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General Statement
Mogok Series
Monglong Schist
Chaungmagyi Group
General Statement
Southern Shan State Representatives
Molohein Group
Northern Shan State Representatives
Bawdwin Volcanics
General Statement
Northern Shan State Representatives
Naungkangyi Group
Thayaukmyaung Formation
Kyaingtaung Formation
Southern Shan State Representatives
Pindaya Group
Lokepyin Formation
Wunbye Formation
Nan-on Formation
General Statement
Southern Shan State Representatives
Mibyataung Group
Linwe Formation
Wabya Formation
Northern Shan State Representatives
Nyaungbaw Limestone
Pang-nsa-pye Formation
Namshin Sandstone
General Statement
Zebyingyi Formation
Padaukpin Reef
General Statement
Kawsong Area
Tavoy Area
Taungnyo Range
Lebyin Area
General Statement
Thitsipin Limestone
Moulmein Limestone
Nwabangyi Dolomite
General Statement
Natteik Limestone
Napeng Formation
Kamawkala Limestone
Triassic Rocks of Western Burma
General Statement
Tati Limestone
Hsibaw Redbeds
Ma-u-bin Formation
Inbyin/ Loi-an Formation
Kyaukan Taung Formation
Red Sandstones of Karen State
General Statement
Patchaung Volcanics
Telu Limestone
Kalaw Conglomerate
Cretaceous Rocks of Upper Irrawaddy Province
Cretaceous Rocks of Northern part of Central Burma
Mawlin Formation
Namakauk Limestone

Nankholon Formation
Cretaceous Rocks of Western Ranges, Eastern Belt
Paung Chaung Limestone
Phaunggyi Fomration
Cretaceous Rocks of Western Ranges, Western Belt
Falam Formation
General Statement
Paleocene-Eocene Rocks of the Western Belt of Western Ranges
Chunsung Formation
Kenedy Sandstone
Western Belt of Aakan Yoma
Coastal Unit
Central Range Unit
Modi-taung Unit
Paleocene-Eocene Rocks of the Central Burma Lowlands
Upper Phaunggyi Formation
Laungshe Formation
Tilin Formation
Tabyin Formation
Youngale Formation
Pondaung Formation
Yaw Formation
Eocene Units of Central Burma Arc
Mansigale Group
Kangon Formation
Ketpanda Formation
Kawdaw Dacite
Wabo Chaung Formation
Oligocene-Miocene sequence of Central Lowlands
Pegu Group of Minbu Basin
Oligocene Sequence
Shwezettaw Formation
Padaung Formation
Okhmintaung Formation
Miocene Sequence
Pyawbwe Formation
Kyaukkok Formation
Obogon Formation
Delta Basin
Sitsayan Shale
Prome Sandstone
Migyaungya Stage
Chindwin and Hukaung Basins
Letkat Formation
Thitchauk Conglomerate Member
Nwa Taung Sandstone Member
Kalewa Formation
Shwethamin Formation
Eastern Trough of the Central Lowlands
Pegu Yoma Basin
The Scarp Unit
Lower Mudstone Unit
The Sandstone Unit
Yoma Unit
Shwebo-Monywa Plain
Shinmataung Formation
Thayetpingan Sandstone and Shale Unit
Taungya Shale
Red Sandstone
Late Tertiary Deposits of Eastern Highlands
Northern Shan State
Southern Shan State
Karen State and Tenasserim Region
Tavoy Area
Mergui Area
Oil/ Shales of Karen State
The oil shale unit
Late Miocene-Pliocene Sequence
Irrawaddy Formation
Upper Tertiary Units
Coastal Lowlands of Arakan
General Statement
Plateau Gravels or Plateau Red Earth
Pre-Paleozoic and Paleozoic Igneous Rocks
Bawdwin Volcanics
Taung Peng Granite
Mesozoic and Cenozoic Igneous Rocks
Pillow lavas, ultrabasic rocks and gabbro
Tagaung-Myitkyina Belt
Central Burma Volcanic Arc
The Plutonic Rocks in Eastern Highlands
High-angle Faults
Saggaing Fault System
Shan Scarp Fault
Payathonsu Fault
Momeik Fault
Thrust Faults
Shan Scarp Thrust Zone
Thrust Faults in Western Ranges

List of Figures

1. Regional geogical setting and major morphological features of Burma, dots – areas of
similar Paleozoic to early Mesozoic stratigraphic units; v – late Cenozoic volcanoes of Burma-
Sunda Arc; heavy black lines and solid teeth – Quaternary plate boundaries; broken lines –
inactive plate boundaries; hollow teeth – late Cretaceous to Tertiary thrusts; UIP – Upper
Irrawaddy Province ……..

2. Structural units, localities and major faults. (horizontal ruling) – Indoburman Ranges;
(oblique ruling) – Eastern Highland ; dots – UIP – Upper Irrawaddy Province; unruled area –
Central Lowlands; solid saw teeth – thrusts (teeth on upper plate); solid lines – high – angle
faults; small cross – volcanic arc; thin lines – boundaries of structural belts

3. Stratigraphic Correlation - Eastern Highlands and Neighbouring Countries .....................

4. Stratigraphic Correlations – Western Ranges; Central Lowlands, Eastern


5. Simplified cross-section of Chin Hills and Western Trough ……………………………....

6. Simplified cross-section of Volcanic Arc and Katha-Gangaw Range ……………………..

7. Simplified cross-section, southern part of Mogok Belt and Shan Scarps …………………

The geological information on Burma was collected in the pre-War days mainly by the
geologists of the Geological Survey of India which was founded in 1855. A considerable share of
contributions, especially for central Burma, was also made by the geologists of the Burmah Oil
Company and the staff of the small department of Geology and Geography of the Rangoon
University. The data collected upto 1934 was compiled by the late H.L Chhibber, then a lecturer
in the department of Geology and Geography of the Rangoon University. Chhibber‘s two well
know books ―The Geology of Burma‖ and ―The Mineral Resources of Burma‖ have been out of
print for some time.

In 1956-59 the late Sir Edwin Pascoe, formerly a geologist and later the director of the
Geological Survey of India, and perhaps one of the most competent persons to do the job,
compiled the geological data on India and Burma, gathered up to the outbreak of the Second
World War, in three classic volumes tilted ―The Manual of the Geology of India and Burma‖.
However Sir Edwin‘s compilation contains only the basic geological data and perhaps Sir Edwin
passes away before he could get to the next leg of his task, the compilation of the economic
geology of India and Burma the task that he could have accomplished no less outstandingly than
his previous three volumes.

A considerable wealth of new geological data on Burma was also gathered mainly
through the efforts the geologists of the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral
Exploration, Myanma Oil Corporation and the Geology Departments of Rangoon and Mandalay
Universities, in the post Independence era. However, due to lack of publication media, most of
the data, except those published wide-scatteredly abroad by foreign experts could not get to the
public and were largely locked up in the form of departmental records at various governmental
organizations and as theses at the universities. As such there is an imminent need for compiling
the widely-scattered geological information on Burma into a comprehensive and coherent from.
This task was recently assigned to the Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration
by the Ministry of Mines. The present compilation is the result of this assignment. It was based
mainly on the published information from other organization and the unpublished data from the
Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration and it is fervently hoped that it all
most that the need at least for a while before a thoroughly comprehensive compilation of the data
from the departmental records of other organizations could be achieved. The DGSE is also
preparing a volume on the Mineral Resources of Burma.

July 1982 Field Division



Since the publication in 1934 of ―The Geology of Burma‖ and ―The Mineral Resources
of Burma‖ both by Chhibber, the most notable publications were the three volumes of the ―The
Manual of Geology of India and Burma‖ by Sir Edwin Pascoe. This work has summed up the
progress of geological science in India and Burma up to out break of the Second World War and
has served as a major source of reference. But a considerable wealth of new geological data have
been gathered from post-War geological mapping, especially in the last decade. However, due to
lack of publication media, except for a few published aboard by foreigners, most of them could
never get to the public and were locked up in the form of departmental records at various
governmental organizations. Several significant geological research papers have appeared
through the Burma Research Congress, held annually since 1966. Unfortunately these papers too
mostly could not find their way to publication.

Department of Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration (DGSE) has carried out
systematic geological mapping throughout Burma, mostly in the western part of Eastern
Highlands, the volcanic arc of Central Lowlands and Arakan Yoma and Chin Hills both
independently and in co-orperation with the personnel from UNDP and Colombo Plan. This
work by D.G.S.E during the Second and Third Four Year Plans has resulted in recognition of
new structural belts and yielded significant modifications to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic
stratigraphy of eastern part of Western Ranges and western part of the Central Lowland and
major revisions to the Mesozoic stratigraphy of the western part of Eastern Highlands.

The purpose of this compilation is to describe the stratigraphy of Burma, in a

comprehensive form, in view of new data obtained mostly through the work of D.G.S.E, and also
the post-War contributions of the geologists from various universities and Myanma Oil
Corporation, that are available in published papers and personal communications and findings
during field excursions of National Committee of International Geological Correlation
Programme (I.G.C.P).

Burma can conveniently be divided into five main morphological belts: the Eastern
Highlands, the Central Lowlands, the Indoburman Ranges, the Upper Irrawaddy Province, and
the Arakan Coastal Plain. Each morphological belt comprises one or more structural units, and in
some cases smaller morphological units, some of which continue beyond Burma into Eastern or
Southeast Asia.

The Eastern Highlands and the Mergui Shelf include stratigraphic units of Early
Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic age, similar in lithology to those in northwestern Thailand (Baum 1970) and central western Thailand (Piyasin and Pitakpaivan 1971), southern Thailand
(Javanaphet and Sethaput 1969; Garson, Young, Mitchell and Tait 1976) and western Malaysia
indicating that this region lay on a single continental plate throughout this period. To the north
the Highlands continue through the region of the Yangtse, Mekong and Salween river gorges in
Yunnan, to the Tibetan Plateau. South of the Yunnan gorges, the Mekong Foldbelt of Mesozoic
age (Terman 1973) is bounded in the west by a Cenozoic thrust belt and in the north by the Red
River Fault, interpreted as a Mesozoic continental collision zone (Hamilton 1972) and Late
Cenozoic dextral strike-slip fault (Molnar and Tapponnier 1976). Further north the Kun Lun
Foldbelt includes ophiolitic rocks of Mid-Mesozoic age, and forms a ossible Mesozoic collision
zone between Tibet and Asia (Crawford 1974). It includes major east-trending sinistral
transcurrent faults of Cenozoic age considered to be related to the India-Asia collision (Molnar
and Tapponnier 1976). A belt of metamorphic rocks lying at the western margin of the Eastern
Highlands continues northwestwards along the border between China and India towards the
eastern end of the metamorphic rocks of te Himalayas, south of the Indus-Tsango ‗suture zone‘.

To the southeast in Malaya the margin of the Palaeozoic to Lower Mesozoic structural
unit which includes the Eastern Highlands of Burma lies along the zone of ophiolitic rocks in the
eastern foothills of the Main Range. This zone together with its possible northward continuation
through central Thailand towards easternmost Burma has been interpreted as a belt along which
Upper Triassic continent-arc collision occurred (Mitchell 1976) resulting in the Indosinian
The Indoburman Ranges and Central Lowlands form the northward structural
continuation of the Sunda Arc, related to Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic northeastward subduction
of ocean floor. The Indoburman Ranges continue southwards through the ‗outer arc‘ of the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Mentawai Islands west of Sumatra, to beyond the
Australia-Sunda Arc collision zone in Timor (Carter 1976). The Burma Volcanic Arc within
the Central Lowlands continues southwards through Barren and Narcondam Islands, the Sunda
Mountain Arc of Sumatra (van Bemmelen 1949) and the inactive volcanic islands north of
Timor, to the Banda Arc.

In northernmost Burma adjacent to the northeast Himalayan syntaxis the Naga Hills of
the Indoburman Ranges are separated from the eastern end of the Himalayan arc by the
Brahmaputra valley of northeastern Assam; both arcs are shown by Evans (1964) as terminating
to the northeast beneath a southwesterly-directed overthrust. In the western part of he Naga ills,
Cenozoic flysch-type sediments are thrust northwestwards in a series of nappes onto Upper
Nesozoic and Lower Tertiary shelf sediments overlying Precambrian rocks o the Mikir Hills and
Shillong Plateau, part of the Indian Shield ‗basement‘ o the Foreland Spur wich underlies he
Brahmaputra Valley (Evans 1964). At their northeastern and sedimentary rocks of the southern
margin of the Naga Hills pass into the Kumon Range, forming a tight arc convex to the north.

South of the Central Lowlands the Andaman Sea marginal basin lies between the
Andaman-Nicobar outer arc and the Mergui Shelf. The sea floor comprises a complex of basins,
ridges and seamounts (Rudolfo 1969), and recent geophysical results indicate that these are
related to a small Late Miocene to Recent spreading centre which has generated oceanic – type
crust (Curray et. al).


General Statement

Pre-Cambrian rocks are extensively exposed in the Eastern Highland and Kachin State.
They are found as inliers in the mountainous region, south-east of Lashio and Kyaukme-
Lawntawkno area, Northern Shan State and also found in Myogyi-Lawksawk area and the
ridges, immediate north-west of Ke-his Mansam, Southern Shan State. Most of them underlie the
Palaeozoic and younger rocks with an unconformity while some others are thrusted over the
younger rocks, i.e. south of Taung-gaung, Madaya Township, (Kyaw Win, 1982, D.G.S.E).

Phyllite, chlorite schist and marble exposed between the Salween River and the Pawn
chaung in the eastern part of Kayah State were referred to as the Pawn chaung series and
believed to be of Pro-Cambrian age (Haq and Sarle, 1961).

The term Tawng-Peng System was given by La Touche (1913) to a group of

metasediments and pyroclastic rocks, the age of which appear to range from Pre-Cambrian to
Lower Ordovician. La Touche subdivided the Tawng-Peng System into three series, namely,
Monglong Mica-schists, Chaungmagyi Series, and Bawdwin Volcanic Series in ascending order.
However the Bawdwin Volcanic Series is now believed to be almost undoubtedly of Cambrian
age and regarded as part of Pangyun Formation or of Molohein Group. Maung Thein and Ba
Than Haq (1966) suggestd that the Monglong Mica Schist which La Touche believed to be the
oldest unit, is the metamorphosed Chaungmagyi Series and the subdivision of the Tawng-Peng
System is no longer to be retained and proposed a single term the ―Chaungmagyi Group‖.

The name ―Mogok Gneiss‖ was given by La Touche (1913) to a series of gneiss with
bands of crystalline limestone in the Mogok stone tract. They were regarded by La Touche and
other G.S.I investigators to be the oldest rocks in Burma. But Clegg (1941a) and Searle and Ba
Than Haq (1964) contended that the Mogok Series included metamorphosed sediments the age
of which range from Pre-Cambrian to Cretaceous.

Mogok Series
The term ―Mogok Gneiss‖ was proposed by La Touche (1913) to scapolite-garnet-biotite
gneisses with bands of crystalline limestone, probably of Archean age is the Mogok region,
North-western part of the Eastern Highlands. Later A.K. Benerji (1931) gave the name ―Mogok
Series‖ and classified as follows.

Mogok Series

Acidic gneiss

Syenite and nepheline-bearing rocks

Minor intrusions

According to Banerji the Mogok Series seems to be the oldest and represents highly
metamorphosed group of rocks, partly of sedimentary origin. Although true relationship of the
acid gneisses are not known, they are tentatively regarded as intrusive to the Mogok Series.

Iyer (1953) rearranged the main rock types of the Mogok area as follows.

13. Recent : Alluvium

12. Pleistocene: Raised Terraces near Mogok & Mong-long

11. Basic and Ultrabasic Intrusives: Dolerite, Peridotite, Hornblende-Pyroxene rocks and
hornblende rocks. Hornblede and aegirine-nepheline rocks.

10. Urtite Series: Hornblende-nepheline rocks and aegirine-nepheline rocks.

9. Tourmaline-graninte

8. Kabaing granite: Pegmatites, Aptite, Leptynite, minor intrusions, etc.

7. Syenite: Nepheline Syenites, etc.

6. Augite and hornblende Granite

5. Quartizites (quartz-sillimanite-rock of Nammi)

4. Calc-granulites: Scapolite-gniess and pyroxene granulites.

3. Crystalline limestones and Calciphyres (Rubies and Spinel bearing), also bands of calc-gneiss.

2. Khondalites: felspathic garnet-silliminite gneisses with graphite and hybrid rocks.

1. Biotite gneisses, garnet-gneisses and biotite-garnet-gneisses, injected by acid intrusives such

as pegmatites, felspathic veins and quartz veins.

Searl and Ba Than Haq (1964) reclassified and separated te intrusive rocks from the
typical Mogok Series. Their classification is as follows:

2. Intrusive Rocks Kabaing Granite

Pegmatites and aplites

Mafaic and Ultramafic rocks

Alaskitic Suite

1. Mogok Series Calcareous and arenaceous


Gneissose rocks


The rocks of Mogok Series are characterized by the presence of marbles and calc-
silicates granulites and politic and semi-pelitic gneisses with rare quartzites ranging in
metamorphic grade from the green scist facies to granulite facies. They have been invaded by
acid, intermediate and ultramafic rocks which have produced a broad zone of hybridization and

However the idea of ―Mogok Series‖ of Searl and Ba Than Haq (1964) more or less
agrees with ‗La Touche‘s‘ ―Mogok Gneiss‖. In view of the modern stratigraphic terminology the
term ―Mogok Gneiss‖ is here much appreciated.
Searl and Ba Than Haq (1964) Described the Mogok Series in terms of metamorphic belt
stretching from Sino-Burese border in the north through Mogok and along the western edge of
Shan Highlands, traceable up to the Gulf of Mataban in the south. They regarded the high grade
metamorphic rocks as migmatites of sedimentary origin. La Touche (1913) described the low
grade schist between Monglong and Longzin along Mogok-Monglong road as ―Monglong mica-
schist‖ and considered to be metamorphosed Chaungmagyi Series. Searl and Ba Than Haq
regarded them as part of the outer migmatite zone of the Mogok belt.

Marbles and calc-silicate granulites are the most characteristic rock types of the Mogok
belt (Searl and Ba Than Haq, 1964). Spinel and corundum minerals of the finest quality gem
stone type occur locally in those marbles. Other minerals included in the marbles are forsterite,
diopsde, phlogopite, chondrodite, graphite, wollastonite, scapolite and tremolite.

The marbles are often interbedded with calc-silicate granulites which are medium to fine-
grained rocks of uniform texture exhibiting a banded appearance with the result or
compositional layering.

The gneisses are fairly uniform in grain size, finely banded and often sow stringers and
pockets of feldspathic material containing typical weathered white cryptoperthite. They are
predominantly garnet-biotite gneiss, biotite gneiss and garnet-graphite siliminite gneiss.

Intrusive Rocks

The tourmaline granite, augite granite, hornblende granite, syenite gneiss and urtite were
included in the alaskite suite by Searl and Ba Than Haq. The outer margins of the intrusion are
represented by tourmaline-bearing alaskite which occurs as sheet intrusions and as migmatite
veins in the Monglong mica schists. According to Searl and Ba Than Haq the nepheline and
aegrine syenites form principal intrusive mass penetrating the Mogok marble and calc-silicate

Mafic and ultramafic rocks of the area include norites, hornblende pyroxenites and
peridotites, the later being the source of gem peridot. This group is considered to have been
intruded later than the alaskite suite. Pegmatites and aplites occur in the region especially in the
north of Kyatpyin where they cut the alaskites and metasedimentary rocks. Pegmatites contain
tourmaline and radioactive minerals (Searl and Ba Than Haq, 1964).

The granites on the northwest of the Mogok-Kyatpyin area is named as Kabaing Granite
after its outcrop at Kabaing Hill and it intruded into the metasedimentary rocks and part of the
alaskite suite.

Monglong Schist

Monglong Schist was originally proposed by La Touche (1913) to the schist exposed in the
stream sections of Nampai River and near the town of Monglong. They are predominantly of
quartz-mica schist composed of granular quartz and biotite, the latter occurring in large quantity
in lath-shaped crystal, arranged parallel to the foliation planes, and a little plagioclase feldspar
and minute crystals of apatite. The relationship with the Mogok gneiss is obscured by granite
intrusions, but the overlying Chaungmagyi Group shows gradual decreases of metamorphism.

Thin section studies of quartz-mica-schist by Mitchell (1977), from the north of

Yadanatheingi area shows that it is composed of metamorphosed laminated sandy argillites in
which the premetamorphic laminated structure is to some extent preserved as discontinuous fine
quartz san layers, disrupted and reorganized into micro-boudens aligned along the planes of
schistosity. Quartz grains show sutured contacts of porphyroblastic euhedral growths with biotite
flake, confined to inter crystal faces. Biotite, with strong orange brown, is extensively developed
along shears shows parallel growth with muscovite and chlorite, the later is very subordinate.
Original (detrital ) heavy minerals (up to 0.1 mm is diameter) of which tourmaline (olive green
to brown), apatite and garnet (with much dusty leucoxene are most conspecious and common.

In the east of Kyaukse the schists show compositional layering which is probably relict
beding. Dark grey to almost black, fine-grained biotite-quartz schist and green to white
micaceous quartzites are most abundant, interbedded with coarse-grained biotite and biotite
garnet schist; the sequence can be interpreted as metamorphosed greywackes, sandstones and
mustones. Garnet-bearing schist is also observed where the actual contact with biotite schist is
not clear.

Chaungmagyi Group
The Chaungmagyi Series was first proposed by La Touche (1913) to a very thick
sequence of sedimentary rocks comprising sandstones, graywackes and mudstone the
Chaungmagyi Chaung north-east of Mandalay in Madaya Township. Recent workers used the
term Chaungmagyi Group instead of Chaungmagyi Series in conformity with the modern-litho-
stratigraphic practice. It is widely distributed between Mogok and Yadanatheingi and stretches
east towards the Bawdwins area and turned round northwards up to China – Burma border.

In the east of Kyaukse and the adjoining, north – western part of Shan State, southern
continuation of Chuangmagyi Group, is well exposed and is highly dissected by the tributaries of
Zawgyi and Myitnge Rivers.

The predominant rock type is a monostonous alternations of fine-grained, grey to

greenish sandstone and black mudstone or siltstone, mostly in beds less than 50 cm and
commonly less than 20 cm thick. Most sandstones are micaceous greywackes although some
better-sorted quartzose sandstone also occur. Sedimentary structures including parallel bedding,
sharp bases to sandstones, load casts and parallel and cross- laminations within sandstone beds
indicate turbidities origin of the strata. Highly convolute beds transitional to slump rarely occur.

Near Chaungmagyi type section i.e. west of Yadantheingi, in the gorges around Kaingyi
there occur a very thick succession (up to at least 3000 m) of flysch-type sediments with gradded
bedding, flute-casts and wet sediment deformation structures (Mitchell 1977). Within the
sedimentary succession are included there main rock types of greywackes, feldspalthic
subgreywackes and thin shale or mudstones.

The Monglong Schist and Chaungmagyi are metamorphic equivalents (Searl and Ba
Than Haq, 1964) which undoubtedly underlie the Bawdwin volcanics and Pangyun Formation in
the Northern Shan State and the Molohein Group in the Southern Shan State both of which are of
Cambrian age. On the basic of lithologic similarity Chaungmagyi Series was correlated with the
Shillang Assam and to some part of Purana Group. In addition it has been
compared to the Hu-to‘ system of Northern Shansi in China, the age of which is surmised to be
Pre-Cambrian (La Touche, 1913, Chhibber, 1934).


General Statement

The term ―Bunyan Beds‖ was originally proposed by Maclaren in an unpublished paper
to designate a Series of ―fairly thin bedded, red and white sandstone, chocolate micaceous shale
and quartzite wit subordinate dark shelly beds and occasional conglomerate‖. The term sas
subsequently change to ―Pangyun Beds‖ by Coggin Brown after Nam Pangyun where the
continuous outcrops were found in the valley. These beds are considered to be of Cambrian age.

Ngwetaung Sandstone was first described by La Touche (1913) for the sandstones at the
Ngwetaung hill due east of Mandalay, which rises to a height of 3403 feet. He believed that the
unit is locally developed and placed under the Naungkangyi Stage probably of Early Ordovician
age. But recently, field parties of Mandalay Arts and Science University discovered Late
Cambrian fauna of Tranpeateaurian Saukiid trilobites and orthid Brachiopods (Thaw Tint & Hla
Wai, 1976-77).

The occurrence of shale, sandstone, phyllite, quartizite and mica-schist in the northern
part of Pindaya Range, Southern Shan State, were reported by Sondhi and Heron (1936-1937)
and they regarded them as Chaungmagyi Series. These rocks were later differentiated from the
typical ―Chaungmagyi Group‖ and named as ―Molohein Group‖ by Myint Lwin Thein (1973)
who discovered the first upper Cambrian fossils of Burma from these rocks.

Zin Maw and others (1976-77) who conducted fieldwork in the Maymyo area,
reclassified the Ngwetaung Sandstone of the Ngwetaung area into two different units. The lower
unit is referrd to as the Pangyun Fomration to retain the old name of Pangyun Beds and the upper
unit as ―Ngwetaung Formation‖. The two Formations are grouped under the name ―Molohein
Group‖ on account of similarity of lithology, fossils and stratigraphic position. Kaw Win et. al
(1981) discovered the Eo-othis fossils from the grits and quartzose sandstones of Loi-lan Range
near Namma coal field, formerly regarded as outliers of Precambrian Chaungmagyi (See
geological Map of Burma) and they are now believed to be of Cambrian Age (Kyaw Win et. al
Southern Shan State Representatives

Molohein Group

A distinctive suite of lithostratigraphic units that occur between the Pindaya Group of
Ordovician age and the typical Chaungmagyi Group at the central and northern portion of the
Pindaya Range is referred to as the ―Molohein Group‖ by Myitn Lwin Thein (1973) and it is the
Southern Shan State representative of Cambrian System. This group consists of pinkish, purplish
or reddish brown, highly micaceous, and very slightly regionally metamorphosed sandstones,
white, pnkish whie or purplish white granular quartizite, subgreywacke, gritty sandstone and
phyllite. Dolomite, limestone and conglomerate are minor consituents.

According to Myint Lwin Thein, I is difficult ot distinguish lithologically between the

upper portion of the Chaungmagyi Group tand te lower units of Molohein Group. But in a strict
sense, micaceous quartzites and quartzose sandstones of the lower units of Molohein Group,
which are white or pinkish white when fresh, are different from the whitish grey or grey
micaceous sandstones or quartzites of the upper units of the Chaungmagyi Group. There also
occur thin bans of greywackes, marlstones, silty shales and slates in the micaceous sandstones of
upper units of Chaungmagyi Group, while they are absent in those of Molohein Group. The
stratigraphic thickness of the Molohein Group in about 3,500 feet.

Pinkish or purplish, micacerous, fine-grained sandstones placed at the upper horizon of

the Molohein Group, contains abundant remains of tiny trilobites viz. Saukilella juna (Walcott)
Var. A. Winston and Nicols, 1967, Saukiella sp. A. Eosaukia buravasi Kobayashi 1957 and
Drumapsis Texan Resser, 1942 (Myint Lwin Thein, 1973).

On account of the presence of these trilobites Myint Lwin Thein (1973) compared the
Molohein Group with Uppermost Cambrian (Trempealeauan Stage) Wilberns Formation of
central Texas. On the lithologic and stratigraphic ground, it is correlated with Pangyun Series of
La Touche (1913).

Northern Shan State Representatives

Bawdwin Volcanics
In the northern part of Kyukme-Longtawkno area, rhyolites and tuffs of the Bawdwin
Volcanics Formation occur as both massive and stratified units stratigraphically about the
Precambrian Chaungmagyi Group. Samples from the more massive units show textures typical
of the slowly cooled igneous rocks. Pyroclastic rocks and volcanogenic sediments shoing cross-
bedding and locally parallel lamination and grading predominate in most outcrops, and are
particularly common near the top of the Formation.

The ―Sedimentary tuffs‖ or ―tuffaceous sediments‖ invariably comprises the gradational

transition-zone between the Bawdwin Volcanics and other Pangyun Strata (Mitchell et. at 1977).

According to Zin Maw (1976), Pangyun Formation and Ngwetaung Formation are
slightly the latter sandstones and quartzites with indurated pinkish to brownish shales while the
latter consists predominantly of buff to brown or reddish brown, thin to thick bedded micaceous
sandstones, quartizitic sandstones with minor dolomites. About 100 feet thick talc schist is also

According to Mitchell (1977) the coarse-grained conglomerates, white and purple

sandstones and quartzites with large scale cross-bedding and mud-flake clasts that occur in the
Pangyun Formation are typical of a fluviatile environment. West of Yadanatheingi, cross-bedded
dolomites in the Formation suggest deposition on a marine shelf.


General Statement

The Ordovician rocks of Burma are well develop in the Eastern Highlands, both in the
Southern and Northern Shan State. The term Naungkangyi Series was used by La Touche (1913)
for the rocks which occur at Naungkangyi village 2 miles west of Maymyo twon. He subdivided
the rocks into six units, viz. Nyaungbaw limestone, Hwemaung purple Shale, Upper
Naugnkangyi Stage, Lower Naungkangyi Stage, Pangyun Series (Grits) and Ngwetaung
sandstone in descending order.

D.G.S.E Field Parties recently mapping in the Northern Shan State followd La Touche‘s
nomenclature, but some modifications are made according to the modern stratigraphic practice.
In the Kyaukme-Longtowkno Area and Yadanatheingi Area, Naungkangyi Series was renamed
by (Mitchell et. al 1977) as Naungkangyi Group and subdivided into a lower ―Taungkyun
Formation‖ and an upper ―Li-lu‖ Formation. Zin Maw and others (1977) also retained the name
Naungkangyi as a Group under which they introduced new local lithostratigraphic names of
‖Tha-yauk Myaung Formation‖ and ―Kyaing-Taung Formation‖ probably equivalent to Lower
Naungkangyi Stage and upper Naungkangyi stage of La Touche respectively. On he basis of
lithologic similarity ad stratigraphic position to the lower Silurian Linwe Fromation of Myint
Lwin Thein (1973), the Nyaungbaw limestone of La Touche is regarded to be of Early Silurian
age (Zin Maw et. al 1977). In this connection the descriptions of Li-Lu Formation by Mitchell et.
al are undoubtedly identical with the Nyaungbaw limestone of La Touche. Therefore,
Naungkangyi Group, in the sense of Mitchell‘s grouping, is not confined to the Ordovician
system but extended up to the Lower Silurian. Their stratigraphic position and relationship to
each other are shown in correlation chart (Fig.3).

The names Mawson Series, Othocerous Beds and Pindaya Beds were described by
Brown and Sondhi (1934) for the Ordovician rocks which occur at the Pindaya Range and
Bawsaing area in the Southern Shan State. The geologists of the Rangoon Arts and Science
University, reclassified the rock unis of Ordovician age and put under the name ―Pindaya Group‖
which is subdivided into a lower Lokepyin Formation, a middle Wunbye Formation nd an upper
Nan-on Formation.

Northern Shan State Representatives

Naugnkangyi Group

It includes two lithostratigraphic units, namely Tha-yauk-myaung Formation and

Kyaingtaung Formation.

Tha-yauk-myaung Formation

The name is given to a thick succession of limestones exposed in the valley, a few
furlongs south of Tha-yauk-myaung village (MR: 93 C/5, 95 9526)

This unit consists of thick of thick bedded bluish grey limestone interbedded with silt-
bearing limestone and calcareous sandstone. Lenses of oolitic limestone occur locally.

The thick-bedded limestone is fine-grained and crystalline with some dolomitization and
recrystallization of calcite. Numerous calcite straingers are seen along the joints and fractures.
Locally the limestone is micritic, red, yellow and tan when weathered. Traces of galena and
copper oxide minerals occur locally. The silt-bearing limestones are also thick bedded with red
and yellow clastic sediments. The silty materials fill the randomly oriented burrows. Some of the
limestones are medium-grained and interbedded with brown, fine-grained sandstone. The
medium-bedded calcareous sandstones occur mostly in the lower part of the Formation as
interbeds. Oolitic limestone is normally light grey in colour with concentrically laminated oolitic
grains. The size of the grains are less than 1/20 of an inch.

This unit is however lithologically identical with La Touche‘s Lower Naungkangyi Stage
which is well exposed in the gorges of Namtu River and as isolated outcrops in the western part
of the Northern Shan Plateau around Maymyo area and Yadanatheingi area. La Touche had
discovered numerous fossils of Cyslidea, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda and Trilogites. Recent
investigation by Zin Maw et. al (1977), discovered coiled Gastropods, Actinoceras sp, Othoceras
sp and Michelswoceras sp., which are dated as Middle Ordovician.

Kyaing-Taung Formation
It is a local stratigraphic name proposed by Zin Maw et. al (1977) to the upper part of the
Naungkangyi Group composed of calcareous siltstones, marl and buff coloured shale with
numerous fossils throughout the formation. The name is given after the Kyaing-Taung hill (MR:
93 C/5, 948573) where continuous exposures are present.

Lithology: Two main facies are recognized with subordinate limestone lenses. They are
calcareous siltstone facies and marl and shale facies. Calcareous siltstone facies is friable and
indurated to subindurated; buff to green when fresh and yellow to red or tan when weathered.
The are hin o medium bedded and highly calcareous. Locally calcium has been leached out
leaving only sand and clayey material. In the upper horizons of the Formation phacoidal
structure appears on the exposed surfaces.

The other facies is buff coloured marl and light grey shale occurring as interbeds within
the siltstone in the lower part of the Formation. They are medium to thick – bedded and contain
few fossils and are slightly micaceous. Some manganese dedries were observed.

Lenses of light grey limestone and minor bands of light-grey shale occur in the siltstone.
The fossils obtained from the limestone are composed of coarsely crystalline calcite.

A possible conformable contact is observed with overlying Naungbaw limestone at

Kyaing-Taung and it conformably overlies the Tha-yauk-myaung Formation. However, it is
lithologically similar to the Taungkyun Formation of Mitchell et. al in Kyaukme-Longtawkno
area where the Formation directly overlies Pangyun Formation. It is also pointed out by Myint
Lwin Tein that Upper Naungkangyi beds of Bawdwin Mine area in Northern Shan State are
lithologically comparable with tose of the Nan-on Formation of Southern Shan State. The units
of limestone with silty laminations and burrow structures which are essential in the middle or
lower Ordovician (e.g. Wunbye Formation of Southern Shan State and Lower Naungkangyi of
Northern Shan State) are virtually absent in the Bawdwin Mine area (IGCP 1980). Discoveries of
numerous fossils of Cystidea, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Pelecypoda, Gastropoda, Authropoda ad
Cephalopoda had ben reported by La Touche (1913). In addition the following species are
discovered by Zin Maw et. al., 1977.

Broyozoan: Mestrypa sp., Conularia sp., and Hullopora sp.

They are dated as Late Ordovician. Some well preserved Brachiopods, Crinoids and
Bryzoans are also found in Kyaukme-laungtawkno area by Mitchell (1977). According to
them most of the group is Late Caradocian in age, indeed many of the fssils can be matched with
material from the Caradoe type area in Shropshire, England.

Southern Shan State Representatives

Pindaya Group

Lithostratigraphically the Ordovician system in the Southern Shan State is believed to be

more complete than those of Northern Shan State. The System was assigned to Pindaya Group
under which three Formation are separated.

Lokpyin Formation

This Formation was named by Myint Lwin Thein (1973) after the Lokepyin village, three
miles north-west of Myaing of Ye-ngan Township, which itself stands on the Formation.

Systematic geological mapping in 1970 by British-Burmese Team under Columbo Plan

also noted this unit and give the name ―Ngwedaung Formation‖ after the Ngwedaung village
(Grid ref: 93 C/7, 420522). However, the two names are given to the same lithostratigraphic unit
by two different groups of workers.

Lithology: It comprises medium to thick –bedded grey to buff, soft to indurated, micaceous
siltstones. Due to weathering the siltstones give bright yellow colour which is very distinct for
the Formation. Yellowish, buff to greenish marl and micaceous brownish sandstones mostly
occur at the lower horizon interbedded with the siltstone. At Menedaung, the Formation shows a
little variation. Here the calcareous mudstones are predominant, interbedded wit soft, thin to
medium-bedded yellow siltstones. Vein quartz often occur within the siltstone. The Formation in
the east of Kyaukse is composed of interbedded ferruginous and calcareous siltstones, silty
limestones and micaceous and calcareous sandstones. Exposures are characteristically buff to
yellow in colour, but when fresh the siltstones are bluish grey to yellow or pink. In the western
part of Pyittawye are quartzites are locally present within silstons. On Kalagwe Taung the unit is
metamorphosed o calc-silicate rocks, marble and quartzites. This unit in the type locality is about
1,500 feet thick. Abundant Orthis Brachopods were obtaind from this unit (Myint Lwin Thein,

A specimen of yellowish buff siltstone from the western side of Pindaya range (93 C/12,
462320) contains the following fauna:

Trilobites: as aphid free-check; hystricurid free-check

Brachiopods: dananellid; Syntrophicd aff. Thaumatrophin sp.

Crinoid Columnals

Both trilobites and brachiopods indicate an Arenigian age (Early Ordovician) (Garson t.
al 1976).

Wunbye Formation

The name is given to a succession of thick-bedded limestones, siltstones and dolomites

by Myint Lwin Thein (1973) after the Wunbye Hill (5, 143 feet above sea-level) in Yengan
Township, where the unit is well developed.

Lithology: The limestones are finely crystalline, grey to bluish grey, sometimes ?olitic and
with pink, buff or yellow coloured silty materials in the form of burrows, specks, pellets or
irregular and regular laminations; burrow structure is most typical of these limestones. He
siltstone subunits are thin, medium to thick-bedded, yellow to light grey and soft to indurated,
sometimes thin bands of hard and light greenish siliceous marlstone occurs within the siltstones.
The dolomite subunits are thick bedded, often massive, but generally with laminations and
highly jointed surfaces in criss-cross pattern; colour is usually bluish grey to grey with sub-
metallic luster and dull when weathered. Laterally it is not persistant for a long distance.

The above descriptions by Myin Lwin Thein are similar to those of Lower Naungkangyi
Stage by La Touche and Tha-yauk-myaung Formation by Zin Maw in Northern Shan State. This
unit is also well developed in the east of Kyaukse at Pyitawye plateau and in the ranges west of
Myogyi village. When traced northwards the Formation merges into Tha-yauk-myaung
Formation or Lower Naungkangyi Stage and southward it merges into Wunbye Formation.
Faunal contents

Abundant orthid brachiopods, Actinoceras, Omoceras, Endoceras, Receptaulites,

Lopbspire, Helicotoma and Stromatoporoids.

Nan-on Formation

The name is given by Myint Lwin Thein to the alternations of siltstones and marlstone
overlying the Wunbye Formation after the village of Nan-on (grid co-ordinates: 080720 on
topographic map No. 93 C/12) in Yengan township.

Former Thittetkon Sponge Beds (Reed, 1936, Pascoe, 1959) are included in the Nan-on
Formation by Myint Lwin Thein who rejected correlation of Thitetkon Sponge Beds with lower
Naungkangyi Sage by Reed (1936) on account of the fact that neither of these beds have direct
stratigraphic rela tionships nor obvious faunal affinities with the Naungkangyi rocks, but instead
they have both stratigraphic continuity and lithologic similarity with the Nan-on Formation.

Lithology: The Nan-on Formation at the type locality consists of yellow to buff or light
orange, thin to medium-bedded siltstones, mudstones and marlstones, generally sub-indurated to
soft. Occasional occurrences of micaceous siltstones of light buff to whitish colour with pink or
purple specks differentiate this unit from the yellow siltstones of Wunbye Formation. In some
areas, thin bands of laminatd argillaceous limestones occur interbedded with the siltstones. This
formation is richly fossiliferous. The stratigraphic thickness of this formation in the type area is
443 feet.

Fossil Content: Abundant cystoids, orthid brachiopods, bryozoans, sponges and trilobite
genera such as illaenus and sphaerocoryphe.

Tanshauk Member

This member is introduced by Myint Lwin Thein (1973) as a member of Nan-on

Formation, and is name after the village of Tanshauk, situated at about one mile south of Nan-on.

It is composed of purple or pink, soft, thinly laminated to medium bedded siltstones,

calcareous shales and calcareous mudstones. The characteristic feature of this unit is the purple
or pink colour
exhibited by siltstones and shales. The stratigraphic thickness measured at the type section is 190


General Statement

Silurian rocks of Burma, like other Lower Paleozoic strata developed both in the
Southern and Northern San State. In the Northern Shan State La Touche (1913) subdivided the
system into three units:

3 . Zebingyi Series - Upper Silurian

2 . Namhsim Series - Middle Silurian

Upper Konghsa Marls

Lower Namhsim Sandstone

1 . Pang-has-pya Series - Lower to Middle Silurian

Brown and Sondhi (1933a) described the graptolite beds near Kyauktab in the Southern
Shan State. They believed tehm to be homotaxial equivalent of th Pang-has-pya Series of
Northern Shan State.

The Nyaungbaw Limestone was originally assigned to the Upper Ordovician by La

Touche. But small assemblage of fossils containing such forms as Cannarocrinus asisticus
suggests a Silurian, or even Devonian rather than Ordovician age (Reed, 1936). This has led
some authors to place it under Silurian age(e.g. Nyi Nyi, 1964b). This idea was support by Myint
Lwin Thein (1973) when he discovered graptolite fossils from the rocks in Southern Shan State
that are identical in lithology and stratigraphic position with Nyaungbaw Limestone.

After his work in Southern Shan State, Myint Lwin Thein (1973) reclassified the Silurian
rocks and assigned to the ―Mibayataung Group‖.

Southern Shan State Representatives

The name Mibayataung Group is introduced by Myint Lwin Thein (1973) after the
Mibayataung Hill (Grid ref: 351961 on the topographic Map No. 93 D/11) situated about 9 miles
south-southwest of Heho where both Linwe Formation and Wabya Formation are extensively
developed. The beds are well exposed on both western and eastern margins of the Pindaya
Range, Bawsaing Range and in the hilly track to the east of Shwenyaung – Kunlon Plain. The
stratigraphic thickness of the group is about 2,500 feet.

Linwe Formation

The name was given by Myint Lwin Thein after Linwe village where the beds are well
exposed. The predominant lithology is purple to pink pachoidally structured limestones with the
argillaceous limestones, calcareous mudstones and shales.

Lithology: The limestone itself is very distinct due to it‘s texture and the presence of
Michelinocerous (former Orthocerous) species. The grey coloured shales is micaceous and
contain abundant graptolite remains. Purple coloured shales are also present in minor amount.
According to Garson (1971) the Formation consist of two shale members i.e. a lower red shale
member and an upper sandy marl member, but in part they may be laterally equivalent. In the
deep red coloured siltstone and shales, beds and lenses of red limestones occur at several places.
The limestone is mostly impure clcarenite with aboundant stylolites on wethered surfaces. It
shows characteristic phacoidal pattern of red and bown seams of calcareous mudstone, imparting
a ―crocodile skin‖ pattern to the surface of the skin. In some localities tis red shale member is
overlain by Sandy Marl member which is composed predominantly of fine-grained calcareous
sandstone interbedded with siltstone with local mottled beds in yellow, pink, brown and green
colour and deeply weathered to yellow. Phacoidal limestone is similar to those of red shale
member bt grey in colour. Although less abundant than the more sandy and silty rocks, the
phacoidal limestones are better exposed and enable the member to be easily identified in the

Fossils: Michelinocerras species are characteristically present in the phacoidal limestones

and calcareous mudstones. Monograptus and Climaeograptus occur abundantly in the shales
(Myint Lwin Thein). The age of the Formation judging from the graptolites and stratigraphic
position, is considered to be Early Silurian.

Wabya Formation
The name Wabya Formation was proposed by Myint Lwin Thein to the graptolite-bearing
shales at the Wabya Hill (5408‘ above sea level) situated at the southern portion fo Pindaya
Range where the rocks are well exposed. Wabya graptolite Beds of Brown and Sondhi and part
of graptolite beds of Mibayataung also of Brown and Sondhi are included in this Formation.

Lithology: Wabya Formation consists of micaceous and non-micaceous shale and silty shale
with subordinate amount of black slaty shale, slate, bentonitic ash beds, and at some places
crushd and friable anthracitic coal. Coal beds are exposed at Yagyi in Yegan Township and
Myegya in Heho Township.

The lover limit of this unit is determined at the horizon of the last occurrence of
phacoidal limestone or calcareous mudstone or purple shale. The upper boundary is at the
contact with limestones of the Plate type section. Fossils discovered in this unit are Monograptus,
Orthograptus and Clinograptus.

Northern Shan State Representatives

Nyaungbaw Limestone

The red or chocolate brown argillaceous limestone which occurs within a mile of
Nyaungbaw rest house (between Mandalay and Maymyo) containing Carmarocrinus asiaticus
was named as Nyaungbaw Limestone (La Touche, 1913) and regarded it as Ordovicianage.
However similar limestones with the same stratigraphic position in the Souhern Shan State
contain abundant Michlinocerous sp. (Orthocerous of Brown and Sondhi) and remains of
profussion of graptolites in the interbedded shales. They are rightfully correlated with the
Nyaungbaw Limestone (Myint Lwin Thein, 1973). On account the presence of graptolites, the
age of the formation is believed to be Early Silurian. Although the graptolites were not reported
from the Nyaungbaw beds its lithology and stratigraphic position suggests the Silurian age.

Pang-has-pya Formation

The whitish shales with abundant graptolites which were exposed in the Namatu river
section were named as Pang- has- pya graptolite band by La Touche (1913). Similar isolated
outcrops, found in Maymyo area were composed of light grey shale and green mudstones rich in
fauna continning Monograpus, Climocograptus, (Zin Maw, 1976) Diplograptus,
Climacegraptus, Monograptus (La Touche, 1913) and the age is Llandoverian (Early Silurian).

The typical lithology and fauna of Pang-hsa-pya Graptolite Beds found in the Southern
Shan State is known as Wabya Formation (Myint Lwin Thien, 1973). The fuana ncludes
Monograptus, Orhtograptus, Glytograptus and Climacograptus. The age of the graptolite fauna
is Ealy Silurian (Reed, 1936).

Namshin Sandstone

The Northern Shan State equivalent of part of Wabya Formation of Southern Shan STae
is the Namshin Stage originally proposed by La Touche (1913), which unconformably overlie
the Hwemaung purple sale and other older deposits. Mapping by the IGS/ DGSE (British-Burma
Team) in Kyaukme-Longtawkno area revealed the fact that the graptolitic shales of Pang-hsa-pya
Formation were succeeded by a series of cross bedded and massive white to brown quartzites,
forming the lower part of Namshin Formation. No fossils were recovered from these quartsites
but worm trails have been observed on bedding planes. They indicate a shalow environment.

Directly above the quartzites on he Namtu River, south of Lilu, some hard fine-grained
sandstones and mustones cntain Isothis sp. and Boneotenskia sp. together with indeterminate
thick and sheet bryozoans, astropheodoritid brachiopod and crenoid columnals (Mitchell et. al,

From the reddish sandstone at a similar stratigraphic position at 'Manaw' north-north-east

of Kyaukme, La Touche (1913) collected several hundred specimens of Dicoelosia biloba s.s.
(Linnacus, 1758) from a single bedding plane and also single pedicle valve of Coolinia sp. The
fossils confirm the assignment of Late Silurian age to the formation. Even of the spiriferid is not
Boucotinskin (the heavy silicification has obscured the fine ornament) it is certainly of post-
Llandoverian age, and the occurrence of the stropheodontid confirms this (Mitchell and et. al,


General Statement

The name Plateau Limestone was originally proposed by La Touche (1913) to the
immense thickness of carbonate rocks overlying the Lower Paleozoic strata stretching most of
the Eastern Highlands, having a monotonous scenery of wide shallow valleys separated by low
ridges, the outlines being smoothed out by the universal covering of clay except where a scarp of
precipitous cliffs marks the line of a fault. La Touche suggested that a number of limestone units
described by Middlemiss, Datta and himself should all in future be inclde under a single term,
until such a time when more detailed mapping enabled individual units to be accurately
deliniated. He described the rock itself as shite or pale grey, weathering to a darker grey, often
very hard, with a sandy texture and fine granular appearance. Thin sections reveal a granular
aggregate of minute dolomite crystals, with calcite present only as vein filling. Subsequently,
however, La Touche divided the Plateau Limestone into two parts:

1. Lower Plateau Limestone (Devonian), comprising crystalline dolomites and dolomitic

limestones with traces of fossils of minute foraminifera and corals which are considerably
crushed. An extremely rich Devonian fauna has been described from the Padaukpin coral reef
and Wetwin shales.

2. Upper Plateau Limestone (Antheacolothic) consisting of dark grey or bluish grey

coloured, pure limestone, with Fusulina and Productus, which occur only in isolated masses and
almost inseperable from the lower beds.

However, subsequent discoveries of Triassic fossils by Sahni (1933), Graman (1972),
Garson et. al (1974), Mitchell et. al (1977) in the dolomitic parts that formerly La Touche (1913)
believed to be of the Lower Plateau Limestone, suggested La Touche's two-fold division of the
Plateau Limestone is no longer acceptable. Pascoe (1956) proposed the three-fold division of the
Plateau Limestone: a lowermost dolomitic variety (Devonian) a middle calcitic variety (Permo-
carboniferous) and an upper dolomiticvariety (Triassic). This classification to some extent agrees
with recent findings. But the occurrence of the Devonian fossils are much restricted to the
Maymyo area; lithologically it in inseperable from the younger dolomite, hence they will be
described under the Devonian System.

Formerly La Touche believed the strata of Zibinbyi are to be of Late Silurian on account of
graptolite fossils but later it is dated as Early Devonian by the presence of Tantaculites elagans
which mostly occur in the lower Devonian in other parts of the world.

Zibingyi Formation

Zibingyi stage is originally proposed by La Touche to black limestones and ligh grey to
yellow siltstones outcropping near Zibingyi station of the Mandalay-Maymyo railway line. In the
type area it is overlying the Nyaungbaw Formation and underlying the dolomites with a possible
unconformity. The outcrops can be traced along the periphyry of the Zibingyi syncline. Besides
the type locality the beds are exposed in several places as for example at the edges of Pyintah –
Thondaung Ywama syncline and Paungdaw Thondaung syscline (Zin Maw, 1976).

Lithologically the limestones are light grey, dark grey to black, medium-bedded,
sometimes flaggy, har and brittle but friable when weathered, interbedded with thin to medium
bedded light grey to yellow siltsotnes and shales with calcareous lenses. AT the Zibingyi scarp,
numberous specimens of Orthoceras and occasional Trilobites are found in limestone. This shale
consists of abundant Tantaculites and graptolites and is interbedded with the limestones mostly
in the upper part. The top part of Zibingyi Formation is composed of uniformly medium-bedded,
hard and compact, dolomitic limestones with concoidal fracture.

Because of graptolites La Tauche assigned the uit to Silurian age. But there is also a great
abundance of Tantaculites elagans, a characteristic of Bohemiam Lower Devonina form which
is here associated with graptolites. This might lead to the impression that in this part of the world
the graptolites may have survived up to Devonina (Chibber, 1934). Recently this idea was
confirmed by the re-examination of the greaptolite fauna from these beds by Berry and Boucot
(1972), proving them to be of Early Devonian age.

Padaukpin Reef: & Wetwin Shale

The other highly fossiliferous Devonian localities are near Wetwin village and Padaukpin
village about 12 miles northeast of Maymyo. At Wetwin, a thin band of shales, in contact with
other nits, are observed and traced by La Touche for just a mile to within half a mile of he
Calceola beds of Padaukpin. The shales which are hard and fissile, gernally buff coloured,
mottled with pink or dar grey stains are termed as Wetwin shales by P.N. DEatta (1901).

The other famous fossil locality is Padaukpin just a mile east of Wetwin, where the
outcrop is very small, not more than 50yds wide and 6 feet in thickness known as Padaukpin
coaral reef by La Touche. Numerous fossils from this locality include corals, crinoids, and
brachiopods. These faunae collected by La Touche were dated as Eifelian age (Reed, 1908) and
the fauna from Wetwin shales are of Frasnian or Givetian. Another fossil locality was discovered
by Reed (1930) in the dolomite three miles south-east of Padaukpin, in the Kelaung chaung. The
fauna containing largerly corals and brachiopods are associated in a lithology similar to that of
POadaukpin and indicated an age of lower-upper Devonian.

Pascoe (1959) metioned the discovery of another fossiliferous locality by M.R. Sahni
(previolouly reported in Heron), in well bedded limestones, shales and sandstones within the
dolomited, about one mile east of Htangabin and along the scarjp south-eastwards from there as
far as Taung-tok. The fossils from these rocks were as well preserved as those at Padaukpin, and
indicated a Middle Devonian age.

The other fossil locality was described by Mitchell et. Al (1973) just north of the village
of Hka-hsim, 27km due north of Maymyo. This locality lies a short distance above the base of
the dolomite where it overlies Silurian rocks. The corals have been identified as Thamnopora sp.
(Silurian-Permian) and Coenites sp. (Silurian-Devonian) indicating that the locality lies within
the Devonian dolomitc sequence (Mitchell et. Al 1973).

Very recently a field party from D.G.S.E led by Sein Htun (1982) discovered the lower
Devonian fossil (Tantaculites elagan) at the Bodawgyi Taung in the east of Kyaukse, which was
formerly believed to be composed of Ordovician rocks.


General Statement

The name Mergui Series was given by T. Oldhem (1956) to the unfossiliferous strata
consisting of grits, crushed shales, agglomerates, limestones and quartzites which occur
extensively in the Tenasserim region, stratigraphically underlying the Moulmein Limestone.
Subsequent authors like Holland (1926), Brown and Heron (1923) believed that Moulmein
Limestones are of Carboniferous age and the Mergui Series which underlies the Moulmein
Limestone is pre-Carboniferous in age. Sethu Rama Rao (1930) tentatively correlated the Mergui
Series with the Chaungmagyi Series. But W.R. Jones (1925) ascribed a Carboniferous age to the
limestones and a Permo-carboniferous age to a part of Mergui Series.

The sandstones, quartzites, shales, and slates aof the Taungnyo Range were termed as
Taungnyo Series by Leicester (1930) and he suggested that the Taungnyo Series is younger than
the Merguis or that it must be considered to from the upper portion of the Merguis. But
according to Iyer ( ) there is no conclusive evidence for the complete supervision of
the two series Mataban series was originally described by Oldhem to the light grey thickly
bedded and quartzitic sandstones, and shales predominant at the lower part of the section which
crop out at the Mataban ridge near Mataban railway station. The fossils discovered from the
black shale or mudstone of Mataban series were identified by Prof. Greyery and datd as Permian
age. But J. Coggin Brown (1927) suggested that the Mataban might be of Triassic age.

G.V. Hobson (1941) gave the name ―Mawchi Series‖ to the rocks showing extreme
variation of lithologic character including shales, fine silts or mudstones, clay, slates, fine
sandstones and quartz grits, pebble beds ande conglomerates, quartzites and limestones which
occur in Kayah State (formely Karenni) and assigned a pre-Plateau Limesotne age to this series.

Hobson (1941) stated that some of the interbedded limestons of Mawchi Series are impossible to
differentiate form those of the Plateau Limesotne outliers. He also stated that no fossils were
found in the Plateau Limestone although fossils were obtained from the Yinyaw Beds. Fossils
were identified by Dr. Covmer Reed who concluded that fossils pointed to the presend of Middle
or upper Productus limestone fauna therefore of the Permian age.

The only fossils discovered on the scree slop one mile north-east of Kabawdo where
Hobson mapped as Mawchi Series was identified by Reed as Spirifer Schellwieni and dated as
the highest Carboniferous, by some to the lower Permian. Although the fossil occurs as float they
could not decide whether it came out from the Mawchi Series and suspected as residual fossil
probably from the Plateau Limestone.

However Brunnschweiller (1972) described the clastic rocks underlying unconformably

the Permium Moulmein Limestone, which comprises about 30 m thick, fine-grained,
fossiliferous, well bedded softish calcareous sandstones above and about 150m of grey
yellowish shales, fine to medium grained well bedded sandstones below. He renamed the former
Taungnyo Series of Leicester (1930) as Taungnyo Group. The fauna found in the calcareous
sandstone beneath the Moulmein Limestone contains gastropods, brachiopods, polyzoans, some
corals, as well as ostracods. Among the brachiopods are the productid Dictyoclastus, the
chonetid Mesolobus (?), various species of Spirifer, and a form that is very close to the genus
Squamularia. However these faunae indicate a Late Carboniferous age (Brunnschweiler, 1972).

From the Taungnyo range ill-preserved brachiopods and some polyzoans were discovered
by a fields party of Directorate of Geological Survey and Exploration in 1972 and similar fossils
were also discovered by the field group of the geology department of Moulmein College and
both were indentified by Dr. Myint Lwin Thein. According to him they were Neospeifer sp.
Laptodus, and are of Carboniferous effinity and are similar to the fossils discovered by Zaw Pe
(1972) from the Yadanabon Mine area.

According to Brown and Heron (1923) the predominant rock type of the Mergui Series in
Tavoy district is argillite, a fine-grained rock of blue grey to black colour when fresh, with
obscure bedding and only incipient cleavage. The association of the carbonaceous argillite
carrying small crystals of andalusite and silliminite with finely divided graphite is noted in the
sequence. Similar carbonaceous shales having a graphite appearance is also found in the places
in the Mergui area, especially near Tharabwin, Maw Ton and Ragu.
The next important rock type is dark grey or almost black ―greywacke‖ which weathers
to an ashy brown color. This rock is composed of a confused and structureless aggregate of
subangular fragments of fine-grained rocks in a matrix identical with the material of the
argillites. However erecent investigations reveated the fact that the agglomerates of Coggin
Brown and Heron are the pebbly mudstones or sandstones which are typical rock types of the
Mergui Series (Mergui Group).

Recent Investigation

Mergui Group in Kawsong Area

Geological investigation in the Kawsong area carried out in 1974-75 field season by the
field parties led by Than Tun Chein. Attempts were made to subdivide the Mergui Group
systematically. The Mergui Group in general is chaotically deformed in some places, especially
in the region close to the Pakchan River Fault. Because of structura complexity and poor
exposures due to a thick cover of soil and dense vegetation, it is difficult to sort out the order of
strata or the lithostratigraphic units. Lithologic units in the area are therefore described only as
informal units, and their stratigraphic order is arranged only tentatively as follows.

(f) Volcanics

(e) Pebbly Mudstone Unit

(d) Quartizite and schist unit

( c) Slate unit

(b) Massive quartzite unit

(a) Pebbly quartzite unit

(a) Pebbly quartzite unit:

The unit consists of two principle facies. i.e. coarse-grained pebbly quartzite and fine grained
pebbly quartzite. The coarse-grained pebbly facies crops out widely on the offshore islands in the
west. The pebble clasts range up to 6‖ in diameter and are composed of biotite granite, quartzite
and quartz. This facies also contains pebbly mudstone interculations. Bedding and other
sedimentary structures are remarkably rare. Bedding planes are seen only where mudstone
intercalation occur. The fine-grained pebbly quartzite contains feldspar, mica and graphite grains
in addition to the pebble clast types described in the coarse-grained facies. This facies also
contains pebbly mudstone intercalation.

(b) Massive quartzite unit:

Small lenticular patches of massive quartzite occur on the main land, mostly as roof pendents or
large xenoliths. The quartzite is white to light grey coloured, and extremely well indurated due to
intense recrystallization. This unit lacks bedding planes or other sedimentary structures. The
contact with other units is obscured by soil cover.

(c) Slate unit:

Well jointed grey slate and phyllite interbedded with thin siltstone beds are exposed in small
north-south elongated discontinuous patches along the coasts.

(d) Interbedded quartzite and schist unit:

The interbedded quartzite and schist crops out widely on the west side of the Kawsong batholith.
This unit is grey coloured, medium-grained, compact and massive and it may consist of bands of
150 feet or more in thickness within the schists. The schist is tan-weathering, foliated greenish
chlorite schist which is highly susceptible to weathering and erosion. Fresh outcrops are
extremely rare except in the wave cut shore-line areas.

(e) Pebbly Mudstone unit:

The pebbly mudstone unit is the most widespread and perhaps the thickest. It consists
predominantly of pebbly mudstone, siltstone, and some pebbly quartzite., all of which abruptly
change in facies within short distances. Pebble clastis of the unit are mostly clear quartzite and
some granite. Sedimentary structures including bedding planes are rare.

The Mergui Group in Tavoy Area

The Mergui Group in Tavoy area can be subdivided into at least three informal
stratigraphic units but here also the order of stratrigraphic position is uncertain. They are

(A) Quartzite and phyllite unit

(B) Pebbly sandstone unit

(C) Mudstone and quartzose sandstone unit

(A) Quartzite and phyllite uint

This unit consists predominantly of medium to thick bedded white to pinkish quartzites
interbedded with white to yellowish brown coloured phyllites and schist. Locally mica schists
and quartzo-feldsparthic schist are observed.

(B) Pebbly sandstone unit

The unit consists predominantly of dark grey coloured sandstones. They are hard, compact and
massive; channel-fill structures are observed in most places and likely to be turbiditic nature.
Pebbly siltstones and fine-grained sandstones occur as interbeds. They are greenish grey and less
hard than the pebbly sandstones. Parallel laminations are present and pebble alignments are
occasionally observed. The clasts of the pebbly sandstones are quartzites, quartz, black
mudstone, and rarely micritic limestone and granite. The size of the clasts vary from 1‖ to 10‖ in

(C) Mudstone and quartzose sandstone unit

This unit consists predominantly of interbedded, grey coloured mudstone, phyllite and locally
calcareous mudstones. The sandstones are cross-laminated and parallel.

The rocks of Taungnyo Area

Rock exposures occur o nthe Taungnyo range near Moulmein, which abruptly rises up
from the sourrounding alluvial plain.

Nyunt Htay et. Al (1979-80) attempted to subdivide the Mergui Group (or Taungnyo
Group) into four informal lithologic units and they are as follows:-
Unit A

It is composed of 3 subunits (a) phyllite and quartzite unit, (b) schist and quartzite unit
and (c) pebbly units. Contact relationship among them is not known.

Unit B

Unit B consists of interbeds of thick-bedded quaretzo-feldspathic sandstones and

mudstones. The sandstones are locally gritty and conglomeratic and mudstones are pyritic pebbly
and carbonaceous. Micaceous siltstone bands also occur. The thickness of the unit is more than

Unit C

It is composed of alternations of sandstone and mudstone. The sandstone is cross-

laminated with loads at the base indicating a turbidite origin. Quartz veins with antimony
mineralization is found in this unit. It is about 1500‘ thick.

Uint D

It consists predominantly of laminated mustone with some nodular phyritc mudstone and
minor sandstone. It is about 2000 feet thick.

Lebyin Area

The existence of Lebyin series was originally noted by Prof. Ba Than Haq later Lebyin
Group was applied by Myint Lwin Thein (1977). The Group in general consists predominantly
of pebbly mudstones, pebbly siltsones and pebbly sandstones, most of which are texturally
greywackes. Such lthologic characteristics identical with those of Mergui Group to the south
could not resist the geologists of UNDP/ DGSE (1977) who were much familiar with the rocks
of Tenasserim to give the name Mergui Group. However attempts were made by Myint Lwin
Thein to subdivide the Group (I.G.C.P report 1977). His local lithostratigraphic units are as

1. Kogwe Formation: Slates with greywacke and minor amount of quartzites.

2. Poklokkyi Formation: quartzite with slate and few limestone.

3. Modi Formation: Pebbly mudstone with minor quartzites and slates.

4. Paukkwa Formation: Conglomerates with pebbly mudstone.

Like in the Tenasserim region the order of the succession here is still undcertain due to structura
complexity and intrusion by igneous plutons.

Each of pebbly facies (pebbly mustone; pebbly siltstone; pebbly sandstone) forms units which in
places are more than 20 m thick and commonly lacks bedding, although parallel and cross-
laminated mudstones and siltstones occur locally, and the pebbly facies rarely show lamination.
The pebbly mudstone and siltstone, which are in some places calcareous, contain scattered clasts,
mostly less than 30 m diameter, consisting largely of white quartzite and rarely of limestone;
infrequently granitic pebbles has been observed.

In a few localities red to grey muddy limestones and schistose limestone up to 30 m thick are
interbedded with terrigenous sediments. On 93 D/8 limestone units up ot 100 m thick, consisting
of poorly bedded calcarenite with crinoids and shell fragments form steep sided ridges; they are (
) interbedded within the Group or outliers of Plateau Limestone.

sThe sedimentary rocks pass laterally into phyllites, spotted slates and quartzites which mostly
occur in the west. Adjacent to the plutons, the sediments are horfelsed to fine-grained hard, dard
green to black rooks with fragments clearly visible in the pebbly facies; quartz veins are
common. In Yinmabin Lowlands (93 D/5), the group is largely surrounded by granite and locally
metamorphosed to schist, with gneissic bands forming the Yinmabin metamorphic of Maung
Thein et. al (1972).

In the area west of 93 D/7 & 8 interbedded biotite schists, quartzite and minor quartz
mica schist are interpreted as metamorphosed greywackes and quartzose sandstones of Mergui
Group. The pebbly schist within the Nancho Group and the Kankalin Formation described by
Bateson et. al (1972) in the east of Pyinmana is no doubt the southern continuation of Lebyin

Myint Lwin Thein (1972) collected the following fossils from the Lebyin Group.

Bryozoans: Polypora; Fenestrella: F.naganata; F.gansuensis; Lombopore; Stenopora

Brachiopod: Spirifer

UNDP/DGSE Team collected the following fauna.

Coral: Tenatively identified as Lephophyllidiun (Sinophyllum) Pendulun (Grabau)

Bryozoans: Streblotrypa of. Elegans Sakagama and ? Fenestella sp.

(identified by Rosen 1977)

However the fauna collected were dated as Carboniferous (by Myint Lwin Thein), Carboniferous
most probably Permian (by Rosen). Recently a field party from D.G.S.E ley by Tun Aung Kyi
had observed the presence pebbly mudstones and slates underlying the limestone (Moulmein) in
the south and east of ―Tachileik‖, intruded by two mica granites.


General Statement

The upper Plateau Limestone previously regarded as Permo-Carboniferous age (La

Touche, 1913), consists of dark grey or bluish limestones, with Fusulina and Productus,
occurring only in isolated masses and almost inseqperable from the lower Plateau limestone
beds. It was once believed that the Lower Plateau limestone, being dolomitic, is of Devonian age
and the upper Plateau limestone, being calcitic, is of Permo-Carboniferous age. However the
discovery of Triassic fossils in the dolomitic part of the so-called Lower Plateau limestone at Na-
Hkan by M.R. Sahni (in Fermor, 1933) suggested that La Touche‘s two fold division of the
Plateau limestone and proposed three fold subdivisions of Plateau limestone, a lower dolomitic, a
middle calcitic and an upper dolomitc units.

The next important study of Plateau limestone was by Brown and Sonhdi (1934) in the
area between Kalaw and Taunggyi in the Southern Shan State. However the lithologic
description of the Permo-Carboniferous limestone of Brown and Sonhdi were similar in every
respect ot that of La Touche‘s so-called lower Plateau limestone of Northern Shan State.
According to Brown and Sonhdi, the Permo-Caroniferous limestone, the outcrops of which are
more extensive in the Southern Shan State than in the northern, always tends to occur as fringing
‗Islands‘ of older rocks as if situated at or near the base of the dolomites. Isolated hills or knocks
of the Limestone have the appearance of inliers rather than outlier, and in some cases they seem
to dip beneath the surrounding dolomites. This led them to suggest that some of the so-called
‗older‘ brecciated dolomites are in fact Permo-Carboniferous or even lower Mesozoic in age, and
therefore younger than the younger Plateau limestone.

The IGS/DGSE (British-Burmese) Team, in the Nyaunga and Nyaunggyat area, Yengan
Township Southern Shan State in 1971-72 was able to subdivide the rocks into three
lithostratigraphic units of Formation rank and introuduced. ( ) Thitsipin Formation,
Nwabangyi Formation and Natteik Formation (Garson et. al 1976). However Thisipin limestone
and the lower part of Nwabangyi Dolomite are undoubtedly included in the Permian System.
Thisipin Limestone: The name Thitsipin limestone Formation‖ was given by Garson et. al
(1976) to the limestones at Thitsipin village in Yengan Township. This name was modified by
Win Swe (1976) as ―Thitsipin Limestone‖ to bring into conformity with international
stratigraphic code. The Formation unconformably overlies Silurian and other lower Paleozoic
rocks. The following is the description of the Formation by Garson et. al (1976). Most of the unit
has been intensely dolomitised, resulting in a completely shattered and brecciated rock of very
different aspect from the undolomitised portion where dolomitisation has not been affected; the
Formation forms thickly wooded ridges which is sticking up from the surrounding platform.
Ridge sides are commonly steep and vertical and the surface of the formation is extremely
irregular, lacking surface drainage; swallow holes are common.

In contrast, where te formaton has been dolomitised it forms a gently rolling landscape of
open grassland with some shrubs but very few trees. Drainage is by surface streams and swallow
holes are not developed. The measurable thickness of the undolomitised part of the formation is
about 2500 feet. From the faunal evidence, some of the dolomitised part seems to be older than
undolomitised part. Because shattering associated with dolomitisation has largely obscured the
bedding it is impossible to estimate the total thickness of the formation. It is however probably in
excess of 3500 feet.

The undolomitised part of the formation can be divided into three main facies: a massive
limestone facies, with abundant brachiopods; a massive cherty limestone facies and a well-
bedded calcarinite facies (Garson et. al, 1976).

The massive limestone facies with the big shells is the most abundant and distinctive
rock type. It consists of pale grey to dark grey or bluish ( ) limestone, commonly massive but
locally poorly bedded, containing large recrystallized shells of brachiopods, often with associatd
large solitary and eompond corals, sometimes in the position of growth. The fauna is
concentrated in the lenticular beds, but these are sufficiently abundant for the facies to be easily

The well bedded calcarenite facies with fine grained calcirudites, is relatively rare in the
formation, but forms a distinct facies. The thickness of the beds range from about one inch to
two feet. Sedimentary structures are uncommon but a few show medium-scale cross-bedding.
The detrital material consists mainly of small organic fragments and is set in fine-grained matrix.

In the dolomitised part it is pale grey to pale blue, fine-grained dolomite, intensely
brecciated and often veined with calcite. The bedding is largely obscured. Some foraminifera
however are still preserved. The rock closely resemble the Nwabangyi dolomites, but does not
have the same tendency to ‗collaspe into heap of sand‘ when struck with hummer.

According to Garson et. al (1976) the deposition of the limestone formation took place
throughout the Permian period due to the faunal evidence. In the first two plaves (Grid ref:
477484 & 491488) the species collected were Yangchienia, Schulertellr, Verbeekina ? and
Prarafusilina with the widespread occurrences of smaller foraminifera which suggested the
Parapesilina zone of Late Permian age. In the dolomitised area of the formation the following
species, Pseudoschwagerina, Pseudofusulinella and Parafusulina (f. Kattaensiss Schwger)
which typify and Early Permian (zone of Pseudoschwagerina) age were collected.

Early Permian age of the limestone is reported by Brunnschweiler (1967) at Htonbo to

the east of Mandalay and named as ―Htonbo Limestone‖. This evidence was also confirmed by
the (UNDP/DGSE) Team which mapped in the Shan Scarp region and found the lower and upper
Permian faunas from the limestones and dolomites.

The Moulmein Limestone

The name was first introduced by T. Oldham (1856) to the limestone of Karen State and
Tenasserim region overlying the Mergui Group, forming isolated rock pillars but distribution is
widespread and formerly believed to be Permo-Caboniferous in age. Brunnschweiller (1972)
believed that the Moulmein Limestone is both biohermal and biostromal limestones overlying
uncomformably the Carboniferous Taungnyo Group and fossil evidence indicates the Permian
(Artinskian) age.

Nwabangyi Dolomite

Thitsipin Limestone is overlain by the dolomite unit which is extensively distributed most
of the Eastern Highlans forming knolls or rolling grasslands with much surface drainage nad
lesser swallow holes: they were named as ―Nwabangyi Dolomite Formation‖, by Garson et. al
(1976) after the Nwabangyi village in Yengan Township. This name was modified to
―Nwabangyi Dolomite‖ by Win Swe (1975).

Lithological features and sedimentary structures throught the main belt of the formation
are marked to a considerable extent by shattering and the shattered appearance of the rock and its
tendency to crumble into sand when struck by hammer.

Analysis of the samples from the formation yielded the following results:

Locality (Grid ref: ) 320529 377366

Lime (CaO) 30.9% 31.8%

Magnesia (MgO) 20.7 20.9

Loss at 1100° C 46.7 46.7

Insouble residue 0.25 0.15

99.55 99.55
Despite the brecciation, four main facies have been noted in the formation: thin-beeded
foraminiferal limestone, laminated and turbiditic limestone, sedimentary breccias, and light and
dark grey, fine-grained limestone.

The thin-bedded foraminiferal limestone facies is most abundant in the lowermost 1000 ft
of the formation. It consists mainly of thin bedded and locally laminated pale grey limestone
containing numerous foraminifera, with some beds containing gastropods and simple and
compound corals.

The laminated turbiditic limestone facies consists of alternations of light grey fine-
grained calcarinites and darker grey micritic limestone. The calcarinite beds and laminae have
harp bases and top surfaces which often grade up into micritic. In some places calcarinite beds
are interbedded with thin laminae of micritic or calcareous shale which are in some places
carbonaceous. This facies form most of the upper part of the Formation.

The sedimentary breccias facies forms units up to 20 ft thick interbedded with laminated
and turbidite limestone facies. The breccias consists of angular blocks or pebbles of calcareous
siltstone and clcilutite in the structureless limestone matrix. In some places (in Yebu Chaung)
breccias fill the channel cut in the thin-bedded turbidite limestone.

The light and dark grey, fine-grained limestone facies forms much of the middle 500 ft of
the formation, and also occurs interbedded with thin bedded foraminiferal limestone. The facies
commonly shows no structure on the weathered surfaces, but in quarries and road cuttings
alternation of light-grey and dark – grey beds of fine-grained and micritic limestone is visible.

South of Doktoye in Yengan two new interesting genera were discovered by Garson
(1976) in two places (Grid ref: 318528, 308531). The great number of the miliolid foraminifera
are closely related to Hemigordiopsis Reichel which has previously described from the
Neoschwagerina verbeekina Zone of the Upper Permian ofCyprus a Iran. Other species are
Nankinella sp. (Late Darboniferous-Late Permian), Globivalvulina sp. (Late Carboniferous-Late
Permian), Glomospira-Glomospirella group (Early Paleozoic-Recent) and Pachyphloia sp.l (Late
Permian). The Upper Permian alga Goniolinonsis hexagona Malionovic was also found in these
But conclusion was made by Garson (1976) that the fossils were only limited at the
base of Nwabangyi Dolomite and thickness of the formation is at least 8000 ft, and possibly
twice as thick, the age may extend at least into Early Trirassic and may be as high as Middle


Genreral Statement

Rocks of Triassic age are widely scattered all over Burma. Occurrence of definite
Rhaetic, Notic and Ladinic Stages in the Northern Shan State and Carnic Stage in the Amherst
District were recorded by G.S.I workers. Discovery of Middle Triassic fossils (Garson
1976) from some parts of Plateau Limestone has made its traditionally accepted Permo-
Carboniferous age no longer acceptable and most probably it is Permo-Triassic rather than
Permo-Carboniferous. Theobald (1871) reported the occurrence of Triassic fauna in his Axial
Series of Arakan Yoma and assigned it to Triassic. But the existence of Triassic rocks in this
region had been doubted by subsequent authors until Myint Lwin Thein (1966) reported the Late
Triassic fauna from the eastern foothills of Chin Hills, west of Kalemyo.

The fact that the Nwabangyi Dolomite contains the Upper Permian fossils in the lower
part of the formation does not mean that the whole unit, which is more than 8000 ft thick, lies
within Permian System (Garson, 1976). According to field relationship, this unit
conformably underlies the Natteik Limestone which is probably Middle or Upper Triassic.
Although the stratigraphic contacts are obscured by the intense dolomitisation, it is believed that
some of the upper horizons of the thick sequence of the Nwabangyi Dolomite are of Early
Triassic age.

In the Northern Shan State especially6 in Yadanatheingi and Kyaukme-Longtawkno

areas, the thick succession of the Permo-Triassic dolomite unit is lithology inseperable from the
Devonian dolomites. However the Triassic foraminifera Glomospira and Glomospirella occur in
the upper stratigraphic level of the dolomite unit. The recorded range of Glomospirella is Late
Carboniferous to Cretaceous, but those found in the dolomites or with the closely related
Glomospira (Silurian-Recent) are similar to those which often characterizes the lower and middle
Triassic (Mitchell et. al, 1977). It is roughly comparable to the middle and upper Triassic
Chialingkaing limestone of Southern Szechuan, south-west China, which have been described by
Hoyen (1959). It is some 960 km to north-east of the area (Mitchell et. al, 1977).
Natteik Limestone (Sotuhren Shan State)
The name was given by Garson et. al (1976) after the Natteik Taung (Grid ref: 274490)
where the limestone lie south and eat of the hill. It froms highly irregular ground with numerous
sinkholes and no surface drainage system, which contrasts with smoother topography and well
defined drainage of the Nwabangyi Dolomite to the east. The mixium thickness of this
Formation is about 3500 ft. The boundary between the Natteik Limestone and Nwbangyi
Dolomite is probably not a stratigrapic one, but a lithological boundary determined by the extent
of dolomitisation and brecciation in the lower Formation.

Lithology: The unit consists largely of alternations of light grey calcarenite and dark
grey calcilutite. The sedimentary features of sharp bases, grading and parallel bases and tops are
common in the calccarenite which are typical features of turbidites. Most of the calcarenites and
calcilutites are less than one inch in thickness. Thin beds and lenses and scattered nodules of
cherty limestone occur in the middle and upper part of the formation.

The upward transition from the thin turbidite limestone in the lower part of the formation
into well-bedded calcarenites with thin beds of fine-grained calcirudite containing shell
fragments were observed at the thickest part of the stratigraphic section. This is overlain by the
lenticular body of massive limestone a few hundred yards and about 50 ft thick containing partly
preserved shell fragments and corals. Slumped units, also occur, and are laterally equivalent to
massive limestone.

Shell fragments are abundant in a few beds, but only determinable remain were of
coprolite Favreina sp., which ranges from Triassic to Recent. As the unit appears to be
conformable upward from the thick Nwabangyi Dolomite, the base of which has been dated as
the top Permian, the Natteik Limestone is likely to be Middle Triassic or younger.

This agrees with Gramann (1972) who discovered Triassic cephalopods in a small
outcrop of limestone near Kondeik, south-east of Kalaw. These cephalopods are dated as upper
Anisian (Middle Triassic) and the outcrop is resting conformably more than 1000 ft of typical
shattered dolomitic carbonates, which inturn overlies fossiliferous Permian limestones. The
authors propose the name ―Kondeik Limestone‖ for the limestones with cephalopods which at
the base consists of layered dark-grey to graphite black thin interculations of black chert, passing
upwards into massive medium grey limestone without chert. For the underlying dolomitic rocks
they propose the name Thigaungdaung Limestone. They also mention two other localities which
yield Triassic fossils, a cephalopod fauna of upper Anisian age in the synclinal limestone
surrounded by dolomitic limestones, near Nammekon, east of Loikaw, and a possible ammonoid
of Anisian age found in shattered dolomitic rock, lithologically similar to the Thigaungdaung
limestone near Naungo. However Kondeik limestone is lithologically similar to the Natteik
limestone of Garson (Amos, 1975).

Napeng Formation

The name ―Napeng Stage‖ was originally proposed by La Touche (1913) to the yellow or
variegated shales and indurated clays with bands of hard and dark blue limestones. The largest
outcrops occur in the east and south-east of Napeng village. Fossils occur abundantly and are
dated as Rhaetic age. Brunnschweiller (1962) revised the upper Triassic rocks of La Touche by
establishing the ―Bawgyo Group‖, comprising Napeng Formation and ―Pangno Evaporites‖. The
newly introduced Pangno Evaporite is conformably overlain by Rhaetic rocks unconformably
underlain by all the older rocks. The evaporates are exposed in the Hsipaw area especially at the
village of Pangno. The formation is several hundred feet thick comprising gypsum, anhydrite,
rock salt, bister salt and more shaly layers.

The rich fauna including pelicypods few anthozons, brechiopods and gastropods from
Napen Formation was identified by Healey (1908). Most of the genera present indicate the
Rhaetic age.

Recent geological investigations by British-Burmese Team in Kyaukme area came up

with some different views from previous workers. The Mamyau Group, as defined by Mitchell (1977) includes the Rhaetic Stage and Mamyau Series of ( ) and the Bawgyo and
Namyau Group of Brunnschweiller (1970).

Mitchell et.all (1977), after examnations in some detail both east and west of Namtu
River near Ta-Te Ferry crossing, found that the characteristically pink and purple calcareous
sediments form a conformable sequence above the Nwabangyi Dolomite. Limestone lenses,
often continuous for several kilometres, were interbedded with red conglomerates. The contact
between the Nwabangyi Dolomite and the Namyau Group is often diachronous, the upper unit
being marked by colour shange, non-dolomitisation and the appearance of conspicuous bedding.
No evidence was found for the complex disharmonic folding attributed to gravity-slide tectonics
(Gleitektonic) which Brunndchweiller (1970) claimed to have recognised, along the Pangno
evaporite horizon.

The involutinid foraminiferal faunae collected from the basal carbonate rocks of the
Namyau Group and their correlation with foraminiferal fauane particularly from Middle East
shows that the basal part of the Namyau Group is most probably of Norian age, at least in
Kyaukme-Longtawkno area (Bronnimann, Whittaker and Zaninetti, 1975). Most of the
foraminiferal species from the base of Namyau Group are identified by Bronnimann et. al
(1975). The upper Triassic age is based essentially on the presence of Agathermmina ?
austroalpina, and the involutinid of Involutina tenuis, Involutina gaschei and Trocholina

Other Triassic Beds

Nakeng Beds

Sahni reported the occurrence of beds of definite Raetic age near Nakeng village in the
Northern Shan State. It consists of yellow to purple clays, grey shales, dark blue compact
limestones and grey argillacious limestones (in Fermor, 1931). They are highly fossiliferous and
faunae indicate the affinities with the Napeng fauna.

Beds in North Hsenwi

Hobson (quoted by Pascoe, 1930) recorded series of beds consisting of dark grey, thin
bedded limestone with interbedded sandstone passing up into carbonaceous sandstones overlying
the top of Plateau limestone. Based on the lithological characters, Hobson correlated these strata
with the rocks of Noric age of Yunnan.

Kamawkal Limestone

The some Kamawkala limestone was given by Cotter (1922) to the hard, crystalline grey
colour and limestones characterised by a network of calcite veins exposed at the hills between
Dawna range and Thailand frontier. Several minor inliers occur along the Thaungyin River and
in the hills north-west of Htichara. The most southerly inlier occurs near Phalu, east of
Moulmein. Bedly preserved fossils obtained from those beds include brachiopoda, pelecypods,
corals and algae, Gregory (1930), after his study on the corals, dated the rocks as Late Triassic.
The study of brachiopoda and pelecypoda by Weir (1930) also pointed out the Late Triassic age
to the Kanmawkala limestone. Carnic to Noric age was hinted by Trauth (1930) by studying the
corals. The study of algae (Pia, 1930) also suggests a definite Triassic age, Nyi Nyi (1965)
considered these limestones to be of Carnic age.

Cotter (1923) speculated that the Kamawkala limestone comprises the great bulk of
limestone in the Kamawkala and neighbouring areas which might represent just upward
extension of the Plateau limestone. This speculative idea of that time, to some extent, agrees with
the present knowledge of Plateau Limestone, but it is necessary to study the area in detail.

Aye Ko Aung and Thaw Tint (1982) reported the occurrence of fossils of Ladino-Garnic
age in marls exposed in the area between Kainggyi and Hokho in Naungkio township. Fauna are
identified as species of Mytilus, Modiolus, Anadontophora, Liostrea, Schafhautlia.

The Triassic Rocks in Western Part of Burma

The Axial

The name "Axial" Series was given by Theobald (1871) to the submetamorphic rocks,
constituting the main Range of Arakan Yoma. Later Theobald (1873) restricted the term Axial to
certain rocks in western Thayetmyo which he thought to be of Triassic age. The occurrence of
Halobia limestone in Arakan Yoma was first described by Theobald (1873). Tipper (1906)
reported the occurrence of these fossils both in Kareni (now Kayah State) and the Arakan Yoma.
But Clegg (1941a) suggested to postphone the recognition of the existence of the Halobia
limestone from the Axials of Arakan Yoma. Theobald's report of Triassic fossils was ignored by
many subsequent authors until upper Triassic faunas were described from several localities in the
easern part ofChin Hills, west of Kalemyo by Myint Lwin Thein (1970) and in Mindat-Saw Area
by Gramman (1974).

Recently (UNDP/DGSE) teams which mapped in Falam-Kalemyo Area (1975) and

Mindat-Saw Area (1976) introduced the name "Pane Chaung Group" for the Triassic outcrops in
Pane Chaung, west of Kan, north of Gangaw. The same unit was given the same "Thanbaya
Formation" by the Myanma Oil Corporation geologists after the Thanbaya village north-west of

The group forms a discontinuous belt along the eastern foot hills of the Western Ranges,
disappearing eastward beneath alluvium and quaternary deposits. In the west of Gangaw it
underlies a plain with very thin soil cover lying between upper Cretaceous rocks of the Chin hills
to the west and raised gravles and alluvium of Myitta River to the east. In Saw area it forms a
narrow belt both to the east and west of Kanpetlet Schist. Similar rocks also occur in the west of
Setoktaya and Mindon Area and as isolated outcrops in the southern part of Arakan Yoma, the
unit is now known to be present at the Hainggyi Island (IGCP Commission Report, 1979).

Lithology: The Group consists of turbidite sandstones, mudstones and carbonaceous

mudstones, and rarely thin-bedded grey to black and locally crystalline limestones. Turbidite
sandstone-mudstone alternations form continuous, thick and monotonous exposures in stream
gorges; the sandstones are commonly massive or weakly gradded; and are up to 2 m thick with
well developed and locally abundant flute, groove and load cast overlying thing bedded
mudstone. The coarser-grained turbidites in hand specimen show clear quartz grains with detrital
white mica in a dark grey to black, slightly lustreous, sub-phyllitic groundmass. Vein-lets of
quartz and calcite are common. These characteristics help to distinguish the sandstones in hand-
specimen from those of the adjacent succession of Upper Cretaceous to Eocene flysch to the

In the eastern Arakan Yoma, sandstone, black carbonaceour mudstones and phyllites are
considered to be part of the Pane Chaung Group. Silica carbonate rocks are common as floats in
streams; in the west of Mindon area some altered crystalline limestones partially similar to the
floats occur as interbeds in the schists.

Bedded, grey to black, orange-weathering cherts, a few metres thick, are interbedded with
turbidites and mustones in Saw Chaung (K/4, 346712), west of Saw.

Broken beds are also common in west of Gangaw and west of Yazagyo (north of
Kalemyo). They consists of angular blocks of sandstone or sandstone-mudstone alternation up to
10 m in length lying without apparent orientation in the mudstone-siltstone matrix. They are
either melenges or olistostromes.
Pillow Lavas

Pillow lavas occur in several places in the Arakan Yoma and southern Chin Hills at or
near the eastern margin of the Pane Chaung Group. They are commonly associated with gabbroic
rocks, such as at "Shwedaung Myaung" peak and "Hman Chaung" section. In the water polished
outcrops, pillows of about the size of 10 ft diameter can be observed cherts or jaspers are found
as interpillow matrix (D.G.S.E).

Kanpetlet Schist

The name Kanpetlet Scist was frist applied by Cotter (1938) to the metamorphic rocks
around Kanpetlet, from the town to south-east of Mt. Victoria (10,018ft) int the Chin Hills.
According to Cotter, the rocks are just a more highly altered facies of the Axials and he
suggesterd that it is necessary to discard both Kanpetlet and Chin Shales of Noetling (1895) as
separate formation because they are considered to be more metamorphosed facies of te axials. He
further assumed that the Axials are probably a complex Group of rocks of varying age, from
largely Pre-Cambrican to definite Triassic age.

Clegg (1938 & 1941a) also believed that the Axials are of a complex Group comprising
both Negrais Series and Mai-I Group and he pointed out that these rocks differ from each other
only in the degree of metamorphism and he considered the age of the Axials to be Cretaceous.

Brunnschweiller (1966) considered that there was sharp structural break between the
schist and sediments to the east and also considered that there was a similar break between the
schist and the sediments to the west both her and Gramman (1974) concluded that the schist were
of pre-Mesozoic age.

Recent mapping by (UNDP/DGSE) teams revealed that the Kanpetlet Schist passes
transitionally and probably stratigraphically upward into sedimentary Pane Chaung Group. It can
be directly observed in Saw Chaung and Choke Chaung sections, west of Thigon village. The
lithologies comprising the schist can be interpreted as metamorphic equivalents of the Late
Triassic Pane Chaung Group.
Lithology: The predominant lithology is fine-grained mica-schist, commonly carbonaceous
or graphitic. In water-polished outcrops, the schist is characteristically black in colour, but in the
cliffs and path cutting it weathers to a white silvery rocks.

Within a few hundred meters of it's eastern and western margins schistose decreases and
the rock passes transitonally from semi-schist, thruogh schistose sandstones interbeded with
phyllites to sandstone-mudstone interbeds. Greenschists include the rocks termed the Hilawng
Volcanic by Kyaw Win (1969). The largest body of greenschist, about 36 km long, trending
north-south, occurs in the west of Mindat but small bodies are numerous, interbedded with (--)
schsits. The greenschists are harder than the black schists particularly when epidote is abundant,
and occur in stream-beds as large boulders.

The southward extension of Kanpetlet Schist, as wide as those in Kanpetlet area

extending continuously from Kanpetlet to west of Mindon area were recognised by mapping
groups D.G.S.E in 1979-80 field season. The schists are nearly indentical with those of the
Kanpetlet area. Green-schist and rare marble also occur as interbed in black schist. It is observed
that metamorphism decreases down into Pane Chaung sedimentary rocks.

Yazagyo and Hkweka Metamorphics

In the western part of Kalemyo area two smal areas of metamorphic rock have been
mapped. THe Yazagyo metamorphics are exposed for nearly 3 km in the south flowing Yazagyo
stream. They are faulted against serpentinite in the south and against broken beds, probably of
Pane Chaung Group, to the north. The southermost exposures show tightly folded green and red
laminated silicified mustone and chert extending for a few hundred yards, bounded to the south
and north by serpentinite, possibly in the form of a sheet. These pass northwards into laminated
amphibolite and chlorite schist, including amphibolite and marble blocks enclsed in serpentinite.

Hkweka metamorphics lie east of east of the Pane Chaung Group, against which they are
fault, and south of Webula ultrabasic massif. They consist of north-trending lithological units
comprising quartz-muscovite schists in the west seperated by a band of schists of
Brunnschweiller (1966) from amphibolite to the east. The amphibolite is foliated and contains
green hornblende, plagioclase and minor sphene, epidote and chlorite.


General Statement

Jurassic rocks are found both in the Northern and Southern Shan States. In the former
area they are represented by Namyau Group (Namyau Series) and in the latter area by Loi-an
Group (Loi-an Series). It‘s Lithologic characteristic features as well as the stratigraphic position
are much more precisely defined than other Mesozoic rocks.

The name Namyau Series was originally proposed by La Touche (1913) to the rocks of
red or purple sandstone and shales with bands of limestone which succeded the Napeng Beds in
the Namyau Valley in Hsibaw area. Brown (1916), Hobson (1929) and Sahni (1930-1933)
successively studied the northward extension of the Namayu Series. The fauna of Namyau Series
were studies by Buckman (1917), Reed (1932,1936) and Sahni (1940). The Napeng Beds and
Namyau Series were re-studied by Brunnschweiller in 1962. British^ Burmese Team under
Colombo Plan also studied part of Namyau Series in Kyaukme Laungtawkno area in 1972.

Buckman (1917) attempted to subdivide the Namyau Series into two parts and proposed
the Lower Namyau Limestoan with brachiopods of Bathonian age and the upper ― Namyau
Shales‖ With purple sandstone and shales. The subdivisions were generally followed by Brown
(1936). But Sahni (1937) pointed out thatthere was neither paleontological nor stratigraphical
evidence for such division. After re-study of Namyau Series in 1962, Brunnshweiller renamed it
as ― Namyau Group‖ in comformity with modern stratigraphic nomenclature and subdivided
chronologically into two formations viz: - the upper ―Hsibaw Red Beds‖ and the Lower ― Tati-

Tati Limestone (Bathonian to Callovian)

The Tati Limestone corresponds to What La Touche (1913) described limestone bands of
Namyau Series and Buckman‘s (1917) ― Namyau Limestone‖. The name is given after the
village of Tati, north of Hsibaw where the type locality (Grid Ref: 260258) is on the north bank
of the Namtu river at its sharp bnad below the Tati ferry, which is now 1½ km north of Tati

According to Brunnschweiller, it is an alternation of tough, compact,llowish to buff,

commonly fossiliferous limestone with softish, yellow and grey, marly limestones and thin
bedded marl. Becomes (----), hard limestone layers disappear, and the rock colour gradually
changes from yellow and buff to red-brown. But there are still no true shales, and certainly no
sandstones, and it is wrong to assign it to Hsipaw Red Beds which begins with strainght-forward

The measured stratigraphic thickness of Tati limestone is about 36m but tectonic
repeatition complicates the estimation. The apparent thickness is 60m.

Hsibaw Red Beds

Originally Datta (1900) introduced the Hsibaw Series for the red bed facies of
sandstones, interbedded in part with shales, siltstones and mudstones which La Touche (1913)
did not follow suit. But Brunnschweiller believed that the Namyau Group is easily seperable into
two formations and revived the name ―Hsibaw Red Beds‖.

Lithologically it is monotonous wed bed character but the lower half of the sequence is
composed almost antirely of medium to fine-grained argillaceous sandstones. They are Red-
brown to Burgudy red, well bedded throughout and frequently ripple-marked. Unidentifiable
fossil bivalves occur sparsely and lenses of limestone conglomerate occur at the lowar fifth of
the formation but not as basal conglomerate or the kind which La Touche (1913) postulated
(Brunnschweiller, 1962).

The middle part of Hsibaw Red Beds is marked by the predominance of shales, sandy
shales and massive mudstones. In the uppermost hundred meters, the red bed character is
gradually lost.

Judging from the Brachiopods of Namyau limestone (Tati Limestone of Brunnschweiller,

1962), Buckman (1917) assigned a Bathonian age to this limestone. Sahni (1936) regarded
Bathonian to Kimmeridgian age for these limestone. Sahni (1936) regarded Bathonian to
Kimmeridgian age for these (---) by the study of pelecypods, distinguished two horizons namely
Combrash and Bathonian. Pasce (1959) considered the Namyau beds to (--) to certain
fosalliferous horizons of Indo-China of which the age range down-ward into Upper Triassic.
Brunnschweiller (1962) believed the age of Tati Limestone (---) to Callovian.

The Upper Triassic involutinid fauna discovered by Mitchell (1972) in the basal
carbonate rocks at Tati Ferry which is the type locality of Tati Limestone of Brunnschweiller
(1962) is believed to be the first definte record of its kind from eastern Asia (Bronnimann,
1975) Therefore the age of Namyau Group is not restrited to Late Jurassic but probably extends
to Late Triassic as stated by Mitchell (1977)

Ma-U-Bin Formation (Kyatsakan Formation)

The name Na-U-Bin Formation was give n by Garson (1974,1976) to a succession
comprising mudstone and turbidite sandstones with local interbedded limestone. This unit can be
traced southward in the map sheets 93 D/5 and it is well exposed near ―Kyatsakan‖ village on the
Kalaw-Thazi road. Win Swe (1975) give the name Kyatsakan Formation after this village to this

The formation in meat places is tightly folded with a wave length of 5m to 100m and
many of the beds are overturned, although horizontal bedding is found locally. Garaon
(1976) tentatively interpreted the parallel to disharmonic style of folding as the resulet of gravity
gliding but the deformation is believed to be the result of eastward thrusting.

Lithology; The formation comprises interbedded sandstones, mudstones and siltstones with local
mudflake bonglomerates. The most common lithology is an alternation of parallel bedded grey
sandstone and black mudstone, commonly carbonaceous. The thickness of the sandstone varies
from a few centimtres to a metre with mudstones thinner than the sandstone. Solemarks in the
form of flute, groove and load cast are common and animal triails are visible on some bedding
(-) The area drained by law Chaung (93 D/6). The succession shows numerous small
scale folds with local vertical axes. The rocks are mostly silicified with greenish to pale grey
sandstones and inpure quartzite interbedded with black, very hard mudstones giving the
pronounced stripped appearance, Host beds are one to 20 cm thick, commonly sandstones show
ripple cross-lamination (--) lanination throughout, with sharp load-cast bases. The formation is
intruded by dikes of felsparphyrichornblend, microdiorite and a diorite stock.

Stratigraphic relationships, correlation and age: The contact with Shan Plateau Group to the west
has not been observed, in the stream section east of Kubin (93 D/5) exposures of dolomite and
turbidite beds alternate over a distanceof 100m, probably due to imbricate faulting
(UNDP/DGSE, 1976). The formation lies to the west of westward dipping Loi-an formation
(Inbying Formation), but different style of folding (more intense in Ma-u-bin Formation)
suggests that this contact is almost certainly tectonic. The angular unconformable contact is well
exposed in the Gegauk Chaung 500m north of Kalaw-Thazi road where the red conglomerates
dipping west at 55° lie on turbidites dipping east at 80° and younging west.

There is little direct evidence for the age of the formation except that it is post-Shan
Plateau Group and pre-Kalaw conglomerate. Howerer the isoclinally folded Ma-ubin Formation
suggest that the deformation is pre-deposition of less folded Loi-an Formation.

According to N.J. Morris (1978) the ill-preserved fossils from this. Unit, first tentatively
identified as possible conchostracan fragments (BMNH OGS Collin 1970/22 reported 1st
October 1970 (LOC. Am 40), were wuggestive of an Upper Permian or Lower Mesozoic age and
since the Formation is post Shan Plateau Group, the Upper Triassic is most probable. The shells
could equally be bivalves belonging to the family Astartidac (L.De-Recent), particulary
resembling those of upper Jurassic age. But Morric mentioned that sice it seems impossible to
decide whetherthe shells are bivalves or cenchostraca, any conclusion about their age must be
used with extreme caution. Tiny brachiopod shells, previously identified as Estheria Spp. Which
is long (--) fore were (--) from a felocalities (Win Swe 1976). But he regarded the Formation as
probable Jurassic age.

Inbyin Formation

Loi-An Formation
The term Loi-an Formation is used by (UNDP/DGSE Team, 1978) to a succession or tain
coals, Conglomerates, sandstone and shales exposed along the shan Soarp zone especially in the
map sheep 93 D/5. It is equivalent to part of Coal Measures of Jones (1887) and Cottter (1922).
Renamed Loi-an Series by Dr. Fox in 1929 (in Coggin Drown and Sondhi, 1933). The
UNDP/DGSE team gave the name in order to retain the old name. But Win Swe 1976 used the
name Loi-an as group name and Inbyin Formation is newly proposed to the particular coal
measures after the Inbyin village, three miles north of Kalaw.

Lithology; UNDP/DGSE Team described the Formation in terms of five main facies with which
the concretionary shales are commonly interbeadded. The quartzose and felspathic sandstone
facies occur throughout the lower and middle part of the formation in units up to 10m thick.
They are white to grey or yellowish, commonly cross-bedded sandstones and gritty sandstones,
but in places show ferruginous parallel laminations. The sandstones are mostly interbedded with
coals and rippled siltatones. Rarely, conglomerated with rounded pebbles of quartz are present.

Laminated and ripple-cross-laminated siltstones on weathered surfaces resemble a

turbidito facies, with more resistant bands a few centimeters thick alternating with softer layers.
However, on fresh surfaces the alternations are seen to consist entirely of inter –laminated
yellow, fine-grained sandstones and grey silty mudstones, the proportion of sandstone
laminations being greater in the more resistant bands.

Coals and coaly shales up to a meter in thickness, occur mostly in the middle part of the
formation and are commonly interbedded with the rippled sidtstones and quartzose and felspatic

Limestones occur in the unit up to 4m or more in thickeness and largely restricted to the
middle and upper part of the formation. They are mostly bic-calcarinites and silty limestones
with locally shell fra ments (-) have not yielded any definite age.

Concretionary shales are restricted to the uppermost part of the Formation where they are
up to 200m thick and lie adjacent to the Ma-u-bin Formation to the west. They comprise grey
shaly siltstones and silty mudstones, with scattered spherical nodules up to 6cm diameter. An
abundant fauna is present in some of the concretions, and well preserved brachiopods are found
on the surface of some deeply weathered exposures.
In this connection the descriptions of Thein Chaung Formation of Win Swe 1976
undoubtedly resemble the limestone facies and concretionary shales, but is occurs only limited
distribution in lega area and Bawhnigon area south east of Kalaw. These also contain
argillaceous limestones, calcarenites and calcirudite with shales. Several specimans of poorly
preserved ammonites were collected from few localitiee of Thein Chaung Formation.

The shell fragments in the limestone are indeterminabe. But the ammonite fragments
from the concretionary shales are determined as Euaspi doceras baneanum (dorbigny) by
Howarth (1978) and the age is proved to be lower Oxfordian, Other determinable fossils are also
collected from several places of the formation. Among them the Bibalvia of Davromya sp. And
Aniscrdia sp. Even though they are not known species but are similar to those known from the
middle upper Jurasic. The duanble gastropods or Pietteia sp. Ampullospira sp. Are ypical Middle
to Upper Jurasic assemblage and supports the age given by the Gxfordian aspddoceratid
ammonite (N.J. Morris in Whittaker, 1978). Howerer part or the Loi-an Formation can therefore
be correlated with richly fossiliferouslimestone (Buckman, 1917; Cowper Reed, 1936) beneath
the Hsibaw Red bedsin the Northern Shan State.

Kyauksu Taung Formation

This is newly proposed in UNDP/DGSE Team (1978) to the rocks lying with probable
unconformity above the Mergui Group (Lebyin Group by Myint Lwin Thein) in the southern part
of 95 C/8 north-east of Yinmabin, Thazi Township. The name is referred to as Kyauksu Taung
Formation after the hill ―Kyauksu Taung‖ ( 93 C/8 L.857502) and the unit is well exporsed in the
Kyauksu Chanung and in the streams draining the esstern slopes of the Kyauksu Taung. The
formation is equivalent to the upper part of Panlaung Formation of Garson (1976), the lower
part of which is now recongised as the Carboniferous Mergui Group.

Lithology; The formation comprise a very distinctive pale grey basal conglomerate with
rounded pebblesof quartzite, vein quartz and red chert in a quartzose matrix, interbedded with
cross-bedded white quartzose sand-stones. The conglomerate and quartzite are overlain by
laminated siltstone, mudstone and rare sandstone, with common ripple-marks which pass into
muddy fine-grained black limestone and calcareous mudstone and shale which are locally pebbly
and included shelly bed. The top of the formation consists of a blue-black, fine-grained
limestone, mostly well-bedded, which thickens northwards from about 15m in the north of
93/D/5 to nearly 200m in 93 C/8. The formation is about 1,00m thick.

Soth of Lebyin on 93 D/6 a succession of shales and thin limestones considered to be

equivalent o Kyauksu Taung Formation in the nothr are exposed. Here the shales and mudstones
are highly carbonaceous and mostly calcareous. Interbedded black muddy limestone contains
sedimentary breccias with angular fragments of mudstone and limestone up to 5cm in diameter.
Sedimentary breccias include slumped beds, but the stratigraphic succession and structure is
complicated by thrusts. Sole-marks and crosslamination in a unit in the east suggest that part of
the formation here is overturned.

In the type area the quartzose conglomerate at the base of the form (----) Morgui Group,
although the actual contact is occupied by a thin band ofweathered shale. The fossils obtained
from the limestones are indentified by Wittaker (1978) and are Foraminifers of sedoc Lamina,
Haplophregmoid Sp. Miliolaceans and/or Glomospeira spp and the age ranges from probable
Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous .Indurated black shale from the ( - ) shell beds contains
Astartida? Genus. A small plentiful species of upper Jurassic aspect. They are Protocardia sp.
And Procertithium sp. (Morris and Palmer in Whittaker, 1978). According to them the
preservation of these species is too poor to allow more definite indentification . The sample is
definitely of Mesozoic age but is qite possibly of upper Jurassic. It could be of the same age as
the Oxfordian Loi-an or slightly earlier or of younger upper Jurassic age. But they suggested that
although the specimens of Loi-an Formation and Kyauksu Taung Formation do not differ much
in age, they are of different bottom communities (Morris and Palmber in Whittaker, 1978).

However recent discovery of fossils proved that the rocks of the former coal measures or
Loi-an Series of Brown and Sondhi (1936) are partly definite Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) excpt the
Ma-u-bin Fromation (Kyautsakan Formation) which only yielded the loneg range fossils and
show different style of deformation.

Red sandstones, Karen State (Formerly Armherst District)

Red bed are well developed in the estern part of Karen State near Burma-Thiland Border.
They unconformably overlie the Kamawala limestone and predominantly consist of fine to
medium-grained pink, brick-red to purple sandstone and pobbly sandstone,. The pebbles, mostly
an inch in diameter, are composed of either pink sandstone or quartzite. The sandstones were
interbedded with grey to cherry-red coloured clays, conglome rates and buff coloured
sandstones. About on to three inches thick argillaceous limestone bands are found intercalated
with colourd clays yielding traces of fossils, mainly lamellibranchs, among which the genus
Astarte is common, Conglomerates were observed in eight exposures within the distaince of six
miles. It is composed of pbbbles of Moulmein Limestone or Kamawka (--) matrix of red



General Statement

The existence of Cretaceous rocks in Burma was first described by Theobald (1871-1873)
(--) of Arakan Yoma which he termed as ― Axial Series‖. But later the term Axial Series is only
applied to certain rocks in western Thayetmyo which are believed to be of Triassic.

The names ―Nagrais Series‖ of southern part of Arakan Yoma and ―Mai-I Series‖ of
northern part of Arakan Yoma and ―Mai-I Series‖ of northern part of Sandoway District were
also given by Theobald. He believed that both of them are younger than the true ―Axials‖, the
former is perhaps Cretaceous and the latter is definitely Upper Cretaceous (Upper Albian)
because of the discovery of a specimen of ammonite,

Pervinquieria inflerta (Sow).

Cotter (1938) and Clegg (1938) gave different views upon ―Axials‖ after their field
works. Cotter (1938) who worked in northern Arakan Yoma (i.e. Minbu and Pakokku Districts)
had the impression that the Axial Series is a composite on which comprises the rocks of Negrais
Series Which is lithogi lly similar to that of the Axials and differ from it only in the degree of
metamorphism. He further assumed that the Axials are probably a complex group ofrocks of
varying age, from largely Pre-Cambrian to definte Triassic.
Clegg (1938-1941) after his work in Minbu and Thayetmyo distriets considered that the
Axials are of a complex group including both Negrais Series and Mai-I Group and assumed that
these rocks differ from each other only in the degree of metamorphism. He considered the age of
the Sxials to be Cretaceous.

Definte Cretaceous rocks have been recorded by Clegg (1937 a & 1941 a) from the first
and second defiles of the Irrawaddy River, the area east of Katha and the Jade Mines area
between Hwehka and Mawkalon. These rocks are essentially of limestones which contain
Orbitolina burminica indicatin the Early Cretaceous age, probably uppermost Barremian.

The age of Kalaw Red beds of Southern Shan State has long been (---) the purple
sandstones and shales of the Red bed proper from the pepper and salt sandstone and shales with
coal but be regarded them anyone continuous series and assigned to a single stratigraphic unit
under tertiary.

La Touche (1913) (---) purple sandstone zone of Middlemise in the Kalaw area to be
equivalent of Namyau Series of the Northern Shan State‖.

Brown and Sondhi (1933-34) state that Kalaw Redbeds rest unconformably on the Loi-an
Series which contain undoubted Jurassic fauna. The discovery of Turrilites and Bauclites by Fox
(1930) was sited to be suggestive of upper to middle Cretaceous. But the identification ofthese
specimens even as fossils wascenied by Spath and Sahni (in Sahni, 1937a) who stated that these
are just sedimeatary concretions.

However, Kobayashi (1960) pointed out the differences in nature distribution and
structure between the Loi-an coal measures and the Redbeds. The former was strongly folded
and thrusted by Paleozoic formation and also intruded by granites, and was overlain by the
Redbeds ofKalaw (---) for the Kalaw Redbeds.

Inferred Cretaceous Rocks in Eastern Highlands

Kalaw Redbeds

As stated abovethe name Kalaw Redbedswas originally propoaed by Middlemise

(19 ) is the rocks in the vicinity of Kalaw. During geological investigation in the area the field
parties of Directorate of Geological Survey and Exploration renamed the Kalaw Redbeds as
Kalaw Formation. In the Shan Scarp region geologists from United Nations assisted Geological
Survey and Exploration Project had an opinion to upgrade the Kalaw Redbedsto Group status on
account of the unit being composed of at least three main mappable lithologic suited and
includes at least on and probably two angular unconformities. In general the Group comprises
volcanic rocks, micritic limestone and predominantly red to purple or pink clastic sedi ( -----)

The three subunits are informally namedby UNDP/DGSE Team (1979). These are in
upward stratigraphic sequence, the patchaung Volcanics, the Telu Limestone and the Kalaw

Patchaung Volcanics

A succession of lavas and volcano clastic rocks up to 700m thick is well exposed in the
stream immediately east of the deserted village of Patchaung in the southern part of 93 C/8, and
in Kyauksu Chaung and Kanaw Chaung in the northern part of 93 D/5. A similar succession is
exposed in a discontinuous belt southwards across 93 D/5 and in 93D/6.

According to UNDP/DGSE Team‘s report, the main body of Patchaung Volcanics lies
unconformably on Kyauksudaung Formation which is believed to be Jurassic. But this volcanic
is undoubtedly equivalent to the volcanic rocks which Brown and Sondhi (1934) included in the
Kalaw Redbeds. But a complete stratigraphicsecctkions of these units are no where to be found
and it is regarded to be part of Kalaw Redbeds.

Lithology; At Patchaung (93 C/8), the lowest bed is a conglomerate with pebbles of
limestone and of greenish fine-grained dacitic rocks. This is overlain by volcanogenic green to
purple silts and sandstones, which pass upwards into conglomerates with the plagiophyric
andesite pebbles interbedded with flow bended rhyolite. The upper part of the Formation
comprises a succession of alternating purple plagiophyric andosites, green to puple quartz-
porphyry dacites and red to pale grey rhyolites with interbedded volcanogenic sediments and rare
white tuffs. The conglomerates are mostly red to purple in colour, and beds o red to purple
siltstones and sandstones interbedded with coarse-grained sediments are slso present.
The sections of lavas near Patchaung and also south of Telu village are composed
of vesicular holocrystalling porphyritic hornblende andestes, rate trachytes with phynocrysts
oforthoclase, minor plagioclase and altered mafic rocks.

Telu Limestone

(-) grey to white or cream colored and locally pink micritic limestones, previously
desdribed as the ― Pinnacle Limestone Formation‖ by Grson (1972-1976). (--) in map sheet
93C/8 . Similar limestones also occur in 93 D/5 near Telu village and was termed Telu Limeston
(UNDP/DESE Team. 1978). The unit comprises micriticlimestones more than 5m and
commonly up to 30m thick, interbedded with red sandstones, siltstones, and local red
conglomerates. The unit in this area is about 700m thick.

Lithology; Both Pinnacle Limestone of Garson and Telu Limestone UNDP/DGSE
Team have similar colour and characteristic blotehy texture. It is mostly thick bedded and
massive and locally comprises clasts or patches of pink, white or cream-coloured micrite either
separated by stylolites or set in crystalline calcite matrix, resembling caleirudites. Interbedded
red sadstones and shales are commonly calcareous and include lenticular beds of micritic
limestone. In a few localities pink to red chert lenses are present in the limestone. The micritic
limeston lies in probable stratigraphic contact on the Pacthaung Volcanics Kubyin in 93 D/5 and
overlie the volaies south of Lebyingin 93 D/6 . No organic remains have been foung in the

Kalaw Conglomerate

Red conglomerate, sandstone and siltstone are the most widespread and characteristic
ligholoias of Kalaw Rodbeds. Recent mapping in Shan Scarp region by UNDP/DGSE Team has
shown that they form the youngest unit. The base of the conglomerate is a boulder bed, mostly
red, but lically grey to brown in colour. The composition of the clasts varies widely and is
commonly relatedto the lithology of the underlying unit, although some clasts of red sandstone
and siltstione are present in almost all localities
Angular to sub-rounded pebbles and cobbles of limsestone and dolomite most common
and presont not only where the unit overlies the Shan Plateau Group but also in some areas
where it overlies non-calcarous

Angular to sub-rounded pebbles and cobbles of limestone and dolomite most common
and present not only whoer the unit overlies the Shan Plateau Gruup but slso is some areas where
itoverlies non-calcareous rocks. Elsewhwer the clasts are predominantly of the Ma-u-bin
formation, Kyauksudan: Formation, Pachaung Volcanics, Telu Limostone, quartzitres of Mergui
Group, or rarely of biotite luco-granite, The conglomerate near Pyinyaung railway station (- )
predominantly of quartzites, granites and rare metamorphic green rocks. The matrix ranges from
red or brown sandstone, siltstone and calcareous siltstone. Most of the coglemerate is crudely
bedded and locally cross-bedded, and in some places imbrications of the clasts is apparent.

Similar lighology in Kalaw area is described by Win Swe(1976). The most

striking feature of the Formation wherever it occurs is its reddish colour. In most places it is
pebble conglomerate. The clasts in those areas are limestone and locally sandstone in minor
amount. The cementing material in the Kalaw conglomerate and sandstone is calcite. The
variability of size and composition of clasts suggest local derivation (Win Swe, 1976).

Kyaw Win (1980) also described the Kalaw Redbeds in Loi-Maw Chaung valley and
Hibon valley in the south-western part of Inle Lake, They suggested that the Kalaw Formation in
that part is at least devidible into three units.The lower part of the unit predominantly of thin to
medium bedded red coloured siltstones gradually passing into thick-badded conglomerate
wihich is interbedded with thinly bedded siltstone. Then the Conglomerate which is intobedded
with thinly bedded siltstone. Then the conglomerate becomes predominant. In the middle part a
coarse alternation of pebbly siltston and medium-bedded siltstone unit predominates. Reddist
hard, medium-bedded sandstone and thinly bedded, finely crystalline, reddish coloured
limostone are found in the upper horizons of the Formation.

Startigraphic relationship and age

Occurrence of determinable macrofossils or microfossiles from the Kalaw

Redbeds has not been reported. Middlemiss and Sahni (in La Toche, 1913) considered that the
redbeds were similar in lithology to the purple sandstone and shale of the Nanyau Series of the
Northern Shan State. The Namyau (---) limestones, later termed Tati Limestone by Brunnsch
weiller (1970), which contain Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) brachiopods, In spite of the
controversy on its‘s stratigraphy, the upper part of the Namyau Sories (--) Redbeds of (--) (1979)
, are undoubtedly lithologically identional with those of Kalaw Couglomerate (Mitchell
1977). Possibly also Kalaw Conglomerate can be correlated with the red carbonate conglomerate
and sandstone overlying the Triassic Kamawkala Limestone in Karen State. The Telu Limestone
(Pinnacle Limestone of Garson 1974,1976) is probably equivalent to the limestones within
the lower part of redbeds of Namyau Series of Northern Shan State (La Touche, 1913,
Brunnschweiller,1970) (Mitchell et.al1977).

The stratigraphic relationship in the Southern Shan State indicates that the Patchaung
volcanic and Talu Limestone are younger than Panlaung Group (Loi-an Group) and that the
Kalaw Conglomerate is younger than all other units in the area (UNDP/DESE Team, 1979) and
the Group therefore is almost certainly post-Jurassic in age.

The definite angular unconformity between Kalaw Conglomerate and Kyatsakan

Formation or Ma-u-bin Formation were observed in several localites (Win Swe 1976,
UNDP/DGSE Team 1979). Kyaw Win (1980) described that the Kalaw Redbeds overlie
with an angular unconformity, the Inbyin Formation (Loi-an Formation) in the area west of Inle
Lake. According to fossil evidence the Inbyin or Loi-an Formation is definite Oxfordian age
(upper Jurassic) and the Kalaw Redbeds is almost certainly of post-upper Jurassic and probably
of Cretaceous age.

UNDP/DGSE Team further stated that the Patchaung Volcanic and Telu Limestone are
probably late Early to early Late Cretaceous. The Patchaung Volcanics cannot reliably be
correlated with any unit of the Volcanic Arc (Pinlebu-Bamauk) to the west, although they could
be equivalent to either Maingthon Dacite or Khawdaw Dacite in the northern part of the Arc.
Possibly the extensive Kalaw Congolmerate can be correlated with the Late Cretaceous
(Maastrictian) to Early Eocene Paunggyi Conglomerate widespread in the Western Trough, and
probably equivalent to Ketpanda and Ingyin Taung Formation of the Volcanic Arc
(UNDP/DGSE Team, 1979).
Cretaceous rocks in Upper Irrawaddy Provinces

According to Clegg (1941) the Cretaceous strata at the first and second difiles of the
Irrawaddy River are composed of arenaceous and calcareous sediments which contain fossils of
definite Cretaceous age. Due to lack of systematic geological mapping, the units are
stratigraphically not yet well established. In general they overlie the tightly folded, indurated
older sedimentary rocks and underlies the sandstones and calcareous sandstones of Late Tertiary

The arenaceous sediments consist of dark, rather cleaved ferruginous mudstones

intercalated with rubbly, harder and more sandy bands and are fossiliferous. The fossils occur as
ferruginous cast of Obitolina of Cretaceous age.

The more calcareous part of the unit is partly metamorphosed and consists of indurated
limestone, sandstone, shale and their infinite conbinations. The massive limestones are rich in the
remains of large mollus-can shells, protruding from the limestone, which were unable to extract.

The fossils discovered in the limestone are Obitolina birminica which indicate a
Cretaceous age, probably uppermost Barremian Zone (Sahni,1937a).

According to Clegg, similar limestones occur in isolated exposures in Mongmit State, the
area east of Katha and Jade Mines area east of Katha and Jade Mines area between Hwehka and

Cretaceous rocks of northern part of Central Burma

The existence of Mesozoic rocks in the northern part of Central Burma was not known
until systematic geological mapping by G.S.E prpject (UNDP/DGSE) in 1974 to 1978.

Apart from the Mesozoic volcanic and plutons here termed Mawgyi Andesite &
Kanzachaung Batholith, (UNDP/DGSE Team, 1979), the deeper water sedimentary rocks
resembling turbilites are well developed in 83 p/11 between Pinlebu and Bamauk. These clastic
rocks were referred to Kondan Chaung Group where the river is flowing across most of the rock
units. This Grou is subdivided into three formations according to their stratigraphic position and
dixtinct lithologic suites. They are Mawlin Formation, Namakauk Limestone ad Nankholon

Mawlin Formation

The Mawlin Formation is named from the succession exposed in the stream section
around and particularly south of Mawlin village near southern margin of quardrangle map sheet
83 p/11. It occupies a roughly triangular area west of Mawlin bounded in the east by mountain
ranges of ―Mawgyi Andesite‖ (see in the chapter of igneous rocks), and forms a narrow north-
south trending belt west of Wuntho.

Lithology: The succession has been observed in most detail in the south, near Mawlin,
farther north exposures are poor.

In the south of Mawlin the formation consists of up to 1200m of volcanogenic

sandstones, grits, tuffaceous sandstones, showing parallel bedding, sharp bases to the coarser
beds and rare gradding, indicating a turbidite facies. A kilometer south of Khedwin near the
northern Margin of 83 p/12, sandstones and grits containing quartz and feldspar occur as float
near the contact of Mawgyi Andesite. Andesitic flows or sills are interbedded with the sediments
in the basal few hundred merers of the succession in this area.

West of Wuntho the predominant lighology is a succession of thin-bedded or liminated,

mostly brown to green fine-grained tuffs and siltstone, in places parallel bedded alternations of
siltstones and silty mudstones resemble a turbidite facies. Minor intrusions and possibly lava
flows are sidespread, comprising andesites, dacites and quartz diorites. Andesites are most
abundant, consisting of fresh greenish plagiophyric rock with a characteristic red weathering
surface, forming sills or folws up to 10m thick parallel to bedding, a few of andesites show flow
braccia texture. Dacite intrusions are less common, comprising quartz and feldspar phenocrysts
in a white groundmass. Small intrusive bodies of fresh, fine-grained quartz diorite and
microgranodiorites are present in places, for example near the highest point or the motor road
west of Wuntho.

Namakauk Limestone
East of Thayetkon (83 p/11, 178090) , fine-grained, parallel bedded, locally calcareous
volcanogenic sediments and mudstones of the Mawlin Formation pass upwards gradationally
into sharp-based calcarenites and fine-grained calciruditesinterbedded with dark, muddy micrite
and calcareous mudstones. The coarser clastic limestones contain abundant algae fragments and
scattered shell debris together with angular to subrounded volcanic rragments but no identifiable
organic remains have been found. The nature of the bedding indicates a turbidite facies. The
maximum thickness of the Formation approaches 700m.

Nankholon Formation

A poorly exposed rock unit lying in the core of syncline stratigraphically above the
Namakauk Limestone is termed the Nankholon Formation from the village on the western
margin of the unit. It consists of thinly bedded black mudstone and siltstone with rare
sandstones. Near Nankholon (83 p/11, Z.239188) at the western margin of the Formation thick
bedded limestone with abundant gastropods forms a lenticular body about 2km in length. The
fossils identified by N.J. Morris (1978), are Nerinid gastropod Diptysis Oppenheim. The range of
Neriniidae is very poorly known in South-East Asia but the European Range suggests that this
sample is probably of Kimmeridgian (U.Jurassic) to Valanginian (L.Cretaceous) age. About 9km
north of Nankholon near east of Pinhinks, there occur a limestone body with pebbles of volcanic
clasts containing indeterminate algae and foraminifera. Shell fragments however are common,
some of which have been identified by N.J. Morris (1978) as belonging to the rudist (Bivalvia)
family, the Rudistitidae. Although their age range is Early to Late Cretaceous (Barremian-
Maastrichtian) and he suggested that the limestone is probably of Late Cretaceous age. Due to
poor exposures the stratigraphic relationship of this limestone with Nankholon Formation is not
known. The conglomeratic near of the limestone indicates a possible unconformity above
Nankholon Formation.

Cretaceous Rocks in Western Range (-----------) , Chin, Nega Hills)

Geotectonically the Western Ranges can be divided into two belts viz. Eastern Belt and
Western Belt. The Eastern Belt includes the older rocks of Upper Triassic Pane Chaung Group
and metamorphosed Pane Chaung Group known as ―Kanpotlet Schist‖. Overlying the Kanpetlet
Schist and Pane Chaung Group with probable unconformity in places and mostly in tectonic
contact is termed Paung Chaung Limestone (UNDP/DGSE Team, 1979) which is included in the
Eastern Belt.

The Western Belt is an underthrust block under the Eastern Belt and comprises micritic
limestone, black mudstones and turbidite sandstones of typical flysch type sedimentary rocks
yielding the Upper Cretaceous fossils (Brunnschweiller, 1962; UNDP/DGSE Team).

Paung Chaung Limestone

Limestone of late Early to early Late Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian ) age was first
reported by Gramman (1974) in the Saw Chaung of the Mindat-Saw Area and streams to the
north extending over a distance of 50km. The southern continuation was mapped by
UNDP/DGSE Team in the field seasons of 1975-1977. It is a discontinuous and locally
tectonically repeated belt up to 800m in outcrop width along the eastern foothills of the Chin
Hills. The name Paung Chaung limestone is taken from the stream which flows along strike
within it, 7km north west of Saw.

Lithology: Gramman (1974) described the rock as a thin bedded fissile asphaltic
limestone with local siliceous and cherty limestone layers.

According to UNDP/DGSE Team, the formation is easily recognized in river bank

exposures, occurring as grayish-white wreathing, well bedded muddy limestones in units up to
30m thick. On fresh surface, the limestione is mostly grey to black and well laminated;
horizontal burrowa up to 5mm in diameter are commonly visible. Black pyritic mudstiones and
siltstones in places form thin beds between limestones, and on 84 L/1 units of black mudstone up
to 20m thick alternate with limestone. Within the limestone at two localities (e.g 84 L/1 --------) a
thin bed with a tuffaceous appearence contains small pebbles and grains of deeply weathered
chloritized basalt and minor detrital feldspar in a calcareous sandy marix. Locally where small-
scale folds are present, the limestone is intensely veined by calcite and largely crystalline.

In the Mahin Chaung on 84 L/1 a fossiliferous horizon containing corals, large

bivalves, and gastropods up to 20cm inlength, and ammonites were observed at two localities,
but in general organic remains are scare.
The ammonites were identified by Howorht (1977) as Mortoniceras sp.indet.,Hyohoplites
sp. Indet: Mariclla sp. Indet; and Hamitid sp. Indet., which dated as Later Albian age. The same
age is also indicated by the planktonic foraminifera: Hedbergella spp (Adams, 1977).

Dolomite-quartz rock: Dolomite-quartz rock is common as large boulders and rarely as

lenticular beds where the Paung Chaung limestone lies adjacent to serpentinites or pillow lavas.
In the Mahin Chaung (84 L/1,259518), pillow lavas lying east of serpentinite are overlain by a
belt of dolomite-quartz rock a few metres wide, which passes eastward into Paung Chaung
limestone. Identical rocks occur in the East of Arakan Yoma in Yetha Chaung (85 N/1, 253232)
adjacent to a serpentinite sill, and in the Zegon Chaung (85 J/14, 223609).

Similar rocks also occur in northern central Burma, at Budaung forest area 20 miles east
of Kawlin shere serpentinites are overlain in the east by a belt of Dolomite-quartz rocks. In the
west adjacent to serpentinites there occurred a succession of indurated black mudstones, grits and
rare sandstones interbedded with white marbles and green calcareous rocks of probable altered
basalts which are termed as ―Ngapyawdaw Chaung Formation‖ (UNDP/DGSE Team, Report
No. 8,1979).

Paunggyi Formation

Succession of conglomerates and grits, c(------)-bedded sandstones and shales, turbidites

and lenticular limestones overlying unconformably the older rocks of Pane Chaung (-------) and
Paung Chaung limestone were originally described by Cotter (1912-1915) from the Western
Outcrops of Minbu Basin north of Thayetmyo extending through the Mindat-Saw Area. He
termed Paunggyi or Swelegyin Conglomerate (Cotter,1915). Similar conglomerates to the east
were later described by other workers and considered them (Cotter,1938) to be lacal beds within
the Laungshe shales.

Clegg (1938) mentioned the discovery of Schizaster, Cardita?, Lithothamnium and a

doubtful ammonite from the Axials exposed to the west of Mindon in the Thayetmyo district,
characteristed by grits, ashes and shales of porcellaneous character which pass up insensibly into
the Eocene rocks. Clegg (1938) further collected the Cardita beaumonti of Danian age at the base
of Numulite group. Cotter (1938) also mentioned the presence of Danian Stage from the basal
beds of Numulites in Tilin and Gangaw areas in the north.
Khin Mg Aye (1979) described a thick succession of organized and discorganised
conglomerates, turbidite sandstones, grits,and mudstones at the Hlwa Chaung and Mindon
Chaung sections, west of Mindon. The succession is undoubtedly similar to those of deep marine
fan sediments described by Walker (1972). It was termed ―Axials‖ by Thebald (1879) and Clegg
(1938) extends northward trough west of Ngape and Sedoktaya up to Mindat-Saw area where it
marges into what previously Cotter (1915) named as Paunggyi Conglomerate (Kyaing Sein,
1980). In the west of Mindon, tis succession overlies the metamorphosed Pane Chaung Group or
Kanpetlet Schist with probable unconformity in places, but mostly a tectonic contact is observed.

A unit of similar lithology is present in the east of Gangaw and east of Kalemyo in the
north. In the east of Kalemyo the formation is well exposed along the Kalemyo-kalowa road and
in numerous westerly-draining(----------) The lower part of the formation was termed Kyigon
Shale by Win Swe (1972) and Kabaw Shales by Than Tun 1976).

Lithology: The Formation consists of the wide range of lithologies, of which the most
characteristic are conglomerate and grit, cross-bedded sandstone and shale, turbidites and
lenticular limestone.

In Saw area the lower part of the Formation is well exposed in streams draining the
mountains to the west. In Paung Chaung (K/4, 770346) the lowest exposure, 20m east of
limestones of Paung Chaung , shows cross-bedded sandstone, grit with foraminifera, Ortho-
conglomerates with rounded vein quartz pebbles, and black mudstone. Higher in the succession
in this stream and in a similar stratigraphic position along strike in Pane Chaung occur laminated
carbonaceous and locally calcareous sandstones with sole marks and rippled tops alternating with
siltstones, and interbedded ortho-conglomerates with rounded pebbles and cobbles of vein
quartz, coloured chert, mudstone, sandstone, pyritised porphyritic basic lava, black quartzite, rare
hornblende micro-gabbro, greenschist, mica-schist and serpentinite. Thin lenses of purple
limestone also occur and fallen blocks of coralline and foraminifral limestones with pelycypods
and echinords are present. In the Khu‘Chaung, south of Pane Chaung conglomerates, cross-
bedded sandstones and beds up to 30cm thick of lustrous black coal are present.

In Mindon area more complete successions are observed. In Mindon Chaung the
succession comprises rhythemically interbedded conglomerates, gradded grits, turbidite
sandstones, siltstones and mudstones. At the foot hill of Bi-Taung, conglomerates directly
overlie the ultra-basic rocks. The Clasts of ultrabasic rock in the size of cobble and boulders are
locally present. Most of the clasts in the conglomerate are vein quartz pebbles, feldsparphyric
basaltic andesites, cherts, schists which are similar upto 3m in diameter are also present locally.
Disorganised and organized conglomerates are both present. The grade bedding in the grits and
sandstones are notable. Flute-cast and load-cast are common in sandstones. Some of the beds are
repeated by folding and thrusting. Laterally the conglomerates are not persistant. In (--)wa
Chaung section grits and sandstones are predominant, conglomerates are rarely seen. In the
upper part the discontinuous lendicular bodies of limestones are present.

According to kyaing Sein et. Al (1980), the Formation can be divided at least into three
subunits in Sidoktaya Area. The lower unit is composed of thin-bedded mudstones, medium to
thick-bedded coarse-grained sandstones and grits. Some conglomerate beds are also present. The
middle unit consists predominantly of turbidite conglomerate, sandstone and grits with
mudstone. The normal gradded bedding and inverse to normal gradded bedding is common in
the conglomerate beds. They are hard and compact and forms high topographic range. The upper
unit consists predominantly of medium-bedded tuffs, light grey mudstone, gritty sandstone and
calcareous sandstones. This unit is also present in Mindon area, although it does not occur in the
Kalemyo area. Lenticular limestone bodies are present in the upper horizons of the formation.

In Kalemyo area this formation is well exposed on the Kalemyo-Kalewa road and in west
flowing streams. The kyigon Shale (Win Swe,1972), is composed of concretionary
mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones. Locally thin carbonaceous beds of conglomerate
containing quartz and rare volcanic pebbles are present. This unit passes up transitionally into the
former ―Unnamed Formation‖ of Win Swe (1972) where conglomerates are more abundant,
comprising white to buff coloured, cross-bedded units up to 5m thick with rounded clasts, up to
4cm in diameter of vein quartz, mud-flakes, dacitic lava and red grey chert.

In the lower and middle part of the former Hpetlaik Formation (Win Swe, 1972) the
road section shows sandstones and shales with local quartzose grits and a distinctive boulder bed
with well-rounded clasts up to 30cm in diameter of plutonic and volcanic rock comprising purple
plagiophyric andesites, biotite granodiorite and microgranodiorite, dacite, vein quartz and
siltstone. The uppermost part of the Formation above the boulder (----)included pebbly sandstone
with pebbles and cobbles of volcanic rock scattered in a sandy matrix. Here also lenticular,
limestones are best (---------) in the middle to upper part of the formation, forming in places
prominent scarp facing the Mittha River valley to the west.

Correlation and Age of Paunggyi Formation

As stated above the discovery of the Upper Cretaceous fossils were described by
Clegg(1938) and Cotter (1938) in Mindon area and Tilin Gangaw area respectively. Win Swe (1972b) described Campanian-Maastrichtian ammonites and Inoceramus sp. From the
Kyigon Shales (Kabaw Shale of Than Tun,1967). A fossiliferous sample of sandstone from the
base of the formation in the Paung Chaung (84 k/4, 770349) yielded orbitoidal forminifera
indicating Late Cretaceous and probable Maastriochtian age (Adams, 1978). Poorly preserved,
rolled fragments discovered in the base of Paunggyi conglomerate have been found. They
include, indeterminate bivalve shell fragments, pieces of coral and bryozoa and also two small
disc-like objects which are possibly the top valves of rudistid bivalves belonging to the families
Monopleuridae or Radiolitidae. Flat valve of this shape occur only between the Barremian and
the top of Cretaceous. Possible age determination is? Cretaceous (Barremian-Maastrchtian)
(N.J.Morris, 1798).

Fossils collected by Kyain Sein near Longyi (84 L/1, 270487) were identified by N.J.
Morris (1978). According to him grey silty calcareous shales with pieces of the bivalve
Inoceramus. The fragments appear to belong to the subgenus Cataceramus Cox and are probably
of Senonian age.

Other larger foraminifera faunae of upper Paleocene to middle Eocene age are also
known from numerous areas of Paunggyi Formation.

Paleontologicall the lower and upper part of Paunggyi Formation is remarkably different
but lithologically the lower and upper are separable only locally (e.g. Kyigon Shale or Kabaw
Shale in the northern part). According to UNDP/DGSE Team the absence of Paleocene fossils
and marked difference in clasts between the lower and the upper part of the formation suggested
that it might consist of two units, a lower one of Maastrichtian age and an upper one of early
Eocene age, separated by an angular unconformity. On the basis of lithology and probable age
the lower part of the formation can be provisionally correlated with the limestone conglomerate
above the Nankholon Formation of Pin(----) area.

Cretaceous rocks of the Western Belt of Western Ranges

The geological mapping by UNDP/DGSE Team in Northern Chin Hills, southern Chin
Hills and Arakan Yoma indicates the western belt of the Western Ranges (Indo-Burman Ranges)
forms a distinct structural unit lying west of Triassic rocks. It consists of a succession of Late
Cretaceous to Eocene age, folded and locally affected by westward directed thrusts in the Chin
Hills, but structurally complex in Arakan. This structural unit corresponds broadly to the Negrais
Series and parts of the ―Axials‖ with coloured limestone of Theobald (1877), and the Chin flysch
of Kyaw Win (1969). It is subdivided into three distinct lithostratigraphic units namely Falam
Formation, Chunsung Formation and kennedy sandstone(DGSE,1975). Among the three units,
the Falam Formation includes in the Cretaceous System.

Falam Formation

This formation consists largely of mudstones and sandstone turbidites, with locally
abundant beds of micritic limestone which distinguish it from the overlying formation. It is
exposed in the bottom and lower slopes of most of northerly trending valleys and locally occur at
elevations of up to 5,000 ft, for example at Falam. And this formation is named after Falam
where the lithologies are easily recongnised around the town (UNDP/DGSE Team, 1978).

Lithology: The formation is remarkably monotonous throughout. The most abundant rock
type is grey to black mudstone and silty mudstone in which sandstone turbidites, rarely more
than 50cm thick, are present. These commonly show sharp bases and tops and lack sole-marks.
The sandstones are mostly fine-grained, some are calcareous and carbonaceous; detrital minerals
are mostly quartz and plagioclase. In a few localities, conglomerates and grits are (--)terbedded
with the mudstone, and contain quartz, chert and rarely volcanic pebbles. But in the Arakan
Yoma west of Mindon a huge block of conglomerate, grit and thick-bedded sandstone with
silicified tuffs or cherts are observed. The clasts of the conglomerate are predominantly quartz
and rare chert.
Similar case is also noted in the valley north of Haka. Coloured andesitite conglomerates
and silicified tuffs up to 50cm thick are present, associated with quartz and lava pebble

Micritic or porcellenous limestones are present throughout the formation as beds and
lenses, mostly ranging from 5m to a few centimeters thick. Thicker beds like Lungrang Klang
limestones west of Kan described by Brunnschweiller (1966) and beds up to 50m thick west of
Kalemyo and Yazagyo are also observed. In northern part of Arakan Yoma, west of Mindon the
limestones occur at Shwedaungnge forming discontinuous ridges. The thickness is up to 100m (-
--) interbedded with the black mudstones. The limestones which break with a characteristic
conchoidal fracture are cream yellow, white or pink in colour as noted by Theobald (1871), and
mostly show faint lamination, and commonly include small planktonic foraminifera visible in
hand-specimen. Contacts between the limestones and shales are sharp and clearly stratigraphic in
stream sections although in weathered exposures the limestones commonly protrude from the
shales, leading Brunnschweiller (1966) to suppose that they were exotic blocks.

Broken beds are common, and are locally exposed for hundred of metres along stream
gorges. They consist of angular sandstone bodies ranging in size from pebbles to larger blocks,
rarely pebbles and boulders of micritic limestone in a tightly folded laminated to structureless
mud-stone matrix.

Within the formation are occurrences of volcanic rock, conglomerate, diorite quartz-
haematite rock, and bedded chert in a few localities in (--) situ but most occur as floats in
streams. These are believed to be exotic blocks which occur within the broken beds, interpreted
as olistostromes interbedded with mudstone, turbidites, and thin micrite (UNDP/DGSE Team,

(-----) west of Mindon (--) peak of Shwedaung(--)ung is mainly composed of basalrs and
dolerites which overlie the mudstone-micrites of Falam Formation and underlie the Pane Chaung
Group. Pillow lavas occur in stream gorges of Hman Chaung. At water polished section the
pillows are well exposed and an individual pillow has about 3m in diameter where the inter-
pillows are occupied by jaspers. Northeast of Falam a body of pillow lava at least 100m in length
resembles both in field appearance and in thin sections the pillows of the Eastern Belt. In
Manipur River near the Falm-Haka road, chloritised andesitic lava microdiorite and tuff are well
exposed over a distance of more than a kilometer.

Paleontology, age and correlation

Previous descriptions of Brunnschweiller (1966) and others indicate that the micritic
limestones were fossiliferous, containing foraminifera of Upper Cretaceous (Senonian) age.

Samples of micrite collected by UNDP/DGSE Team yielded foraminifera fossils. These

were identified by Adama (1978). According to him fossils are planktonic foraminifera of the (--
)obotruncana lapparenti Bolligroup, (G.Conica White, G.Cf. elevate (Brotzen), G.coronate Bolli,
and Heterohelix.

The age is Senonian and most probably Campanian. As the micrite is interbedded with
the turbidites and mudstones, it can reasonably be assumed that the Formation is largely and
entirely of Campanian age. It can also be correlated with part of flysch sequence in the Naga Hill
described by Brunnschweiller (1966).



(------) strate are widespread in all of five geotectonic belts of Burma. A great majority of
Tertiary rocks, however, underlie the central Burma Belt and Western Belt of Western Ranges.
The stratigraphy of the Western Trough of central Burma Belt is better defined than those of the
Western Belt of Western Ranges. However, the two sequences of Early Tertiary age are believed
to have developed in two parallel coeval basins. In general the strata in the Western Belt were
deposited in a trench or eugeosynclinal basin while those of the Western Trough are believed to
have developed on an arc-trench ap or miogeosyncline type basins. Molassic type of sediments
predominate in the Late Tertiary period and it includes intertonguing marine and non-marine
Towards the end of Eocene Epoch, the central Belt underwent the early phase of the
Alpine-Himalayan orogeny and was differentied into several depositional basins (e.g. Chindwin
Basin and Minbu Basin).

Paleocene-Eocene rocks of Western Belt of Western Ranges

Recent geological mapping by UNDP/DGSE Team in Chin Hills and Arakan gathered
some significant data concerning the stratigraphy of the flysch region. Brunnschweiller (1966)
regarded the whole of the flysch type sedimentary rocks to be of Eocene age and the micritic
limestones with Late Cretaceous fossils (Globotruncana) in the flysch are interreted as exotic
blocks in mudstones of Eocene age. But recent mapping has found that the limestones are not
exotics and they are interbedded with pelagic mudstones suggesting the age of part of the flysch
to be Late Cretaceous age. Strata overlying the Cretaceous unit in Chin Hills were named as
―Chungsung Formation‖ and ―Kennedy Sandstone Formation‖, (D.G.S.E 1977) the age ranging
from Paleocene to Middle Eocene.


This Formation is named after the Chungsung village situated on the eastern slope of
Zinghmu Klang Hill (UNDP/DGSE Team 1977) where the mudstones and turbidite sandstones
are well exposed and extensively developed throughout the western belt of Western Ranges
occupying most of the upper and middle slopes of the valleys and forming some of the ridge

Lithology: The Formation consists largely of mudstones, siltstones and minor sandstones,
similar in the lower part to much of Falam Formation with thin bedded fine-grained sandstones
interbedded throughout but lack micritic limestone. There are also numerous units consisting of
thicker sandstones interbedded with thin mudstones. Grit and fine-grained conglomerate with
clasts of mudstone, quartz and chert occur at a few horizons in the lower and middle part of the

The thin-bedded sandstones show sharp bases and tops and lack both sole-marks and
distinct internal structures. Interbedded mucstones and siltstones are mostly grey coloured but a
faint purple to green colour is present in some weathered exposures.
The thicker sandstones, some of which are up to 2m thick, are mostly medium-to -coarse-
grained with abundant mudstone pebbles. Some show erosive bases with gradding and sole-
marks. Their sections are well exposed in the western and eastern limbs of Zinghmu klang
syncline near Hakha, northern Chin Hills and in Mo chaung in the southern Chin Hills.

In northern Chin Hills lenticular bodies of limestone up to a kilometer long occur at three
localities (84 F/9,070275; 84 G/14,340845; 84 F/15 195199). They are mostly white to cream-
coloured biocalcarenites, calcirudite, and biohermal limestones with poorly developed bedding.
Their relationshiop with the adjacent mudstones and sandstones is not clear, but the presence of
strongly calcareous sandstones and marls adjacent to the limestone suggests that they are
interbedded in the Formation rather than exotics.

(----) beds are common in the lower part of the Formation but absent in the upper 500 to
700m of the succession. In the southern Chin Hills and less commonly in the northern Chin Hills
floats of diorite, quartz-diorite rock, basalt, chert, and schist are present in streams draining the
lower part of the Formation. By analogy with the underlying Fromation, the floats are considered
to have derived from exotic blocks in slump units or Olistrostromes (UNDP/DGSE Team 1979).

Paleontology,stratigraphic relations and correlations

Samples from the three limestone occurrences in the northern Chin Hills contain algae
and corals indicating a Paleocene age. The algae were identified by Elliott and Whittaker (1977)
and include an altered? Parachetetes and Ethelia alba (Pfender) Massieux and Denizot (Pseudo-
lithothamnium auct.) Pycnoporidium evantinum Jhonson, Jania sp., Lithoporella melobesiodes
Foslie, Parachaetetes cf. asvapatiipia (Elianella sp.auct.), Lithothamnium sp., Halimecla sp.,
Archaeolithothamnium sp.

The determinable corals are ‗Montlivaltia‖ granti D‘Archiac and Haime, Astrocoenia
gibbosa Duncan, Pironastrea (Thamnastraea) balli Duncan. Both algae and corals are of
Paleocene age (Elliott and Whittaker (1977); Rosen 1977). The corals were similar to Paleocene
species of Pakistan.
A sample of grit in the middle part of the Formation in the southern Chin Hills (84 G/16,
936814) yielded larger feraminifera of Assilina sp., Aktinocyclina sp., and Discocyclina sp.
Which are of early Eocene to middle Eocene age (Adams, 1978).

The Formation overlies the Falam Formation with the Campanian fauna and the
paleontological results indicate a Paleocene to middle Eocene age. The lower part of the
Formation is of similar age but differs in litholoty from the upper part of Paunggyi Formation;
the upper part of Formation shows some lithological similarities to the Longshe shales of the
Wesern Trough, although it lacks thin bands of concreationary limestone present in the shales.

Kennedy Sandstone

The Kennedy Sandstone corresponds broadly to the sandstone Flysh of Brunnschweiller

in the northern Chin Hills. Mapping by UNDP/DGSE Team shows a distinct lithological unit
characterized by cross-bedded sandstones occupying the highest stratigraphic position in the
western belt of Chin Hills Area.

The sandstone underlies Mt. Kennedy, the highest peak in the Northern Chin Hills and
the Formation is named after that peak. This unit is largely restricted to elevations above 4,000
ft; where it forms outliers within synclines.

Lithology: The sandstones, mostly fine-to-medium-grained and micaceous alternating with

mudstone and siltstone and are up to 3m thick with erosive bases resulting in rapid lateral
variations in thickness. Some of the thicker beds contain mudstone pebbles near the base, are
cross-bedded in the lower part, and passes upwards into parallel laminated sandstones.
Interbedded shales are grey to green in colour, commonly carbonaceous, and range from few
centimeters to more than 10m thick.

North of Haka, the Kennedy Sandstone is preserved in the Zinghmu klang syncline with
the maximum elevation of 8,474 ft. In the southern Chin Hills it is observed between Hilawng
and Ong. They are thick easterly dipping sandstones lying immediate west of Triassic
sandstones. The sandstone is mostly fine to medium-grained with mica flakes and local
mudstone pebbles showing prominent cross-bedding and interbedded with grey fissile shales.
Srtatigraphic relations,age and correlation

The Kennedy Sandstone lies conformably on the Chungsung Formation, in the upper part
of which there is gradual ulpward increase in the propotion of sandstone to shale towards the
lowest cross-bedded sandstone of the Kennedy Sandstone.

Fossiliferous samples from a rippled, ferruginous sandstone about 50m below the top of
Zinghmu Klang syncline succession yielded small mollusks of cerithiacean gastropod suggesting
post-Jurassic age and a Barnacle (Balan---) of Eocene to Recent age (Morris and Nu(--), 1977;
Morris, 1977). The Formation is younger than Chungsung Formation with a Paleocene and
Lower to Middle Eocene fauna and shows some lithological similarities to the Tilin sandstone of
middle Eocene age in the Western Trough. The Kennedy Sandstone is thereore considered to be
of middle Eocene age.

Western Belt of Arakan Yoma

The Paleocene to Eocene units in this region are not as well defined as in Chin Hills. In
this part structures are more complicated than those of the Chin Hills.(---) The rock units are
subdivided by UNDP/DGSE Team only informally, and stratigraphic relationshis among units
are not clear.

The Coastal Unit

The coastal plain and adjacent low ranges in the west of the Arakan appear as a
distinctive unit on air-photographs and probably consists of a single folded and locally thrusted
stratrgraphic unit. Inland exposures are deeply weathered but along the coast the wave-cut
platform reveals water polished surfaces through steeply dipping sedimentary rocks. No
significant major variations in lithology were observed throughout the coastal section.

Lithology: This unit is composed of thick turbidite sandstones and thin interbedded
mudstones. Sandstones are fine-to-medium-grained and commonly calcareous although some are
coarse-grained. Detrital materials are feldspar, quartz, chert and volcanic fragments with
common carbonaceous materials including soft coal fragments and mud pebbles. Many
sandstones are more than 3m thick, weathering to leave characteristic resistant spherical
concretions. Most sandstones are massive and structureless but some beds shw parallel
lamination, faint cross-bedding or convolute lamination; erosive bases, flute casts and load cast
are common. The turbidites and mudstones occur in units up to 300m thick.

The wave-cut platforms consist of thick units of black mudstone with calcareous
concretionary laminatios, in places showing disharmonic folds. Within many of the mudstones
are blocks and disrupted beds of turbidite mudstone from less (----) to more than 100m in length,
together with scattered blocks of quarz-dolomite rock (silica carbonate rock), limestone, bedded
chert, tuffs, and rare basalt flow breccias, gabbro and pillow lava. The largest block of quartz-
dolomite rock (silica carbonate rock), limestone, bedded chert, tuffs, and rare basalt flow
breccias, gabbro and pillow lava. The largest block of quartz-dolomite rock exposed beside Ma-
zin air field, is 100m in length. Discontinuous beds of strongly cross-bedded sandstone and of
orthoconglomerates with quartz pebbles are present in places.

Most of extensive mudstone with blocks are at least 300m in width, but in places beds of
similar lithology from 2m to 10m thick are sandwiched between thick turbidite beds, with large
load casts. In general the exotic blocks occur only in deformed mudstones thicker than 2m. The
thicker portion of deformed mudstone up to 10m thick have a channel like cross section, at their
margins truncating turbidites and mudstones. Many of the blocks in the mudstone are clearly
exotic, and most can be matched with rocks of Triassic to Mid Cretaceous age in the Eastern Belt
of Arakan. The conglomerates and cross-bedded sandstones are probably derived from the
Paunggyi Formation to the east, rather than from the beds within coastal unit. The mudstone host
rock is not sheared and hence not a mélange, and each unit was folded before deposition of
overlying turbidites, suggesting an origin as Olistostromes (with exotics) and slumps (Lacking

Foraminifera from a grit at Lintha Range east of Sandoway were of late Paleocene to
Middle Oligocene age (Numulites sp.), and a calcareous sandstone block within a Olistostrome
from Andrew Bay waw of early to middle Eocene age (e.g Discocyclina sp., Numulites sp., alaal
and coral debris). The age of the unit is therefore considered to be early Eocene or possibly
Paleocene to middle Eocene.

Central Range Unit

This is most extensive unit in the Arakan occupying most of the mountain range west of
Triassic rocks and it consists mostly of upland areas. The stratigraphic relationship among the
strata are not clear probably due to imbricate thrusting wich is again deeply dissected. At least
four sub-units are tentatively proposed by UNDP/DGSE Team and are defined at least partly by
variations in the propotions of thick sandstone turbidites. However, the subnits are just
morphological units and the stratigraphy of this region still remains to be resolved. One
structural feature to be considered is the abrupt change of the main structural trends from the
NNW direction in the Chin Hills north of Padaung-Taungup pass to the direction of NW-SE in
the south of the pass suggesting the presence of a major fault zone with the NW-SE trend along
Padaung-Taungup pass producing a complexity of the stratigraphic sequence. However the
subunits include micritic limestones interbedded with mudstone but at least one occurrence of
grit containing larger foraminifera of Discocyclina sp. (large). Numulitic sp. (large microspheric
form) suggested early to middle Eocene age. The Central Range unit therefore a ranges from
Late Cretaceous to middle Eocene age.

Modi Taung Unit

The other informal stratigraphic unit in the Arakan area is the Modi Taung Unit which
overlies the central unit with inferred stratigraphic contact. It forms a prominent north-west
trending scarp north of Padaung-Taungup road and consists entirely of turbidite sandstone and
shale. This unit is provisionally considered to be of Late Eocene age, possibly equivalent or
younger than the Kennedy Sandstone of the Chin Hills.

Paleocene-Eocene Rocks of the Central Burma Lowland

Paleocene-Eocene sequence of Burma is well exposed in the eastern foothills of the

Western Ranges and it lies in the western trough of Central Burma Basin. The Paunggyi
Formation informably overlies Triassic and Mid-Cretaceous (Albian limestone) rocks. The age
of the Paunggyi Formation ranges from Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) to early
Eocene and the lower part of the formation undoubtedly lies in the upper Cretaceous. The upper
part of the formation consisting of conglomerate minor shale and turbidite sandstone is
lithologically not much different from the lower part which is of Paleocene to Lower Eocene
agee. The succeeding Formations. Longshe Formation, Tilin Formation, Tabyin Formation,
Pondaug Formation and Yaw Formation in order of sequence are of Eocene age.

Upper Phaungyi Formation

The unit with much lateral variation in lithology from place to place lies above the lower
Phaungyi Unit along the Eastern foothills of Arakan Yoma and Chin Hills. In Saw Area the unit
is lithologically indistinguishable from the lower part and it passes up gradually into Longshe

In Mindon and Ngape areas the unit consists predominantly of thick-bedded tuff with
minor calcareous sandstone interbedded with mudstone in the upper part while thick to thin
bedded, cross-bedded, ripple-topped sandstones with lenses of conglomerate are common in the
lower part. But this sequence is uncommon in Sedoktaya and Saw areas. Farther north (i.e.
Gangaw and Kalemay area), the tuffs are not observed. The discontinuous bodies of pure
limestone are present in one of the horrizona. The size of the limestone bodies varies from a few
tens of metres to a kilometer in length. The larger bodies of limestones are easily noticed by it‘s
distinct topography with creggyl hills and steep scarps facing west.

In the east of Kalemyo the succession is subdivided into three lithostratigraphic units.
They are in ascending order Kyigon Shale, Unnamed Formation and Hpetlaik Formation (Win
Swe 1972). The Kyigon Shale is definitely Cretaceous due to the presence of Campanian-
Maastrichtian ammonids. The upper two units are of early Eocene age and tentatively regarded
as equivalent to upper Phaungyi Conglomerate.

Longshe Formation

A thick succession of fine-grained sediments was described by Cotter (1914) from the
Minbu basin, south of the village of Laungshe. In Mindon area the formation is only found in a
elongated narrow belt lying between Phaungyi Formation in the west ant Tilin sandstone in the
east, it‘s northern end and southern end are wedged out probably due to west directed thrust
fault. In the east of Gangaw and Kalemyo the formation presents a different lithology.

Lithology in the type area: The Longshe Formation consists dominantly of shale mostly
covering north-trending valley with local ridges formed of sandstone with minor shale, siltstone
and mudstone. Exposures are poor throughout the Formation. The predominant lithology is
carbonaceous silt-stone and mudstone and local turbidite sandstone showing rare sole-marks, and
thin calcareous concretionary beds. In places units consisting largely of sandstone with
interbedded siltstone form distinct ridges. In Mindon area west of Thayetmyo the lithology is
dominantly siltstone interbedded with shale and mudstone intercalations of which the latter is
transverse by calcite veins. In the upper horizon thickly bedded ripple marked sandstone with
conglomerate is common and concretionary sandstone blocks ranging in size from 25‘ to 30‖ in
length and 3‘ in thickness occur locally within siltstone beds. The sandstones are buff-coloured
when weathered and light grey when fresh and are commonly carbonaceous.

The contact with Phaungyi Formation is gradational and it also gradually passes up into
Tilin sandstones but in most places they are in tectonic contact.

Tilin Formation

Sandstones overlying the Laungshe shales were first described by Cotter(1914) who
noted that they disappear along strike north and south of type area near Tilin. The unit is also
recognized in Saw area and Mindon area. But in the east of Gangaw and east of Kalemyo they
are not rercognised.

Litholoty: In Saw area, the unit is well exposed in the Saw Chaung and it‘s tributaries. The
lower part of the succession contains mudstones and carbonaceous siltstones with pelecypod
shells, and thin sharp-based calcareous sandstones resembling turbidites, forming units up to
30m thick; these are interbedded with fine to medium-grained carbonaceous or calcareous
sandstones up to 5m thick with erosive bases, low angle cross-bedding and parallel lamminatin,
overlain by thicker grey to black mudstones and silt-stones, with local burrowed and rippled
sandstone lenses showin ‗flaser bedding‘ and rare lenses of shell debris (UNDP/DGSE Team

Farther up in the succession in the Saw Chaung sandstone beds up to 7m thick are
swperated by up to 50cm of finr-grained cross-laminated sandstone and siltstone with coal
lenses. The thick sandstones are mostly calcareous, ranging from fine to coarse-grained and
gritty with mud pebbles, either structureless throughout or with faint parallel or low- angle cross-
bedding. These are overlain by similar sandstones with interbedded mudstones up to 5cm thick;
the sandstone show load and flute casts and in places form amalgamated beds; within the
sandstone large concretions occur locally.

Similar lithology is also noted in the Mindon area where Khin Mg Aye proposed two
subunits of Tilin Formation. According to them the lower unit is predominantly of fine to
medium bedded, carbonaceous, low angle cross-bedded, thick to massive sandstone interbedded
with thin bedded siltstone and mudstone. The upper consists of thicker siltstones and mudstones
with minor massive structureless sandstones.

Tabyin Formation

The Tabyin Formation was first described by Cotter (1914) from a locality near Tabyin
village, north-east of Saw. The clays occupy a valley between the Tilin sandstone to the west and
the major scarp of Pondaung sandstone to the east; exposures are restricted to local cliffs in river

The predominant lithology is grey to greenish or bluish soft mudstone (claystone), with
interbedded fine-grained sandstone which commonly occurs in packets of sandstone-mudstone
alternations up to 5m thick. Sandstones rarely exceed 10cm in thickness, and are carbonaceous
with mica flakes; some sandstones about 1cm thick show abundant load-casts. Thin coal lenses
are common at the base of the sandstones and within the clays.

The typical lithology is observed in the Mindon area with the exceptionally rich fossils.
The contact, everywhere in this area, with Tilin sandstone is tectonic. The Tabyin Formation
rests tectonically above Tilin Formation where the former was thrust westward, thus concealing
most of the latter formation.

Yomagale Formation

This unit was newly proposed by UNDP/DGSE Team to those strata overlying Paungyi
conglomerate and underlying Pondaung Formation in Yomagale range between the latitudes of
Kalemyo and Gangaw. It is approximately equivalent to the top of Hpetlaik Formation and
Kyaukka Shale of Win Swe (1972) to the north and to the south, it is approcimately
equivalent to Laungshe, Tilin and Tabyin Formations.
The predominant lithology comprises a monotonous succession of shale and interbedded
carbonaceous sandstone turbidites; sandstones range up tp several metres in thickness with
predominant flute cast and rippled tops to many beds; amalgamated beds similar to those in Tilin
sandstone are probably present.

Near the top of the Formation the propotion of shale increases, and both(-----) and
tectonic contacts with Pondaung sandstone are observed at different places. A shaley unit is
locally present comprising broken beds of mudstone and silty mudstone with disrupted thin beds
of green sandstone. The broken beds are either a slump(--) unit, or tectonically broken as a result
of westward overthrusting at the base of the Pondaung Formation.

Pondaung Formation

The name ―Pondaung Sandstone‖ was given by Cotter(1914) to the sandstone unit lying
between the Tabyin clays (Formation) and Yaw shales across the Yaw River. The Pondaung
sandstone forms a major ridge with the average height of 3,000 ft with a steep west-facing
scarps. Pondaung Sandstone underlies the whole lengthof the Pondaung Range.

Sandstones of this formation are morphologically as distinct in west of Thayetmyo area

as in northern part. The most common lithologly in this part is sandstone with medium scale
cross-bedding, rich in carbonaceous material interbedded with few fossil bands. Sandstone beds
are thick and seldom massive and are light grey on fresh surfaces and ferruginous buff colour
when weathered. Interbedded shale, mudstone and thin-bedded turbidite sandstone are chief
constituent (---) Formation, In the upper part of the Formation lenses of limestone (----) to 1 ft in
length are common within the siltstone and shale unis. In the lower part of the formation local
coal beds exceeding up to 2 ft are common; grits consisting entirely of quartz are present in the
basal part.

Yaw Formation

The term Yaw Stage was applied by Cotter(1914) to a succession of shales between the
Pondaung Sandstone and Pegu Series in the Yaw River section.

In the type area Pondaung Sandstone is succeded by bluish-grey shale or clay containing
marine fossils. These shale contain thin bands of calcareous material with cone-in-cone
structures. Chhibber(1934) mentioned the presence of bands with vertebrate remains near Gyat
village. In the north the lithology marked changed from marine facies to deltaic facies. In
Thitchauk coal mine area the formation is divided into 3 units based on stratonomic and
lithologic charactors (Win Swe 1972). More than 50 (--) seams are present at least 12 of
which attain minable thickness.

Eocene Units of Central Burma Arc

In Pinlebu-Banmauk area volcanic rocks, plutonic rocks and volcanogenic sediments and
limestones of Cretaceous age are overlain by sandstones, conglomerates and coloured mudstones
of probable Eocene age with an angular unconformity. These represents part of eastern outcrops
of Western trough and also occur in the east of Volcanic Arc.

Mansi Gale Group

This group was proposed by UNDP/DGSE Team (1975) to the rocks of Pinlebu area and
named after the Mansi Gale village 12 miles north of Pinlebu where the best outcrops are
exposed in the east and west of the village. This Group comprises three formations namely
Kangon Formation, Ketpanda Formation and Wabo Chaung Formation. Later it is known to be
equivalent of Nantet Formation of Myanmar Oil Corporation mapped in the south (IGCP
committee 1977).

Kangon Formation

The unit is named after Kangon village east of Pinlebu where it is well exposed in
tributaries of the Nama Chaung. It is restricted to the west and south of Kanza ChaungBatholith,
occupying north-east trending belt in the west and forming inliers within younger unit in the
south near Gyobin village.

Lighology; The predominant rock type is a soft weathered shale or silty mudstone commonly
coloured-banded in red, green, yellow and grey units mostly up to a few tens of meres thick.
Sandstone and siltstone are interbedded with shale and in some places associated with
carbonaceous bands and coal seams.
In the lower part of the succession local sandstone, grit and minor (---) are interbedded
with coloured shales and coals. Conglomerates are scsrcer upwards and the middle and the upper
part of the unit consists of coloured clays, fine-grained clastic sediments andcoals. Coals occur at
numerous horizons throughout the Formation; they are interbedded with finr-grained sediments
showing a number of distinct facies comprising carbonaceous shale and siltstone, siltstone-
mudstone alternation commonly include plant remains, vertical burrows, nodular carbonaceous
siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone; contacts between facies are mostly planar but some
sandstones, which rarely exceed 1m in thickness, show an erosive base. The coals are mostly less
than 50cm thick, none thicker than 80cm were observed, they are soft, black and probably
lignitic to sub-bituminous.

Ketpanda Formation

The Ketpanda Formation includes coloured shales similar to those of Kangon Formation
but is distinguished from the latter by the absence of coals and presence of silicic tuffs and more
abundant conglomerates. In the type area around Ketpanda village (83 p/8,024901) the unit dips
regularly westwards, overlies the Kangon Formation and underlies topographically distinct
Wabo Chaung Formation.

Lithology: The Formation consists or coloured clays and siltstones with interbedded dacitic,
lithic tuffs, sandstones and conglomerates.

In the type area the predominant lithology comprises colour-banded mudstone and silty
mudstone interbedded with sandstone and conglomerate with mostly rounded clasts up to large
cobble size, composed of vein quartz, plagiophyric andesite, dacite and granodiorites; silicic
tuffs occur at numerous horizons and are well exposed in the east draining tributaries of Mlu
River where northwest dipping thin-bedded quartzose tuffs are interbedded with coloured
tuffaceous siltstones and cross-bedded quartz-feldspar-biotite-bearing tuffaceous sandstones.
South of Kawlin near Shangalon the Formation comprises coloured shale, grit, conglomerate and
tuff with abundant sills or flows of hornblende andesite near the base. Locally (--)boulder bed
considered to be the base of the Formation is present, containtin rounded clasts up to 50m in
diameter of andesite, silicified tuff, dacite, granodiorite, quartz diorite, sericite schist, phyllite,
vein (--) and rare jasper.
Kawdaw dacite

Between Shangalon and Kawlin irregular bodies of dacite occur mostly forming hills.
The dacite bodies are locally overlain by conglomerates of the Ketpanda Formation and are
evidently interbedded in this unit.

The dacites locally show flow structures but are highly altered, particularly on and below
ridge tops, to white yellow or purple rocks, mostly by silicification and kaolinisation evidently
due to weathering processes. Coarse pyroclastic deposits are common, including agglomerates
with fragments up to 10cm in diameter; they are quarried for road stone near Aukthitaya.

Wabo Chaung Formation

UNDP/DGSE Team mapped the Formation in the west of Pinlebu and Kyunhla, forming
distinct topography with stoop scarps facing to the east, and erroneously assigned it to Oligo-
Miocene and correlated it with the Letket Formation of Win Swe (1972) in the western
outcrops of Chindwin Syncline. However it was formerly described as an Eocene unit by M.O.C
in the unpublished reports. Later the unit was confirmed as Eocene by Tin Hlaing (1980),
and Tin Swe (1979) mapping in the lower Chindwin area in Kanni Township and Maying
Township. More precisely the stratigraphic position of this Formation is the same as that of
Pondaung Formation in the west.

Lithology: The Formation consists of clastic sediments of varied lithology and lateral as well
as vertical facies changes are probably present.

The unit is lithologically similar to that of Kangon Formation except for the absence of
tuffs and the presence of very thick sandstones and conglomerates. In the Thabyedaung-Sanwin
Range in the south-west of Kyunhla it(--) conglomerates up to 10m thick, interbedded with
shales and sandstones; shales are coloured purple or greenish grey in some localities.
Conglomerates are mostly well-sorted with rounded clasts up to small boulder size, consisting of
dacite, andesite, granodiorite, diorite, silicified or hornfelsed turr,(--) quartz and silicified wood.
Many of the sandstones are pebbly or conglomeratic. In Nangyitha Chaung (84 M62) blocks of
igneous rocks including granodiorite more than 1m in diameter are scattered within sandstones,
and silicified and carbonized tree trunks 3m in length occur within conglomerates.
Interbedded sandstones are commonly cross-bedded, slightly calcareous and include
calcareous concretions from 2cm to more than a metre in diameter, in a few localities cross-
bedded sandstones or conblomerates rest with sharp base on coloured shales or mudstones.

Rocks of similar lithology also occur in the east of the volcanic are occupying the
Nankan-Banmauk trough and the hills west of Meza River. In the south these were named as
Male Formation (Myint Thein in IGCP report 1982). The fossils discovered in those area
indicate Late Eocene age.

At the Mahudaung range, west of Kanni, more than 20 cycles of fining upward
successions of conglomerates, sasndstones and coloured mue-stone units underlie the Yaw
Formation. The conglomerates are composed of boulder to cobble size of plagiophyric andesite,
dacite, chert and rare granodiorite which are identical with those of Pinlebu area in the north. It
extends to the south and well exposed in the west and north west of Myaing forming distinct
topographic features with steep scarps facing to the east.

In the isolated outcrop at Wazin Taung north-west of the Monyya copper mines, the
conglomerate and coarse gritty sandstone unconformably overlying the granodiorites and green
rocks are believed to be of part of this Formation (Zaw Ko 1980). Similar isolated outcrops
are also observed at Shinmataung, west of Yezagyo (UNDP/DGSE Team).

Oligocene-Miocene sequence of Central Lowlands

The central lowland is divided into Eastern Trough and Western Trough by the Central
Burma Bolcanic Arc. Around the end of Eocene Epoch, the Central Lowlands underwent the
early phase of the Alpine –Himalayan Orogeny and was differentiated into several depositional
basins. They are namely Hukawng Basin, Chindwin Basin, Minbu Basin and Delta Basin in the
Western Trough and the Pegu Yoma Basin and Shwebo-Monywa plain in the Eastern Trosugh.

Only non-marine sedimentation took place in the Chindwin and Hukaung Basins since
the end of Eocene while marine sedimentation continued to dominate in the Minbu Basin.

The strat or the Late Tertiary age sere first mapped by Theobald (1873) and the name
―Pegu Group‖ was first given to those rocks in the southern part of Pegu Yoma and Henzada
district. Among the Tertiaries the Pegu Group is by far the most important, primarily because of
the occurrence of oil-bearing horizons; and secondly because of the wealth of its well-preserved
fossils which have enabled the group to be divided into a number of stages. Pegu Group is
generally understood to include the Post-Eocene and Pre-Irrawaddian deposits of Central Burma,
in the sense of Theobald.

The stratigraphy of the Pegu group in previous publications e.g. Chibber (1934), Pscoe
(1956), were fully descrived and hence the present book will refer to the old data with some
additional new data obtained during recent investigations with mordern stratigraphic method by
various geological institutions.

Pegu Group of Minbu Basin

The entire succession of the group is well exposed in the western limb of the main Minbu
syncline overlying, with local unconformity,the Yaw Formation of Late Eocene age. The Pegu
Group is divided into the following.

6. Obogon Formation

5. Kyaukkok Formation

4. Pyawbwe Formation

3. Okhmintaung Formation

2. Padaung Formation

1. Shwezettaw Formation

Oligocene Sequence

Shwezettaw Formation

This Formation is believed to be the oldest unit in the Pegu Group as termed by
Theobald. The type section of which Dr. Cotter (1914) gave the name Shwezettaw Sandstone
after the famous Pagoda in 84 L/12 (Grid ref: 751426), lies near Payaywa village in Minbu
district, 5 miles east of Ngape.
Lithology: Grits mostly ferruginous with bands of vein quartz pebbles are quite common.
The coarse –grained sandstones are mostly ferruginous, loosely cemented, micaceouw, soft and
friable and with cross-bedding. These are followed by cross-bedded, medium-grained quartzose
sandstone interbedded with parallel laminated silty mudstone, cross-laminated silt-stone and
fine- grained sandstone. The thickness of Shwezettaw Formation is estimated at 3000 ft. In the
Yaw river section the Shwezettaw sandstone contains coal seams at Letpanhla and Tazu villages.

South of Latitude 20, the argillaceous Kyaukpon Sandstone develops in the basal part of
the Shwezettaw Foration. The term Kyaukpon Sandstone was first adopted by Sarle and this unit
consists predominantly of litht grey, dark grey to light brtown sandstone, fine to medium-
grained, frequently argillaceous and micaceous. Sandstones are thinly-bedded, sometimes
massive with mica flakes and carbonaceous materials developed along bedding planes. The
sandstones are interbedded with few sandy shales. At the lower-most horizon conglomerate beds
are found with clasts similar to those of Pondaung Sandstone. It overlies unconformably the
Eocene strata and underlies conformably the Shwezettaw Sandstone.

Padaung Formation

A zone ofdark bluish grey coloured clay containing a subordinate amount of grey
limestones (asthin beds) had been named by Cotter (1914) as the Padaung Clay, after the
villageof Padaung (84 L/12, 830360) in Minbu District. The unit overlies conformably the
Shwezettaw Formation and was succeeded conformably by Okhmintaung Formation. This
Formation occupies wide shallow valleys between the prominentridges of Shwezettaw Formation
and Okhmintaung Formation.

Lithology; Thick piles of dark-blue struetureless or nodular mudstone with isolated cream-
coloured marl are interbedded with thin laminated siltstone, shale and fewthin sandstone bands.
Few beds of grey limestone bands are chiefconstituents within this Formation.

Okhmintaung Formation

G.W. Lepper, from the Burma Oil Company, in accordance with the paleontological
stages of Vredenburg, classified and named the Okhmintaung Sandstone to those rocks exposed
in thevicinily of Okhmintaung hill (1654´),5 miles south of Talokyin village in 85 I/14 of Minhla

Lithology; This formation consists of massive to thick-bedded sandstone, few siltstone,

minor amount of grit, thin lenses of conglomerate or conglomeratic sandstones and thin-bedded
grey coloured mudstones.

Miocene Sequence

Pyawbwe Formation

Pyawbwe Formation or (Pyawbwe Clay) was namedafter the Pyawbwe village situated
on the roadbetween Minbu and Ngape in 84 L/12. It forms a low wide dissected valley lying
between the older succession on Okhmintaung sandstone ridge and younger Kyaukkok sandstone

Lithology; The PyawbweFormation consists of grey to bluish-grey coloured sandstone , silty

mudstone with characteristic concretionary mudstone including severalt thin sandstone bands.
The impersistant calcareous sandstone lenses are common (---) mudstones. When fresh the
mudstone is greenish blue or deep blue but on the weathered surfaces it is greyishblue.

Kyaukkok Formation

The name Kyaukkok Sandstone was given by Lepper after the village of Kyaukkok in 85
I/9 to the thick-bedded to massive sandstones.

Obogon Formation

This is the uppermost Formation of the Pegu Group. The name was given also by lepper
to the sandstone and (---) exposed near obogon village , Minbu District. The sandstone and shale
alternations are so regular and forms it‘s characteristic feature, hence the name ―Obogon
Alternation‖ was given to this unit.

Delta Basin
The rock units are totally covered by alluvium in the central part of the Basin. The best
exposures occur in the Prome area and on the western flank of Pago Yama. In the west of
Henzada isolated outcrops occur only in the easternfoothills of Arakan Yoma.

The Sitsayan Shales

In the Prome and Henzada area a thick unit of shale is well developed especially at
Sitsayan village on the west bank of the Irrawaddy River, 8½ mile north of Prome. These rocks
are believed to constitute the lowest part of the Pegu Group in this region. It underlies the
sandstone unit known as Prome Sandstone (Theobald 1878).

A similar succession is also exposed in Paukkhaung area lying west of Pegu Yoma scarp
forming lowlying undulating hills. This unit consists dominantly of blue grey nodular mudstone
with minor irregular bodies of calcareous sandstone containing ill preserved shell fragments.It is
overlain by a thick sandstone unit similar to Prome Sandstone. Base of the uint isnot seen.

This unit is lithologically similar to that of Sitsayan shale and is interpreted as

representative of Sitsayan shale on the eastern limb of the Paundale-Padigon syncline (DGSE
Team 1969) . On the basis of lithology and stratigraphic position it can also be correlated with
the Pyawbwe Fromation of Minbu Basin.

The thick sequence of shales in the Sitsayan area may also include both the lower and
upper units of Pegu Group of Mingu Bsin i.e. Padaung Formation and Pyawbwe Formation,
lithologically undifferentiable mudstone units united into one. This may be due either to the
wedging out of the Okhmintaung Sandstone, along the Oligocene-Miocene unconformity or to
lateral facies change of thesandstone unit in the south.

Prome Sandstone

The sandy unit exposed east and west bank of Irrawaddy River at Prome is named as
lower Prome bedsby Theobald.

Lithologically it consists predominantly of grey to yellowish brown coloured, medium-

grained sandstones with large scale low-angle cross bedding and parallel bedding. Locally
sandstones are gritty bearing shells of (---) and Gastropods. Calcaroous concretions both
lenticular and ronded shape are common. The interbedded shale and nodular mudstone (---) grey
to bluish grey colour. The pro hill with steep scarps to the west just on the east side of the
Rangoon-Prome high-way is underlain by this (----)

The northern continuation of this unit merged into kyaukkok formation or

whatvredenberg formerly proposed the singu stage to the fossilifrous horizon of the Singu Oil

This unit is well exposed in the western foothills of Pegu Yoma forming prominent
southerly trending low ranges towards Rangoon.

Migyaungye Stage

The Migyaungye Stage was introduced by Dudley Stamp to succession that occur on the
bank of the Irrawaddy near Migyaungye village, Here the unit is stratigraphically and
lithologically similar totheObogon Alternations ofLepper. The outcrops of Migyaaungye rodks
can be clearly traced southeasterly towards the Pegu Yoma with no marked lithologic change. It
prome hill it is well exposed at the newly cut railway sections. This sandstone-shale alternation
unit overlies the Prome Sandstone which Teobaled formerly described as Upper Prome Beds. It
is the most widespread unit betwoon Aunglan Myo and Pegu Yoma.

The Chindwin and Hukaung Basins

Upper Tertiary deposits of the Chindwin Basin are totally nonmarine. The sequence can
be conveniently divided into three distinct lithologic units of Formation rank viz. Letkat
Formation, and Shwethamin Formation.

Letkat Formation.

A thick succession of conglomerate and sandstone lying above the Yaw Formation of
Late Eocene age was named as Letkat Formation by Aung Khin and Kyaw Win (1969) after the
Letkat range. Subsequently Win Swe (1972) (--) the Formation into two members, the
Thitchauk conglomerate and Nwa ( ). The unit forms a prominent ridge with steep scarps
Facing to the west.It is well exposed along the Myitha river which flows to the ( ) before
entering into the Chindwin River at Kalewa.
Thitchauk Conglomerate Member

The term Thitchauk conglomerate member was applied by Win Swe (1972) to
theconglomerates which are well developed near Thitchauk village on the Kalemyo-Kalewa

It consists of conglomerates forming well defined beds between sandstone units. Strong cross-
bedding and brown ferruginous staining are characteristic. Clasts in conglomerate are mostly
rounded and up to 5cm in diameter but rarely exceed 2cm; more than 99 percent are of vein
quartz. Other clasts are subangular and composed of silicified or cherty mudstone and laminated
mudstone and siltstone. Win Swe (1972) noted the occurrence of basic volcanic clasts.
Interbedded sandstones and grits are grey to white in colour, and oftern weathered to a friable
rock, less resistant to erosion than conglomerates. The thickest outcrops are observed in the
Nantahin chaung section about 16 miles north of Thitchauk.

At Mahudaung on the eastern limb of Patolon syncline the conglo merates are less
developed. In one of west flowing streams of Patolon tributaries, 5 miles west of Nyaungbinle
conglomerates are well developed. Clasts of the conglomerates varies from cobble to pebble size,
consisting of vein quartz and fine- grained sandstone or marls common in the underlying Yaw
Formation. Laterally they are not persistant.

Nwa Taung Sandstone Member

The Nwa Taung sandstone overlies the Thitchauk conglomerate with a transitional
contact. The width of it‘s outcrop is much greater than that of the conglomerate and it is
comformably underlying the Kalewa Formation.

Much of the unit consists of medium to coarse-grained sandstone strongly cross- beeded
throughout. It is mostly a rather well sorted quartzose andstone including felepar and white and
dark mica flakes; in a few places quartz pebbles up to 1cm in diameter are present, and rarely
mudate pebbles were observed. Large oval concretions are present locally.
The sandstone are well (---) beside the Kalemyo-Kalewa road with sedimenuary features
considered typical of coarsening-upward sequences up to 2m thick (---) parallel laminated silty
mudstone, coarse-laminated siltstone and fine sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone.

The Letkat Formation overlies the Yaw Formation of Late Ecoene age with no obvious
angular discordance but the presence of basal type conglomerate above the Yaw suggested an
unconformity. It is confirmed that the conglomerates above the Yaw Formation at Mahudaung
consists of the sandstone clasts of Yaw Formation.

The unit is correlable with the lower units of the Pegu Group of the Minbu Basin
especially the Shwezettaw Sandstone of Myaing Area. The sandstones from both units shows
similar sedimentary structures and contain tree trunks.

Kalewa Formation

The name is given by Win Swe (1972) to the rocks of the Kalewa valley and the
name is referred to (--) town. The same Formation was also given the name Natma Formation
which underlies the Natma village (Grid ref. 84 J/10, SQ 097020) and forming a strike valley at
the eastern limb of the Patolon Syncline (Aung Khin and Kyaw Win 1969). However, the two
valleys which the Formatin underlies s a continuous one ngulfing the syncline.

Lithology; This unit consists predominantly of coloured mudstone with intercalations of 6in to
1ft thick sandstones. The mudstone is mostly brownish in colour but in places blockes of green,
red and redish brown coloured mud are observed. In the lower part of the formation the thickness
of individual mudstone subunits range from 10ft to 50ft. But in the middle of the Formation
sandstrone beds thicken from 20ft to 30ft and mostly massiveIntercalation of coloured mudstone
in the sandstone are always present.

The Formation gradationally graded up into Shwethamin Formationl.

Shwethamin Formation

The name Shwethamin Formation is given to the immense thickness of sandstone which
underlies the Shwethamin hill (Aung Khin and Kyaw Win, 1969; Win Swe 1972).
In the absence of the Kalewa Formation between them, the two sandstones of Nwa Taung
and Shwethamin cannot be easily differentie from each othe.

Like Nwa Taung sandstone, Shwethamin sandstones are strongly cross-bedded, medium
to coarse grained, and contain partly carbonized tree trunks The colour of the sandstone is bluish
grey in water polished sections but brownish when weathered. The presence of the mudstone in
the sandstone is remarkably few. Mudstone beds are about 1ft to 1½ ft thick, and are interbedded
with at least 50ft thick sandstone beds.

Lateral variation of the Three Units.

Starting from the northern edge of north-plunging Mahudaung anticline, the mudstione/
sandstione ratio of the three formation is more or less consistank. Thin muostion bands in
sandstione units become thicker in this portion and the mudstone beds of Kalewa Formation
become thiner. The sandstone-mudstone interbeds in west Shwebo il are in fat outhern equivalent
of the Three Formations (i.e. Letkat, Kalewa and Shwethamin) but here they cannot be put into
different units. It consists of typical fluvial sedimentation cycles.

The Eastern Trough of the Central Lowlands

Pegu Yoma Basin

A monotonus sequence of sandstone and shale alternation that occurs in the Pegu Yoma
is the result of shallow marine sedimention. The steep scarp at the western margin of Pegu Yoma
is a tectonic feature and further more it can be interpreted as the boundary between Western
Trough and Eastern Trough of the Central Burma Belt. The dolerites dykes and sills occur in this
zone e.g. east of Zigon and Aunglan.

The Scarp Unit

Teologica Mapping pojecby te DGS in 1979 recorded a distinct lithofacies at the scarp
zone and informally termed as the Scarp Unit. In this major unit two subnits can be easily
divided viz. the lower Mudstone Unit and the Upper Sandstone Unit.

Lower Mudstone Unit

The unit occupies the foot zone of the scarp forming a lowlying flat belt and it can be
easily identified from the are photographs with remarkably lighter tone than those of the adjacent

The unit consists predominantly of dark-grey mudstone with small amount of sandstone.
It is hard and compact sometimes, slaty and structureless. It is difficult to differentiate from the
Sitsayan Shale or Pyawbwe Clay which occur adjacent to this unit. But they are harder and
bedding is planner while the other is soft and nodular.

The Sandstone Unit

Medium-to thick-bedded, strongly ripple-eopped sandstone unit imbedded in the

musstone units occupies almet all of the west-facing scarp of the Pegu Yoma.

These well-bedded sandstones with flat bases are pinkish to reddish in colour. The red
spots clearly seen in hand specimen are probably altered ferromagnisum minerals. They are
commonly ripple-marked. The sandstones occur as packets in mudstone and individual packets
have beds of uniform thickness (i.e. about 20 beds of 4 inch thick sandstone in beds decreases.
They are feldsperthic, and quartz is also present and better sorted.

This unit can be easily distinguished from those of Kyaukkok or Prome Sandstone
because of the bedding characters, compaction and colour. Deformed (---) This is due to uplift
of the older unit beneath the monotonus succession of sandstone-shale Yoma Unit. The age of
the unit is possibley Oligocene.

Yoma Unit

Very thick sequence of the sandstone-shale succession was informally termed as Yoma
Unit because the unit underlies most of the Pegu Yoma Range.

The sandstones are buff to yellow and soft and are interbedded with blue to bluish grey
nodular to parallel bedded mudstones. The sandstone beds overlying the Scarp Unit are nearly
20ft thick which is similar to those of Kyaukkok sandstone but it is difficult to mark a boundary
with overlying alternation beds.
Lithologically the upper part of Pegu Yoma succession is similar to the upper Miocene
units of Minbu basin and Prome embayment suggesting that th sea invades across all of the
Basins and lifting up of Pegu Yoma is as Young as post-Pliocene.

The Shwebo=Monywa Plain

The occurrence of Oligocene fossils were reported from the Shinmataung and Salingyi
area (Vredenburg in Chhibber 1934, Myint Thein 1968) . Mapping in the Shinmataung and
Salingy area, UNDP/DGSE team subdivided the upper Tertiary rocks into several units under the
Shinmataung Formation viz. Thayetpingar sandstone and shale unit Suyittaung sandstone unit;
Taungya shale unit; and shinmataung red sandstone unit. Strata over lying the Shinmataung
Formation are named as Sintaga Formation.

Shinmataung Formation

Most of the Shinmataung uplands are occupied by a succession of gently folded clastic
sediments with a predominantly red colour, occupying a NNW-trending belt. This succession is
termed the Shinmataung Formation From the highest peak (7,723) ft in the area. The Formation
can be divided into four informal units.

Thayetpingan sandstone and shale unit.

It is believed to be the lowest unit of the Shinmataung Formation, lying in a belt south
of, and dipping northwards beneath the Shinmataung red beds.

In the type area the unit comsists entirely of sandstone and shale. The sandstone is mostly
fine-grained greenish-grey in colour and I well lithified. It varies from massive to strongly cross-
bedd and includes local calcareous concretions. Thin interbeds of siltstone and shale are
commonly grey to brown with parallel or cross-lamination.

Similar lithologic suites are also observed elsewhere, and particularly on the north of
Salingyi complex where most outcrops showing a stratigraphic thickness of at least a few metres
can be grouped into one or more of a number of distinct sedimentary facies. The stratigraphic
relationship amoung them are uncertain. However the very thin beds of Lepidocyelina
limestones suggestive of Oligocene age are observed in one of the horizons.
Taungya Shale

A unit of (---) a distinctive topographic feature occupying the Re(---- valley which
includes the village of Taungya. It comprises white to buir-coloured siltstone and shale with
interbedded thin rippled and cross-laminated sandstone, commonly red in colour and rarely 2cm
thick. It is faulfed against the main Shinmataung hill.

Suyittaung Sandstone

This unit lies with an angular unconformity on the Taungni basalt. It consists of red and
white quartzose cross-bedded sandstone with minor interbedded shale dipping gently
northwards. North of the type area sandstones are mostly white and locally contain a kaolinised
matrix. White to purple siltstones are interbedded with the sandstone.

Shinmataung Red Sandstone

This unit covering the highest hills in the Shinmataung uplands is the most extensive
lithological unit of the Shinmataung Formation. It consists largely of red and rarely buff-
coloured, mostly cross-bedded sandstones. In the lower part, the sandstiones are interbedded
with shales but sandstones increase in propotion and thickness upwards. Locally sandstones are
up to 10m thick. Conglomerate with pebbles of quartz,, quartzite and rare volcanic rock occur

The unit shows some similarities in lithology with the Suyittaung sandstone unit. But the
latter overlies the Taungni basalt with an angular unconformity. It is unlikely to be equivalent to
the Shinmataung sandstone unless there is a unconformity at the base of the Shinmataung unit.

The reddish, strongly cross-bedded, and very thick sandstones also occur at Powin Taung
and Ingyin Taung where Buddha images are carved out of the sandstone cliffs, which in turn
underlies the sandstone-shale interbeds of the Damapala Formation of Japanese Team (1973) .
They discovered molluscan fossils from the limestone quarry 2km north of Ingyin Taung rock
temple and identified them as of Miocene age, deposited in shallow marine environment. The
relationship between the limestone and the sandstone units is not clear but it may probably lie in
one of shale horizons of Damapala Formation.

The sandstones of the formation are gradded which passes into laminated mudstone with
flute-casts in the thinly-bedded sandstone. The slump units are also observed at the base of
Ingyin Taung sandstone near the contact with andesitic lava flows. These sedimentary structures
indicate the deposition in a mobile basin and the influence of the turbidity currents. The
alternations of sandstone and shale are widely exposed in the vicinity of kyaukka and are
correlated with the Damapala Formation (Ba Thaw 1977)

The red sandstone sequence occurring at Myingyan and Meiktila area are also believed to
be of Shinmataung Formation (DGSE Team). These red sandstone units are exposed as the
double plunging anticlines underlying the sandstone-shale alternation unit which is equivalent of
Damapala Formation Sintaga Formation of Shinmataung area and the upper sequence of Yoma
Unit in th central Pagu Yoma. However, the red sandstone facies occur only in the Eastern
Trough and they are totally absent in Western Trough indicating deposition in two different
basins in Late Oligocene or Early Miocene time.

The Late Tertiary Deposites of Eastern Highlands and Tenasserim Region

The Late Tertiary deposites occur in the Eastern Highlands forming isolated basins both
in Northern and Southern Shan State. In the Tenasserim region the deposits occur in the present
river valleys. In the Eastern Highlands they are coal-bearing, in the Karen State (former eastern
part of Amherst district) they contair oil shale, while in the Mergui district they carry both coal
and oil shale.

Northern Shan States

The Tertiary deposits of Northern Shan State occur in the following areas.

1. Isolated outcrops near Mongyaw (23°2‘, 98°9‘).

2. Upper part of the Mamyau valley, Lashio coal field.
3. The coal field of Namma.
4. Outcrops about three miles south of Namma coal field.
5. The Man-Sang field., 16 miles couth of Namma.
6. Man-se-le.

Lithology; The Tertiary rocks of the (---) consist of silts and soft sand-rock with pebble and
boulder beds and seams of brown lignitic coal. The sand-rocks are so slightly consolidates that
they break into a soft mud when immersed in water. They are mostly deposited in the oval
shaped basins underlain by Nwabangyi Dolomite of the Shan Plateau Group.

Southern Shan State

The Tertiary rocks of Southern Shan State are first described by Middlemiss in the
Thanmakan area. Recently geologists of the DGSE give the name ―Thamakan Formation‖ to
these rocks. The unit consists of poorly consolidated to unconsolidated, but well bedded sands,
gravels, silts and clays containing coal seams. They are presumably lacustrine deposite.

The Thamakan Formation crops out in a north-south elongated belt, about 3 Mo;es wode
amd 13 miles long, stretching from Aungban to the vicinity of Pwehla. It forms smooth-rooling
land mostly covered by thick soil and grass. Fresh outcrops are seen only in deeply cut stream

The Thamakan formation was entirely surrounded and probably floored by the
Nwabangyi Dolomite except the southern tip where it lies on the Inbying formation. However,
the strata of the Thamakan formation dip more steeply than those of the underlying Nwa bagyi
Dolomite, No fossils were collected from the thamn formation. Form its stratigraphic position
and degree of induration, it is tendatively considered to be of Tertiary ago (Win Swe 1997).

Karen State and Tenasserim Region

The systematic geological mapping of most of in those regions has not yet bheen done in
post-war times, the data are redescribed redescribed here again.

Tavoy Area

The Tertiary deposites in the Tavoy area occur along two belts, one occurring along
Present valley of the Ban and Kamaungthwe and the other to a less ex+tent along the great
Terbsserim River mopho logical features of tertiary rocks from those of Mergui Series are easily
recognizable on the air photographs. The (--) in Ban and Khamaungthwe valley .
Lithologically they are predominantly conglomerates and shales with sandstone. At
Polontaung the present Tin Mine site of Heinda they are composed mainly of conglomerate and
sandstone with minor shale At least more than 20 cycles of fining upward sequency are observed
with channel-fill deposition showing typical fluvial sedimentation. The clasts of conglomerates
contain vein quartz. Granites, quartzites and pebbly mudstones of Mergui Group with
ferruginous cement. The finersedimets are more abondanm towards the centre of the basin Thin
impure limestonses and lenticular bands of Liggnite about six inches thick ouucr near Kyauktan.

Age; Except the silicified and carbonized wood, no organic remains have yet been round in
those deposits. In the absence of fossils it cannot be assigned to a definite age but on the basis of
lithology Brown and Heron (1923) in lined to correlate thet. With the Irrawaddi (-) strata of
Central Burma.

Mergui Area

The Tertiary deposits of Tavoy area irregularly externs into Mergui area over a total
distance of 220 miles. The area where the Tertiary rocks crop out are listed as follows.

1. The Tenasserim valley

2. The Theinkun valley
3. The Leinya valley
4. The Pakchan valley

Lithologically the Tertiary strata oomprise thin laminated chale, sandstone and
conglomerate. They can be divided into an upper unit and a lower unit. The latter
comprises soft, sandy, white shales with plant remains, ferruginous sandy shales with
ripple-marks and black carbonaceous shales with thin irregular layers and lenses of
lignite. Resinous lignite coal is intercalated at the top of lower unit.

The upper unit consists of white (-) grey, soft, friable sandstones, followed by
ferruginous brown variety, whilst gravels associated with ferruginous conglomerates,
containing boulders and pebbles of argillites of the Mergui Grroup, constitute the top
most part.

Oil Shales of Karen Stae

In Karen State, rocks of similar lithology bear oil shales instead of lignitic coal. It
occurs at the valley of Mepale River enclosed between the Chockho Taung and the
Dawna Range which lies partly in Burma and partly in Thailand. The other basin is
Htichara Basin where eight distinct oil shale seams had been found and boring operations
have shown that the shales are usually persistant in their lateral externtion.

Dr. Cotter divided the Tertiary rocks of this region into the lower and (-) units.
The lower unit which is externively developed, consists of sand and boulder beds while
ther upper one comprises shales with oil shales. The lower unit mormation circular belt
round the Htichara Basin.

The oil shale unit

The upper unit consists predominantly of clay and shale but with sub-ordinate
beds of sandstone. Thin beds of both impure and pure limestone occur north of
Myawaddy. This limestone contains traces of shells of Melaniids and Viviparids and is
undoubtedly a fresh water deposit.

Oil shale is abundantly found interbedded in the lower part of the shale unit.



The highest member of Tertiary System in Burma was originally known as the
―Fossil-Wood Group‖ introduced by Theobald (1869) on account of the abundance of
silicified wood it contains. But, Noetling, (1895) replaced the term ‗ Fossil-Wood Group‖
by Irrawaddy Series to denote fresh water beds above the marine post-Eocene in the
Yanangyaung and Yenangyat (-) authors have followed this practice mainly on
considerstion of the fact that fossil-wood is not restricted to Pliocene beds; they are found
in many horizons both in the Irrawaddy Series and Pegu Series. However, Th name was
subsequently charged into ―Irrawaddy Formation‖ to conform with modern
lithostratigraphic practice.
Distribution; The Irrawaddy Formation covers very large areas in the Central Burma
lowlands especially in the valleys of Irrawaddy, Chindwin and Sittang. They are normally
found at the central parts of the major synclines of Minbu Basin, Chindwin-Hukaung
Basins and Delta Basins. It also occurs at the periphery of Pegu Yoma in the form of
outliers of a major anticline.

Lithology; The lithology of the Irrawaddy Formation as traditionally known by many

geologists is loose, friable, clean, yellow-coloured, strongly cross-bed. And iron-stained
san-rocks, sandstones of various colours with occasionally interbedded clays and finely
laminated, greenish, friable, argillaceous sandstones. This is the lithology in the middle
part of the Irrawaddy ormation but the lower art is mostly ―Red Beds‖ associated with a
number o thin, inconsistent, ferruginuous conglomerate bands or highly clayey beds.
Clay beds occur most commonly in pockets.

Recent mapping between Aunglanmyo and Pagu Yoma North of Prome enabled
the Irrawaddy Formation to be divided into two mappable units (DGSE, 1979) The lower
unit consists of interbeds of coarse-grained sandstone, shale and siltstone. The sandstone
is yellow to brown coloured, strongly cross-bedded, slightly consolidated and
occasionally gritty with ferruginous conglomerate bands. The interbedded shales are
light-grey shales together with light yellow to white coloured, thin-bedded siltstones. The
thickness of this unit is very thin and impersistant and varies from a few tens of feet to
hundreds of feet and overlies the upper pagu beds without any discordant features.

Overlying this unit is yellowish to brown coloured, poorly consolidated, strongly

cross-bedded, sand-rocks or sandstones which is the chara(--) of the Irrawaddy

In the southern part of Pegu Yoma, east of letpadan, the sandstone-shale

alternations of the Pegu Group with typical marine character gradually merged into the
Irrawaddian strata of totally non-marine character with a wide transitional zone. In the
Minbu Basin, the Irrawaddian outcrops near the Mezali dam, Pwinphyu Township are
composed of beds of conglomerate inter bedded with coarse-grained sandstone with
minor shale. The conglomerate posists mainly of conbble to pebble size vein quartz and
rare schists cemeterd by iron. Hemalite concretions are common.

In the Shwebo-Monywa plain the beds are not well-exposed except at the river
banks of the Irrawady and Chindwin. Similar deposits of the Mu valley are named as
Sadwin Formation (UNDP/DGSE Team, 1975). In the Monywa copper Mines area the
equivalent Irrawaddian is named as Magigon Formation (Japanese Metal Mining Agency,
1973). This Formation consists of tuff beds interbedded with sandstones and similar case
is also reported from Mt. Popa region.

These ceposits underlies unconformably the Quaternary gravel beds.



A thick succession of fine-grained clastic rocks occupying the lowlands of Arakan

lying adjacent to the west of Arakan Yoma are included in the upper Tortiary System.

They are mainly composed of brownish-coloured siltstones interbedded with the

thin-to medium-bedde, medium-grained, micaceous sandstones with ripple-tops. Towards
west, the formation becomes more sandy and mudstones are characteristically nodular.
The beds dips uniformly eastward and underlies tectonically the flysch units of Eocene
age. The molluscan shells discovered in this unit indicates a Miocene age. Here in this
region the units of younger age aree underthrust beneath the older rocks. There is an
eastward-thrusting as a result of eastward subduction along the Sunda Arc.


The Quaternary deposits in Burma comprises fluvial and marine terrace deposits
and some (---) and intermontane flat deposits. Fluvial deposits occur mostly along the
valleys of Irrawaddy, Chindwin and Sittang River systems in central lowlands and
smaller deposits occur along the Salween, Namtu rivers in Eastern Highlands. The
valleys of Tavoy and Tenasserim rivers in Tenasserim region develop some quaternary
deposits. Lacustrine terrace deposits occur around the periphery of many lakes in Eastern
Highlands and upper Irrawaddy provinces. Marine Terrace deposits occur along the
coastal plain of Arakan and Tenasserim regions. The deltaic deposits occur in the
advancing deltas of Irrawaddy and Sittang river.

Plateau Gravels or Plateau Red Earth

These deposits developed mostly in the Shwebo-Monywa plain and in most part
they lie with marked unconformity upon the eroded Irrawaddian or Pegu beds. They
richly occur between Mandalay and Monywa in the east of Chindwin river and
Shinmadaung Salingyi-Tuindaung stretches in the west of Chindwin River.

Japanese /DGSE Team mapping (--) of Monywa area gave the name Kangon
Formation after the Kangon village just east of Kyisintaung and Sabe Taung to the
Horizontal beds of weakly consolidated sand and gravels. Similar deposits in the
Shinmadaung and Salingyi area, are named as ― Kanthit Graves‖ by UNDP/ DGSE
Team. This unit is also widely distributed in Twin taung and Kani area and as undulating
lands in Shwebo-Monywa plain.

The Kangon or Kanthit gravels comprise conglomerate, sandstone and tuff.

Conglomerates contain quartz and quartzitic pebbles as well as concreations of iron-oxide
with the matrix of tuffaceous sand. Sandstones contains few subrounded pebbles of
siliceous rocks shile under microscope, small fragments of feldspar, epidote and
sedimentary rocks are seen consolidated with carbonate minerals (iron ankerite). These
rocks are usually massive or mightly stratified (Japan/DGSE Team, 1973).

Megafossils have not been found except silicified wood. Pollens from (--) of
Kyaukmyet are examined and identifiel as Gramineae, Cyathacaceae, Chenopodiaceae,
Compositae and Cyperaceae, as well as Pinus, Podourpus, Araucaris, Alnus, Quercus and
Trema. There present both subtropical and temperate climate pollens which suggested
that during depositional period the climate is slightly cooler than that of present day
(Japanese Metal Minig Agency, 1973). The age is estimated as Pleistocene and it is the
first paleontologically dated age of the gravel beds in Central Burma.

The gravel beds of upper Chindwin is known as Mingin gravels and the gravels in
the valley of Myitha river are known as Maw gravels.

In lower Burma it is known as older alluvium which underlie along the margin of
the alluvial plains of the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers. Along the periphery of the Pegu
Yoma it occupies the dissected undulating hills. They are composed of gravels and
loosely packed sands mostly capped by the ferruginous or lateritic soils.

In this connection the gravel beds of PJ distocene and recent terraces are much
important especially when (---) gold is concentrated.

Other important gem bearing (---) occur in the Mogok region. The gravel beds of
Mongmeik-Shweli plain are known to contain placer gole, placer gem, including
diamonds, In the upper Irrawaddy province Uru boulder conglomerate is famous for its
jade boulders of imperial quality.

In the Tenasserim region most of placer tin deposits are confined to the gravel
beds probably of the Pleistocene age.


(---) 1934) (----) the five igneous belts of Burma in his cleazic ― The Geology of
Buurma‖. It is traditionally accepted that the five igneous lines are running nearly north-
south parallel to the major structural trends suggesting a close relationship between the
igneous activity and diastrophic episodes.

Pre-Paleozoic and Paleozoic Igneous Rocks

The dolerite dykes intruding Pro-Cambrian Chaungmagyi rocks in the Mong

Long Area were likely o be the oldest igneous rock in Burma. The Diorite and Olivine-
gabbro bodies are also described in the north-north-west of Kyaukme-Longtawkno area
by IS Team (1973), but their relationship with either the granite (Taung Peng Granite) or
the Chaungmagyi Group were not observed. They are coarse-grained and holoorystalline
in texture with prominent pyroxene and plagioclase crystals of pyroxene (up to 4mm in
diameter) and plagioclase (up to 3 mm lon).

Whole-rock K; An dating from a (---) and a diorite, collected from near mile
post-71 on the Kyaukme—Namasam road, gave ages of 834 ±15 Ma and 982± 20 Ma
(Dr. N.J. Smelling, personal communication with Dr. A.H.G Mithchell, 1975). These
determination give a minimum age of intrusion.

The Bawdwin Volcanics

As mentioned in the Chapter (III), the rhyolites and tuffs, developed in bewdwin
mines area are believed to be peneontemporaneous with Cambriane Pangyun strats.
Similar volcanic rocks at Lagwi pass marked a slightly younger episode of ingncous
ativity. The Lead- Zinc mineralization in the Bawdwin Mine area was probably
associated with this acid volcanism. Lead isotope determination of the galena collected
from the Bawdwin Mines show the apparent age of 510 Ma or Late Cambrian.

The Taung Pong Granite

In the Mong Long area are north and north-west of Kyaukme-Longtawkno area
the tourmaline bearing granite, the Taung Pen Granite inturuded into pre- Cambrian
Chaungmagyi rocks.

The granite is white in colour, coarse-grained prophyritie with phenocrysts up to

3cm kong, containing quartz, microcline, orthoclase, plagioclase, muscitive and biotite,
all of which are identifiable in handspecimens. It is frequently crushed, sheared and
foliated and sometimes pegmatitic (Mitchell 1977). Coggin Brown (1977) has
reported the occurrence of tourmaline from some localities in this granite. The first K:Ar
determination give the age (341 ± 17 Ma) and whole-rock Rb: Sr data from specimens of
tourmaline from some localities in this granite. The first K: Ar determination give the
age (341 ± 17 ma) and whole-rock Rb:Sr data from specimens of the Taung peng
granite from the same locality of the above mentioned Diorite gave a figure of 340 ± 34
Ma and suggested ar:Early Carboniferous igneous activity in this part. The Hanlin chaung
Granite (92 C/6) in the east of kyaukse occur as small stocks. They are biotite hornblende
granites with mostly faint, but locally pronounced foliation and are mostly in colour
owing to secondary chlorite replacing mafics. This granite intruded only the chaung (-)
Group and hence may be for any age from Precambrian to Early (-).

The other occurrences of vo(-) rocks are small masses of rhyolites in association
with the Ordovician rocks in the southern shan state and farther south in the Tenasserim
region, some rhyolites and ash occur interbedded with the clastic sedimentary rocks of
the Mergui Group of possible carboniferous age.

Mesozoic and Cenozoie Igenous Rocks

The ingenous activity was more pronounced in Mesozoic than in paleozoie

time.Large bhatholiths emplaced in the westren margin of the Eastern Highlands and
Tenasserim region, major andesitic lavas and batholiths of central Burma volcanic Arc
and the Ultrabasic rocks ot the Westren Ranges are indicative of major igneous activity in
the Mesozic and Earlytertiary times. The late Tertiary anf Quanatanary activities are also
present in the volcanic are and western margin of the Easterm Highlands.

Pillow Lavas, Ultrabasic Rocks and gabbro

(--) and basic rock associations are confined to the Eastern Belt of the Indo-Burma
Ranges (Western Ranges) and are associated with flysch type sediments of turbidites and chert
and low-temperature highpresure metamorphic rocks which can be expressed as ophiolite belt.

In the Chin Hills and Arakan Yoma, along the margin of the upper Trissic flysch, a
discontinuous belt of pillow basalt and minor massive flows, up to a kilometer thick is present
(UNDP/DGSE, 1979) Brunnschweiller (1966) described pillow lavas from a similar structural
position in the Naga Hills. The lavas locally show similar attitude as those of the upper Triassic
turbidites and overlic stratigraphically or tectonically the flysch. Local stratigraphic evidence
indicate only that the lava are post- Carnian and pre-Albian.

Bodies of serpentinite and less commonly of harzburgite with minor dunite with chromite
occur within the Eastern Belt, forming the elongate north-trending masses up to 120 sq km in
area and nearly 2 km in thickness. A K/Ar determination on hornblende from a pegmatitic
hornblende plagioclass vein intruding serpentinle (---) Jurassic age (158 ±20Ma).

Epidiortes concisting of (--) amphiboles which are mostly hornblende, and rarely up to 18
perant (--) are common adjacent to and within the serpentinite and plagioclase dykes in
serpentinite are present in southern Chin Hills. Gabbroic sills and small irregular bodies of
gabbro, epidiorite intrude the flysch at several localities, and doleritic rocks occur in the pillow
lavas. Recently the occurrence of plagiogranites associated with serpentinites are reported (Myint
Swe (3), et. Al 1981.

Tagaung Myitkyina Belt

A poorly mapped belt characterized by the presence of basic and ultrabasic rocks mostly
forming inliers within the late Tertiary sediments and alluvium extends from Tagaung Taung,
east of Trrawaddy, northwards through Myitkyina to beyond Sunprabum.

At Tagaung Taung a serpontinte dunite-pyroxenite comples is thrust over greenschist,

tightly folded cherts and sandstones (UNDP/ DGSE , 1979).

Further north ,in the first and second defiles of the Irrawaddy, Clegg (1977 , 1941)
described a thick, tightly folded succession of limestone and shale of Albian age intruded by
serpenttinites. In the north the limestanes are associated with a thick sequence of basalts, tuff and
cherts with local diorite intrusion. In the south basalts and quartz prophyries are present.

North of Myitkynia, Murry Stuart (1923) noted volcanic rocks and intermediate to acidic
plutons. Between lat Lat 25˚30` and 27˚ 15` N, Zaw pe (1963) mapped ultrabasic bodies, some
covering up to hundred sq km associated with gabbro, phyllite, and garnet-mica, graphitic, and
chlorite schists.
Jadite- bearing ultrabasic rocks in Jade Mines belt are thought to be related to Mesozoic
igneous activity.

More than 2500m thick succession of consisting of chlorite and epidote-bearing

plagiophyric horahlende andesite flow breccias, massive flows, minor pillow javas, sills and
dykes with local volcanogenic sediments are tremed Mawgyi Andesite after the Mawgyi village
in pinleb-bamauk area. These lavas are overlain by the cretaceous volcanogenic flysch type seid-
ments and limestones of Mawlin Formation, Nankolon and Namakauk limestones. The mawgyi
Andisite was intruded by the Kanza Chaung Batholith which is composed mainly of granodiorite
with stocks of diorites and minor granite. The K/Ar determination of the granodiorite yielde 93 ±
3, 98 ± 4 Ma and within the batholioth the small bodies of diorite and hornblende gabbro
yielded a lower and middle Jurassic age (144 ± 10, 186 ± 18 Ma) .
Further south at salingyi. Amphibolites, green –schists, quartz-keratophyres, and a small
area of gneiss are intruded by mafic hornblende gabbro, diorite and granite stacks,which
respectively yield k/Ar minimum ages of 92 ±12, 106 ± 7 and 103 ± 4 Ma. At Shinmataung,
30km to the south, pillow lavas and diorites are overlain by polymict conglomerates of possible
late cretaceous- early Eocene age.
The Mesozoic age igneous rocks were followed by Early Tor(-) igoneous activities. A
succession of ceals, polymiot conglomerates, dacites and tuffs lies unconformably on the lower/
upper cretaceous rocks and is locally intruded by lower Oligocene stocks of diorite to granodiori-
te composition (33 ± 1, 38 ± 1 Ma) and andesite sills (50 ± 3 Ma). The laves of trachytes occur
15km south of kawlin and yielded 32 ± 1 Ma thus showing a Mid-ologocene igneous activity.
Volcanic rocks of Pliocene- Quaternary and possibly late Miocene age form the poorly
dissected and predominantly andesite stratovolceanoes of Mt. Popa (4981 ft) and Taunghonlon
(5600ft). Stratovolcanoes of similar age also occur in the west of Monywa namely letpadaung
Taung, Sabe Taung and Kyisin Taung which contain porphyry copper deposits. A line of craters
know as Twin Taung volcanoes are possibly of as young as Recent age.

The plitonic rocks in Eastern Highlands

Plutonic rocks, predominantly granitio, occur in two main belts in the Eastern Highlands, one
lying eact of Salween and the other at the western margin of the Eastern Highlands.
In the geologically little –know part of shan state, east of the Salween, granitice rock
identified on air photographs from the probable northward continuation( Mitchell, 1976) of a
granite belt of late Triassic age in northern and western Thailand (Dr.D. Teggin, personal
communication with Mitchell, 1976).
K/Ar and Rb/Sr determinations of four samples of a mineralized granite within the
Mawchi Group east of Pyinmana yielded concordant Palaeocene age (56 Ma),with an initial Sr
87/Sr 86 ratio of 0.717. A k/Ar determination on hornblende form a granite northeast of Thazi
indicated an early late cretaceous (82 ± 2 Ma) minimum age and younger biotit ages while Rb/Sr
results on two whole rock Samples yielded a possible Late Juressic age of 125 ± 24 Ma (brook
and snelling, 1976). The granites of Tenasserim southwards into peninsular Thailand where K/Ar
age are mostly cretaceous to lower tertiary (Burton and Bignell 1969, Garson, young, Mi(-) and
Tain, 1976.
Two biotite sample from the kabaing granite northwest of Mogok yielded K/Ar ages of
18 ± 0.5 Ma, and a granite intruding gneiss near Thabeikyin gave K/Ar age on biotit of 17.5 ±
0.3 Ma (Brook and snelling,1976). In the same ages of 15 and 16 Ma (Maung Thein and Ba Than
Haq,1964) and a U/pb determination of uranothorianit from apegmatite (scarle and Haq, 1964
yields a 15 Ma age. Non- foliated biotit lenco-granite intruding schists and marbles north east of
pyinmana give a k/Ar age on biotite 0f 25 ± 1 Ma(UNDP/DGSE).


Sagaing Fault System
A major N-trending fault, visible on air photographs and ERTS imagery as a narrow
linear trace mostly within alluvial valleys, lies near the eastern margin of the Central Lowlands.
From the eastern edge of the Pagu Yoma where it was first recognized and termed as ―Hnizee
Fault‖ by Dey (1968) it extends into the Gulf of Mataban. In the north it runs through the
Sagaing Hills where it was referred to as Sagaing Fault by Win Swe (1970-1972). North of
Sagain there is evidence of quaternary dextral movements, possibly exceeding 3 km since late
Pleistocene (Win Swe, 1972). Recent movement is also indicated by major earthquake epicenters
such as the Pgegu earthquake, Swa esrthquake, Pyinmana earthquake, Ava Earthquake and
Sagaing earthquake along the the fault zone.
Beyond Thabeikyin the major fault continues northwards through Indaw Lake and then
swings northeastwards along the alluvial Namyin valley, juxtaposing the southern end of the
kumon Range against metamorphic rocks to the east. The northward continuation of the fault can
be traced on Landsat imagery and air photographs as a lineament through late tertiary sediments;
it then curves northwestwards into Assam as the Mi Jju Thrust of Evans (1965).
Between Sagaing and east of Taungthonlon a number of splay faults join the Saging
Fault. The easternmost of these, the Taikri Fault, extends northwards to the western margin of
Kumon Range, but does not interect the Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene rocks of the Range.
Father west the ― Taung Chaung‖ fault extends northwards to west of Jade Mine Belt where it
disappears within Late Tertiary sedimentary rocks. Between the faults are numerous north-
trending lineations along some of which there is evidence of dextral offsets in pre-Tertiary rocks.
However, there is no significant changes across the faults in the Oligocene to Miocene
sedimentary rocks.
Basalts of probable Quaternary age occur at four localities (-) Sagaing Fault. Olivine
basalts near Singu, north of Mandaly lie on the fault line. Two small areas of Post Miocene baslts
occur at Tongne village south of Htigyaing and another area a few miles south of Indaw Lie on
the Sagaing Fault.

Shan Scarp Fault

A series of high angle faults occur at the Shan Scarp zone. They were interpreted as
nomal faults with downthrow side to the west (maung Thein, 1973) but strike slip components
are also observed on the Mandalay-Maymyo road as indicated by large scale horizontal slicken –
Sides (Personal Comu; wwith U Sein Myint, 1970). The fault zone can be seen clearly in air
photographs and LANDSAT imgery and extended on to Mawchi area with NNW-SSE trends.

Payathonsu Fault (Three Pagoda Pass)

The payathosu Fault trends southeastwards from Kyaikkhami Pagoda across Tenasserim
into Thailand (Sein Myint 1972) . The Fault displaces the margins of granitic pluten by (--)
in a sinistral sence and it has been noticed by Pidd (1971) and Taylor and Hutchison (1978) . A
major NW-trending sinistral fault lies 250 km to the north (Ridd, 1971) along the Yonsalin River
and cuts the northly trending faults of the Shan Scarp; on e of several faults of similar
trendwithin Mogok Belt farther north is associated with extensive mylonitisation (Bateson
Momeik Fault
A major lineament, the Momeik Fault, trends eastwards from near Mogok across the
Northern Shan State and swings northwards into China (Than Naing 1978). The fault affects
Jurassic and older rocks and shows a 30 km sinistral displacement of the eastern margin of the
Mogok Belt.


Shan Scarp Thrust Zone

In the Shan Scarp region Prof; Ba Than Haq has noticed the presence of the east directed
thrust and termed Nwabangyi Thrust in Gyi area. Farther more eastward-directed overthrusts
extend in a narrow zone for 140 km across the Southern Shan State near the scarp zone which
were truncated by the Shan Scarp high angle faults.
The thrusts largely coinside with Pyin Nyaung-Nattalin or Shan Scarp morphological
zone. Five major thrusts have been mapped from northeast to South –west; they are Gwebin
Taung Thrust and its probable southward continuation as the Myogyi Thrust, Thabye Taung
Thrust and a thrust to the east of it the Knaw Thrust and the Nyaungbin Taung Thrust. But other
shorter thrusts are also present. The thrusts are in echelon with a trend slightly oblique to that of
the scarps forming an imbricate thrust cone.
Along some thrusts older rocks are thrust over younger, but along others the evidence for
the thrust movements are less direct. In west of Myogyi area east-facing scarps above the Pre-
Chambrian Chaungmagyi Group are of Lower, Middle and Upper Ordovician age at different

West-directed Thrust
The northwesterly directed thrust in Mogok area has been mentioned by Sarle and Haq
(1964) which was formed in the Late Alpine orogeny.

Thrust Faults in Western Ranges

The boundary between the Upper Triassic of Eastern Belt of Western Ranges and the
Late Cretaceous to Eocene rocks to the west is considered to be everywheretectonic. In west of
Kanpetlet the boundary is defined by a high-angle fault line known as Keng Fault which passes
southward into east-ward dipping thrust on map sheet 84 L/1 and in west of Kalemyo the
boundary is the eastward inclined Theizang Thrust. Farther south in southwest of Mindon the
contact is more distinct and it is east inclined Thrust Fault, where older Upper Triassic rocks are
definitely overlying the younger rocks of Senonian age.
The thrust faults in the east of Keng Fault may be of younger age and (--) to the trend of
Keng Fault, and affected the lower Eocene rocks and other rock units above the Pane Chaung
Group of Late Triassic age.


The acknowledgement to various sources was expressed at appropriate place in the text.
The present compilation could not have been successfully completed without the guidance and
support of the Director General of the D.G.S.E and without the painstaking efforts of U Tin
Hlaing, Geologist II, who wrote the original draft, U Ko Ko, Geologist III, who read and
improved the original draft through final manuscript, U Nyint Oo, Geologist V, who drafted the
figures, Daw Nila Than Maung, who enthusiastically type the original draft through the final
manuscript and many many DGSE personnel of the Field Division of the DGSE who supported
whole heartedly in one way or the other toward the successful completion of this work. The sole
responsibility, however,, lies with the Deputy Director of the Field Division, under whose
supervision the work was carried out.

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