FEM of flexible pavements

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FEM of flexible pavements

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ABSTRACT: This study illustrates the usefulness of the finite-element method in the analysis of three-layer

pavement systems subjected to different types of loading. The method is capable of simulating the observed

responses of pavements subjected to axle loads with different tire pressures, axle loads with different configu-

rations, and axle loads traveling at different speeds. A variety of material constitutive models such as linear

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elasti~, nonl~n~ar elastic, and vi~coelastic are empl?yed ~n the analyses to describe the behavior of the pavement

matenals. FInite-element modeling of pavements, If validated, can be extremely useful, because it can be used

directly to estimate primary response parameters without resorting to potentially costly field experiments. If

accurate corre~ations between the calculated and the measured primary response parameters can be obtained,

then the analytical model can be used to calculate primary response load equivalency factors, utilizing deflection-

based or strain-based equivalency factor methods.

INTRODUCTION pavement layer, the surface vertical deflection, and the tensile

Pavements are deceptively complex systems, involving the stress in a concrete pavement. A variety of computer programs

interaction of numerous variables. Their performance is influ- are available for the solution of the "boundary value" problem

enced by factors such as material properties, the environment, of a multilayered pavement system. These programs are di-

traffic loading, and construction practices. Pavement design vided into two major categories: (1) finite element; and (2)

procedures depend heavily on empirical relationships based on elastic layer theory. A variety of material constitutive models,

long-term experience and field tests such as the American As- such as linear elastic, nonlinear elastic, viscoelastic, and elasto-

sociation of State Highway Officials (AASHO) Road Test. viscoplastic models, can be employed to describe the behavior

The AASHO Road Test, performed in the late 1950s, is the of the pavement materials.

basis for most pavement design procedures that use the Amer- For validation of the analytical model, the calculated mech-

ican Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials anistic response parameters can be compared with the mea-

(AASHTO) method of equivalency factors. The relationships sured response parameters obtained from field tests like the

between traffic loading and pavement performance obtained ones briefly described in the next section. If accurate corre-

from the AASHO Road Test are recognized to apply only to lations between the calculated and the measured mechanistic

the conditions under which they were developed. Extrapola- response parameters can be obtained, then the analytical model

tion of these relationships to other conditions is quite problem- can be used to directly estimate primary response load equiv-

atic. The relative damage to pavements caused by new vehicle alency factors, using any of the deflection-based or strain-

characteristics and configurations may be very different from based equivalency factor methods, such as the Christison

that caused by the axle loads used at the AASHO Road Test. method (Christison 1986).

There have been a number of attempts to derive new load This paper will illustrate the usefulness of the finite-element

equivalency factors to account for vehicle characteristics and method in the analysis of three-layer pavement systems sub-

other factors not considered in the AASHO Road Test. Many jected to different types of loading. It will be shown that the

of these studies have produced new load equivalency factors method is capable of simulating the observed responses of

that ~e intended to supplement or replace the AASHTO equiv- pavements subjected to axle loads with different tire pressures,

alenCies currently used by most agencies. These methods for axle loads with different configurations, and axle loads trav-

load equivalency factor determination can be divided into two eling at different speeds. A variety of material constitutive

broad categories: (I) empirical methods, which use observed models such as linear elastic, nonlinear elastic, and viscoelastic

loading and distress data to estimate pavement damage; and will be employed in the analyses to describe the behavior of

(2) mechanistic methods, which incorporate pavement mech- the pavement materials.

anistic (primary) response parameters such as stress, strain, or

EFFECTS OF AXLE TYPE, AXLE LOAD, TIRE

deflection to estimate pavement damage.

The mechanistic (primary) response parameters of pave- PRESSURE, VEHICLE SPEED, AND PAVEMENT TYPE

ON PRIMARY RESPONSE LOAD EQUIVALENCY

~ents, required for damage prediction models, can be analyt-

FACTORS

Ically evaluated. These parameters include the vertical strain

on top of the subgrade, the tensile strain at the bottom of the . One way of evaluating the effects of axle type, axle load,

tire pressure~ speed, and pavement type on the load equiva-

'Asst. Prof., The Uniy. of Texas at San Antonio, Diy. of Engrg., 6900 lency factor IS to conduct full-scale tests on instrumented pave-

N. Loop 1604 w., San Antonio, TX 78249-0665. E-mail: helwany@

Yoyagerl.utsa.edu

ment sections. In-situ instrumentation of pavement structures

2Res. AssI., The Uniy. of Texas at San Antonio, Diy. of Engrg., 6900 is a valid ~pproach used to monitor the response of pavements

N. Loop 1604 W., San Antonio, TX. when s':lbJected to various combinations of axle types, axle

'Engrg. Asst., Texas Dept. of Transp., Design DiY., 125 E. 11th St., loads, tire pressures, and speeds. For example, the Federal

Austin, TX 78701. E-mail: jleidy@mailgw.dot.state.tx.us Highway Administration (FHWA) conducted a field study at

Note. Discussion open until March I, 1999. To extend the closing date the pavement testing facility at the Turner-Fairbank Highway

one month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of

Journals. The manuscript for this paper was submitted for review and

Resear.ch Center to investigate the effects of axle type, axle

possible publication on October 29, 1997. This paper is part of the Jour- load, tire pressure, and speed on the response of two asphalt-

nal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 124, No.5, September/October, concrete pavement sections (Hudson et al. 1992). In this study,

1998. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-947X198/oo05-0491-0499/$8.oo + $.50 per three axle types were used, namely, single axle dual tire, tan-

page. Paper No. 16931. dem axle group, and tridem axle group. Three levels of axle

JOURNAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998/491

3-nxle truck

FIG. 1. Strain Cycles for Vehicle, Individual Axles, and Axle Groups for Three-Axle Truck (after Papagiannakls et al. 1992)

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loads were used for each axle type with two inflation pres- FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS

sures. Also, two speeds were used: 8 kmJhr and 72 kmJhr. It Two-Dimensional Analysis

was concluded that the axle load causes by far the most dam-

aging effect. Small additional contributions from increased tire The finite-element method is well suited for analyzing pave-

pressure and from increased speed were not nearly as evident ment-tire interaction problems involving material nonlineari-

as axle load. ties and complex loading. Such analysis proceeds by defining

Another field study was also conducted by the Federal the characteristics of each pavement layer, including linear

Highway Administration to investigate the effects of load, tire elastic, nonlinear, and viscoelastic material characterization.

pressure, and tire type on the response of an asphalt-concrete The finite-element computer program DACSAR (Deformation

pavement section (Bonaquist et al. 1989). Radial and bias-ply Analysis Considering Stress Anisotropy and Reorientation), by

tires were used in this field experiment, with applied load lev- Ohta and Iizuka (1986), is used for this two-dimensional anal-

els of 42 kN, 63 kN, and 85 kN, and inflation pressures rang- ysis, in which small displacement formulation is adopted,

ing from 520 to 970 kPa. The accelerated-loading-facility de- time-independent response is assumed, and the pavement-tire

vice applied wheel loadings to a 10-m-long flexible-pavement interaction is treated as an axisymmetric problem.

test section. It was concluded that the measured pavement re- DACSAR code incorporates three basic element types: (1)

sponses were affected by load and tire pressure, with load the straight beam-column element, with three degrees of free-

having a greater effect. Numerous similar studies have been dom (horizontal and vertical displacements and a rotation) at

reported in the literature, including Christison (1980), Gorge each node; (2) the quadrilateral element, defined by four nodes

with two degrees of freedom (horizontal and vertical displace-

(1984), Roberts et al. (1986), Sharp et al. (1986), Huhtala et

ments) at each node; and (3) the truss element (with no bend-

al. (1998), and Sebaaly and Tabatabaee (1992).

ing resistance).

To study the effects of vehicle speed and axle loads, a field

There are four material models available in DACSAR: (1)

experiment was conducted by Papagiannakis et al. (1992) at

the linear elastic model; (2) the elastoplastic model; (3) the

the instrumented pavement site located on HW-16, north of

elasto-viscoplastic model; and (4) the nonlinear elastic model

Saskatoon, Canada. Two vehicles were tested: a three-axle sin- (modified Duncan model).

gle unit truck and a five-axle semitrailer truck. Each test was

accompanied by a Benkelman Beam truck to provide a ref- Linear Elastic Stress-Strain Behavior

erence axle load. Three vehicle speeds were used: 20, 40, and

The finite-element discretization of a three-layer system

50 kmJhr. Three levels of axle loads were also used in the

experiment. having a 15-cm-thick AC layer, a 25-cm-thick base layer, and

o

This study indicated that the measured tensile strains at the Load=45 kN

bottom of the AC layer exhibited a large sensitivity to vehicle Pressure = 550 kPa

speed. The measured strain at a vehicle speed of 50 kmJhr was r=16 em

roughly tripled at a reduced vehicle speed of 20 kmJhr. Con-

sequently, the calculated load equivalency factors were found I

I

to decrease with increasing vehicle speed. The observed de-

pendency of measured strains on vehicle speed is a clear con-

15-ern thick AC Layer

sequence of the time-dependent behavior of the asphalt con-

crete. The study also indicated that for a given axle load, strain 25-cm thick Base Layer

ratios decreased with increasing vehicle speed, resulting in re-

duced load equivalency factors. Therefore, mechanistic load

equivalency factors should be viewed as speed-dependent.

Papagiannakis et al. (1992) also observed that the damaging

effect of a vehicle was not fully accounted for simply by add-

ing the load equivalency factors of its individual axle groups.

The simple addition of axle groups ignored the strain cycle

between the axle groups, which is shown by the cross-hatched

area in Fig. 1, introducing an "error" in the calculation of the

total load equivalency factor of the vehicle. Furthermore, this

6S<m """ """"" ""I _+,-'---'--'----'---'---'-_ _---'-_ _---'-_ _---'-

I

loading time between axle groups decreased. Papagiannakis et I

al. (1992) concluded that simply adding the damaging effects Axis of

cle. FIG. 2. Finite-Element Discretization (Axisymmetric)

a 65-cm-thick subbase layer, is shown in Fig. 2. The bottom contact pressure equal to the tire pressure. In this analysis, a

of the subbase layer was restrained from any vertical move- unifonn pressure of 550 kPa is applied on a circular contact

ment, implying the presence of a "rigid" subgrade layer under area with a radius of 16 cm, as indicated in Fig. 2. This uni-

the subbase layer. form pressure is caused by an assumed 90-kN axle load, Le.,

The tire-pavement pressure distribution is generally known 45 kN on each wheel.

to be complex and affected by tire type. There are many in- A preliminary analysis, using the finite-element mesh shown

consistencies in the data from various experimental studies in Fig. 2, was conducted to verify the correctness of the finite-

measuring the distribution of contact pressures between tire element discretization, the boundary conditions, and the ap-

and pavement. Simplifying assumptions have been used in the plied load. In this analysis, the three layers were assigned the

o

literature, including the use of a circular contact area with same elastic moduli, transforming the three-layer system into

a simpler one-layer system. The analytical solution of the one-

layer system, using DACSAR, can be checked against the

Uniformly distributed pressure-cireular tire print Boussinesq "close fonn" solution readily available for a uni-

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Circle with r= 16 em dicated the accuracy of the finite element analysis.

To investigate the effects of axle load and tire pressure on

pressure=550 kPa. load=45 kN the behavior of the three-layer system shown in Fig. 2 four

analyses were conducted assuming the loading conditions in-

0

dicated in Table 1. The elastic moduli of the three layers are

10

given in Table 2.

The results of the analyses are summarized in Fig. 4. In the

20 figure, six different parameters were compared, namely, the

vertical displacement at the top of the AC layer, the radial

e

~

30

Q)

TABLE 1. Load Case Designation

u 40 Boussinesq's solution

'£! Load case Load Tire pressure

'"

'"

~

50

Axisymmetric FEM

designation (kN) (kPa)

c (1) (2) (3)

Q)

.&>

60 45

Case 1 550

~

0 70

Case 2 45 830

Case 3 90 550

Case 4 90 830

80

0 200 400 600 Layer (kPa) ratio

(1) (2) (3)

Vertical stress below center (kPa)

AC layer 6.89 x 106 0.3

FIG. 3. Stress Distribution under Center of Circular Contact Base layer 0.4 x 106 0.3

Area: Comparison of 2-D Finite-Element Solution with Soussl- Subbase layer 0.0689 x 106 0.3

nesq Solution

~

~

0.60 !v 0.20 3 0.25

e

e ~

0.50 < 0.15 -!! 0.20

~ 0.40

13 '0

%

! 0.30

'0

go

!-o ~ 0.10

~

S ;;; 0.15

~

'iii 0.10

Cl ;I

0.20 .~

] l:l

0.05 'i!" 0.05

Ii ,;;

;;-

0.10

'"

~ 0.00

:'§ 0.00

0.00

case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 ~ case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 ~ case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4

(a) (c)

(b)

J ~

! 0.25

iJ

.il

0.60

J

60

50

.ll 0.20

0.50 ~

'0 ~ 0

40

~

.ll

'iii

;;; 0.15

~

'0

~ !B.

'iii

;;;

0.40

0.30

J'al

30

0.10 20

.~ .~ 0.20

~ 10

'" 0.05 '"

il

0.10 ]

~= '0

II 0.00

Ii

;;-

0

case 2

0.00 case 1 case 3 case 4

'" case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 :> easel ease 2 ease 3 ease 4

strain at the top of the AC layer, the radial strain at the bottom ventional laboratory tests. The techniques used to detennine

of the AC layer, the radial strain at the bottom of the base, the values of the parameters from the results of laboratory tests

vertical strain at the top of the subbase, and the vertical stress are explained in detail by Duncan and Chang (1970).

at the bottom of the base. It is noted from Fig. 4 that all the The finite-element mesh shown in Fig. 2 was used in the

parameters were sensitive to the axle load; however, only the analysis. The AC layer and the subbase layer were assumed

radial strains at the top and the bottom of the AC layer were linear elastic with the elastic moduli given in Table 2. To in-

sensitive to tire pressure [Figs. 4(b and c)]. vestigate the effects of nonlinearity and stress-dependency of

the base material, a well graded gravel base material with 90%

Nonlinear Stress-Strain Behavior relative compaction (OW with RC = 90%) was incorporated

in the analysis. Typical Duncan model parameters for this ma-

To investigate the importance of the nonlinear behavior of terial were given by Duncan et al. (1980). The nonlinear stress-

the granular base layer in a pavement, the finite element com- dependent behavior of this material in triaxial stress conditions

puter program DACSAR, which includes a nonlinear material under three different confining pressures is depicted in Fig. 5.

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model, is used. Small displacement fonnulation, time-indepen- The model parameters of the base material were adjusted

dent response, and axisymmetry are assumed in the analysis. slightly in order to exhibit an initial elastic modulus of 0.4 X

106 kPa, as indicated in Fig. 5, which is consistent with the

Modified Duncan Model elastic modulus of the base material used in the preceding

In this model, the tangent Young's modulus, E" of a soil linear analysis (Table 2). This yielded a direct comparison be-

tween the linear and nonlinear analyses. It is to be noted, how-

element during each load increment is detennined on the basis

of the calculated shear stress level, (CTI - CT3), and the confin- ever, that the nonlinear analysis conducted herein was merely

ing pressure, CT3, in the element to illustrate the effects of material nonlinearity and stress-de-

pendency of a pavement whose linear and nonlinear properties

Rf(1 - sin <I»(CTI - CT3)]2 were chosen arbitrarily. A more elaborate analysis requires that

E,=Ei [ 1- . (1) the nonlinear material parameters be deduced from conven-

2c cos <I> + 2CT3 sm <I>

tional triaxial compression laboratory tests conducted on the

where base material at different confining pressures.

Load "Case 1," which comprised a 45-kN load and 550

E1 = KPa (;:r (2) kPa tire pressure, was reanalyzed using a nonlinear stress-de-

The tangent bulk modulus of a soil element during each load 200

increment is assumed to be a function of the confining pres-

sure, CT3, alone: ~ linear elastic with E=400,OOO IcPa

! nonlinear elastic with E(inilial)-400,OOO kPa

.I

It is to be noted that <1>, c, K, K b , n, m, and Rf are the

modified Duncan model parameters, each of which bears a

I

special physical meaning in soil mechanics (Duncan et al. 100 _.... - -------

1980). The definitions of these parameters are given in Table

3.

The hyperbolic stress-strain relationships described above

can be used to represent three important characteristics of the

stress-strain behavior of the granular base material: nonlinear- 50

ity, stress-dependency, and inelasticity. The values of the

model parameters may be detennined from the results of con-

0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00

Symbol Definition

(1 ) (2) Vertical (Axial) Strain, !IIi

c Cohesion intercept (kPa) confining pres. - 3.5 IcPa

<I> Friction angle (degrees)

K Modulus number

n Modulus exponent confIDing pres. = 7 IcPa

Rf Failure ratio

K. Bulk modulus number confining pres. -10 IcPa

m Bulk modulus exponent

FIG. 5. Stress-5traln Behavior of Base Layer

8,

Load Analysis (mm) £RADIAL-AC-TOP £RADIAL-AC-BOTT. £RAD.·BASE·BOTT. £VERT.•SUBBAS-TOP O'VERT.-BABE·BOTT.

(1 ) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

45 kN (550 kPa) DACSAR (linear base) 0.277 +105 X 10 _ -139 X 10-- -123 X 10-- +291 X 10-- 26.4 kPa

45 kN (550 kPa) DACSAR (nonlinear base) 0.242 +99.6 X 10-· -108 X 10-- -98.3 X 10-- +121 X 10-- 10.6 kPa

Note: 8, = maximum vertical displacement; £RADIAL-AC.TOP = radial strain at top of AC layer; = radial

£RADIAL.AC-BOTT. strain at bottom of AC layer;

£RAD.•BASE-BOTT. = radial strain at bottom of base layer; £VERT.-SUBBAS-TOP = vertical strain at top of subbase layer; O'VERT.•BASE.BOTT.= vertical stress at bottom

of base layer.

ts-cm thick AC Layer

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compared with the preceding linear analysis of the same load

case, as shown in Table 4. In the nonlinear analysis, the load

D Unifonnly distributed pressure-square tire print

Square with b= 28.4 em

pressure = 550 kPa, load=45 kN

was applied in 100 increments, during which the elastic mod-

uli were updated accordingly. Table 4 indicates that the effects 0

of the nonlinearity and stress-dependency of the base layer in

a pavement can be substantial. 10

20

Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Analysis

S 30

An elaborate finite-element analysis should be capable of 2-

performing accurate predictions of pavement responses includ- 8 40 Boussinesq' s solution

ing deflections, stresses, and strains in the pavement. Deflec- <£l

tion profiles with humps of different magnitude, such as the ~

~ 50

6. 3-Dimensional FEM

one shown in Fig. 1, also need to be generated by the analysis 0

Q;

.0

if correct load equivalency factors are subsequently to be cal- £

60

culated. This indicates that the analysis must be capable of (1) e-

O

simulating "moving" loads at different speeds; and (2) char- 70

acterizing the viscous behavior of pavement materials. Simu- 80

lating moving loads requires three-dimensional analysis. More

complex situations, such as moving multiple loads (e.g., tan- 90

dem group simulation), also require three-dimensional analy-

sis. 100

There are several advantages in using three-dimensional fi- 0 200 400 600

nite-element analysis: (1) three-dimensional finite element Vertical stress below center (kPa)

analysis may substitute for full-scale testing; (2) the analysis FIG. 7. Streas Distribution under Center of Square Contact

may be used to form the basis for generalized comprehensive Area: Comparison of 3-D Finite-Element Solution with Bouasl-

mechanistic design procedures; and (3) the analysis may be nesq Solution

used to validate results from simpler two-dimensional analy-

ses.

6. A uniform pressure of 550 kPa is applied on a 28.4 em by

Single-Axle Single-Tire Simulation 28.4 cm square contact area. This uniform pressure is caused

by an assumed 45 kN wheel load. Because of symmetry, only

The three-dimensional finite-element computer program 1/4 of the contact area is analyzed, as indicated in Fig. 6.

NlKE3D (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) is used Using the finite-element mesh shown in Fig. 6, a prelimi-

for this analysis. The finite-element discretization of a three- nary analysis was conducted to verify the correctness of the

layer system having a 15-cm-thick AC layer, a 25-cm-thick finite-element discretization, the boundary conditions, and the

base layer, and a 65-cm-thick subbase layer is shown in Fig. applied load. In this analysis, the three layers were assigned

JOURNAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998/495

l;

l;

0.60 ~

...l

0.20 3' 0.20

Ii 0.50 U

...:

U

...:

J3

J 0.15 0.15

0.40 J3 'Cl

'Cl

i

Q

0.30

0.20

g.

f-

Oil

'"

~ 0.10 J~

Oil

0.10

."Bl; 0.10

.~

tl

0.05 .~ 0.05

> '" Q

'"

0.00 ~ 0.00 ~ 0.00

case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 &! case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4 &! case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4

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~

~

~ .:l!

0.25 0.60 60

~ ~

J3 0.20

0.50

'"'Cl 50

'Cl J3 40

~

~

0.40

~

0

..,~ 0.15

~ M 0

30

&l ~ 0.30

Oil

~

~ 0.10 Oil '"Oil

.9 .~ 0.20 ~ 20

Q tl

J:i

]'"

'"~ 0.05 0.10 '" 10

]

~

0.00 l; 0.00 l; 0

OIl >

case I case 2 case 3 case 4 > case I case 2 case 3 case 4 case 1 case 2 case 3 case 4

FIG. 8. Parameter Sensitivity Using NIKE3D

the same elastic moduli, transfonning the three-layer system TABLE 5. Loading Conditions for Group Simulation

into a simpler one-layer system. The analytical solution of the Load Group Load Tlre pressure

one-layer system, using NIKE3D, can be checked against the case configuration (kN) (kPa)

Boussinesq "close fonn" solution readily available for a uni- (1 ) (2) (3) (4)

fonn square pressure. This comparison, shown in Fig. 7, in-

Case 5 Single-axle single-tire" 45 550

dicated the accuracy of the finite-element analysis. It is also Case 6 Dual tandem" 45 550

to be noted that, for this simple configuration, the results of

the three-dimensional finite-element analysis, shown in Fig. 7, "See Fig. 9.

are nearly identical to the results of the two-dimensional finite

element analysis shown in Fig. 3. I

To investigate the effects of axle load and tire pressure on Symmetry PIlUle I

analyses were conducted, assuming the loading conditions in-

~

dicated in Table 1 and the elastic moduli of the three layers

given in Table 2.

The results of the analyses are summarized in Fig. 8. In the

figure, six different parameters were compared, namely, the

vertical displacement at the top of the AC layer, the radial

strain at the top of the AC layer, the radial strain at the bottom 28.4 em x 28.4 em

of the AC layer, the radial strain at the bottom of the base, the (a)

vertical strain at the top of the subbase, and the vertical stress

at the bottom of the base. It is noted from Fig. 8 that all the Symmetry PlltUl

parameters were sensitive to the axle load. However, only the

longitudinal strains at the top and the bottom of the AC layer ~

I

[Figs. 8(b and c)] were sensitive to tire pressure. I

Group Simulation

I

To investigate the effects of group configuration on the be- I

havior of the three-layer system shown in Fig. 6, two analyses I )iymmetry Pll1f1e

_ _ _ _ _ -l- ~_

I

Table 5 and the elastic moduli of the three layers given in I

Table 2. The first analysis involved a single-axle single-tire I

configuration, shown in Fig. 9(a), with a 45-kN load and a tire I

pressure of 550 kPa. The second analysis involved a dual tan-

dem configuration, shown in Fig. 9(b), with a 45-kN load

(11.25 kN per tire) and a tire pressure of 550 kPa. 14.2 em x 14.2 em

The finite-element mesh used for the analysis of Case 5 is

(b)

shown in Fig. 6, whereas the finite-element mesh used for the

analysis of Case 6 is shown in Fig. 10. In both cases, only FIG. 9. Single-Axle Single-Tire Configuration versus Dual-

1/4 of the geometry was analyzed, because of symmetry, as Tandem Configuration: (a) Single Tire; (b) Dual-Tandem

15-cm thick AC Layer

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z

~x

FIG. 10. Finite-Element Discretization (Three-Dimensional) for Dual-Tandem Analyses

indicated in Figs. 6,9, and 10. The analyses indicated that the r - - - .,

primary response parameters of the pavement caused by the TraveI Direction I I

,,_ ~ . . __, ., __ ..?Y.!nt!!"9 Plane

dual tandem configuration were substantially smaller than I I

vertical displacement caused by the dual tandem configuration

Dist =v(tHO) c - - - 1

was approximately 30% less than that caused by the single FIG. 11. Single-Tire Traveling at Constant Speed

tire.

Effects of Viscoelastic Behavior of AC Layer TABLE 6. Viscoelastic Material Parameters for AC Layer

Value

Papagiannakis et aI. (1992) observed the dependency of

Parameter (kPa)

measured pavement strains on vehicle speed-a clear conse-

(1 ) (2)

quence of the time-dependent behavior of the asphalt concrete

under load. They indicated that for a given axle load, strain 5.757 x 10"

2.654 x 10"

ratios decreased with increasing vehicle speed, resulting in re-

1.327 x 10"

duced load equivalency factors. 0.3

To investigate the effects of the viscoelastic behavior of the

AC layer on the behavior of the three-layer system shown in

Fig. 6, two analyses were conducted, assuming two different where p = mean effective stress; K = bulk modulus; and Ev =

vehicle speeds: 8 km/hr and 105 kmJhr. In the analyses, a volumetric elastic strain. The viscoelastic material properties

single-axle single-tire load was assumed to travel along a of the AC layer are listed in Table 6. These material parameters

straight path, as shown in Fig. 11, at a constant prescribed yield an instantaneous response of the viscoelastic layer anal-

speed, ignoring the effects of the dynamic behavior of the ogous to the elastic response of the AC layer given in Table

vehicle. The AC layer was assumed to behave in a viscoelastic 2.

manner in which the deviatoric stress rate, 'OSIj/'Ot, is given by The deformed finite-element mesh (deformation exagger-

8s u = 2

-'

'Ot

i'

0

- 'u) d'T

G(t - 'T) (8e

8t

(4)

ated 500 times for clarity) due to the moving load at three

different stages is shown in Fig. 12. It is noted from the figures

that only 1/2 of the geometry was analyzed because of sym-

where the shear relaxation modulus G(t) is defined by metry. The vertieal stress variation in an element located at

the bottom of the AC layer (under the tire travel path-the

G(t) = G R + (Ga - GR)e-~' (5) marked element in Fig. 12) is shown in Fig. 13 for vehicle

'Oe;/'Ot = deviatoric strain rate; G a = instantaneous shear mod- speeds of 8 kmJhr and 105 krnIhr. These figures illustrate the

ulus; G R = long-term shear modulus; and ~ = decay constant. increase in the vertical stress at the bottom of the AC layer as

The volumetric response of the AC layer is assumed elastic: the tire approaches the element in question, reaching its max-

imum as the tire is directly above the element, and then de-

p = -KE v (6) creasing as the tire recedes. It is to be noted that the maximum

JOURNAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING / SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 1998/497

TABLE 7. Effects of Vehicle Speed on Response Parameters

Speed!

response ez ex ey "'Imax

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

8 kmlhr 0.144 x 10-' 0.1068 X 10-' 0.108 X 10 ' 0.1266 X 10-'

105 kmlhr 0.1221 X 10-' 0.09918 X 10-3 0.1004 X 10-3 0.1114 X 10- 3

Difference 18% 8% 8% 14%

have been ignored and that the viscous parameters of the AC

layer are arbitrary. For a more elaborate analysis of the pave-

ment, the viscous parameters of the AC layer and other pave-

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Birla Institute of Technology - Pilani on 12/04/15. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

CONCLUSIONS

The primary response parameters of pavement, required in

damage prediction models, can be analytically evaluated using

the finite-element method. The finite-element method is well-

suited for pavement analyses because of its versatility. This

study illustrated the usefulness of such a method in the anal-

ysis of three-layer pavement systems subjected to different

types of loading. The method was able to simulate the ob-

served responses of pavements subjected to axle loads with

different tire pressures, axle loads with different configura-

tions, and axle loads traveling at different speeds. A variety of

material constitutive models, such as linear elastic, nonlinear

elastic, and viscoelastic, were employed in the analyses to de-

scribe the behavior of the pavement materials.

Finite-element modeling of pavements, if validated, can be

FIG. 12. Deformed Finite-Element Mesh Caused by Single Tire

extremely useful, because it can be used directly to estimate

in Motion primary response parameters without resorting to field exper-

iments, which may be costly. For validation of the analytical

160 model, the calculated primary response parameters can be

compared with the measured response parameters obtained

~ 150 from field tests like the ones described earlier. If accurate cor-

relations between the calculated and the measured primary re-

~ 140 sponse parameters can be obtained, then the analytical model

j

u can be used to calculate primary response load equivalency

-< 130 factors, utilizing deflection-based or strain-based equivalency

.!j

....0 factor methods.

EI 120

~ 110 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

"

of!

This study was sponsored by the Texas Department of Transportation,

:;; 100 Project Number 1713. The writers thank Dr. Thomas E. Owen, Director,

'"fj Institute of Research in Sciences and Engineering, University of Texas at

l:l

en 90 San Antonio, for providing helpful comments on the manuscript.

~

'2

80

"

:> APPENDIX. REFERENCES

10

0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 Bonaquist, R., Churilla, C., and Freund, D. (1989). "Effect of load, tire

pressure, and tire type on flexible pavement response." Transp. Res.

Time (Second) Rec. 1227, 97 -106.

Christison, J. T. (1986). "Vehicle weights and dimensions study." Vol.

FIG. 13. Variation of Vertical Stress In Pavement due to Single 8: Pavements response to heavy vehicle test program: I. Data summary

Tire Traveling at Different Speeds report, Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, Canada.

Christison, J. T., and Shields, B. P. (1980). "Evaluation of the relative

vertical stress at the bottom of the AC layer corresponding to damaging effects of wide base tire loads on pavements." RTAC Forum,

4(1), 65 - 71.

a vehicle speed of 8 km/hr was approximately 7% greater than Duncan, J. M., and Chang, C. Y. (1970). "Nonlinear analysis of stress

that corresponding to a vehicle speed of 105 km/hr. For the and strain in soils." J. Soil Mech. and Found. Div., ASCE, 96(5),

two speeds, the responses of the bottom of the AC layer, 1629-1651.

namely, the vertical strain, E" the longitudinal strain, Ex, the Duncan, J. M., Byrne, P. M., Wong, K. S., and Mabry, P. (1980).

transverse strain, Ey , and the maximum shear strain, 'Ymax, are "Strength, stress-strain and bulk modulus parameters for finite element

shown in Table 7. It can be noted from Table 7 that the re- analyses of stresses and movements in soil masses." Rep. No. UCB/

GT/80-0J, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.

sponse parameters caused by a vehicle speed of 105 km/hr Gorge, W. (1984). The influence of commercial vehicle development and

were substantially smaller than those caused by a vehicle design on the road fatigue. International Road Transport Union.

speed of 8 km/hr. This is consistent with the findings of Pa- Hudson, S. W., Anderson, V. L., Irick, P. E., Carmichael, R. F., and

pagiannakis et al. (1992) and others. It is to be noted, however, McCullough, B. F. (1992). "Impact of truck characteristics on pave-

ments: truck load equivalency factors." Rep. No. FHWA-RD-91-064, tors from in situ strains." Transp. Res. Rec. 1307, 82-89.

Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Roberts, F. L., Tielking, J. T., Middleton, D., Lytton, R. L., and Tseng,

Huhtala, M., Pahlajamaki, J., and Pienimaki, M. (1988). "The effect of K. (1986). "Effect of tire pressures on flexible pavements." Rep. No.

tires and tire pressures on road pavements." 67th Annu. Meeting ofthe 372-IF, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Tex.

Transp. Res. Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Sebaaly, P. E., and Tabatabaee, N. (1992). "Effect of tire parameters on

Ohta, H., and Iizuka, A. (1986). "DACSAR, Deformation Analysis Con- pavement damage and load-equivalency factors." J. Transp. Engrg.,

sidering Stress Anisotropy and Reorientation." Rep., Soil Mech. and ASCE, 118(6), 805-819.

Found. Engrg. Lab., Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Kanazawa University, Japan. Sharp, K. G., Sweatman, P. F., and Potter, D. W. (1986). "A comparative

Papagiannakis, A., Oancea, A., Ali, N., Chan, J., and Bergan, A. T. (1992). study of the effects of wide single and dual tires on rebound pavement

"Application of ASTM E1049-85 in calculating load equivalence fac- deflection." ARRB Internal Rep., AIR 1137-1.

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