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 A  
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  ( &%$) is a set of computer programs
that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of a database. It allows organizations to place
control of database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other
specialists. A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of
data records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily
access the same database. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the
network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to
store and retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to
extract information, user can ask simple questions in a query language. Thus, many DBMS
packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application
development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and
use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing
data integrity, managing concurrency, and restoring the database from backups. A DBMS also
provides the ability to logically present database information to users.

Databases have been in use since the earliest days of electronic computing. Unlike modern
systems which can be applied to widely different databases and needs, the vast majority of older
systems were tightly linked to the custom databases in order to gain speed at the expense of
flexibility. Originally DBMSs were found only in large organizations with the computer
hardware needed to support large data sets.

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 The file management system also called as FMS
in short is one in which all data is stored on a single large file. The main
disadvantage in this system is searching a record or data takes a long time.
This lead to the introduction of the concept,of indexing in this system. Then
also the FMS system had lot of drawbacks to name a few like updating or
modifications to the data cannot be handled easily, sorting the records took
long time and so on. All these drawbacks led to the introduction of the
Hierarchical Database System.

 D         The previous system FMS drawback of
accessing records and sorting records which took a long time was removed in
this by the introduction of parent-child relationship between records in
database. The origin of the data is called the root from which several
branches have data at different levels and the last level is called the leaf. The
main drawback in this was if there is any modification or addition made to
the structure then the whole structure needed alteration which made the task
a tedious one. In order to avoid this next system took its origin which is
called as the Network Database System.

 ‘     In this the main concept of many-many
relationships got introduced. But this also followed the same technology of
pointers to define relationships with a difference in this made in the
introduction if grouping of data items as sets.

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    In order to overcome all the drawbacks of
the previous systems the Relational Database System got introduced in
which data get organized as tables and each record forms a row with many
fields or attributes in it. Relationships between tables are also formed in this
system.
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 There was virtually no integration across application areas. Most business data processing
 systems developed in the 1970s and the early 1980s employed this approach. This
 approach to TPS is referred to as the     . A more modern approach
 is to develop an integrated set of application systems with all data stored in a shared
 repository, i.e., the enterprise database. This approach is referred to as the  

 .
 The file-oriented approach
 As indicated above, the file-oriented approach involves creating a set of files, as needed,
 for each transaction processing application such as sales or purchases. A set of COBOL
 programs and data files are created to satisfy the information needs of a each application.
 As shown in the figure on the next page, each application's files and programs are created
 and maintained independent of other applications.
›

     


 The most significant drawback of the file-oriented approach is that there is no sharing of
 data across applications. For example, a marketing application would have to create its
 own customer file, although a customer file already exists in the sales application.
 Independence among applications results in data redundancy or duplication, which has
 many undesirable consequences. Apart from merely consuming more storage space, data
 duplication causes problems of data maintenance. A second drawback of the fileoriented
 approach is the proliferation of files which results from each application creating
 its own files as needed. As the number of files increases, data maintenance becomes
 significantly more problematic. With several versions of the same file in different
 applications, ensuring consistency of data across all applications becomes more difficult
 as the number of files multiplies. A third drawback of the file-oriented approach is the
 length of time normally required for application development. Files needed for a new
 application must be created from scratch since sharing of existing files is not possible.
 A fourth and rather significant disadvantage of the file-oriented approach is the lack of
 independence between the data structures and the application programs that access those
 data structures. As indicated earlier, the "data" division in the COBOL program defines
 the data structures of all files used in the program. These data structures have to be
 redefined in every COBOL program that accesses the same file.
 The Data Base Approach
 In contrast to the file-oriented approach, the data base approach centers around creating
 an organization wide repository of data that all applications and all users can share.
 iather than having multiple instances of the same file, each set of data is uniquely stored,
 as shown in the figure that follows. A data base is an integrated repository of an
 organization's data containing a series of interrelated data sets. The data sets are designed
 to store data about entities such as customers, employees, and vendors, and also events
 such as sales that are really relationships between entities. A
advantage of the
 data base approach, related to the first advantage, is that data inconsistencies are much
 less likely to occur. . A  and very significant advantage of the data base approach
 is      . A advantage of the database approach is that sharing of
 data and the data independence concept permit rapid application development. New
 applications using data that already exists in the database can be very quickly developed.
 The time-consuming steps of defining the data structures and setting up files is
 eliminated. The  and final advantage of the data base approach is that the important
 functions of backup, control, and security are centralized.

 A  
  or @    is the structure or format of a database, described
in a formal language supported by the database management system, In other words, a
"database model" is the
  of a data model when used in conjunction with a
database management system.


 Collage of five types of database models.
 Schemas are generally stored in a data dictionary. Although a schema is defined in text
database language, the term is often used to refer to a graphical depiction of the database
structure.[

A database model is a theory or specification describing how a database is structured and used.
Several such models have been suggested.

Common models include:

 Dierarchical model
 ‘etwork model
 ielational model
 èntity-relationship
 bject-relational model
 bject model

A data model is not just a way of structuring data: it also defines a set of operations that can be
performed on the data. The relational model, for example, defines operations such as select,
project, and join. Although these operations may not be explicit in a particular query language,
they provide the foundation on which a query language is built.

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6arious techniques are used to model data structure. Most database systems are built around one
particular data model, although it is increasingly common for products to offer support for more
than one model. For any one logical model various physical implementations may be possible,
and most products will offer the user some level of control in tuning the physical
implementation, since the choices that are made have a significant effect on performance. An
example of this is the relational model: all serious implementations of the relational model allow
the creation of indexes which provide fast access to rows in a table if the values of certain
columns are known.

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A database system is composed of four components;

‡ Data

‡ Hardware

‡ Software

‡ Users
which coordinate with each other to form an effective database system.

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r   - It is a very important component of the database system. Most of the organizations generate,
store and process 1arge amount of data. The data acts a bridge between the machine parts i.e. hardware
and software and the users which directly access it or access it through some application programs.

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 - It consists of a table(s) of data called ielation(s) where Column(s) are called fields of
attributes and rows are called iecords for tables. A ielation must be structured properly.

‡ % - A description of the structure of the database is known as Metadata. It basically means "data
about data". System Tables store the Metadata which includes.

- Number of Tables and Table Names

- Number of fields and field Names

- Primary Key Fields

‡   % - It stores the structure and format of Queries, reports and other applications
components. '

A , - The hardware consists of the secondary storage devices such as magnetic disks (hard disk,
zip disk, floppy disks), optical disks (CD-iOM), magnetic tapes etc. on which data is stored together with
the Input/Output devices (mouse, keyboard, printers), processors, main memory etc. which are used for
storing and retrieving the data in a fast and efficient manner. Since database can range from those of a
single user with a desktop computer to those on mainframe computers with thousand of users, therefore
proper care should be taken for choosing appropriate hardware devices for a required database.

- $ - The Software part consists of DBMS which acts as a bridge between the user and the
database or in other words, software that interacts with the users, application programs, and database and
files system of a particular storage media (hard disk, magnetic tapes etc.) to insert, update, delete and
retrieve data. For performing these operations such as insertion, deletion and updation we can either use
the Query Languages like SQL, QUEL, Gupta SQL or application softwares such as 6isual 3asic,
Developer etc.

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 Users are those persons who need the information from the database to carry out their primary
business responsibilities i.e. Personnel, Staff, Clerical, Managers, Executives etc. On the basis of the job
and requirements made by them they are provided access to the database totally or partially.

The various types of users which can access the database are:-

‡ Database Administrators (DBA)

‡ Database Designers

‡ End Users

‡ Application Programmers

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A  
consists of an organized collection of data for one or more
multiple uses. One way of classifying  

involves the type of
content, for example: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, image. Other
classification methods start from examining database models or database
architectures: see below. Software organizes the data in a database
according to a database model. As of 2010 the relational model occurs
most commonly. Other models such as the hierarchical model and the
network model use a more explicit representation of relationships.

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Operational database

These databases store detailed data needed to support the operations of an entire organization.
They are also called subject-area databases (SADB), transaction databases, and production
databases. For example:

 customer database
 personal database
 inventory database
 accounting database
nalytical database

Analytic databases (a.k.a. OLAP- On Line Analytical Processing) are primarily static, read-only
databases which store archived, historical data used for analysis. For example, a company might
store sales records over the last ten years in an analytic database and use that database to analyze
marketing strategies in relationship to demographics.

On the web, you will often see analytic databases in the form of inventory catalogs such as the
one shown previously from Amazon.com. An inventory catalog analytical database usually holds
descriptive information about all available products in the inventory.

Web pages are generated dynamically by querying the list of available products in the inventory
against some search parameters. The dynamically-generated page will display the information
about each item (such as title, author, ISBN) which is stored in the database.

Data warehouse

A data warehouse stores data from current and previous years ² data extracted from the various
operational databases of an organization. It becomes the central source of data that has been
screened, edited, standardized and integrated so that it can be used by managers and other end-
user professionals throughout an organization. Data warehouses are characterized by being slow
to insert into but fast to retrieve from. iecent developments in data warehousing have led to the
use of a Shared nothing architecture to facilitate extreme scaling.

Distributed database

These are databases of local work-groups and departments at regional offices, branch offices,
manufacturing plants and other work sites. These databases can include segments of both
common operational and common user databases, as well as data generated and used only at a
user¶s own site.

End-user database

These databases consist of a variety of data files developed by end-users at their workstations.
Examples of these are collections of documents in spreadsheets, word processing and even
downloaded files.

External database

These databases provide access to external, privately-owned data online ² available for a fee to
end-users and organizations from commercial services. Access to a wealth of information from
external database is available for a fee from commercial online services and with or without
charge from many sources in the Internet.
Dypermedia databases on the web

These are a set of interconnected multimedia pages at a web-site. They consist of a home page
and other hyperlinked pages[    @@Ë of multimedia or mixed media such as text, graphic,
photographic images, video clips, audio etc.

‘avigational database

In navigational databases, queries find objects primarily by following references from other
objects. Traditionally navigational interfaces are procedural, though one could characterize some
modern systems like XPath as being simultaneously navigational and declarative.

In-memory databases

In-memory databases primarily rely on main memory for computer data storage. This contrasts
with database management systems which employ a disk-based storage mechanism. Main
memory databases are faster than disk-optimized databases since[    @@Ë the internal
optimization algorithms are simpler and execute fewer CPU instructions. Accessing data in
memory provides faster and more predictable performance than disk. In applications where
response time is critical, such as telecommunications network equipment that operates
emergency systems, main memory databases are often used.

Document-oriented databases

Document-oriented databases are computer programs designed for document-oriented


applications. These systems may be implemented as a layer above a relational database or an
object database. As opposed to relational databases, document-based databases do not store data
in tables with uniform sized fields for each record. Instead, they store each record as a document
that has certain characteristics. Any number of fields of any length can be added to a document.
Fields can also contain multiple pieces of data.

Real-time databases

A real-time database is a processing system designed to handle workloads whose state may
change constantly. This differs from traditional databases containing persistent data, mostly
unaffected by time. For example, a stock market changes rapidly and dynamically. ieal-time
processing means that a transaction is processed fast enough for the result to come back and be
acted on right away. ieal-time databases are useful for accounting, banking, law, medical
records, multi-media, process control, reservation systems, and scientific data analysis. As
computers increase in power and can store more data, real-time databases become integrated into
society and are employed in many applications.
Relational Database

The standard of business computing as of 2009, relational databases are the most commonly used
database today[    @@Ë. It uses the table to structure information so that it can be readily and
easily searched through.


 
The ability to share the same data resource with multiple applications or users. It implies that the
data are stored in one or more servers in the network and that there is some software locking
mechanism that prevents the same set of data from being changed by two people at the same
time. Data sharing is a primary feature of a database management system (DBMS).


  is the practice of making data used for scholarly research available to other
investigators. Many funding agencies, institutions, and publication venues have policies
regarding data sharing because transparency and openness are considered by many to be part of
the scientific method. A number of funding agencies and science journals require authors of
peer-reviewed papers to share any supplemental information (raw data, statistical methods or
source code) necessary to audit or reproduce published research. A great deal of scientific
research is not subject to data sharing requirements, and many of these policies have liberal
exceptions. In the absence of any binding requirement, data sharing is at the discretion of the
scientists themselves. In addition, in certain situations agencies and institutions prohibit or
severely limit data sharing to protect proprietary interests, national security, and patient/victim
confidentiality. Data sharing (especially photographs and graphic descriptions of animal
research) may also be restricted to protect institutions and scientists from misuse of data for
political purposes by animal rights extremists.

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Database Management System

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a computer program for managing a permanent, self-
descriptive repository of data. This repository of data is called a database and is store in one or more
files. There are many reasons why you could use a DBMS:

 Crash recovery; The database is protected from hardware crashes, disk media failures, and some
user errors
 =haring between users; Multiple users can access the database at the same time
 =haring between applications; Multiple application programs can read and write data to the
same database
 =ecurity; Data can be protected against unauthorized read and write access
 ntegrity; You can specify rules that data must satisfy. A DBMS can control the quality of its data
over and above facilities that that may be provided by application programs
 è tensibility; Data may be added to the database without disrupting existing programs. Data can
be reorganized for faster performance.
 ›ata distribution; The database may be partitioned across various sites, organizations, and
hardware platforms

An entire branch of computer science is devoted to studying DBMS issues and answering questions such
as:

 Yhat paradigm is most conducive it represents database structure?


 Yhat kind of language provides the most natural interaction?
 Dow can a database capture more of the true meaning of its data?
 Dow should a database be organized for maximum performance and flexibility?

Several DBMS paradigms are available: hierarchical, network, relational, and object-oriented.
Dierarchical and network DBMS bring the conceptual DBMS close to underlying physical data structures.
Thus they are efficient but difficult to use and fading in the marketplace. ielational DBMS dominate
today͛s marketplace. ielational DBMS present the database at a higher level of abstraction than
hierarchies and networks and are easy to use. ielational DBMS implementations are improving in
performance as they mature and use smarter optimization techniques. bject-oriented may be the
wave to the future

ielational Database Management System

A ielational Database Management System (iDBMS) provides a comprehensive and integrated


approach to information management.

A relational model provides the basis for a relational database. A relational model has three aspects:

 Structures
 perations
 ntegrity rules

=tructures consist of a collection of objects or relations that store data. An example of relation is a table.
You can store information in a table and use the table to retrieve and modify data.

Operations are used to manipulate data and structures in a database. Yhen using operations. You must
adhere to a predefined set of integrity rules.

ntegrity rules are laws that govern the operations allowed on data in a database. This ensures data
accuracy and consistency.

ielational database components include:

 Table
 iow
 Column
 _ield
 årimary key
 _oreign key
_igure 1-1. ielational database components

 Table is a basic storage structure of an iDBMS and consists of columns and rows. A table represents
an entity. _or example, the S_DèåT table stores information about the departments of an organization.

 Row is a combination of column values in a table and is identified by a primary key. iows are also
known as records. _or example, a row in the table S_DèåT contains information about one department.

 Column is a collection of one type of data in a table. Columns represent the attributes of an object.
èach column has a column name and contains values that are bound by the same type and size. _or
example, a column in the table S_DèåT specifies the names of the departments in the organization.

 Field is an intersection of a row and a column. A field contains one data value. f there is no data in the
field, the field is said to contain a ‘  value.
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