + a = 0
32a + 8b + a = 5
33a + 8b = 5  ( 2 )

33a + 8b = 5 (2)
(–) 8a + 8b = – 20  Eq ( 1 ) x 4
25a = 25
a = 1 in Eq ( 1 )
2 + 2b = – 5
2b = – 7
7
b=–
2
7
f ( x ) = 2x3 + 2 (– )x2 – 5x + 4 = 2x3 – 7x2 – 5x + 4
2
When f( x ) is divided by ( x – 5 ) , the remainder = f( 5 )
= 2 ( 5 )3 – 7( 5 )2 – 5 ( 5 ) + 4
= 2 ( 125 ) – 175 – 25 + 4
= 54
7
Ans; a = 1 , b = – , The remainder = 54
2
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42. The expression x3 + 3ax2 + 5x + 4b has a factor x – 4 but leaves a remainder of 12 when divided by
x – 5. Find the values of a and b. Factorize the expression compltely.
Ans; a = – 2 , b = 3 , f ( x ) = ( x – 4 )( x – 3 )( x + 1 )
2009 စစ္ကိုင္း၊ခ်င္း ( No 46 )

ေပးခ်က္  x3 + 3ax2 + 5x + 4b has a factor x – 4 but leaves a remainder of 12 when divided by x – 5


ေမးခ်က္  the values of a and b. Factorize the expression compltely.

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Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 + 3ax2 + 5x + 4b
x – 4 is a factor of f ( x ).
f(4)=0
( 4 )3 + 3a( 4 )2 + 5( 4 ) + 4b = 0
64 + 48a + 20 + 4b = 0
48a + 4b = – 84
12a + b = – 21  ( 1 )
When f ( x ) is divided by x – 5 , the remainder = f ( 5 )
f ( 5 ) = 12
( 5 )3 + 3a( 5 )2 + 5( 5 ) + 4b = 12
125 + 75a + 25 + 4b = 12
75a + 4b = 12 – 150
75a + 4b = – 138  ( 2 )
(–) 48a + 4b = – 84  Eq ( 1 ) x 4
27a = – 54
a = – 2 in Eq ( 1 )
12( – 2 ) + b = – 21
b – 24 = – 21
b = 24 – 21 = 3
f ( x ) = x3 – 6x2 + 5x + 12

x2 – 4x – 3
x–4
x3 – 6x2 + 5x + 12
x3 – 4x2
– 2x2 – 5x
– 2x2 – 8x
– 3x + 12
– 3x + 12
0

f ( x ) = ( x – 4 )( x2 – 4x – 3 ) = ( x – 4 )( x – 3 )( x + 1 )

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43. The expression 2x3 + bx2 – cx + d leaves the same remainders when divided by x – 1 or x + 2 or
2x – 1. Evaluate b and c. Given also that the expression is exactly divisible by x – 2 , evaluate d.

ေပးခ်က္  2x3 + bx2 – cx + d leaves the same remainders when divided by x – 1 or x + 2 or 2x – 1.


the expression is exactly divisible by x – 2

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ေမးခ်က္  Evaluate b and c , evaluate d.

Solution
Let f (x ) = 2x3 + bx2 – cx + d
1
When f ( x ) is divided by x – 1 , x + 2 and 2x – 1. the remainders are f ( 1 ) , f ( – 2 ) and f ( )
2
By given ,
1
f(1)=f(–2)=f( )
2
f(1)=f(–2)
2( 1 )3 + b( 1 )2 – c( 1 ) + d = 2( – 2 )3 + b( – 2 )2 – c( – 2 ) + d
2 + b – c = – 16 + 4b + 2c
3b + 3c = 18
b+c=6(1)
1
f(–2)=f( )
2
1 1 1
2( – 2 )3 + b( – 2 )2 – c( – 2 ) + d = 2( )3 + b( )2 – c( ) + d
2 2 2
1 1 1
– 16 + 4b + 2c = ( ) + b( ) – c( )
4 4 2
– 64 + 16b + 8c = 1 + b – 2c
15b + 10b = 65
3b + 2b = 13  ( 2 )
3b + 2b = 13  ( 2 )
(–) 2b + 2c = 12  Eq ( 1 ) x 2
b = 1 in Eq ( 1 )
1 +c =6
c =5
 f (x ) = 2x3 + x2 – 5x + d
( x – 2 ) is a factor of f ( x )
f(2)=0
2( 2 )3 + ( 2 )2 – 5( 2 ) + d = 0
16 + 4 – 10 + d = 0
d = – 10
Ans; b = 1 , c = 5 , d = – 10

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44. Given that the expression x3 + ax2 + bx + c leaves the same remainder when divided by x – 1 or
x + 2, prove that a = b + 3 . Given also that the remainder is 3 when the expression is divided by
x + 1. Calculate the value of c.

ေပးခ်က္  x3 + ax2 + bx + c leaves the same remainder when divided by x – 1 or x + 2 ,


the remainder is 3 when the expression is divided by x + 1.

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ေမးခ်က္  prove that a = b + 3


Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 + ax2 + bx + c
When f ( x ) is divided by x – 1 and x + 2 , the remainders are f ( 1 ) and f ( – 2 ).
By given,
f ( 1 ) = f ( – 2 ).
1 + a + b + c = ( – 2 )3 + a( – 2 )2 + b( – 2 ) + c
1 + a + b = – 8 + 4a – 2b
3a = 9 + 3b
a=b+3
f ( x ) = x3 + ( b + 3 )x2 + bx + c
When f( x ) is divided by x + 1 , the remainder = f ( – 1 )
f(–1)=3
( – 1 )3 + ( b + 3 ) ( – 1 )2 + b( – 1 ) + c = 3
–1+b+3–b+c=3
–1+c=0
c= 1
Ans; c = 1

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45. Given that x3 + 4x2 – ax + b is exactly divisible by x + 2 , but leave a remainder a3 when divided by
x – a, calculate the values of a and b.

ေပးခ်က္  x3 + 4x2 – ax + b is exactly divisible by x + 2 , but leave a remainder a3 when divided by


x – a,
ေမးခ်က္  the values of a and b

Solution
Let f ( x ) = x3 + 4x2 – ax + b
x + 2 is a factor of f ( x ).
f(–2)=0
( – 2 )3 + 4( – 2 )2 – a( – 2 ) + b = 0
– 8 + 16 + 2a + b = 0
2a + b = – 8  ( 1 )
When f ( x ) is divided by x – a, the remainder is f ( a )
f ( a ) = a3
a3 + 4a2 – a2 + b = a3
3a2 + b = 0
b = – 3a2 in Eq ( 1 )

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2a – 3a2 = – 8
3a2 – 2a – 8 = 0
(3a+4)(a–2)=0
4
a=– ( or ) a = 2
3

4 4 16
if a = – , b = – 3a2 = – 3( – )2=–
3 3 3

If a = 2 , b = – 3a2 = – 3( 2 ) 2 = – 12

4 16
Ans; a = – ,b=– or a = 2 , b = – 12
3 3
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