Sie sind auf Seite 1von 94

# 2008 University of South Africa

All rights reserved

Printed and published by the
University of South Africa
Muckleneuk, Pretoria





1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Learning outcomes 3
1.3 Management and education management in ECD 3
1.4 Management styles 4
1.5 The managerial functions of the manager/director/school principal 4
1.6 Responsibilities of an ECD manager/director/school principal 5
1.7 The manager as a communicator, problem solver and highly effective person 5
1.8 Risk and stress management 6
1.9 Conclusion 7
1.10 Self-evaluation questions 7


2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Learning outcomes 9
2.3 Philosophical orientations and models of ECD programmes 9
2.4 Aims of ECD programmes 9
2.5 Different types of ECD programmes and institutions in South Africa 9
2.6 Characteristics of ECD programmes 11
2.7 Quality ECD programmes 11
2.8 Conclusion 11
2.9 Self-evaluation questions 11


3.1 Introduction 13
3.2 Learning outcomes 13
3.3 ECD policy and challenges 13
3.4 Institutions involved in ECD 14
3.5 Conclusion 14
3.6 Self-evaluation questions 15


4.1 Introduction 19
PGC405D/1/2009±2011 (iii)
4.2 Learning outcomes 19
4.3 The recruitment, selection and appointment of personnel 19
4.4 The evaluation/appraisal of staff 19
4.4.1 Reasons for evaluating/appraising staff 20
4.4.2 The principles of staff evaluation/appraisal 20
4.4.3 Methods for the appraisal of staff 21
4.5 Personnel development 21
4.5.1 Staff needs assessment 21
4.5.2 In-service training 22
4.6 Personnel relations 24
4.7 Managing professionalism 27
4.8 Managing student teachers and volunteers 27
4.9 Conclusion 27
4.10 Self-evaluation questions 28


5.1 Introduction 30
5.2 Learning outcomes 30
5.3 Grouping of children/learners 30
5.4 Discipline 31
5.5 Suggested strategies of effective ECD classroom management 31
5.6 Conclusion 32
5.7 Self-evaluation questions 32


6.1 Introduction 34
6.2 Learning outcomes 34
6.3 Diversity: What does it mean? 34
6.4 Management of learner differences in ECD 34
6.5 Parental participation in classroom diversity 35
6.6 Conclusion 36
6.7 Self-evaluation questions 36


7.1 Introduction 38
7.2 Learning outcomes 38
7.3 The importance of parental involvement 38
7.4 Factors hampering parental involvement 38
7.5 Addressing the unique needs of families and the community 39
7.6 Guidelines for enhancing parental participation 39
7.7 Home-school communication 40
7.8 Parental involvement in the governance of a school, the school programme and in the 40
upkeep of school resources
7.9 Handling disharmony between parents and teachers 41
7.10 Conclusion 41
7.11 Self-evaluation questions 41


8.1 Introduction 43
8.2 Learning outcomes 43
8.3 The constitution 43
8.4 The management committee and its tasks 43
8.5 The annual general meeting (AGM) 44
8.6 Management committees in the Foundation Phase 44
8.7 Conclusion 45
8.8 Self-evaluation questions 45



9.1 Introduction 49
9.2 Learning outcomes 49
9.3 Planning for learning and development: developmentally appropriate practices 49
9.4 Managing the learning environment of infants and toddlers (birth to three years) 50
9.5 Managing the learning of preschool children (3±5 years) 50
9.6 Managing the learning environment of learners in the Foundation Phase 50
9.7 Managing classroom space 50
9.8 Managing time 51
9.9 Conclusion 51
9.10 Self-evaluation questions 51


10.1 Introduction 53
10.2 Learning outcomes 53
10.3 Components of a health policy 53
10.4 Maintenance of the ECD centre 56
10.5 Conclusion 57
10.6 Self-evaluation questions 58


11.1 Introduction 60
11.2 Learning outcomes 60
11.3 Funding of schools 60
11.4 Management of the school's finances 61
11.5 Financial bookkeeping 61
11.5.1 Keeping financial records 61 The receipt book or computer 62
EDT305S/1 (v) The bank deposit book 62 The cash payments/receipts journal 62 Bank statements 62 Supporting documentation (proof of expenditure) 62 The reconciliation statement 62
11.6. Bookkeeping terminology 63
11.7 Reporting 63
11.8 Financial planning 63
11.8.1 The budget 64
11.9 Financial organisation in early childhood education 64
11.9.1 The procedure of organisation 64
11.10 Handling class finances 67
11.11 Conclusion 68
11.12 Self-evaluation questions 68


12.1 Introduction 71
12.2 Learning outcomes 71
12.3 Documentation in ECD: from birth to Pre-reception Year Phase 71
12.4 Documentation used in the Foundation Phase 72
12.5 Conclusion 73
12.6 Self-evaluation questions 73


13.1 Introduction 77
13.2 Learning outcomes 77
13.3 Survey to establish a location for an ECD centre 77
13.4 Licensing and regulations 77
13.5 Circumstances that can lead to the closure of an ECD centre 78
13.6 Financial matters 78
13.7 Staff selection 78
13.8 Opening day 78
13.9 Enrolment 79
13.10 Grievance procedures 79
13.11 Conclusion 79
13.12 Self-evaluation questions 80



The survival of ECD centres and schools depends on the ability of

education managers to address and meet the needs of the children/
learners, educators, parents and community. ECD managers need up-to-
date information about theoretical and practical frameworks that will
guide and equip them and to illustrate the relevance of theory by linking it
to the practical situation in South Africa in order to promote greater
understanding of the policies and concepts underpinning effective
management principles and practice in ECD.
This study guide and prescribed book have been written from a South
African perspective and focus on schools for children in the 0±9 years age
group. Schools for the different age groups within this phase differ
considerably from one another. Therefore we will discuss basic
management principles which can be applied in various types and sizes of
institutions for early childhood.
Early childhood development (ECD) refers to a comprehensive approach
to policies and programmes for children from birth to nine years of age
with the active participation of their parents and caregivers. Its purpose is
to protect the child's rights to develop his or her full cognitive, emotional,
social and physical potential.
We define early childhood development (ECD) as an umbrella term that
applies to the processes by which children from birth to at least 9 years
grow and thrive, physically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually, morally and

Because there are huge differences between children in the 0±9 years
phase, we will subdivide this phase into the following age groups:
Babies: 0±18 months
Toddlers: 18±36 months
Preschoolers: 3±6 years
Foundation phase: Reception year (5/6 years)
Grades 1±3 (7±9/10 years)
Knowledge of education management is imperative. In addition to
educational duties, teachers have administrative duties, and must know
how to manage classes or groups, so that the learners can achieve the
planned outcomes. Teachers may also be promoted and, in that case,
knowledge of education management is essential. It is also possible that,
being in the field of early childhood teaching, people will decide to start
their own playgroup or private nursery school, for which they will require
knowledge of education management. Let us now consider specific
reasons why it is necessary to be informed about education management.
(1) It makes it possible to accomplish management tasks effectively.
Effective management calls for specialised knowledge and skills.
Therefore training in education management is necessary. Managerial
training is just as important for the ordinary practitioner as it is for the
principal of a school. You have to manage your classroom activities: in
other words, you must plan, organise, give guidance and exercise
EDT305S/1 (vii)
control to ensure that the educational programme runs smoothly.
Effective management creates a successful teaching and learning
(2) It prevents beginner teachers from experiencing practice shock. If, as
a beginner teacher, you have management training, you can, to a large
extent, prevent practice shock. This means that you will know how
to handle a particular situation and that you will not stand around
helplessly, not knowing what to do.
(3) It ensures that the children enjoy their work and that personnel
experience job satisfaction. If they have the necessary management
skills, managers are able to identify the talents of their personnel and
children and allocate tasks appropriately. This ensures job satisfac-
tion/work enjoyment for each staff member and child. Communica-
tion and problem-solving skills may also help bring about and maintain
improved relations.
(4) It helps with the management of change. Training in management
skills provides the necessary skills and self-confidence to manage
change. The teaching task is also changing, particularly now, while the
South African system of education is changing. The entire school
setup has to adjust to it. Specialised knowledge of management is
essential for this purpose.
(5) It helps with the identification and solution of problems. You are
taught how to gather, analyse, organise and critically evaluate
information and ultimately solve a problem.
(6) It promotes effective cooperation with others. Management training
teaches you to work with others in a group, team, organisation or in
the community.
(7) It promotes effective time management. You learn to plan the
allocation of time. It is important to know how to spend your time.
We hope that you will find this module enriching and that you will be able
to apply your knowledge with good results in practice. May your progress
through this study guide be stimulating, involved and active.

Your prescribed book for both modules EDT305S and PGC405D is:
Meier, C & Marais, P. 2007. Education management in Early Childhood
Development. Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Furthermore, it is possible to discuss the information in this study guide

from different cultural perspectives. Different cultures may interpret and
apply the content concerned according to their particular cultural group.


The purpose of these modules is to help students to learn about
management and administration in Early Childhood Development and
focuses on the functions that generally have to be performed in the
management and administration of schools. Management is the process
whereby managers reach the objectives of their organisations by working
with and through other people. In the school context, it refers to the
manner in which all the involved parties manage the school. In our
present-day society, the responsibility for the education and care of small
children rests with educators, parents, other persons in the community
and with the children themselves. A good cooperative relationship
between all these role players is essential for them to work well together
to achieve what is in their mutual interests, namely the smooth running of
the school.


Although the prescribed book contains a lot of information on the
administration of schools for early childhood, we wish to highlight
essential knowledge in this study guide. The study guide is our way of
engaging in discussion with you about the content and of guiding you
through the prescribed book. You should therefore keep your prescribed
book close at hand.
The idea is that you use the study guide to take you through the chapters
in the prescribed book. In addition, we provide you with essential
background knowledge to help you to develop an informed approach to
education management in ECD.


We will be using a number of icons throughout the study guide. Their
purpose is to guide you through the work and to indicate what you are
dealing with. The icons indicate
. learning outcomes
. when you have to consult your prescribed book
. when you must do an activity, or
consider/think about an issue or subject
. self-evaluation questions

We have used the following icons:

Learning outcomes:

Prescribed book/Study:


Self-evaluation questions:

You may also find it worthwhile to keep a journal Ð a notebook in which

you can make notes and summaries, and in which you can write down
what you have encountered in practice.
Note: For some interesting additional information on several aspects of
the management of ECD centres do read the appendices to the
chapters in the prescribed book as well as at the end of the book.

EDT305S/1 (ix)
Early childhood development in the news:

Source: Business Day, 1 March 2005:1

Source: Burger, 19 December 2005:1

EDT305S/1 (xi)




Education management in Early

Childhood Development

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 1 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

1.1 Introduction
In this study unit you will be introduced to the concept of ``management''
and, more specifically, ``education management'', management styles,
managerial functions, responsibilities and roles of a manager regarding
ECD as well as risk and stress management.

1.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. explain the concept education management in your own words

. distinguish between the different styles of management and compare
them to each other
. identify the managerial functions
. describe the education manager/director/principal as a communicator,
problem solver and highly effective person
. identify management risks
. identify work-related issues causing stress and discover how to cope
with pressure and stress

1.3 Management and education management in ECD

In order to understand what is meant by ``management'' and ``education
management'', we first have to reflect on what management is.

ACTIVITY What do you think ``management'' means?

Talk to other students or people in your community, such as leaders in

business, about the concept ``management''.

Did the opinions of your fellow-students and people in the community

provide you with an answer? Let us see how the dictionary defines
management: ``to organise, regulate, be in charge of'' (Concise Oxford
Dictionary 1995:827). In order to organise or regulate someone's
behaviour, it is important to know exactly what you wish them to achieve.
You would therefore need to have a purpose, or the exercise would be
quite senseless.

In society there are many organisations that have to be managed in a

certain manner to reach their goals. The Department of Education, for
instance, is an organisation which directs people and sources in a certain
way in order to implement the curriculum and to make it succeed.

Return to the discussion in section 1.2 in the prescribed book and ensure
that you understand precisely what the concepts mean.
1.4 Management styles
The management styles are discussed in section 1.4 of the prescribed
book. The following four management styles can be distinguished:
. an autocratic management style
. a laissez faire management style
. a democratic management style (participatory management style)
. a management style determined by a specific situation

ACTIVITY Miss Sarah, the Grade R teacher, is a teacher with many years'
experience. She is enthusiastic, has a very good relationship with the
learners and is a truly creative person who plans excellent lesson
contents. However, it often happens that her good ideas are lost during
the presentation of her lessons.

As soon as the learners are ready to start an activity, she remembers

that she has left part of her preparation in her car. She has to leave the
class hurriedly to fetch it, and upon her return some of the learners
have already started working with the media on the table, which are
now in a mess. Other learners are wandering around in the classroom.
She first has to scold the learners to get them under control. At last
Miss Sarah has explained the activity and placed everything on the table.
A lot of useful time has been lost and the learners are no longer as
enthusiastic as they were to take part in the activity.

. What can you say about Miss Sarah's classroom management?

. How does her classroom management affect the effectiveness of the
. What suggestions can you make for more effective control?

Finally, you may ask yourself the following questions:

. Do you know why you have to be informed about education
. How do you see your role in the educational partnership?
. Under what type of manager would you prefer to work?
. Which style of management do you consider to be the most
. What type of manager are you?

1.5 The managerial functions of the manager/director/school

In section 1.5 of the prescribed book, there is a discussion of the
managerial functions, namely planning, organising, leading and control.
You are advised to make summaries of the different functions since the
information in this section can be applied to all the other chapters of the
prescribed book.

ACTIVITY Plan an outing to the zoo for your group. Follow the steps of planning
and organisation closely.

1.6 Responsibilities of an ECD manager/director/school

Section 1.6 of the prescribed book deals with tasks/duties and
responsibilities. Pay attention to these responsibilities because they are
applicable to the other chapters of the prescribed book. Match them
according to the different chapters of the prescribed book.

1.7 The manager as a communicator, problem solver and highly

effective person
In section 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 of the prescribed book there is a discussion on
the manager as a communicator, problem solver and highly effective
person. Apply the information to an education manager by giving practical
examples for every heading.

ACTIVITY Visit a school and observe the forms of written communication that are
used there to send messages to parents, learners and the personnel.

ACTIVITY Your body language may convey different messages to different


Find out how different cultures may interpret something like eye
contact. Also try to find out how people of different cultures greet each
other and how a certain physical attitude/position may be interpreted
by different cultures.

ACTIVITY Every South African has heard of the ubuntu approach. The South
African Governmental White Paper on Welfare officially recognises
ubuntu as:

`'The principle of caring for each other's wellbeing ... and a spirit of
mutual support ... Each individual's humanity is ideally expressed
through his or her relationship with others and theirs in turn through a
recognition of the individual's humanity. Ubuntu means that people are
people through other people. It also acknowledges both the rights and
the responsibilities of every citizen in promoting individual and societal
wellbeing'' (Government Gazette, 02/02/1996, No 16943, p 18,
paragraph 18).

This unifying vision or world view is best expressed in the Zulu maxim:
umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu. The phrase can be translated as ``a person
is a person through other persons'', or ``I am what I am because of

How can the above approach cause misunderstanding between people?

1.8 Risk and stress management

Note that the following suggestions by Atmore (2003:5) on managing risk
can be applied to management in ECD. See section 1.11 in the prescribed
. Identify hazards and trends in the organisation that could affect the
personal health of the organisation's finances.
. Remember the safety of the employees, the nonprofit organisation's
image, proper accounting controls, liability, health and property
insurance, and legal issues such as contracts, public relations,
specialists and law compliance.
. Determine the procedures for contract execution and public
response to incidents.
. Include attorneys, accountants, insurance professionals, civil and
environmental engineers, physicians, business managers, and safety
and environmental specialists in the management team.
Also note the following work-related issues which cause stress. See
section 1.12 in the prescribed book.
. unsupportive parents or family members
. poor working conditions
. overcrowded classes
. time pressures
. excessive administrative work
. inadequate salaries
. daily interruptions
. extracurricular responsibilities

1.9 Conclusion
Over the past decade the nature of school management in South Africa
has changed because of changes in education in South Africa and the
world. The transformation of the education of young children in South
Africa has created a new environment in which ECD directors, school
principals, heads and teachers must manage their workplace because all
of them are managers. Without the skills to manage effectively, any other
expertise ECD managers may have, could well be neutralised. They need
specific skills to be successful and to enable them to coordinate all the
aspects of an institution to meet not only individual but also group goals.
ECD directors, school principals, heads of department and classroom
teachers must all have knowledge of good educational practices such as
managing all the resources and the people involved according to a sound
management style. Although there is no perfect, fixed framework for
managing all the very different ECD centres/schools in South Africa, this
study unit has attempted to describe fundamental styles, functions and
management issues.

1.10 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Compare the three management styles. How does each affect the
(2) Apply Covey's ``seven habits of highly effective people'' to the
school principal in the Foundation Phase by giving a practical
example for every habit.
(3) Explain risk management and substantiate with practical examples.
(4) Using the stress reducers suggested by Makin and Lindley (1991)
and Badenhorst (1986) in the prescribed book section 1.12,
prioritise the ones that would be most effective in reducing your
stress. Then make your own personal list of stress reducers.


Programmes and institutions for

Early Childhood Development

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 2 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

2.1 Introduction
In South Africa, as in many other countries, ECD is a field of specialisation
within education and a recognised profession. The intention with ECD
programmes is to effect developmental changes in children from birth to
the end of Grade 3. This encompasses both formal and informal group
settings. These programmes build bridges between home and school and
are the foundation for future learning and development.

2.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. explain the aims of ECD programmes

. list and describe the different types of ECD programmes
. list and explain the characteristics of ECD programmes
. assess the quality of an ECD programme and strive towards quality in
your own daily practice

2.3 Philosophical orientations and models of ECD programmes

In section 2.3 of chapter 2 of the prescribed book you will see that there
is a discussion of the philosophical orientations of ECD programmes.
When planning, organising, leading and controlling ECD programmes, the
educator demonstrates principles from each of these approaches. It is
therefore important that he or she should be knowledgeable about
philosophies of learning.

Section 2.4 contains a discussion on the nature and characteristics of

Montessori programmes and of Reggio Emilia. To plan, organise, lead and
control programmes, these characteristics should be taken into account.

2.4 Aims of ECD programmes

In section 2.5 of the prescribed book you will find a discussion of the aims
of ECD programmes. It will be worth your while to apply these aims in
daily practice.

2.5 Different types of ECD programmes and institutions in

South Africa
Since 1994, there have been several initiatives to coordinate the state's
involvement in ECD programmes. The state recognises that the early
years are critical for the acquisition of concepts, skills and attitudes that
lay the foundation for lifelong learning. The following information
regarding the different types of programmes and institutions is very
important. Study section 2.6 in the prescribed book.
. programmes for infants and toddlers
. programmes for infants (birth to 18 months)
. programmes for toddlers (18±36 months)
. preschool programmes (3±5 years)
. Reception Year programmes
. faith-based care
. day mothers
. playgroups
. franchises
. employer-sponsored programmes
. child care
. family child care
. programmes related to the length of the day (section 2.7 in the
prescribed book)
. half-day programmes (section 2.7 in the prescribed book)
. full-day programmes (section 2.7 in the prescribed book)
. Foundation Phase programmes (section 2.8 in the prescribed book)
. programmes for children experiencing barriers to learning and
development (section 2.9 in the prescribed book)

ACTIVITY Complete the following table of ECD programmes in South Africa.

Programme Age group Daily Charac-

activities teristics






Special needs

2.6 Characteristics of ECD programmes
In section 2.10 in the prescribed book you are introduced to only 6
characteristics of ECD programmes. Experienced educators may identify
even more. Apply these characteristics to 3 or 4 of the different
programmes by using relevant examples of daily practices.

2.7 Quality ECD programmes

Discuss quality ECD programmes by referring to principles to guide the
implementation of quality ECD programmes and the benefits of quality
ECD programmes. Study section 2.11 in the prescribed book.

2.8 Conclusion
Managing programmes and institutions for ECD and Foundation Phase is
the task of every manager in this profession. There is a wide variety of
programmes, offering a range of ECD services for children from birth to
the age of nine years. Education managers in ECD need to be able to
plan, organise, lead and control programmes in order to accommodate
diversity. They must also direct the resources available for programme
development according to the needs of society as a whole.

2.9 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Prepare a speech on the different ECD programmes, which you
QUESTIONS will deliver to the staff at your school.
(2) Draw up your own daily schedule for a half-day programme for a
group of three-year-olds.
(3) Draw up your own daily schedule for a full-day programme in the
Foundation Phase.
(4) List six characteristics of ECD programmes.
(5) The White Paper 5 on ECD identifies several benefits of ECD
programmes. Discuss.


Early Childhood Development

and the law

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 3 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

3.1 Introduction
In this study unit we consider the landscape of education and law as it
pertains to ECD. This includes a discussion of both direct and indirect
regulation. The issues covered reflect two aspects: first, the main issues
regarding law and education, education management structures and
institutions and, second, the legal relations between institutions and their
role players, namely employers, employees (i.e. educators and care-
givers), learners, children and parents. While the nature of this chapter
requires us to touch upon aspects of law that would normally be
considered as being in the domain of other autonomous fields of law, we
are conscious here of the need to be faithful to the subject of this chapter,
which is education and law with the emphasis on education, and ECD in
particular. Thus, while potentially all aspects of labour law could be
relevant to the running of an ECD centre or a primary school, we try to
focus here only on those aspects that are of specific interest to such
centres and schools. Aspects such as closed shop agreements and
bargaining forums, which are discussed in general labour law texts, are
therefore not covered here.

The topics covered in this study unit are ECD policy and its challenges;
the legal structure of the South African education system; ECD
institutions; educators and caregivers in ECD institutions; learners and
children; and parents.

3.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. list the legal principles applicable to education

. paraphrase key national legislation impacting on education
. name and describe the various institutions involved in ECD

3.3 ECD policy and challenges

Section 3.2 of the prescribed book contains important material regarding
ECD policy and challenges. The services provided in ECD are largely
fragmented, duplicated and neglected. There are two main categories of
institution-based ECD provision:
. public and
. independent (private).

Public ECD institutions are funded by provincial departments of

education and consist of preprimary schools offering ECD services and
programmes for children aged 3 to 5 years. The number of these public
preprimary schools has decreased dramatically over the years.

Today a much greater variety of ECD services exists in the category of

independent ECD institutions. These institutions are funded through
parents' fees, community fundraising and/or donations of materials, with
small or no financial support from government. Independent ECD
provision currently includes the following:
. the Reception Year (Grade R) at independent schools
. the Reception Year (Grade R) attached to public schools, but
managed by the school governing body and operated by a private
individual or the community
. independent preprimary schools that provide for children from 3 to 5
years of age
. privately operated or community-run creÁches or nursery schools that
provide for children from birth to five years
. home-based provision for children from birth to five years

Also study section 3.2.1 of the prescribed book.

3.4 Institutions involved in ECD

In section 3.4 of the prescribed book various educational institutions in
the South African education system are discussed. The following aspects
are important.
. Table 3.1 Ð institutions involved in ECD
. governance of a public primary school
. composition of the school governing body
. functions of a governing body
. provision of Grade R in the public primary school
. independent primary and preprimary schools and centres
. legal nature and status of an independent school or centre

ACTIVITY You are the school principal of Zonderwater Primary school. Explain
the difference between the concepts ``governance'' and ``management''
to a newly appointed teacher in the Foundation Phase in your school.
See if you are able to add to the prescribed book's explanation.

Note: Read the appendices to chapter 3 for additional interesting


3.5 Conclusion
This unit, in conjunction with the prescribed book, examined the legal
framework within which ECD functions. It dealt with basic principles of
law and their application in the South African education system. Special
attention was given to the place and functioning of ECD within education
and law. The legal nature of institutions involved in ECD was discussed as
were other important role players, such as educators/caregivers,
learners/children and parents. In examining the role of educators and
caregivers, aspects of their legal status, professional and employee status,
and relationship with learners and children were emphasised. From the
perspective of the learner and child, the focus was on the legal status of
the child and matters relating to discipline, supervision, health and safety.
3.6 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Discuss the two main categories of institution-based ECD

QUESTIONS provision.
(2) Explain to a colleague the nature of ECD and its place in the South
African education system.
(3) What is meant by independent primary and preprimary schools
and centres?
(4) ``The laws governing the creation, management and even winding
up of a company, render it an unnecessarily complex model for an
educational centre.'' Discuss. (See page 50 of the prescribed
(5) Distinguish between governance and management. (See page 47 of
the prescribed book.)




Managing staff in Early Childhood


You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 4 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

4.1 Introduction
A pretty school with excellent equipment is not necessarily a good
school; it is well-trained staff who give life to the school environment. A
school consists of many people, and personnel must be managed in a
structured and responsible manner. It is important for staff to be able to
work together well and to fit in with the character of the school. A
manager should have an open-door policy when it comes to staff matters.

Since staff matters are discussed in more detail in your prescribed book,
you will only be referred to the relevant parts in that book. Please note
that there are parts that you have to read to acquire background
knowledge (and to which you can refer if necessary) and then there are
parts that you have to study in detail.

4.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. give an account of the procedures according to which personnel are

recruited, selected and appointed
. explain why staff evaluation/appraisal is important
. describe the steps in the process of staff evaluation/appraisal
. assess the needs of staff
. discuss in-service training methods
. describe personnel relations and burn-out

4.3 The recruitment, selection and appointment of personnel

The recruitment and selection of staff is an extremely important function
of the manager of an ECD centre or principal of a school. Your prescribed
book (p 75) indicates how the recruitment process should be managed.
The manager should compile a clear list of the relevant skills required for
each position (p 73) and for what kind of personal characteristics (p73) in
applicants the manager/principal should be on the look out during an

All newly appointed staff should receive written copies of policies and
procedures in duplicate (read more about this on p 75 of the prescribed

4.4 The evaluation/appraisal of staff

The evaluation of staff is an important management task of the principal of
an early childhood education institution and it involves determining and
assessing the values of the staff and the quality of their actions. The words
``evaluation'' and ``assessment'' are probably not correct. They should
rather be replaced with the words ``appreciation'' or ``appraisal'' of staff.
The attitude with which the principal does the evaluation must be one of

4.4.1 Reasons for evaluating/appraising staff

. The main reason, in short, is to maintain and improve the quality of
education and care.
. Appraisal also assists in assessing the needs of staff, so that one can
plan to meet their needs. Deficiencies in the way staff members
perform their tasks can be pointed out. Sometimes individual
teachers are not sure whether their task is running according to plan
or not, or they do not know how to perform a task. This may be
dealt with after appraisal has taken place.
. Personnel development and growth take place. If individual staff
members are aware of a problem, they can work on it. They may
also be assisted through in-service training. In-service training can be
given at the institution itself, or the staff member can attend lectures.
The daycare society, for instance, regularly organises lectures on
relevant subjects for day mothers and playgroup leaders. The
professional societies or support services of the Department of
Education also offer in-service training opportunities for the staff of
early childhood education institutions.
. Appraisal reassures inexperienced staff and therefore contributes to
job satisfaction. Staff members get support and aid following their
. It leads to improved work relations. Staff members feel that the
principal is really interested in them personally if he or she makes the
effort to talk to them, encourage and support them, and appreciate
their work.

4.4.2 The principles of staff evaluation/appraisal

. Duty sheets. A duty sheet is a job description. Every staff member
must receive such a job description when assuming duty. The job
descriptions contain all the planned outcomes of the person's work.
This means that what the staff member is expected to do is written
down precisely. The outcomes are then used as criteria to check
whether the objectives have in fact been achieved.
. The outcomes of the school or organisation. The outcomes of an
organisation indicate where the organisation is headed. They may also
be used to measure whether objectives have been achieved.
. The planning and coordination of appraisals. Appraisals must be well
planned and coordinated. The outcomes that will be appraised (for
example those on the duty sheet and those of the organisation) have
to be determined and times for the appraisals have to be scheduled
and coordinated. The following need to be coordinated/organised:
Ð interviews
Ð supervision
Ð reports

. Openness and cooperation. Good evaluation depends on the

cooperation of people. People will not be prepared to cooperate if
there is no openness. This depends largely on the head of the
organisation. His or her management style will determine whether
people will be prepared to cooperate. If his or her management style
is autocratic, there will not be openness and people will not be keen
to cooperate.
. Self-development. Appraisal must be aimed at personal growth,
improving achievements, improving relations, job satisfaction and
increased motivation. In other words, it should lead to self-
development among the staff.

4.4.3 Methods for the appraisal of staff

. Self-evaluation by the staff. The principal should encourage staff to
evaluate themselves on a continuous basis. They can do so by
checking all the duties on their duty sheet and determining if they are
in fact performing those tasks and doing so to the best of their ability.
. Class visits and visits to the kitchen and other working areas. The
principal or a person delegated by him/her can visit the staff where
they are working and observe them at work. It is important that the
principal should inform the staff beforehand and explain the purpose
of the visit. The observations are written down and discussed with
the staff in a subsequent interview.
. Interviewing. This entails the following:
Ð Those involved agree on the duty sheet or job description.
Ð The principal identifies strong points and achievements and
expresses his or her appreciation of these.
Ð Those involved identify the deficiencies and decide on the areas
in which the staff member can grow and improve.
Ð They compile a plan of action so that corrections can be made.
Ð A written report of the observations, interview and decisions
serve as feedback to the staff.

The room in which the interview is conducted must be comfortable. It

must be possible to speak confidentially. It is important that the principal
should make use of his or her communication skills, ability to solve
problems and decision-making skills during the interview. After the staff
appraisal the principal must always give feedback, so that in-service
training can take place.

4.5 Personnel development

Personal growth is essential in a teaching environment because it can lead
to greater professionalism. Training activities will contribute to personal
growth and ensure that educators move to higher levels of skills and

4.5.1 Staff needs assessment

Managers should encourage suggestions and discussion to find out in
which areas personnel need additional training. Educators can do a self-
evaluation of what their needs are, or the manager can observe educators
when they teach. Regular feedback from the personnel should lead to the
drawing up of a topic list in which areas training is needed. This list can be
circulated amongst personnel and more topics can be added. These
topics should be listed in order of priority. Nonteaching staff should also
be included (Click 2004:230-231).

4.5.2 In-service training

Once the staff appraisals have been performed, in-service training can
take place in order to motivate staff and provide them with new
opportunities. Some of the training methods include: orienting, mentor-
ing, team teaching, college and university classes, staff meetings, portfolio,
workshops, group discussions, role playing, exchanging of observations,
films, slides and tapes, field trips, guest speakers, professional meetings,
reading (Click 2004:234-240).

ACTIVITY Read the following newspaper article and see what can be done if a
person is motivated.

Source: Daily News, 22 July 2005:1

4.6 Personnel relations
Educators spend long hours together every day of the week and during
this time nerves can become frayed because of the constant demand that
the learners make on their energy and patience. It is the responsibility of
the manager to be proactive in dealing with staff relations. Good
communication skills should be the starting point. Also consider the
influence of nonverbal communication skills. A democratic atmosphere in
a school will include all staff in important decisions that affect them.

If personnel relations are neglected the following can happen:

Miss Mulberry was appointed at an ECD centre as from January 2008.
She was selected during an interview the previous year and with her
acceptance of the post, promised that the classroom in which she has to
educate a 3-to-4-year-old group would be ready despite the fact that this
particular space had been a storeroom before. On her arrival at the
beginning of the year however the classroom was not ready ...

Miss Mulberry wrote the following letter to the manager of the ECD

Dear Principal


(1) The following issues require addressing at The Nursery School to ensure fair
treatment and efficient education for all children enrolled at the school.
(2) Classroom Condition. During the interview and informal discussions held in
December, I was shown around the premises of The Nursery School. This included
a preview of my proposed classroom. It was made clear that the proposed
classroom had been utilised as a media center and basically a storage facility in the
past, but that it would be readied and completely altered to act as a fully
functioning classroom by the time I began with my class.
(3) During the information session, held on 5 January, it became clear that no work
had been done to improve the classroom, barring the removal of extra furniture,
books and items previously stored in the facility. On my arrival for my first day of
teaching on 7 January, I was faced with the problem of accommodating 12 children
in a completely empty room, with no aids, toys, tables, chairs or any other basic
amenities. I had to borrow tables and a few chairs from fellow teachers as well as a
few blocks with which my children could be kept busy.
(4) This is totally unacceptable. A new employee should be provided with all the basic
tools, a well-equipped working space and furniture to enable him or her to
accomplish what he or she has been appointed to do. This is standard practice in
any business, and should have been no different in this case. The old storeroom

should have been equipped with tables, chairs, carpets (if required), toys, art
equipment and all necessary tools required to enable me to do my job, as originally
(5) To worsen matters, a parent of one of the children in my class wrote an email to the
school the very first afternoon, complaining about the emptiness of the classroom
and the lack of toys and equipment. In your absence, the secretary telephoned me
in the afternoon, conveying the message, and questioned the reason for the
complaint. I informed the secretary that the school mentor had, in your absence,
decided that no toys would be made available from the Wendy house until it had
been cleaned. This was scheduled to take place only a week after the onset of the
school term, but was eventually made available at the end of the first two weeks.
(6) As a result of the poor condition of the classroom, the lack of toys and equipment,
and the prospect of not having access to toys for at least the rest of the week, I used
my own money to buy used toys from the Centurion Hospice, so that the children
could at least play and be kept busy. When I informed the secretary of this
situation, the secretary asked whether I couldn't return the toys, since the principal
had no problem in buying toys. I said I couldn't go on for two weeks with no toys,
as the rain worsened matters, requiring the children to remain inside the classroom.
(7) Although the costs involved were minimal, it is the principle of the matter that is of
concern. It needs to be understood that it is the responsibility of the school to
provide all basic tools, toys, equipment, furniture and other aids to teachers to
enable them to perform their tasks, unless otherwise contracted. It should not have
been necessary for me to use my money and time to buy toys for the class. I cannot
and should therefore not be held liable for the lack of any such equipment, as well
as potential negative results.
(8) Procedures during sick leave. Two weeks after I have commenced teaching at The
Nursery School, I fell ill with flu. Although electing to continue teaching on the
Monday, I was too weak and ill the following morning and phoned in to report
sick. I was treated with a certain disdain by the secretary, who was at first reluctant
to help, because I was still at home at the time. She asked me to phone the other
teachers to arrange classroom proceedings and a replacement. As a result I had to
make seven phone calls on my own account, while feeling ill. As this day was my
full day, the secretary repeatedly asked whether I couldn't report to work for the
afternoon shift.
(9) With reference to my service contract that was drawn up between The Nursery
School and me, on page 6, paragraph 8.2.2, it is clear that an employee is granted 1
day paid sick leave for every 26 days worked. Furthermore, in paragraph 8.2.1 it is
said that a medical certificate is only required should an employee be absent (or ill,
as in this case), for more than one day. I handed in a valid medical certificate upon
returning to work.
(10) Having studied these paragraphs, one could reach the conclusion that the secretary
had absolutely no right to request me to report for work during my state of illness.
It is furthermore not my, nor any other teacher's responsibility to arrange stand-by

personnel in the event of an illness. The school should have a standard, prior-
arranged and agreed-on means whereby stand-in personnel may be called upon.
This is the sole responsibility of the school leadership and, in their absence (as was
the case here), the secretary.
(11) Payment of salary. The payment of salaries is scheduled for the last day of each
month, as stated in the contract. My fianceÂe checked the account each day to make
sure the payment had been made successfully; this was necessary since it was a
new account, created for me a few weeks earlier. On 31 January, there was still no
evidence of a salary paid into my account. Upon querying the issue, it was
discovered that the school had forgotten to pay me, and that I was still not listed as
a new employee on their books.
(12) This, too, is completely unprofessional. If I had not queried the issue, I might not
have been paid at all. Besides this point, new employees do not feel welcomed
when forgotten in this manner, and it should be the first priority of the School
Leadership to ensure that remuneration is adequately and timeously taken care of.
(13) Availability of School Leadership. During the information session of 5 January, it
was conveyed that the school leadership would be on vacation for two weeks,
starting on the first day of school on 7 January; it was later learnt that this had been
extended to three weeks. Leadership and control of matters were placed in the
hands of the school mentor and the secretary. This is not necessarily a matter of any
concern as long as leadership has ensured that all that is necessary has been done,
particularly at the start of a new year, and when new personnel have been
appointed. Many of the problems experienced could have been avoided or
addressed properly and promptly, had the full leadership team been present at the
beginning of the school term.
(14) It is unfortunate that these events have had to transpire within such a short period
of time following my appointment. It does not speak of professionalism and does
not create a pleasant working environment, particularly for a new teacher eager to
spend his or her time, energy and creativity to brighten the lives of those entrusted
to him or her. However, it is hoped that these issues will be addressed, providing a
better working environment and further improving the level of education being
provided at The Nursery School.
(15) Please contact me should there be any uncertainty regarding this matter.


The unhappiness described above resulted in the resignation of the new
teacher after just two weeks. The damage that this situation did cannot
be measured:
. Firstly, it was Miss Mulberry's first teaching experience after she had
graduated and it ended up in a huge disappointment. A great deal
would need to be done to secure Miss Mulberry's confidence in
teaching again.
. Secondly, the learners (3-to-4-year-olds) were left floundering after
they had become attached to their teacher after just two weeks.

ACTIVITY . Write two to three paragraphs on how the situation should have
been handled by the ECD manager.
. Make a list of all the things that should have been in place before
Miss Mulberry's arrival.

4.7 Managing professionalism

Although educators at preschools are not necessarily included in the
formal organised teaching profession, the maintenance of a high
professional standard according to a specific code of conduct is of cardinal
importance in any profession. Study section 4.3 in your prescribed book.
Especially students planning to teach in the Foundation Phase need to
know of the bodies and organisations they need to belong to.

4.8 Managing student teachers and volunteers

Quite a number of schools have to accommodate students during their
practical training period and some schools make use of volunteers from
the community to help with certain activities and aftercare. Read your
prescribed book (section 4.4 and 4.5) for guidelines on this matter.

4.9 Conclusion
Teachers often determine the reputation of a school. It is therefore
worthwhile to invest in this important resource (the personnel) of the
school. Although more recent skills development processes have focused
on the professional development of people working with young children,
sustained development is required. It is important to develop and follow
clear policies and procedures in managing the staff of ECD programmes.

4.10 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Develop an interview schedule (with category headings and

QUESTIONS questions), for an ECD centre director/manager to be used
during the interview to appoint a new teacher.
(2) Write a job description for a Reception Year teacher. Include the
required qualifications and responsibilities of the job.
(3) Compile a staff evaluation/assessment instrument which will be
used to evaluate the performance of teaching and administrative
staff employed at an ECD centre. How will this differ from the
evaluation of staff in the Foundation Phase?
(4) Why is a professional code of conduct necessary in the teaching
(5) What does the concept ``organised teaching profession'' entail?
(a) List the functions of the organised teaching profession.
(b) Discuss four (4) bodies of which teachers can be members.
(6) Write a report on your experience as a student teacher. What did
you find to be negative experiences? What did you find to be
positive experiences? Make use of clear headings in your answer.
(7) If you were in a position to advise a supervising teacher on the
needs of a student teacher during practice teaching, what would
this advice be? Write down these needs and then formulate a letter
to either the supervising teacher or lecturer expressing what you
think they might do to address these needs.


Managing learners in Early

Childhood Development

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 5 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

5.1 Introduction
The teacher's role is primarily to be a resource for the children in his or
her group, organising the classroom and learning opportunities, clarifying
roles, and teaching responsibilities while modelling good behaviour.
According to Gordon and Browne (2004:609), ECD teachers should
encourage young children to conduct themselves in socially acceptable
ways. They should be allowed to make choices and decisions (within
limits set by the teacher) which teach responsibility and encourage
independence. The teacher is also a role model for parents, showing
them how they should interact with their children. Teachers should be
available to listen to parents' concerns and to confer about their children's
behaviour. Parents and teachers should regard themselves as partners in
children's education.

5.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. put into practice your insight into the different ways of grouping
. discuss discipline within a democratic classroom climate
. determine strategies for effective ECD classroom management

5.3 Grouping of children/learners

In section 5.4 of the prescribed book there is an explanation of the
different ways of grouping children/learners in ECD. Children are
grouped according to
. age (same-age grouping and mixed-age grouping). An adapta-
tion of grouping children by age is ``looping''. This means that a group
of children and their teacher remain in the same class for at least two
years, after which the teacher ``loops'' back to a new group, in some
cases for the duration of the Foundation Phase. This resembles the
one-room schoolhouse of the 1800s and early 1900s, and the British
Infant Schools of the past (Gordon & Browne 2004:42). Looping is
widely used in Waldorf, Reggio Emilia and traditional programmes
because of the advantages of looping. Study the advantages of looping
on page 110 of the prescribed book.
Children are also grouped according to
. ability (same-ability grouping and mixed-ability grouping). Study pages
110 and 111 of the prescribed book.

5.4 Discipline
In section 5.8 of the prescribed book you will come across a discussion of
discipline. Beaty (2000:254) encourages teachers of young children to
model appropriate behaviour and to employ positive reinforcement
methods, such as the following:
. Shift attention from inappropriate to appropriate child/learner
. Be aware of and reinforce the positive actions of children/learners
who are sometimes disruptive in the classroom.
. Focus on the victim, not the aggressor.
. Make eye or verbal contact with disruptive children/learners only
after their inappropriate behaviour has ceased.
. Provide a concrete example of appropriate/expected behaviour by
modelling it.

Study this section with reference to

. democratic ethos
. classroom procedures and rules

ACTIVITY In the Early Childhood Development Phase the class rules may be
displayed in picture form. See page 114 of the prescribed book with
regard to ground rules.

List three (3) more examples of how you can instil rules in the mind of a

5.5 Suggested strategies of effective ECD classroom

Pay careful attention to section 5.9 of the prescribed book. McDaniels
(2003:1) suggests the following techniques to assist teachers to sharpen
their classroom discipline:
. focusing
. direct instruction
. monitoring
. modelling
. non-verbal cuing
. environmental control
. low-profile intervention
. assertive discipline
. assertive I-messages
. humanistic I-messages
. positive discipline

You must be able to explain the above-mentioned aspects.

ACTIVITY Consider the following scenario:

A Grade 2 learner is talking while the teacher is presenting a lesson.

The teacher interrupts the lesson and sends the learner to sit in the
book corner. Once the learner has left the mat, the teacher continues
with the lesson. Is this an appropriate disciplinary strategy? Should the
teacher have sent the learner to the book corner (which is isolated
from the rest of the classroom with a partition)? What are the possible
negative consequences of the teacher's action? Will the learner develop
a negative attitude towards books and reading?

5.6 Conclusion
This study unit in conjunction with chapter 5 of the prescribed book have
examined how ECD teachers can manage learners in different contexts,
namely as individuals, in groups and in the classroom. Important
components include discipline, establishing rules and procedures as well
as meeting individual learners' needs and interests. The different
classroom management styles and procedures were discussed in relation
to ECD settings. Practical techniques for improving classroom manage-
ment were suggested, which teachers are encouraged to bear in mind
when reflecting on their classroom organisation practice and what they
do to establish a positive classroom climate.

5.7 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) An adaptation of grouping children by age is ``looping''. Explain.

QUESTIONS (2) List the advantages of looping.
(3) Briefly explain what is meant by democratic ethos.
(4) According to Hearron and Hildebrand (2004:119) teaching rules
and procedures should focus on three aspects. List and explain the
three aspects.
(5) Critically evaluate the Gordon and Browns's advantages of mixed-
age grouping.


Managing differences in Early

Childhood Development

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 6 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

6.1 Introduction
Segregation has been a constant feature of South African society, and thus
of its education, throughout the country's history. The policy of
segregation or apartheid contributed to the formation of certain
perceptions that militate against the establishment of a tolerant society
and have caused widespread cultural misunderstanding and conflict.
National research and reports dealing with intolerance and racism in
South Africa indicates the prevalence of racism in many schools. The
opening of schools to all races does not, however, automatically ensure
mutual understanding and acceptance between educators and learners
and amongst learners. Therefore desegregation per se does not lead to
predictable and meaningful changes in the attitudes of groups to each
other and can, in actual fact, lead to the heightening of tension and

6.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. define diversity
. demonstrate how to accommodate learner differences
. explain the importance of positive teacher expectations
. explain how to develop cross-cultural competence
. develop unbiased learning material
. describe how learners experience diversity
. organise parental participation in classroom diversity

6.3 Diversity: What does it mean?

Diversity refers to differences or variety. Because of its diversity, South
Africa is often referred to as the ``rainbow nation'' or a multicultural
society. Study this concept thoroughly in section 6.2 of the prescribed

6.4 Management of learner differences in ECD

ECD institutions and schools in South Africa are fundamentally
characterised by a diverse learner population. The presence of diversity
brings a richness to an institution/school which needs to be treasured and
built upon, yet more frequently there is tension, ignorance, misunder-
standing and aggression. ECD institutions and schools therefore have a
great responsibility to prepare learners for adult life and educate them to
take their place in a society free of bias and prejudice. Study section 6.3 in
your prescribed book to assist you in planning the learning environment
to accommodate differences, to organise and control the learning
environment to accommodate differences.
Read the following newspaper article in the Pretoria News, 19 February

According to the article, education has a positve role to play in combating

racism. Develop the structure of a manual which can be used as an in-
service training tool for educators to help them manage diversity in

6.5 Parental participation in classroom diversity

Since the democratisation of education, the focus has been on a greater
recognition of parents in the management of the school. Educators thus
realise that more than ever before, the success of education depends on
parent affirmation and cooperation. It is the educator's responsibility to
establish contact and communication between the school and the home.
Study this topic in section 6.4 in your prescribed book.

Note: Read the appendices to chapter 6 for additional interesting

6.6 Conclusion
ECD institutions and schools are communities defined by their learners.
This definition is formed by learners coming from diverse groups, bringing
with them cultures that may differ to some degree from the school's
culture. Differences across the spectrum are therefore realities. To teach
effectively in classrooms where diverse cultures are represented,
educators need to recognise the validity of the differences. This requires,
firstly, a reappraisal of the educator's personal and institutional attitudes
and perceptions, and secondly a great belief in and dedication to
facilitating and managing learner diversity. All schools should be places
where diversity is celebrated with the focus on the development of every
learner's fullest potential.

6.7 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Define the concept ``diversity'' and give examples.

QUESTIONS (2) Describe how you would plan the learning environment to
accommodate differences.
(3) What criteria would you use to evaluate learning material and to
make it bias free?
(4) Discuss the concept of ``educators' expectations'' by referring to
the following:
(a) the forming of expectations
(b) teacher response to learners
(c) the effect of negative expectations on learners
(5) Discuss how learners experience diversity by referring to the
(a) race
(b) disability


Managing parent partnerships in

Early Childhood Development

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 7 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

7.1 Introduction
The ECD manager has the obligation to provide the young learner with a
sense of continuity between home and school, which can only happen if
there is a partnership between school and home. Creating and
maintaining the home school partnership is, however, not always easy.
We need to remember that parents are individuals just as teachers are
individuals all usually trying to do their best for the child in a busy world.

The government regards parents as active partners in the education of

their children. The new education system in South Africa allows parents
more input and say in the management of schools. Because parents pay
school fees, they also have a right to know what is going on in the school
or early childhood development centre. Furthermore, parent involve-
ment is essential for the optimal development of the child. There are
many ways in which parents can become involved in the school, but guard
against expecting too much from parent involvement.

7.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. explain the importance of parental involvement for all the role players
(school/teacher, parent and child)
. list and describe examples of the various factors that can hamper
parental involvement
. describe how to address the unique needs of families and the
community as part of your role as teacher
. demonstrate how to enhance parental involvement in the school
through nonverbal and verbal communication between school and
. explain how to enhance parental participation in the school
. demonstrate how to handle disharmony between parent and teacher

7.3 The importance of parental involvement

Study section 7.2 of the prescribed book. Pay attention to

. the definition of parent involvement

. the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996
. the outcomes-based education approach
. the benefits to the child/learner of parent involvement
. changing family structures

7.4 Factors hampering parental involvement

Despite the overwhelming evidence that parental involvement is of
benefit to both school and home, researchers have indicated various
reasons to be considered by school principals and teachers as to why
parental involvement is still problematic. This is currently a major concern
to every ECD manager. As a teacher, you should not be over-critical of
parents who are seemingly not interested in being involved at their child's
school, because often the reason lies in circumstances beyond their
control. The starting point for successful parental involvement is to
identify possible problems hampering the partnership between home and

When one studies the literature on parental involvement (section 7.3 of

the prescribed book) one can identify three major factors that can
hamper parental involvement. They are
. changes in family structures
. problems experienced by parents (mostly due to lack of empower-
. problems experienced by teachers

STUDY Study these factors on pages 144 to 147 of the prescribed book.

7.5 Addressing the unique needs of families and the community

In section 7.4 of the prescribed book you will find a discussion of the
unique needs of families and the community. Focus on the first three
stages of parenthood, three vital components of quality parent-school
support programmes and assistance to parents.

7.6 Guidelines for enhancing parental participation

In section 7.5 of the prescribed book, you will find six guidelines that will
help to empower parents as well as build a good relationship with them.
They are
. planning to set aside time to work with parents
. keeping parents informed
. keeping parents involved
. creating opportunities to become involved for all parents
. always being professional
. serving as a model

ACTIVITY Interview teachers at your school to determine the usual concerns
expressed by parents of children of different age groups or school
grades. Plan various ways in which you could address these parental

7.7 Home-school communication

Home-school communication is discussed in section 7.6 of the prescribed
book. Study this section thoroughly from pages 150 to 158 of the
prescribed book.

ACTIVITY Summarise the section on home-school communication as explained in

your prescribed book.

7.8 Parental involvement in the governance of a school, the

school programme and in the upkeep of school resources
Parental involvement in a formal school must, however, be more than
communication between the home and the school. Communication can
easily be a one-way channel, whereas direct involvement of parents in the
school enhances the partnership between school and home. The school
manager has to utilise every opportunity to promote sound mutual
relationships in the Foundation Phase. The following are some ideas for
parental involvement:
. involvement in the governance of the school
. involvement in the school programme
. involvement in the upkeep of school resources

ACTIVITY Mr Molefe has made a set of blocks for the children/learners in your
class. Write a letter of thanks to him.


Study section 7.7 of the prescribed book in this regard.

7.9 Handling disharmony between parents and teachers
Section 7.8 of the prescribed book covers managing disharmony. Essa
(1999:66±67) discusses several reasons why parents and teachers may
disagree. Factors such as the following need to be examined and
. unacknowledged negative feelings such as jealousy or competition
. criticism of each other's child-rearing approach
. work stress experienced by both parents and teachers
. the teacher's underlying and sometimes unrealistic expectations of
parental input which are not met
. hidden resentments or prejudices
. unrealistic expectations that parents may have about the role of the
teacher in the lives of their children
Note: Read the appendices to chapter 7 for additional interesting

7.10 Conclusion
A partnership with parents is important for the ECD director, the school
principal, the teachers and the school, as well as for the child and the
parents. The task of the ECD centre or school is to assist the young
learner to develop optimally as a total human being. This can only be
achieved if both the parents and the teachers work together in the best
interests of the child. There are often difficulties developing this
partnership and obtaining parental involvement in the centre or school,
but the benefits for all cannot be overemphasised. It remains the
responsibility of every teacher and school or ECD centre to use all
possible ways to enhance communication between home and school and
to promote parental involvement.

7.11 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Discuss factors hampering parental involvement.

QUESTIONS (2) Explain the first three stages of parenthood.
(3) Identify six guidelines for enhancing parental participation.
(4) What should you keep in mind when planning a parent evening?
(5) How would you as a principal handle disharmony between parents
and teachers?


Managing committees in Early

Childhood Development

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 8 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

8.1 Introduction
Organisations are established to achieve goals and objectives that
individuals cannot achieve by themselves.

As an organisation functions, it soon becomes clear that all the members

cannot be involved in all decisions made by that organisation, so members
elect a smaller group to carry out the business of the organisation. In the
case of an ECD centre, the members elect a management committee
which is then mandated to carry out their aims and objectives. The
management committee makes decisions on behalf of the members and
then executes them, or sees that this is done.

8.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. define what a constitution for an organisation is

. describe how management committees are established and function
. explain the roles of the various management committee members
. develop an agenda for a management committee meeting
. take minutes at a management committee meeting
. give examples of correct meeting procedure
. describe how management committees function in the Foundation

8.3 The constitution

The constitution provides a framework within which an organisation
functions. The constitution also
. establishes the organisation legally
. allows the organisation to open a bank account and to decide who
will have signing authority on the account
. is essential for registering as a non-profit-making organisation (NPO)
and as a public benefit organisation (PBO), and for getting state
education and social development subsidies
. helps run the organisation more effectively

8.4 The management committee and its tasks

As part of an organisation becoming legally constituted, a management
committee will be elected, the composition of which is laid down in the
constitution. Study section 8.3 of the prescribed book with regard to the
election of members to the management committee and their functions.
These will include the
. chairperson
. secretary
. treasurer
. other members
8.5 The annual general meeting (AGM)
AGMs are essential for all organisations. In some organisations a biennial
meeting every two years is held. At the AGM all the members have a
chance to look at the year's work, see how the money has been
managed, and decide on the best people to run the organisation on their
behalf for the next year. Study section 8.4 in the prescribed book
. the tasks of the AGM
. organising the AGM
. management committee of an AGM

ACTIVITY A group of six or more students form a management committee for an

ECD centre. The tasks are the following:

. Write up the notice of the meeting indicating the date, time and
. Develop an agenda.
. Appoint a chairperson, treasurer and secretary.
. Based on the agenda, conduct a meeting covering all the topics and
following the guidelines suggested in this chapter.
. The secretary is to write up the minutes and distribute them to the

8.6 Management committees in the Foundation Phase

As opposed to an ECD centre where a volunteer management
committee is established to carry out the vision and mission of the
institution, the South African Schools Act makes provision for both
governance and professional management of public (government)
schools. Study section 8.5 in the prescribed book regarding the
functioning of a School Governing Body (SGB) and other committees in
the Foundation Phase.

ACTIVITY A primary school is situated in a small town where there is no industry

or town development, a high crime rate and few jobs. As a group or as
an individual, do a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
threats) analysis of the school and plan what the committee in the
Foundation Phase can do to ensure proper learning.

Note: Read the appendices to chapter 8 for additional interesting


8.7 Conclusion
The management committees of an ECD centre and the SGB in public
schools play an important role in the effective functioning of these
institutions. For this reason it is essential that every management
committee member is informed, skilled and motivated to serve the
institution. The success of these institutions is enhanced when the
management committee functions as a unit and in the best interests of the
institution, the children and parents.

8.8 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Discuss the members and their responsibilities of the management
QUESTIONS committee in an ECD centre.
(2) Discuss the concept ``School Governing Body'' in terms of its:

. members
. election of members
. constitution
. committees




Managing the learning

environment in Early Childhood
Development centres

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 9 of the
prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

9.1 Introduction
To be able to facilitate successful learning, the teacher has to plan the
whole teaching process with care, insight and deliberation. In this study
unit we investigate the most important issues that need to be addressed
when planning successful teaching in a baby and toddler unit, ECD centre
or the more formal learning and teaching in the Foundation Phase of the
primary school. The starting point when planning to teach young children
is always the learners themselves. If you do not know and understand the
young child, you will not be able to teach meaningfully and the child will
consequently not learn successfully. We will therefore start by examining
the requirements for developmentally appropriate practices geared to
the young child.

9.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. briefly describe the main characteristics of development of children in

the infant and toddler phase (birth to three years), preschool phase
(three to five years) and Foundation Phase (Grade 1 to the end of
Grade 3)
. describe the characteristics of a developmentally appropriate
programme for each of these three phases
. give an overview of the main environmental considerations required
when planning a baby and toddler unit
. plan the playroom for the three-to-five-year-old groups to encourage
meaningful learning
. assess and plan a daily programme to accommodate a variety of
activities in a balanced way during the day
. plan developmentally appropriate learning content for groups of three-
to-five-year-old children
. develop a learning programme, work schedule and lesson plan in the
Foundation Phase
. explain the management of classroom space in the Foundation Phase
. explain time allocation in the Foundation Phase
. manage time in the Foundation Phase

9.3 Planning for learning and development: developmentally

appropriate practices
In recent years much debate has been generated about the ``pros and
cons'' of adhering strictly to the views of particular theorists when trying
to understand the development of children. However, there can be little
doubt that the work of developmental theorists has provided much
insight into how children develop and learn, and this forms the basis of
many of the decisions we make when working with young children. If one
is to provide an environment which is appropriate to the needs of the
individual child, one needs to have some understanding of the nature of
children and how they grow and develop in various phases, so that the
necessary space, equipment, play materials and learning activities can be
provided to optimise their learning.

Study section 9.2 in your prescribed book for detailed information

regarding developmentally appropriate practices.

9.4 Managing the learning environment of infants and toddlers

(birth to three years)
This section has been planned to show the link between the
developmental characteristics of the baby and toddler and the planning of
the programme and environment for this age group. Study this link in
section 9.3 in the prescribed book.

9.5 Managing the learning of preschool children (3±5 years)

This section covers the link between developmentally appropriate
practice and planning and managing the learning and teaching process in
an ECD centre that caters for young children between the ages three and
five. Study this link in section 9.4 of the prescribed book.

9.6 Managing the learning environment of learners in the

Foundation Phase
Outcomes-based education (OBE) has been implemented in formal
education since 1998 in the form of Curriculum 2005. This has brought
about a number of changes in the way teachers teach. For schools to
develop into more effective and efficient places of teaching and learning,
teachers now have to teach according to OBE principles as facilitators of
learning, and they have to develop and implement their own learning
programmes within the policy framework provided in the Revised
National Curriculum Statement (RNCS).

In the Foundation Phase the curriculum is implemented by means of

three learning programmes, namely Life Skills, Literacy and Numeracy.
The RNCS prescribes that learning programmes should be developed
using a specific definition as the starting point. Study this in section 9.5 of
the prescribed book.

9.7 Managing classroom space

Indoor and outdoor space must provide opportunities to explore a world
of knowledge, skills and attitudes through learning content and learning
activities. Proper layout of the classroom and use of space in the
Foundation Phase will stimulate cooperation and encourage effective
teaching and learning. Both indoor and outdoor space should be designed
specifically for the learners' needs. Study the managing of classroom
space in section 9.5.4 of the prescribed book.
9.8 Managing time
Time management is always important. Every school year consists of
school terms with a specific number of weeks. Every teacher has a
timetable at his or her disposal on which these terms and weeks are
indicated so that learning programmes can be presented within the
framework of the school timetable. Study time management in section
9.5.5 of the prescribed book.

Note: Read the appendices to chapter 9 for additional interesting


9.9 Conclusion
Planning for learning in an ECD institution and in the Foundation Phase is
a comprehensive task that needs in-depth knowledge of a vast field of
related topics. This study unit gives only a brief overview of the different
planning tasks of the principal and teacher in an ECD institution and in the
Foundation Phase. What remains important is that careful and well-
thought-out planning of every aspect of the teaching effort is a
prerequisite for successful teaching and learning. The planning of the daily
programme, the learning content, time and space needs to be done
diligently and with insight and care to result in successful learning.

9.10 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) How would you vary the baby and toddler area during the year as
QUESTIONS the development of a particular child progresses.
(2) Briefly summarise what you understand by a ``developmentally
appropriate environment'' for babies and toddlers.
(3) List five play materials which you consider appropriate for babies
and toddlers to stimulate their sensory development.
(4) Develop a list of criteria you can use to assess the success of a daily
programme in an ECD centre.
(5) Give a short description of the characteristics of a learner in the
Foundation Phase.
(6) It is important to manage proper learning to ensure success.
Discuss the characteristics of a developmentally appropriate
programme in the Foundation Phase, using the following headings:
(a) The Learning Programme
(b) The Work Schedule
(c) The Lesson Plan
(7) Give a description of how you would plan activities for learners in a
class in the Foundation Phase.
(8) Give a short description of how you would manage space in the
classroom to reinforce learning in a Foundation Phase classroom.
(9) Describe the management of time for Grades R to 3 as stated in
the National Curriculum Statement Policy (2002).


Managing health, safety and

equipment in Early Childhood

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 10 of
the prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

10.1 Introduction
The principal of an ECD institution has the responsibility to ensure that
the institution which he or she is managing provides a safe environment
for the children and staff. This requires the principal to have a thorough
understanding of the varying developmental characteristics of children
attending the centre, which could make them susceptible to particular
safety problems in both the indoor and outdoor environment at particular
stages of development. An additional responsibility of the principal is to
ensure that the environment is hygienic and promotes healthy behaviour
in both children and staff. A health policy for the ECD centre is one way
of ensuring that no component of health or safety maintenance is
neglected. If it is adhered to in a competent manner, it should reassure
the principal that the ECD centre is a safe and healthy place to be.

10.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. discuss the components of a health policy

. explain the concepts hygiene, safety, medication policy and emergency
. discuss the maintenance of the ECD centre

10.3 Components of a health policy

One effective way in which to organise a health policy is to establish
sections and subsections in an A4 lever arch file, which contain all the
information in the headings discussed below. It is important to remember
that information regarding health and safety in any health policy will be
affected by changes in current health, welfare and educational legislation,
local customs and health beliefs; whether the ECD centre is located in an
urban or a rural environment; and what access the centre has to health
resources and professional health expertise. For this reason the
information in the policy must be continually revised and updated by
persons knowledgeable about health and safety for young children.

Study section 10.2 in your prescribed book for more important

information on the following components of a health policy:
. maintenance of indoor and outdoor standards
. admission policy
. sanitation and hygiene
Ð water for drinking and food preparation
Ð hand-washing policy
Ð glove policy
Ð nappy changing
Ð toileting
Ð non-sharing of personal items
Ð cleaning routine for the ECD centre
Ð toys
Ð pets
Ð plants Ð It is very important to refer to the appendix at the end of
the chapter in this regard.
Ð exposure to blood or blood-stained or potentially infected body
Ð disposal of contaminated items
Ð pest control
. safety
Ð provision of insurance for staff, children, building and equipment
Ð criteria for safe selection of toys and play materials
Ð safe positioning and maintenance of equipment
Ð provision for children with special needs
Ð rules for the safe use of equipment
Ð regular safety checks
Ð review of injury/ incident reports
Ð protecting children from environmental health hazards
. supervision
. child health services
. care for ill children
. medication policy
. emergency plan
. outings and transportation
. food preparation
. staff health policies

ACTIVITY Look at the following photographs. These are examples of aspects that
involve the safety of children in an ECD centre.

Jungle gyms may pose a threat to younger learners due to big open spaces
between bars that are very high. A safety net should be put in place to
minimise the danger of learners falling through the spaces.

The above pictures show a dangerous screw protruding from the seat of
a car on the playground. In the opposite picture the seat has been

The pictures above show a dangerous rusty area on the back seat of the
car on the playground. In the opposite picture the seat has been repaired.

10.4 Maintenance of the ECD centre
The buildings and equipment of an ECD centre are its most expensive
assets and should last a long time. This can easily be achieved if everything
is maintained and serviced regularly. Neglecting to have a maintenance
schedule may result in expensive repair costs and possible injuries to the
children. Regular maintenance, especially painting, will also help to retain
the ``new'' look of the centre, and will be inviting to prospective parents.
If the buildings, outdoor equipment and garden look well cared for,
parents will get the impression that their children will also be well

ACTIVITY Look at the following photographs. These are examples of aspects that
need to be maintained in the outdoor environment of an ECD centre.

Swings are especially prone to breakages. They must be checked


The structure for the swing is in place but there are no swings because
the ropes have broken. Strong ropes are needed and they must be
regularly checked.
The seats of the bicycles needed repairing.

The bicycle track was unusable because a tree root had lifted the cement.

Note: Read the appendices to chapter 10 for additional interesting


10.5 Conclusion
The above-mentioned components of a health policy are some areas of a
coordinated approach to ensuring the ongoing health and safety of
children and adults in an ECD centre. It is only by approaching these
issues in a systematic way that one can achieve quality care for children in
a healthy and safe environment. Keeping a strict maintenance schedule is
both efficient and cost-effective. A well-maintained ECD centre will
reflect the attitude of the principal/manager, and parents will be
encouraged to enrol their children in such a clean, well-kept, safe school.

10.6 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Discuss the component ``sanitation and hygiene'' of a health policy.
QUESTIONS (2) Draw up a schedule for maintaining the outdoor environment of an
ECD centre. What would you do if you lived near the coast and
rust was a problem?
(3) Draw up a schedule for checking and maintaining the indoor
environment of an ECD centre.
(4) Find out from an electrician, plumber, painter, gardener and pest
control agency what their tariffs are for major and minor tasks
(specify the tasks). Make a list of all the quotations. Then discuss
why you think ``A stitch in time saves nine'' became a well-known


Managing finances in Early

Childhood Development

You will find more relevant information on this study unit in chapter 11 of
the prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

11.1 Introduction
A separate study unit has been set aside for finances, because these
constitute such a large part of a school's management. Remember that
you will have to plan and organise certain financial tasks, but that you will
also have to provide guidance. Control is very important, especially in the
case of finances. You will therefore have to use all the principles of
management in your financial management.

Every school should have structures in place to decide on school fees, to

make out invoices and to collect the fees. The school should also draw up
a budget which specifies how and when during the course of the year
money should be allocated and spent. This includes essential expenditure
such as rent or a mortgage loan, staff salaries, insurance and municipal
accounts (water and electricity), while a separate amount of money will
be used for special projects and general expenditure.

In the school context, the principal, governing body and financial

committee will probably manage the finances. The school secretary or a
bookkeeper usually does the books, which are checked by the treasurer.
An accredited external auditor should also audit the books annually to
ensure that sound financial practice is maintained. It is of the utmost
importance that all financial decisions be made very responsibly, with the
best interests of the school in mind. All parties involved in the financial
management of a school have to answer to the learners, parents, the
community and the provincial Department of Education. This is also true
for any early childhood development centre.

11.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. explain what financial bookkeeping entails and use some bookkeeping

. describe the principles of financial management of a school
. do simple bookkeeping, for example indicate transactions on accounts
. contribute to managing the finances of your school
. explain banking functions
. define ``budget'' and explain the process
. plan and draw up a budget for your school
. identify which financial tasks you have to plan, organise and control in a

11.3 Funding of schools

Efficient and careful financial management of the funds available to run a
school is vital to ensure that quality teaching and learning take place. A
primary school or any type of ECD institution is also a small business and
needs to take care of its finances to be able to function efficiently. There
are certain roles that must be fulfilled, as well as specific tasks that need
to be executed in the financial management of schools.

For more information on the funding of schools, study section 11.2 in

your prescribed book.

11.4 Management of the school's finances

In this section the focus is on pointing out the importance of a budget in
managing the school's finances and showing how to augment available
funds by means of fees and fundraising projects. Study section 11.3 of the
prescribed book in this regard.

11.5 Financial bookkeeping

Financial bookkeeping is an essential component of the financial
management of a school. A school has to process, analyse and interpret
financial data and information in order to function properly. Such financial
information has to provide a measure and reflection of the financial
position of the school at a specific date (Campher 1999:10).

Effective bookkeeping must

. contain full details of all income and payments
. be based on a system which is simple enough to be managed by a
person with a basic knowledge of bookkeeping
. be easy to interpret
. be easy to control/check
. not be open to abuse

11.5.1 Keeping financial records

It is very important to keep financial records because you need these for:
auditing; keeping donors and parents informed; knowing how much
money is available; planning for the running costs of the school; and
budgeting. A treasurer can be appointed to the SGB with the specific task
of being responsible for the finances of the school. All financial records
should be kept permanently and filed. Study these procedures in the
prescribed book, section Compare the following points with the
information in the prescribed book.

The following documentation is required in schools:

. a receipt book
. a bank deposit book
. a cash payments/receipts journal
. bank statements
. supporting documentation (proof of expenditure)
. reconciliation statements
. a cheque book
. an order book

Let us take a closer look at each of the above:

61 The receipt book or computer
A receipt is immediately issued in duplicate upon receipt of money. It
should indicate the following:
. the date
. the amount in words and numbers
. whether it is a cash or cheque payment
. what the money was received for, for example school fees
Please note: Use receipts with serial numbers.

The original of a cancelled receipt remains in the book. The bank deposit book

All monies received must be paid into a current account of the
organisation. A bank deposit book is used for this purpose. The cash payments/receipts journal

This book has pages for income and expenditure. The pages are
subdivided into different categories. The categories or budget items
indicate exactly for what purpose the money is paid in. If a parent writes a
cheque for R210, of which R120 is meant for school fees, R70 for the
computer centre and R20 for excursions, this is noted in the journal. Bank statements

The bank statements must be compared with the bank deposit book to
ensure that all deposits and payments have been indicated. Uncashed
cheques must be taken into account and the balance must agree with the
balance in the cash-book. Supporting documentation (proof of expenditure)

The following must be bound in a packet and kept:
. the application for a payment and a quote
. approval of the payment by the financial committee
. invoices and account statements
. a receipt from the firm where the purchases were made
. the cashed cheque The reconciliation statement

This statement is used to reconcile the cash-book balance to the bank

ACTIVITY The following documentation was not discussed under 7.2.1:

. an order book
. a cheque book

Visit a school and then write a description of each of the books to

explain what they are used for.

11.6 Bookkeeping terminology

Campher (1999:11-12) provides a number of handy definitions of terms
used in bookkeeping:
. Assets: This is everything the school possesses, for example books,
furniture and office equipment.
. Liabilities: This is everything the school owes, for example bank loans
and accounts at shops.
. Accumulated funds: This is the difference between the assets and the
liabilities of the school. This is calculated by subtracting the school's
liabilities from its assets.
. Debit entries: These are entries made on accounts when a liability
increases or expenses are incurred. These entries are always made
on the left-hand side of the relevant account.
. Credit entries: These are entries made on accounts when an asset
increases or income is generated. These entries are always made on
the right-hand side of the relevant account.
. Variance/difference: This is the amount or percentage by which one
total differs from another, or by which a total differs from the
expected total.

11.7 Reporting
Effective communication of financial information is essential for the
financial management of a school. Reporting to interest groups on
finances may be done verbally or in a written format (financial statements,

11.8 Financial planning

You will probably at some time or another be in the position where you
will have to perform financial tasks or be delegated financial tasks,
whether as the principal of a school or early childhood development
centre, in a leadership position in a primary school, or when starting your
own playgroup. This means that you will have to have certain business
skills. The inefficient management of finances has often led to the downfall
of an early childhood development centre. It is therefore of the utmost
importance that finances be run properly.
11.8.1 The budget
Study the section the concept of a budget 11.3.3 in the prescribed book.
A budget is a document which reflects the expected income for a financial
year and everything that has to be paid from this income. It is a planning
instrument which indicates the school's priorities in financial terms.
According to Campher (1999:31), it is important to remember that the
budget is an estimated projection and not a reflection of the actual
income and expenditure.

11.9 Financial organisation in early childhood education

The financial management of a school must be well organised. According
to Campher (1999:54), an organisational structure has to be set up, or
the existing structures have to be re-evaluated especially in view of the
many changes that have occurred in the South African education system.
We will discuss this in greater detail later on.

Campher (1999:54) divides the tasks relating to financial management

into two categories, namely:
. Administrative tasks. This involves the collection and storage of
financial data.
. Bookkeeping tasks. This is the identification, allocation, analysis and
interpretation of financial data. It also involves the implementation of
the school's financial policy and the communication of financial
information to all interest groups.

Tasks should be delegated to persons who have the ability or capacity to

execute them and such delegated tasks must be coordinated by the
governing body's financial committee.

11.9.1 The procedure of organisation

Reflect again on the steps in the procedure of organisation. We will now
look at the application of the steps, using the example of a financial task.

STEP 1 Identify the task.

A financial committee must be appointed.

STEP 2 Analyse the task.

Differentiate all the subtasks and determine the extent of each. The
principal or person to whom tasks have been delegated, is given a broad
overview of the financial plan. Every task that has to be performed is
analysed in detail. This is called a task analysis. One may explain it as
follows: The task that has to be analysed is: organise the selection of a
financial committee.

Task: Organise the selection of a financial committee.

Who will serve on the committee?
. the head of the institution/organisation, as chairperson.
. the deputy principal, head of department, or senior person appointed
by the principal
. two members of the governing body, appointed by the governing
. two parents who are not members of the governing body and who
have been appointed by the parents
. a staff member who has been appointed by the staff, if there are
more than five posts,

When will the committee be appointed?

(Every year)

. 11 February, Tuesday at 19:00

. in the school hall/play room
. school kitchen

What is required?
. microphone, minutes book, chairs, ballot papers, pencils/pens,
flowers, tea and refreshments, cups, teaspoons, plates, et cetera

Who else are involved?

. members of the governing body, parents, all the teachers and the
secretary, who is responsible for the typing and distribution of letters

Tasks of the committee

. to draw up a financial policy (first task)
. to consider the annual budget before it is submitted to the governing
. to report on the state of the school fund
. to approve expenditures in excess of R150 if they have not been
budgeted for
. to handle money during functions and to see to it that it is deposited

How will it be done?

. Draft a letter to inform those involved and indicate the purpose of
the meeting. Type and edit.
. Send letter 2 to 3 weeks in advance.
. Arrange for the hall to be available and clean, with the chairs set out.
. Arrange for flowers to be placed on the stage.
. Arrange for the microphone, ballot papers and pencils/pens to be
. Organise tea and refreshments.
. Welcome the parents, governing body and teachers.
. Explain how the committee is composed and why.
. Select the committee by way of ballot papers.
. Invite those involved to remain for tea and refreshments.
. Arrange for the cleaning of the hall and kitchen.

Deadlines for subtasks

. Letter: 17 January
. Meeting, tea, organisation: 24 January
. Draw up ballot papers: 5 February.
. It is important that those involved should help decide on deadlines.

The example above should give you an idea of how to analyse a task and
how subtasks are part of any single task. The head of an organisation
cannot manage all the subtasks and therefore has to delegate. Yet the
head must always synchronise or coordinate the tasks. If this is not done,
conflicts may arise with regard to place (where), time (when), those
involved (who) and the resources (what). For example: it may be that the
hall has been booked for another task on Tuesday 11 February. Or those
involved may have to do an equally important task elsewhere. Action lists
and daily, weekly, monthly and yearly planners are absolutely essential for

STEP 3 Arrange/sort the task.

Group subtasks that belong together with each other and separate those
that differ. Once the financial task has been analysed, the subtasks that
relate to one another are grouped in meaningful units. For example: all
the subtasks that have anything to do with the hall and the preparation of
the hall, are grouped together.
. Arrange tasks according to content, for example:
. Inform people of the meeting.
. Prepare the hall.
. Organise refreshments and tea.

Decide on the course of the meeting.

STEP 4 Allocate authority, responsibility and tasks.

Allocate tasks to people according to their abilities; in other words, their
training, knowledge, skills and experience. For instance, ask an artistic
parent to decorate the hall; ask someone who does informal catering to
organise refreshments; ask somebody interested in sound equipment to
be in control of that, and so on. People who can provide guidelines to
those to whom tasks have been delegated and who can exercise control
have to be appointed.

STEP 5 Establish communication channels.

Determine who will be communicating with whom and when and how
such communication will take place, for example by means of short
meetings, telephonic discussions and circulars/information letters.

STEP 6 Establish relationships.

Tasks are performed effectively if there is proper cooperation and
coordination between those involved. People who do not work together
well, should be separated. Social gatherings after meetings allow people
to get to know each other on a personal level and strengthen
STEP 7 Supply requisites.
The apparatus and resources necessary for performing the various
subtasks have to be budgeted for and purchased. Therefore, provide for
the purchasing of decorations, refreshments, apparatus and the like.
Make all the requisites available and announce the working plan.

STEP 8 Determine rules/regulations.

Announce the regulations, procedures, methods, time schedules,
programme and the allocation of tasks. Ensure that those who have to
initiate the task are well informed.

Everyone who has to perform a task now has the financial plan, the task
analysis and the subdivision of tasks into units in front of them. Each
knows exactly what has to be done and when it has to be done. Now
delegate the tasks.

STEP 9 Start with the organisation and coordination of tasks.

11.10 Handling class finances

Teachers often have to handle money in the classroom. This responsibility
must be performed with care and accuracy and the teachers should
adhere to certain regulations. It may, for instance, be expected of a
teacher to handle the following finances in the class:
. school fees that the learners pay in with the teacher, who must in
turn pay it over to the secretary
. monies that learners pay for excursions or tours
. monies collected for charity
. class collections or fundraising

The accurate management of finances requires an effective book-keeping

system on the part of the teacher Ð it entails the accurate recording of all
monies paid in and spent, the responsible spending of money and its
safekeeping. An accurate money management system also ensures that
you protect yourself, your professional status and integrity, considering
that the money does not belong to you and that you have to answer for it
to the principal and parents (Kruger & Van Schalkwyk 1997:145).

The teacher's management of class finances, according to Kruger and Van

Schalkwyk (1997:146), involves the following:
. designing an effective procedure for the handling of money.
. recording all money received (If possible, issue a receipt.)
. never leaving money in the class
. paying money received in the classroom over to the secretary as
soon as possible
. collecting money from the learners during the first period or as early
as possible in the morning
. never accepting money from learners on the playground or outside
the buildings only in the classroom, where it can be recorded
. handling funds with care

ACTIVITY When a teacher receives money in the class, he or she must record
who paid, what the payment was for and the date. A receipt must also
be issued. Design a form on which all this information can appear.

Note: Read the appendices to chapter 11 for additional interesting


11.11 Conclusion
Early childhood education (0±5/6 years) is not compulsory and is not
supported financially by the government. Parents are therefore largely
responsible for the income of the school. They are shareholders in the
school and therefore have a say in how the school's money is spent and
managed. It is not in the interest of the school or the learners if the school
is intent on profit seeking. A school ECD Centre should not be a money-
making institution or the school fees would be extraordinarily and
unnecessarily high. The school fees should cover the items on the budget
and make provision for unforeseen expenditure and long-term develop-

In the case of primary schools, the management of the finances does not
occur in isolation, but requires an understanding of the school context,
basic bookkeeping procedures, the policies and laws governing schools,
management principles and the mutual relationships of all of these.

When one works with money, sound financial practices have to be

maintained and accuracy, responsibility and accountability towards the
interest groups are extremely important.

11.12 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Reflect on the content of this unit and chapter 11 in the prescribed
QUESTIONS book and answer the following review questions:
(a) Define a budget.
(b) What is the difference between income and expenses when
budgeting, and how do they relate to each other?
(c) List at least six items of expenditure in a budget.
(d) What should one of your first actions be in drawing up a
(e) What single item constitutes the largest budget expenditure?
(f) What are the major steps to follow in the budget cycle?
(g) How would you handle petty cash if you were the secretary of
a school?

(2) Funds can be supplemented by fundraising projects.

(a) Name ways in which fundraising could take place/takes place at

your school.
(b) Choose a fundraising project and describe in detail how it could
be organised.
(3) Develop a budget for a project/programme at your school. Use the
``after-school art progamme'' as an example.


Managing administration in Early

Childhood Development

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 12 of
the prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

12.1 Introduction
Which records must be kept, how and for how long they must be kept,
depends on the policy and regulations of each individual institution.
Record keeping may be tiresome, time-consuming and frustrating. It may
also be valuable or worthless. According to Taylor (1997:337), record
keeping does not always have a positive effect. Sometimes so much time
is spent on record keeping that planning and work with the children are
neglected, resulting in a lower quality of education. Records which can be
kept up to date easily, which require a minimum of time and money,
which can be delegated, and which have specific value for the learners,
parents and the programme, are the most valuable ones for centres. The
manner in which records are stored also have an effect on their value:
records which are difficult to use have little value for staff, while records
which help employees with their work are used more often. How long
records are kept depends on the reasons why they have been kept and
the policy or procedures of the institution.

Effective administration and the storage of important information in the

form of complete and accurate records are essential for the smooth running
of any ECD institution or school. Much time and money can be saved if an
ECD manager has the necessary policy, rules and regulations in place.

During the performance of their administrative tasks, the principal,

playgroup leader, day mother and teachers make use of documentation.
Every organisation approaches documentation in its own manner. The
first part of this chapter deals with the management of office
administration and record keeping for the Pre-reception Year Phase while
the second part addresses the management of office administration and
record keeping for the Foundation Phase. Comments on aspects of
classroom record keeping and assessment in the Foundation Phase are
also included.

General guidelines on the handling of documentation in ECD are

important tools for managing administration matters. Among the tools for
record keeping in ECD are the different types of forms for different

12.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. explain the value of documents in ECD and the Foundation Phase

. identify the different documents for record keeping
. explain the handling and filing of documents.

12.3 Documentation in ECD: from birth to Pre-reception year

Quite a number of documents such as a variety of forms, registers, a
journal and children's files are used for record keeping in EDC. These

records make it possible for the ECD director/principal to check and
monitor the administration of a centre/school. Records used in the Pre-
reception Year (preprimary) Phase are:
. application forms
. enrolment forms
. forms regarding the history of the child's development and health
. forms with contact details of the parents/guardians
. permission forms
. registers for the Pre-reception Year Phase
. the admissions register
. the attendance register
. the casualty register
. the notebook/diary or individual childcare register
. the medicine register
. register for dropping and fetching children
. the supplies register or book
. the pay or salaries register
. the journal
. children's files

In section 12.2 of the prescribed book you will come across a discussion
regarding records used in the preprimary schools. Study this section

12.4 Documentation used in the Foundation Phase

Pages 294 to 304 of the prescribed book deal with documents used for
record keeping in the Foundation Phase. These are
. registration or enrolment forms
. the attendance register
. the school journal
. personnel register
. the supplies register or book
. the medicine and casualty register
. the planning file
. the personal file
. receipt book
. other documents such as letters from parents, tear sheets and
permission letters
. assessment records (a record book, progression schedules, reports
and report cards, learner portfolios and rubrics)
. computerised record keeping

ACTIVITY Visit a preschool or childcare centre and ask for copies of required
forms. Ask questions about the ways information is used and the
treatment of old records.

The information on record keeping and managing administration is very

important knowledge, which the education manager should be
thoroughly acquainted with.
ACTIVITY How will you go about preventing yourself from becoming prejudiced
against a child as a result of the reports you have to write about him or

12.5 Conclusion
Effective administration and the storage of important information in the
form of complete and accurate records are essential for the smooth
running of any school. It is therefore worthwhile to invest time and
money in an effective system.

12.6 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) What is your opinion about the importance of record keeping.
(2) Explain computerised record keeping.
(3) You are a school principal and have to present a workshop for
newly appointed teachers. How would you plan, organise, lead and
control this workshop and what information would you empha-
sise, under what rubrics?
(4) Compiling a portfolio consists of four actions. List them and
explain each in one sentence.
(5) Identify assessment records in the Foundation Phase and discuss
the management of these records.




Establishing an Early Childhood

Development Centre

You will find the relevant information on this study unit in chapter 13 of
the prescribed book.

Here is a graphic representation of the prescribed book:

13.1 Introduction
ECD institutions have come a long way from caring for a few children at
home to the modern-day specialised nodes of care and support. The
need for daily care in South Africa is huge: there are some 6.5 million
children in the 0±6 age group, of which more than half are under five and
growing up in poverty-stricken non-urban areas. Since many of them are
stunted and underweight, only the best care and support must be given to
these preschool children. Many communities realise the importance of
proper care for their children, especially as most mothers work outside
the home today and because proper preschool education will give them a
good start in life.

This chapter provides information for any individuals who wish to

establish and run an ECD institution in their community. This will
necessarily involve highly motivated people who are knowledgeable
about ECD, who care because of the warmth of their personalities and
who can work hard because they are dedicated.

13.2 Learning outcomes

After you have worked through this study unit, you should be able to

. develop a strategy for initiating a community survey to establish a

location for an ECD centre
. develop the ability to interpret regulations about the licensing of an
ECD centre
. describe the basic skills needed to manage start-up costs that will
support ongoing, long-term expenses
. set criteria for staff selection
. implement enrolment decisions
. understand grievance procedures
. plan a logical sequence of events for the opening day of an ECD centre

13.3 Survey to establish a location for an ECD centre

Section 13.3 of the prescribed book deals with conducting a community
survey regarding a location for an ECD centre. Note the questions you
have to ask to determine the main need for such a centre.

13.4 Licensing and regulations

ECD institutions fall under the department of Social Development and
requirements for the registration of all ECD institutions are the same. You
must adhere to a specific process when wanting to register your centre.
Study section 13.4 in this regard.

13.5 Circumstances that can lead to the closure of an ECD centre
The highest standards should be maintained in an ECD centre at all times
and governmental/municipal/health officials will inspect the centre from
time to time. There are certain circumstances and/or conditions which
may cause the closure of a centre, which include the following:
. unsafe buildings or structures
. failure to meet requirements as stipulated by the local authorities
. jeopardising the health of children
. physical abuse of children
. insufficient and/or incapable personnel
. chronic lack of or inappropriate stimulation programme
. discrimination that leads to violation of the rights of the children
. a management committee that is not functioning, has poor
cooperation and/or is involved with corruption and maladministration
. lack of community interest in the centre
. the need for the facility no longer exists

13.6 Financial matters

Financial matters are discussed in section 13.6. Financial planning for any
enterprise is essential. When starting an ECD centre, your financial
planning will consist of three aspects:
. the start-up costs
. ongoing costs (expenditure)
. expected income

Study financial matters on pages 314 to 317 of the prescribed book.

13.7 Staff selection

Information on staff recruitment and staff selection can be found in
section 13.7 of the prescribed book. Focus on advertisements, making
the right choice when selecting staff, and a successful working check list
for all types of staff (section 13.8).

13.8 Opening day

A logical sequence of events in the run-up to the opening day of an ECD
centre could be the following:
. The needs of the community should be taken into consideration
when planning the opening day of an ECD institution.
. Plan your opening day well in advance.
. A check list of things to do a month, two weeks, a week and a day
before the time will not only ensure that everything gets done, but
will also give you some leeway to work out an alternative if
something goes wrong.
. Allocate each task to a specific staff member (who should have
assumed duties before opening day), and check regularly to ensure
that everything is going according to plan.
. Remember, first impressions count, and it may be a good idea to have
your entrance area especially attractive and inviting. If you have to
make do with old furniture, a coat of paint and even some paint
effects can make it look attractive. It is imperative that everything
should be finished and that no tins of paint, building rubble, ladders et
cetera are visible on opening day
. Decide which staff members are to be involved in each step of the
intake procedure on the opening day of the centre.
. Make sure that each child's teacher or the person who will work
directly with the children is involved throughout to establish feelings
of mutual trust between the child, the caregiver and the parents.
Parents want their children to be happy and well cared for.
. Explain to the parents that most children are upset when they are
separated from their parents for the first time. They may feel
frightened and lonely in the new environment. However, the teacher
can help to alleviate the separation experience on the first day by
being caring, helpful and available if the parents want to talk to him or

13.9 Enrolment
Take note of the information that is needed to complete the enrolment
form. Study section 13.10 of the prescribed book.

13.10 Grievance procedures

A grievance is normally dealt with in three stages. You will have to consult
the policy of the authority or department under which your centre falls
for more details of the procedure.
. During the first stage, the grievance is discussed in the course of an
interview between the manager or principal and the complainant(s).
An earnest attempt should be made to resolve the grievance before
the differences become formalised. No records of the proceedings
are kept at this stage.
. The second stage involves a formal written grievance. The
complainant(s) lodge(s) a written grievance with the manager within a
reasonable period, but not later than 90 days from the date on which
the cause of the grievance arose. The complainant has to provide full
details of the nature of the grievance and sign the statement. At the
meeting, all the facts must be considered and an effort made to
resolve the matter to the satisfaction of all the parties.
. If the grievance cannot be resolved, it is referred to the regional or
district level, or to the trade union if applicable. An attempt must be
made within five working days to resolve the matter.

13.11 Conclusion
Opening an ECD centre takes a lot of courage and in the planning stage
the prospective director must consider several issues pertaining to
managing the centre. First of all a needs assessment should be done in the
community. Several options for choosing the site and for housing the
institution can be investigated if a need exists. Licensing, start-up costs,
ongoing funds, expected income, staff selection, planning the opening day,
enrolment and dealing with parents are all issues that must be planned
carefully. It should always be borne in mind that to make a success of the
centre, every carefully planned detail must be executed immaculately.

13.12 Self-evaluation questions

SELF-EVALUATION (1) Do you have what it takes to manage your own ECD centre?
QUESTIONS Embark on a thorough self-examination and measure yourself
against the criteria of characteristics that the manager of a daycare
centre should have. Be honest. If there are any characteristics that
you do not possess, how do you plan to address this difficulty?
(2) Draw up your own questionnaire to establish the viability of the
ECD centre on your chosen site.
(3) Find out what municipal regulations, laws and bylaws pertain to an
ECD centre. Try to obtain the actual documents or copies of them
and file them in a safe place for future reference. After scrutinising
these documents, write down exactly how you will have to go
about getting your ECD centre licensed and running.
(4) Draw up a master profile for the following staff members at an
ECD centre: teacher, class helper, kitchen staff, cook, gardener.
(5) Draft an enrolment form for your ECD centre.


Atmore, A. 2003. International trends impacting young children. Early Years. Bulletin of
the Centre for Early Childhood Development, June, 9(5):3-4.
Beaty, JJ. 2000. Skills for preschool teachers. Englewood Cliffs, New York: Merrie.
Campher, TJ. 1999. Managing school finances: a guide to educators and managers in
education. Pretoria: Amabhuku.
Click, P. 2004. Administration of programs for young children. 6th Edition. Clifton Park,
New York: Delmar, Thompson Learning.
Essa, EL. 1999. Introduction to early childhood education. Albany, New York: Delmar.
Gordon, AM & Brown, KW. 2004. Beginnings and beyond: foundations in early childhood
education, 6th ed. New York: Delmar, Thompson Learning.
Hearron, PF & Hildebrand, V. 2004. Management of child development centres. 5th
edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Kruger, AG & Van Schalkwyk, OJ. 1997. Classroom management. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
McDaniels, B. 2003. Prevention of neglect: the development of a childcare skills
programme for vulnerable parents. Queens University of Belfast: Unpublished
PHD thesis.
Taylor, BJ. 1997. Early childhood program management. People and procedures. Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.