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1.aWhy are solids rigid and have a definite volume?

b. Define the term 'amorphous'. Give a few examples of amorphous solids
cClassify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids:
Polyurethane,naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate,
cellophane,polyvinylchloride, fibre glass, copper.
2.aWhy is glass considered a super cooled liquid and What makes a glass
different from a solid such as quartz? Under what conditions could
quartz be converted into glass?
bRefractive index of a solid is observed to have the samevalue along all
directions.Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show cleavage
c.Classify the following solids in different categories based on the nature
ofintermolecular forces operating in them:
Potassium sulphate, tin, benzene, urea, ammonia, water, zinc
sulphide,graphite, rubidium, argon, silicon carbide.
3.a.Solid A is a very hard electrical insulator in solid as well asin molten
and melts at extremely high temperature. What type of solid is it?
b.Ionic solids conduct electricity in molten state but not in solid state.
c.What type of solids are electrical conductors, malleable and ductile?
(i) The similarities and differences between metallic and ionic crystals.
(ii) Ionic solids are hard and brittle.
b.Classify each of the following solids as ionic, metallic, molecular, network
(covalent) or amorphous.
(i) Tetra phosphorus decoxide (P4O10) (ii) Ammonium phosphate
(iii) SiC (iv) I2 (v) P4(vi) Plastic(vii) Graphite(viii) Brass(ix) Rb
(x) LiBr (xi) Si
c)'Stability of a crystal is reflected in the magnitude of its melting points'.
Comment. Collect melting points of solid water, ethyl alcohol, diethyl ether
and methane from a data book. What can you say about the intermolecular
forces between these molecules?
5..a.How will you distinguish Crystal lattice and unit cell.and Give the
significance of a ‘lattice point’
b. How many lattice points are there in one unit cell of each of the
lattice? (i) Face-centred cubic unit cell (ii) Face-centred tetragonal unit cell
(iii) Body-centred unit cell .
c.Name the parameters that characterise a unit cell.
d.Distinguish between
(i) Hexagonal and monoclinic unit cells(ii) Face-centredandend-centred unit cells.

6..aExplain how much portion of an atom located at (i) corner and (ii)
bodycentreof a cubic unit cell is part of its neighbouring unit cell.
b. (i) What is meant by the term 'coordination number'?
c. What is the coordination number of atoms:
(i) in a cubic close-packed structure? (ii) in a body-centred cubic structure?
(iii).What is the two dimensional coordination number of a molecule insquare
close-packed layer?
d. A cubic solid is made of two elements P and Q. Atoms of Q are at the
corners of the cube and P at the body-centre. What is the formula of
the compound? What are the coordination numbers of P and Q?


1.a.Calculate the efficiency of packing in case of a metal crystal for
(i) simple cubic (ii) body-centred cubic
(iii) face-centred cubic (with the assumptions that atoms are touchingeach
b. Which of the following lattices has the highest packing efficiency
(i) simple cubic (ii) bodycentred cubic and (iii) hexagonal close-packed lattice
2.a.How will you distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
(i) Hexagonal close-packing and cubic close-packing?
(ii) Tetrahedral void and octahedral void?
b. A compound is formed by two elements X and Y. Atoms of the element
Y (as anions) make ccp and those of the element X (as cations) occupy
all the octahedral voids. What is the formula of the compound?
c. Ferric oxide crystallises in a hexagonal close-packed array of oxide ions
with two out of every three octahedral holes occupied by ferric ions.
Derive the formula of the ferric oxide.
3.a. Atoms of element B form hcp lattice and those of the element A occupy
2/3rd of tetrahedral voids. What is the formula of the compound formedby
theelements A and B?
b. A compound forms hexagonal close-packed structure. What is the total
number of voids in 0.5 mol of it? How many of these are tetrahedral voids?
c. A compound is formed by two elements M and N. The element N forms
ccpand atoms of M occupy 1/3rd of tetrahedral voids. What is the
formula of the compound?
4.a. If the radius of the octahedral void is r and radius of the atoms
is R, derive relation between r and R.
bHow can you determine the atomic mass of an unknown metal if you know
its density and the dimension of its unit cell? Explain.

5..aAn element has a body-centred cubic (bcc) structure with a cell edge of
288 pm. The density of the element is 7.2 g/cm3. How many atoms are
present in 208 g of the element?
b.X-ray diffraction studies show that copper crystallises in an fcc unit
cell with cell edge of 3.608×10-8 cm. In a separate experiment, copper is
determined to have a density of 8.92 g/cm3, calculate the atomic massof copper.
6.a.Silver forms ccplattice and X-ray studies of its crystals show that the
edge length of its unit cell is 408.6 pm. Calculate the density of silver
(Atomic mass = 107.9 u).
b.An element with molar mass 2.7×10-2 kg mol-1 forms a cubic unit cell
with edge length 405 pm. If its density is 2.7×103 kg-3, what is the
nature of the cubic unit cell?
c. Gold (atomic radius = 0.144 nm) crystallises in a face-centred unit cell.
What is the length of a side of the cell?
7..a.Aluminiumcrystallises in a cubic close-packed structure. Its metallic
radius is 125 pm.(i) What is the length of the side of the unit cell?
(ii) How many unit cells are there in 1.00 cm3 of aluminium?
b.Silver crystallises in fcc lattice. If edge length of the cell is 4.07 × 10 –
cm and density is 10.5 g cm–3, calculate the atomic mass of silver.
c.Niobiumcrystallises in body-centred cubic structure. If density is 8.55g
cm–3,calculate atomic radius of niobium using its atomic mass 93 u.
d.Copper crystallises into afcc lattice with edge length 3.61 × 10–8 cm.
Show that the calculated density is in agreement with its measuredvalue of
8.92 g cm–3.


1.aExplain the following terms with suitable examples:
(i) Schottky defect (ii) Frenkel defect (iii) Interstitials and (iv) F-centres
b.What type of defect can arise when a solid is heated? Which
physicalproperty is affected by it and in what way?
c.What type of stoichiometric defect is shown by:(i) ZnS (ii) AgBr

2.a.Explain how vacancies are introduced in an ionic solid when acation

ofhigher valence is added as an impurity in it.
b.Ionic solids, which have anionic vacancies due to metal excess
defect,develop colour. Explain with the help of a suitable example.
c.Analysis shows that nickel oxide has the formulaNi 0.98O1.00. What
of nickel exist as Ni2+ and Ni3+ ions?
d. If NaCl is doped with 10–3 mol % of SrCl2, what is the concentration of
cation vacancies?

3.a.In terms of band theory, what is the difference

(i) between a conductor and an insulator
(ii) between a conductor and a semiconductor
(iii)What is a semiconductor? Describe the two main types of
and contrast their conduction mechanism
b.A group 14 element is to be converted into n-type semiconductor by
it with a suitable impurity. To which group should this impurity belong?
4.a.Classify each of the following as being either a p-type or a n-type
semiconductor: (i) Ge doped with In (ii) B doped with Si.
b. Non-stoichiometric cuprous oxide, Cu2O can be prepared in laboratory.In
this oxide, copper to oxygen ratio is slightly less than 2:1. Can
youaccount for the fact that this substance is a p-type semiconductor?

5.a. Explain the following with suitable examples:

(i) Ferromagnetism (ii) Paramagnetism (iii) Ferrimagnetism
(iv) Antiferromagnetism(v) 12-16 and 13-15 group compounds.
b.What type of substances would make better permanent
magnets,ferromagnetic or
ferrimagnetic. Justify your answer



1. Determine the type of cubic lattices to which the iron crystal belongs if
its unit cell has an edge length of 286 pm and the density of iron
crystals is 7, 86 g cm-3.
(Atomic mass of Fe = 56 g mol-1, NA = 6.02 X 1023 mol-1).
2. KX crystals have fcc structure. What is the distance between K+ and X-
in a KX crystal if the density of KX is 2.48 g cm-3 ? (Molar mass of
KX = 58 g mol-1, NA = 6.02 X 1023mol-1)
3. An element A crystallises in fcc structure. 200 g of this element has
4.12 x 1024 atoms. The density of A is 7.2 g cm-3. Calculate the edge
length of the unit cell.
4. Lithium metal crystal has a body centred cubic structure. Its density is
0.53 g cm-3 and its molar mass is 6.94 g mol-1. Calculate the volume
of a unit cell of lithium metal.
5. Sodium crystallises in the cubic lattice and the edge of the unit cell is
430 pm. Calculate the number of atoms in a unit cell. (At mass of Na =
23 amu, density of sodium = 0.9623 g cm-3, NA = 6.023 x 1023 mol-1
6. An element crystallises in a bcc structure. The edge length of its unit
cell is 288 pm. If the density of the crystal is 7.3 g cm-3, what is the
atomic mass of the element?
7. Chromium metal crystallizes with a body-centered cubic lattic. The
length of unit cell is found to be 287 pm. Calculate atomic radius, the
number of atoms per unit cell and the density of chromium.
(At. mass of Cr = 52 g mol-1 and NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1).
8. Br- ions form close packed structure. If the radius of Br- ion is 195 pm,
calculate the radius of the cation that just fits in the tetrahedral hole.
Can a cation A+ having a radius of 82 pm be slipped into the octahedral
hole of the crystal A+ Br- ?
9. Caesium chloride crystallises as a body centred cubic lattice and has a
density of 4.0
g cm -3. Calculate the length of the edge of the unit cell of caesium
chloride crystal.
[Molar mass of CsCI = 168.5 g mol-1 NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1]
10. The ionic radius of CI- ion is 181 pm. Consider the closest packed
structure in which all anions are just touching.
(i) Calculate the radius of the cation that just fits into the octahedral
holes of this lattice of anions.
(ii) Calculate the radius of the cation that just fits into the tetrahedral
holes of this lattice of anions.
11. Calculate the value of the Avogadro constant from the following data:
Density of
NaCl = 2.165 g cm-3 Distance between Na + and Cl- ion NaCl = 281


1.a) What type of crystal system is with cell dimensions a = 0.328 nm, b =
0.328 nm, c = 0.527 nm ?
b) Urea has a sharp melting point but glass does not Explain.

c) A metallic crystal has the bcc type packing pattern. What percentage of
volume of this lattice is empty space ?

2.a) The metal calcium crystallises in a face centred cubic unit cell with a =
0.556 nm. Calculate the density of the metal if
(i) it contains 0.2% Frenkel defects. (ii) it contains 0.1% Schottky

Ans. (i) Density in case of Frenkel defects.

The Frenkel defects do not change the density because the number of
atoms per unit cell remains the same.
zM 4  (40 g mol 1 )
d  g3 cm-3
= 1.5463 
a  NA (0.556 107 cm)3  (6.022 1023 mol 1 )
(ii) Density in case of Schottky defects.
Due to Schottky defects, vacant spaces will decrease the number of
per unit cell.
 4  0.1 -3 zM (3.996)  (40 g mol 1 )
z   4  g cm  3.996
= 1.5448 . d 3  7 1
a  N A (0.556 10 cm)  (6.022 10 mol )
3 23
 100 
b) Potassium crystallizes in a body centred cubic lattice. Calculate the
approximate number of unit cells in 1 g of potassium. Atomic mass of
potassium = 39 u.

c) In the mineral, "spinel" having the formula MgAl2O4, oxide ions are
arranged in the cubic close packing, Mg2+ ions occupy tetrahedral
voids while Al3+ ions occupy the octahedral voids.
(i) What percentage of tetrahderal voids is occupied by Mg2+ions ?
(ii) What percentage of octahedral voids is occupied by Al3+ions ?

3a) A metal crystallizes into two cubic phases, face-centred cubic (FCC)
and body-centred cubic (BCC) whose unit cell lengths are and
respectively. Calculate the ratio of the densities of FCC and BCC.

b) An element X with an atomic mass of 60g/mol has density of 6.23 g cm

. If the edge length of its cubic unit cell is 400 pm, identify the type of
cubic unit cell. Calculate the radius of an atom of this element.

4 a) A unit cell consists of a cube in which there are A atoms at the corners
and B atoms at the face centres. Two A atoms are missing from the two
corners of the unit cell. What is the formula of the compound?
b) Name the transition metal oxide which has appearance and conductivity
like that of copper.
c) In a cubic close packed structure of mixed oxides, the lattice is made of
oxide ions, one eighth of tetrahedral voids are occupied by divalent ions
(A2+) while one half of the octahedral voids are occupied by trivalent
ions (B3+). What is the formula of the oxide?

5 Potassium crystallises in a bcc lattice as shown in the figure :

i) What is the distance between the nearest neighbours ?

ii) What is the distance between the next nearest neighbours ?
iii) How many nearest neighbours does each potassium atom have ?
iv) How many next nearest neighbours does each potassium atom have
o o
Ans. (a) The body diagonal is  3 a  3  5.20A  9.01A
9.01 o
The nearest neighbours along that diagonal   4.50A
are at half distance apart 2
(b) The distance between the next nearest neighbours  5.20A
is equal to the cell edge.

(c) Nearest neighbours which surround each potassium atom = 8

(d) Since the C.N. of each potassium atom is six, the next nearest
neighbours which surround each potassium atom = 6.

6.a) What are normal spinels and inverse spinels ?

Ans.Normalspinels. Compounds in which dipositive ions are present in
tetrahedral holes and tripositive ions are present in octahedral holes are
known as normal spinels. For example, MgAl2O4, ZnFe2O4.
Inverse spinels. Compounds in which the dipositiveions are present in
octahedral holes and tripositive ions are distributed equally between
tetrahedral and octahedral holes are known as inverse spinels e.g.,
MgFe2O4, Fe3O4.
b) In a crystalline solid, anions B- are arranged in a cubic close packing.
Cations A are equalM distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral
voids. If all the octahedral voids are occupied what is the formula of the
solid ?


Closed packing of particles results in two highly efficient lattices, HCP and
CCP. Both thelattices have packing efficiency 74%. Other type of packing
are not close packing and have lessefficiency like BCC(68%) and simple
unit cell(54%).

Contextual Question:-

a) Calculate the percentage efficiency of a crystal acquired in FCC type unit


Value Based Question:-

b) How do you correlate the efficiency of human value to crystalline packing

efficiency insolids?

Value Points:-
Organized Behaviour leads to stability.
High Efficiency
Mental Calmer/Satisfaction