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Session 2: Recap

Cross-cultural Management

Prof. Dr. Susanne Enke


Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Chair of International Management

11.05.2017
Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

1. Excursion planning

2. National culture as a driver for differences across nations

3. Literature research and academic writing

4. Presentation and presenting

5. Questions and answers about the cases

--- 2 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

1. Excursion planning

2. National culture as a driver for differences across nations

3. Literature research and academic writing

4. Presentation and presenting

5. Questions and answers about the cases

--- 3 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

1. Excursion planning

2. National culture as a driver for differences across nations

3. Literature research and academic writing

4. Presentation and presenting

5. Questions and answers about the cases

--- 4 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Knowing the destination is vital for MNCs in order to succeed on their journey

5. National culture:
What MNCs face
Country
when going abroad
3 Country
Home 2
Country
1

MS MNC

--- 5 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

National culture as a driver for differences across nations

1. The concept of national culture

2. Overview of cultural dimensions schemes

--- 6 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Learning objectives: After this session you should be able to…

What does the term “cultural construct” stand for? How do cultures
develop and which levels of cultures can be differentiated? (chapter 1)

How can national cultures be compared with each other? What types
of cultural dimension schemes are there? How can these be critically
evaluated? (chapter 2)

--- 7 ---
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

Companies care about national culture because it’s at the heart of their business

• The national culture in foreign countries determines environmental and working


conditions in foreign countries as well as the conditions for collaboration with foreign
employees at home.
• National culture is one of the main reasons why companies adjust global business
activities to different countries.
• National culture is an environmental condition that companies can barely influence.
• National culture is a key challenge for multinational companies:
 The effect of national culture on business activities is not always
visible
 The effect of national culture is often revealed only in direct
international business contacts
 Empirical studies have shown that national culture is the main
reason why international business activities fail

--- 8 ---
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

The cultural construct consists of multiple levels: From basic assumptions to


artefacts

• Basic assumptions: Unconscious, taken-for-


Artefacts
granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and
feelings (ultimate source of values and action)
Values
 “Man” and nature, time, space, rules of
interaction
Basic • Values: Strategies, philosophies; values that
assumptions reflect convictions about the nature of reality
and what should be done to successfully cope
with reality
 Ideals and goals, means (How to get there,
e.g., heroic paths, sins, virtues)
• Artefacts: Visible structures and processes
 E.g., language, buildings, fashion, and art

• The inner layers determine the outer layers of the


model
• Values are a central element of culture

--- 9 ---
SOURCE: Morschett et al. (2015).
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

Culture is a group-level phenomenon and does not describe the behavior of


individuals

Culture Culture • “Culture is a group-specific, collective


A B phenomenon of commonly shared values.
It is the collective programming of human
thought that sets the members of one
group apart from those of other groups.”
(Hofstede 2001)
• Cultural values and resulting behaviors
refer to groups
• Culture does not characterize individuals
• The means of cultural phenomena differ
μA μB across cultures

--- 10 ---
SOURCE: Following Hofstede (2001); Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

The development of culture is strongly influenced by social institutions and


imitation

Origins

Geography
(climate, topography, flora, fauna, microbiology)

History

Technology and political economy

Social institutions
Socialization

(family, religion, school, media, government, corporations)

Imitation
Peers National culture

Focus on national cultures because


forces on national level tend to lead to culturally homogeneous countries

--- 11 ---
SOURCE: Cateora et al. (2011).
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

Germany’s cultural means differ from other countries

The means of cultural phenomena differ


across cultures What is typical German?

Culture Culture
A B

μA μB

--- 12 ---
SOURCE: Engelen/Tholen (2014).
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

Survey by Stern: Honesty, Fairness and Justice are considered the most important
German values

• Respondents were asked to list the five


most important values of the German
society
• Results of the Stern survey:
1. Honesty 92/100
2. Fairness 91/100
3. Justice 89/100
4. Solidarity 84/100
5. Empathy 84/100
6. Courage 83/100

--- 13 ---
SOURCE: Stern (2005).
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

National culture focuses on the normal distribution of cultural characteristics,


whereas stereotypical thinking focuses on extremes as prejudices

National cultures are overlapping but might Stereotypical thinking stresses perceived
have different means cultural differences and extremes

How the Americans How the French see


see the French: the Americans:
• Arrogant • Naive
• Flamboyant • Aggressive
• Hierarchical • Undisciplined
• Emotional • Workaholic

French American French American


culture culture culture culture

Values Values

--- 14 ---
SOURCE: Engelen/Tholen (2014).
2.1 | The concept of national culture Cross-cultural Management

Culture exists on several levels but this class focuses on national culture

Focus of this lecture:


National culture

Global culture • National culture is only one level of culture


• Culture also exists on the global, organizational,
National culture Top-
and group levels:
down
Organizational  Global level: Development of a global culture
culture (“convergence”) because of lower
communication costs, increased travel,
Group culture expansion of the internet, etc.
 Organizational level: Companies have their own
Individual “corporate cultures.”
Bottom-  Group level: Business functions have their own
up
“thought worlds.”

--- 15 ---
SOURCE: Leung et al. (2005).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes Cross-cultural Management

Cultural dimensions can reveal differences between national cultures and make
them measurable

Trompenaars/
Hall Hofstede Hampden-Turner Schwartz GLOBE

Cultural • Context • Power distance • Universalism vs. • Embeddedness vs. • Uncertainty


dimensions orientation (and • Individualism particularism autonomy avoidance
information • Masculinity • Individualism vs. • Hierarchy vs. • Power distance
flow) • Uncertainty communitarianism egalitarianism • Collectivism
• Personal space avoidance • Neutral vs. Affective • Mastery vs. harmony (institutional and
• Time orientation • Long-term • Specific vs. diffuse in-group
orientation • Achievement vs. collectivism)
ascription • Gender
• Sequential vs. egalitarianism
synchronous • Assertiveness
• Internal control vs. • Future orientation
external control • Performance
orientation
• Humane orientation
Empirical • No empirical • Quantitative study • Less “scientific” • Initial survey of • Classifications of
research classifications from 1967-1973 approach using data teachers and national cultures
with 116,000 IBM collection in students in the early based on data
employees management 1990s in 38 collected from
worldwide seminars countries (focus on 17,000 middle
• Empirical • Survey of about the Middle East) managers in the
classifications of 40 80,000 people in • Meanwhile, empirical 1990s
countries (initially) more than 60 classifications of 49
along the identified countries countries are
cultural dimensions available

--- 16 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hall Cross-cultural Management

Hall describes major differences between cultures in their non-verbal


communication and other aspects of daily social interaction

Space orientation

I Low distance How distinctive is privacy? High distance

Context orientation in communication

II High context How explicit is the information communicated? Low context

Time orientation

III Monochronic time How are actions arranged in time? Polychronic time

--- 17 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hall Cross-cultural Management

I Hall’s dimension “space orientation” addresses attitudes towards distance


and privacy

Space orientation

• Everyone perceives personal distance zones that depend on the situation and the
relationship
• Some people are permitted and some are not in these distance zones, depending on
Description
their relationship
• Depending on the culture, intimate, personal, social, and public distance zones have
different characteristics
Low distance
• Standing close to each other
High levels • Physical contact (back-slapping, touching a person’s arm, hugging etc.)
• Few things are considered to be private
• Frequent eye contact

High distance
• No physical contact in conversations
Low levels
• Avoidance of intrusiveness (e.g., standing close enough to allow a
person to smell one’s breath)

--- 18 ---
SOURCE: Following Hall (1966).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hall Cross-cultural Management

II Hall’s second dimension describes the context orientation in


communication

Context orientation in
communication
• Cultures differ with regard to the strength of the network of relationships and the
Description intermixing of various areas of one’s life
• The resulting levels of information allowed can be implicitly or explicitly expressed

High-context cultures
• Many hidden and implicit messages
High levels • Context helps one understand the message
• Membership in the in-group enables communication without many
words

Low-context cultures
• Many clear and explicit messages
• Stronger focus on verbal communication than on non-verbal
Low levels communication
• Flexible group formation; membership is not necessary to understand
the communication

--- 19 ---
SOURCE: Following Hall (1976).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hall Cross-cultural Management

II Asian cultures tend to depend more on context, whereas Western


cultures tend to communicate explicitly and clearly

High
High
Dependence on context

...

Information flow
...
Sender Addressee
Low

Low
(German-speaking)

--- 20 ---
SOURCE: Hall (1989).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hall Cross-cultural Management

II
For example, there are 16 ways to say “no” in Japanese

• Vague “no”
• Vague and ambiguous “yes or no”
• Silence
• Counter-questions
• Tangential responses
• Leaving the room
• Lying (equivocation or making an excuse, such as sickness, previous obligation)
• Criticizing the question itself
• Refusing the question
• Conditional “no”
• “Yes, but …”
• Delaying answers (“We will write you a letter”)
• Internally “yes,” externally “no”
• Internally “no,” externally “yes”
• Apology
• The equivalent of the English “no” is primarily used in filling out forms, not in conversations.

--- 21 ---
SOURCE: Ueda (1974).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hall Cross-cultural Management

III Hall’s third dimension “Time orientation” distinguishes monochronic and


polychronic perception of time

Time Orientation

• Cultures differ with regard to the perception of time and the way to structure tasks
Description
and events

Monochronic time orientation


• Just one task at a time
High levels • Central question: When do tasks have to be completed?
• Focus on job/tasks
• High importance of speed and punctuality

Polychronic time orientation


• Many tasks are handled simultaneously.
Low levels • High potential for distraction
• Central question: What is finally accomplished?
• Focus on relationships instead of punctuality and speed

--- 22 ---
SOURCE: Following Hall (1989).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

Hofstede developed one of the most popular theories of cultural dimensions


based on a global survey of IBM employees

Approach Cultural dimensions identified

• Survey among 116,000 IBM employees • Interaction between


between 1967 and 1972 in 72 countries (and individuals:
20 languages) using standardized
 Power distance
questionnaires
 Individualism vs.
• Initial identification of 4 cultural dimensions
collectivism
based on factor analysis and correlations
• Behavior of individuals:
• Further analyses between 1990 and 2002
and identification of a fifth dimension  Masculinity vs. femininity
• The five dimensions explain a majority of the  Uncertainty avoidance
differences among countries’ cultures (the 4
 Long-term orientation
original dimensions explained up to 60% of
the IBM differences)

--- 23 ---
SOURCE: Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

Overview: Hofstede’s 5 cultural dimensions explain a majority of cultural


differences

Power distance (PDI)


I
High PDI To what extent is unequally distributed power accepted? Low PDI

Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV)


II
High IDV How strong are the ties between an individual and the group? Low IDV

Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)


III
High MAS How important are masculine values? Low MAS

Uncertainty avoidance (UAI)


IV Low UAI
High UAI To what extent are uncertainty and ambiguity tolerated?

Long-term orientation (LTO)


V Low LTO
High LTO To what extent are traditional values practiced in the long term?

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Cross-cultural Management

--- 25 ---
Cross-cultural Management

--- 26 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

I Power distance refers to the extent to which subordinate individuals


accept inequality in terms of power, prestige and prosperity

Power distance

• Power distance refers to the extent to which subordinate individuals accept inequality
Description in respect to power, prestige and prosperity. Power distance is relevant to all kinds of
social groups (e.g., families, educational institutions, companies)

High power distance


• Centralized organizations
High levels
• Strong hierarchies
• Significant differences in salary, authority, and respect

Low power distance


Low levels • Loose hierarchies
• Superiors and subordinates are widely regarded as equal

--- 27 ---
SOURCE: Following Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

I
World map of power distance

Low PDI High PDI

--- 28 ---
SOURCE: Kwintessential (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

II Hofstede’s second dimension, individualism, describes the strength of


the relationship between an individual and the group

Individualism vs.
collectivism
• Individualism describes the strength of the relationship between an individual and
Description the group, indicates whether there is predominantly a strong feeling of community or
a sense of oneself in a culture, and indicates whether individual existence is
understood as a blessing or a curse

High individualism
• Appreciation of individual freedom
High levels • Acceptance of challenges and individual rewards for performance
• Respect for privacy
• No distinction between in-groups and out-groups

High collectivism
• Importance of group membership
Low levels • Work for intrinsic rewards
• Harmony more important than open expression of opinions
• Clear distinction between in-groups and out-groups

--- 29 ---
SOURCE: Following Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

II The US culture is an example of one characterized by a high level


of individualism

“The American dream” is an expression of an


individualistic US culture

• People want to be distinguishable


• Myth: Anyone who works hard enough and
ambitiously can achieve everything he or
she wants
• A person fulfills his or her own destiny
regardless of social or ethnic background
• Foundations are individual freedom and
“the pursuit of happiness”

--- 30 ---
SOURCE: Following Adams (1931).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

III
World map of individualism

Low IDV High IDV

--- 31 ---
SOURCE: Kwintessential (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

III Hofstede’s third dimension, masculinity, describes the degree of


adherence to gender roles and masculine values in a society

Masculinity vs. femininity

Description • Masculinity addresses the degree to which cultures adhere to traditional gender roles
and the degree to which masculine values influence behavior

High masculinity
• Women and men behave according to their traditional gender roles
High levels
• Clear distinction between gender roles
• Masculine values (wealth, career) are the main determinant of behavior

High femininity
• Women can do exactly the same things as men
Low levels • Flexible gender roles
• Successful women are respected and admired
• Feminine values (health, fun) are the main determinant of behavior

--- 32 ---
SOURCE: Following Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

III
Steve Balmer is a typical representative of a masculine US culture

Steve Balmer: Microsoft’s manager as an


embodiment of masculine values

• In 1980 Steve Balmer became Microsoft’s first


manager and was Bill Gates’ successor as CEO in
2000
• Balmer is known for his extreme extroverted
appearances, such as those at corporate events.
His nicknames are “Monkeyboy” and
“Mr. Loud”
• The terms bellicose, combative, natural force,
and assertive describe Balmer as an US American
manager
• His attributes are in accordance with the
masculine US American culture, which accepts,
fosters, and admires them

--- 33 ---
SOURCE: Following Adams (1931).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

III Bhutan is an example of a culture with a focus on feminine values – Bhutan


measures the Gross National Happiness Index as the foundation for success

The Gross National Happiness Index


measures “success” in Bhutan

• Bhutan measures success as social welfare


using a Gross National Happiness Index,
rather than the GDP
• A high index shows that inhabitants of a
country are happy; the country aspires to
good physical and mental health,
education, living standards, and ecological
balance and harmonious co-existence
• Values that indicate a high degree of
femininity form the basis of the culture
• Measures include health, education, use of
time, and living standards

--- 34 ---
SOURCE: Following Adams (1931).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

III
World map of masculinity

Low MAS High MAS

--- 35 ---
SOURCE: Kwintessential (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

IV Hofstede’s fourth cultural dimension refers to the degree of


uncertainty avoidance

Uncertainty Avoidance

• All cultures are exposed to uncertainties in everyday life. Cultures differ in terms of
Description how they deal with those uncertainties. Uncertainty can be perceived as a threat that
causes stress and discomfort, but it can also be perceived as an opportunity

High uncertainty avoidance


High levels • Uncertainty is perceived as a threat
• Highly formalized business relationships
• Structure is expected in all situations

Low uncertainty avoidance


• Acceptance of change, uncertainty, and risk
Low levels
• Informality in business relationships
• Importance of long-term developments

--- 36 ---
SOURCE: Following Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

IV
World map of uncertainty avoidance

Low UAI High UAI

--- 37 ---
SOURCE: Kwintessential (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

Hofstede offers empirical classifications of about 50 national cultures along the


five cultural dimensions

Uncertainty
Power distance Individualism Masculinity avoidance
35 63 61 60
countries
Western

40 87 60 42

68 69 38 80

80 10 52 36
countries
American Asian

64 15 30 60

54 42 90 90
countries

69 32 44 72
Latin-

49 42 52 82

• Western and Asian cultures differ in particular with regard to power distance and individualism
• Empirical classifications along the masculinity and uncertainty avoidance dimensions show less
significant differences between Asian and Western cultures

--- 38 ---
SOURCE: Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

Changes in the cultural dimension power distance in the course of time within
different countries

Meta-analytic measure of power distance

1.0

0.5 • Within the highlighted countries,


power distance has decreased in
China the course of time
0 • A strong reduction within countries
that used to be high power distant
USA countries (i.e. China, France) leads
-0.5 to a cultural adjustment between
France the countries
Germany
-1.0
1970-80 1990 2000

--- 39 ---
SOURCE: Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

Changes in the cultural dimension power distance in the course of time within
different countries

Meta-analytic measure of individualism

1.0

France
• There has been a cultural
0.5 Germany adjustment regarding individualism
USA
between the USA and China, with
an increase in individualism in
0 China and a decrease in the level in
China
the USA
• The levels of individualism in
-0.5 Germany and France have slightly
increased
-1.0
1970-80 1990 2000

--- 40 ---
SOURCE: Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

Changes in the cultural dimension power distance in the course of time within
different countries

Meta-analytic measure of masculinity

1.0

• The levels of masculinity have


0.5 harmonized for all countries except
France
for France in the course of time
USA • For previously rather masculine
0
Germany countries, the levels of masculinity
China
have decreased; whereas the
-0.5
opposite is true for previously
rather feminine countries

-1.0
1970-80 1990 2000

--- 41 ---
SOURCE: Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Hofstede Cross-cultural Management

Changes in the cultural dimension power distance in the course of time within
different countries

Meta-analytic measure of uncertainty avoidance

1.5

1.0 • In the course of time, uncertainty


France
avoidance has decreased
not available
• A strong reduction within countries
0.5
that used to be high uncertainty
avoidant countries (i.e. China,
China Germany) leads to a cultural
0
adjustment between the countries
USA
Germany
-0.5
1970-80 1990 2000

--- 42 ---
SOURCE: Hofstede (2001).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s cultural dimensions describe three areas of
life: Relationships with people and attitudes toward time and the environment

Relationships with people

I-a Universalism What is more important: rules or relationships? Particularism

I-b Individualism To what degree are individuals integrated into their groups? Communitarianism

I-c Neutral To what degree are emotions expressed openly? Affective

I-d Specific To what degree are the areas of life interwoven? Diffuse

I-e Achieved status Is status inherent or achieved? Ascribed status

Attitudes towards time

II Sequential time Are activities organized sequentially or synchronically? Synchronous time

Attitudes towards the environment

III Internal control Is the environment controllable? External control

--- 43 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner Cross-cultural Management

Case 1

What would you do?

Description • You are riding in car driven by a close friend. He hits a pedestrian.
• You know he was going at least 50 km per hour in an area of the city
where the maximum allowed speed is 30 km per hour. There are no
witnesses.
• His lawyer says that if you testify under oath that he was only driving 30
km per hour it may save him from serious consequences.

Question
• What right has your friend to expect you to protect him?
• What do you think you would do in view of the obligation of a sworn
witness and the obligations to your friend?

--- 44 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner Cross-cultural Management

Case 2

What would you do?

Description
• You have just come from a secret meeting of the board of directors of a
company.
• You have a close friend who will be ruined unless she can get out of the
market before the board’s decision becomes known.
• You happen to be having dinner at the friend’s home this evening.

Question
• What right does your friend have to expect you to tip her off?
• Would you tip her off in view of your obligations to the company and your
obligation to your friend?

--- 45 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
I-a Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s first dimension describes the degree
to which people’s relationship with others focus on rules

Universalism vs.
Particularism
• Universalists tend to judge the behavior of members of a society in an abstract way
and on the basis of general rules that apply to everyone.
Description • Particularists view situations in light of personal relationships such that, regardless
of rules, it is important to help, support, and protect people with whom one has
relationships.
Universalism
• Focus is on rules rather than on relationships
High levels • Legal contracts are readily drawn up
• A trustworthy person is one who honors his or her word or contract
• There is only one truth or reality: that which has been agreed to
• “A deal is a deal.”
Particularism
• Focus is on relationships rather than on rules
Low levels • Legal contracts are readily modified
• There are several perspectives on reality relative to each participant
• Relationships evolve continuously

--- 46 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
I-a Exemplary classification of national cultures on the “universalism vs.
particularism” dimension

Percentage of respondents who would not write a false review


(selected countries)
Would you write a false review?
Serbia 24
Poland 43
South Korea 45
Russia 47
• You are a newspaper journalist India 48
who writes a weekly review of Czech Republic 49
new restaurants China 50
Indonesia 54
• A close friend has sunk all her Japan 55
savings into a new restaurant UK 58
Netherlands 61
• You have eaten there, and you Germany 61
really think the restaurant is not France 63
USA 66
that good
Italy 66
Romania 68
Australia 69
Canada 69
Switzerland 71
Finland 75

0 20 40 60 80 100

--- 47 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner

Case 3

What would you do?

Description • Two people were discussing ways in which individuals could improve the
quality of life.
• A: One said: “It is obvious that if individuals have as much freedom as
possible and the maximum opportunity to develop themselves, the
quality of their life will improve as a result.”
• B: The other said: “If individuals are continuously taking care of their
fellow human beings the quality of life will improve for everyone,
even if it obstructs individual freedom and individual development.”

Question • Which of the two suggestions is better?

--- 48 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
I-b Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s second dimension describes whether
people regard themselves primarily as individuals or as part of a group

Individualism vs.
Communitarianism
• In individualistic cultures, individuals primarily strive to identify and satisfy their own
needs by connecting with other people
Description
• Individuals in communitarian cultures strive to maximize the well-being of the group,
so they put their personal interests behind those of the group

Individualism
• Frequent use of the singular personal pronoun (I, me, mine)
High levels
• Decisions are made on the spot by representatives of the organization
• Individuals strive for personal achievement

Communitarianism

Low levels • Frequent use of the plural personal pronoun (we, us, our)
• Decisions are referred back to the organization by a delegate
• Group achievements are valued above personal achievements

--- 49 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner

Case 4

What would you do?

Description • How would you behave if you felt upset about something at work? Would
you express your feelings openly.
• A: “I would express my feelings openly.”
• B: “I would not express my feelings openly.”

--- 50 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
I-c Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s third dimension addresses the degree
to which feelings are expressed

Neutral vs. Affective


• People in affective cultures show their emotions without inhibition: they laugh, cry,
shout, make faces, and gesticulate
Description • They need to express emotions externally to relax. People in neutral cultures do not
reveal their thoughts and feelings, which means only that they do not show their
emotions in public, not that they have no emotions or fewer emotions than others

Neutral
• People do not reveal what they are true thinking or feeling
High levels • Cool and self-possessed conduct is admired
• Physical contact and exuberant gestures are avoided
• Preference for monotone, unemotional statements

Affective
• People reveal thoughts and feelings verbally and non-verbally
• Appreciation of transparency to release tension
Low levels
• Emotions flow without inhibition
• Acceptance of physical contact and strong facial expressions
• Preference for emotional and even exaggerated statements

--- 51 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner

Case 5 (1/2)

What would you do?

Description • A boss asks a subordinate to help him paint his house. The subordinate,
who doesn’t feel like doing it, discusses the situation with a colleague.
• A: The colleague argues: “You don’t have to paint if you don’t feel like
it. He is your boss at work. Outside he has little authority.”
• B: The subordinate argues: “Despite the fact that I don’t feel like it, I
will paint it. He is my boss and you can’t ignore that outside work
either.”

--- 52 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner Cross-cultural Management

I-d “To paint the house of the boss” as an obligation in diffuse cultures but not
in specific cultures

Agreement that one must “paint the house of


the boss” is a sign of diffuse cultures

• Classification of countries in this


dimension is, among other things, carried
out with the help of the question: “Is the
employee bound to paint the house of his
boss?”
• Diffuse cultures answer “yes”
• Specific cultures answer “no“
• Managers in intercultural specific-vs.-
diffuse teams should focus on adequate
communication to maintain motivation

--- 53 ---
SOURCE: Engelen/Tholen (2014).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner Cross-cultural Management

Case 5 (2/2)

What would you do?

Description • Taking care of housing


• A: Some people think a company is usually responsible for the housing
of its employees. Therefore, a company has to assist an employee in
finding housing.
• B: Other people think the responsibility for housing should be carried
by the employee alone. It is so much to the good if the company
helps.

--- 54 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner Cross-cultural Management

I-d Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s fourth dimension describes the


contrast between specific and diffuse cultures

Specific vs. Diffuse

• In specific cultures, areas of life like the job, the family, sports, and hobbies are kept
separate from one another, so relationships from one area of life are not transferred
Description to other areas
• In diffuse cultures, there is no such separation; all areas of life and the relationships in
them are closely interwoven, and there is no distinction between private and public

Specific
• Preference for getting straight to the point
High levels • Importance of transparency and precision
• Principles and consistent morality are independent of the person being
addressed

Diffuse
• Indirect communication in dealing with problems
Low levels
• Acceptance of ambiguity in many situations
• Morality is highly situational and depends on the person

--- 55 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
I-e Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner’s fifth dimension addresses the question
whether status is accorded by a person’s background or achievements

Achieved status vs.


ascribed status
• In societies where status is legitimated by background, factors like family background,
education, age, gender, social relationships, and the current job play an important role
Description in deciding whether an individual deserves respect
• In cultures where status is legitimated by achievement, social attributes are not
considered; only current achievements determine respect and acknowledgment
Achieved status
• Moderate use of titles
High levels • Respect for superiors in the corporate hierarchy is based on their
expertise and effectiveness
• Top management teams are not necessarily staffed with the oldest
employees
Ascribed status
• Extensive use of titles, especially to clarify a person’s status within an
Low levels organization
• Respect for superiors in the hierarchy is seen as a measure of one’s
commitment to the organization
• University degrees are important

--- 56 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
I-e The system of the “Grande Écoles” (GE) is an example of France’s ascription-
oriented culture

The “Grand Écoles”: France‘s elite


educational institutions

• Key positions in administration, the


sciences, and the economy are given to
graduates of the elite GEs
• Students are selected via a tough entrance
examination; other students have to go to
universités (derided as mass production)
• Since De Gaulle, just 2 French presidents
have not come from a GE
• The importance of GEs in France is
consistent with its ascription-oriented
culture, in which background is a sign of
potential

--- 57 ---
SOURCE: Engelen/Tholen (2014).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
II Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s sixth dimension addresses the
question concerning how people manage time

Sequential time vs.


synchronous time
• Being Synchronic refers to carrying out several activities at a time. Appointments are
viewed as flexible and can easily be adapted to special circumstances. Being Sequential
Description describes the tendency to carry out activities sequentially
• Tasks are carried out one after another and schedules are kept in order to meet all
deadlines

Sequential time
• People engage in one activity at a time
• Appreciation of punctuality and detailed, planned activities
High levels
• Relationships are usually subordinate to schedules
• There is a strong preference for following initial plans
• Time is measurable

Synchronous time
• People engage in more than one activity at a time
High levels • Appointments seen as flexible and easily adaptable to special circumstances
• Schedules are usually subordinate to relationships
• Strong preference for following where relationships, not plans, lead

--- 58 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner Cross-cultural Management

Case 6

What would you do?

Description • Be architect of one’s own future


• A: What happens to me is my own doing
• B: Sometimes I feel that I do not have enough control over the
directions my life is taking

--- 59 ---
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
III Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner’s seventh dimension addresses the
question whether nature controls people or people control nature

Internal control vs.


external control
• People in cultures that assume internal control believe that nature and the
environment can be controlled by means of one’s own capabilities
Description
• In cultures that assume external control, nature and the environment are accepted as
given and not controllable

Internal control
• Conflict and opposition are interpreted as positive conviction
High levels • Focus is on the effective functioning of the self, one’s own group, and
one’s own organization
• People are uncomfortable when the environment seems out of control

External control
• Harmony and responsiveness are central values
Low levels
• Focus is on others, such as customers, partners, and suppliers
• Cycles (like economic development) are accepted as given and natural

--- 60 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
III Spirit houses are an expression of the high degree of external control in the
Thai culture

The Thai people assume little ability to


control the environment

• For Thai people ghosts belong to everyday


life; they live in trees, caves, or even on the
premises
• Land owners give the spirits small houses
and an offering table to prevent harm and
death
• The small houses can be found in nearly
every private house, in shopping malls, at
car dealerships, etc. and are supposed to
protect the residents
• The spirit houses represent the high
degree of external control in the Thai
culture

--- 61 ---
SOURCE: Engelen/Tholen (2014).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
Ethnic diversity in a country can cause significant differences in ethnic groups’
cultural dimensions (1/2)

Universalism vs. particularism Individualism vs. communitarianism

Percentage of respondents opting for a Percentage of respondents who prefer


universalist system over a particular social group individualistic values to collectivist values (in the
(in the USA) USA)

Hispanic 70
Native American 41

Asian/Pacific Islander 71
43
Asian/Pacific Islander

Black 88
Black 51

Native American 92 White/Caucasian 55

White/Caucasian 92 Hispanic 63

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

--- 62 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Trompenaars/Hampden- Cross-cultural Management

Turner
Ethnic diversity in a country can cause significant differences in ethnic groups’
cultural dimensions (2/2)

Specific vs. diffuse Internal vs. external control

Percentage of respondents who would not paint Percentage of respondents who believe that
their bosses’ houses (in the USA) success is a result of hard work (in the USA)

Hispanic 17
Asian/Pacific Islander 33

Native American 43
Black 50

White/Caucasian 51
Native American 53

Black 67 White/Caucasian 68

Asian/Pacific Islander 83 Hispanic 69

0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100

--- 63 ---
SOURCE: Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner (2012).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- Schwartz Cross-cultural Management

The psychologist Schwartz identified six cultural dimensions which characterize


three main areas

Approach Cultural dimensions identified


Cultural
• Identification of 56 Areas dimension Central values
“universal” values Relationship Embeddedness Acceptance of existing
across nations; between individual groups
Aggregation of the 56 and group
Autonomy1 Independence of
values to six cultural
individuals of their group
dimensions
Support of Hierarchy Acceptance of unequal
• Initial survey in the early responsible distribution of power
1990s studied teacher behavior within a
and students from 31 Egalitarianism Pursuit of welfare for all
group
countries (in particular individuals
middle east) Relationship Mastery Possibility of influence
• Today, you can have between natural through determination
access to empirical and social world
Harmony Acceptance of the world
classifications of 49 in status-quo
nations
1 Schwartz introduces two additional subcategories: Intellectual and affective autonomy.

--- 64 ---
SOURCE: Engelen/Tholen (2014).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes- GLOBE Cross-cultural Management

GLOBE study: Recent research project to study cultural dimensions and cultural
differences between nations

Study framework Additional cultural dimensions at GLOBE study


• Global Leadership and 1. In-group collectivism: degree to which individuals express pride,
Organizational loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families
Behaviour Effectiveness 2. Gender egalitarianism: degree to which an organization or a
(GLOBE) is a large scale, society minimizes gender role differences while promoting
empirical research gender equality .
project within which
160 scientists around 3. Assertiveness: degree to which individuals in organizations or
the word are involved societies are assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in social
relationships.
• GLOBE introduces nine
cultural dimensions 4. Future orientation: degree to which individuals in organizations
based on a survey of or societies engage in future-oriented behaviors such as
17,000 managers planning, investing in the future, and delaying individual or
collective gratification.
• The first three
dimensions correspond 5. Performance orientation: degree to which an organization or
to Hofstede’s (2001) society encourages and rewards group members for performance
dimensions: uncertainty improvement and excellence.
avoidance, power 6. Humane orientation: degree to which individuals in organizations
distance, and or societies encourage and reward individuals for being fair,
collectivism altruistic, friendly, generous, caring, and kind to others.

--- 65 ---
SOURCE: House et al. (2004).
2.2 | Overview of cultural dimensions schemes Cross-cultural Management

The theories of cultural dimensions attract criticism for several reasons

Trompenaars/
Hampden-
Problem area Problem description Hall Hofstede Turner Schwartz GLOBE
Level of Equation of geographical
cultural borders of countries and X X X X X
analysis cultures
Theoretical No rationale for the
foundation choice of cultural
X X
dimensions provided
prior to the survey
Sample Survey restricted to a
Not
represent- certain subgroup in each X
surveyed
tation country
Ethnocentrism Bias because of the
researcher’s cultural X X X
background
Date of Surveys are outdated Not
X
measurement surveyed

X = Problem is fully relevant; = Problem is partially relevant.

--- 66 ---
SOURCE: Engelen/Tholen (2014).
2.3 | Cultures of student countries Cross-cultural Management

Similar patterns in cultural dimensions can be observed in regional clusters

Individualism vs. Masculinity vs.


Power Distance Collectivism Feminitiy Uncertainty Avoidance

BGR 70 16 42 87
Eastern Europe

POL 68 30 69 82
RUS 93 38 49 76
SRB 86 37 45 85
UKR 92 35 52 60
FR 68 46 53 68
Western
Europe

ITA 50 20 40 30
ESP 57 18 39 85
DEU 35 30 40 40
JPN 54 46 95 92
NPL 65 67 66 65
Asia

KOR 60 51 42 86
VNM 70 76 70 75
MAR 70 71 43 86
SYR 80 25 27 95
66
Other

TUR 25 43 92
BRA 69 39 36 95
MEX 81 60 64 93
PER 64 30 40 85
Scale from 0 to 100

--- 67 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Key learnings

The concept of national culture (chapter 1)


 Culture characterizes values that impact the behavior of
individuals
 Forces on the national level lead to culturally homogenous
countries
 Cultures exist on the global, organizational, and functional
levels

Cultural dimensions as a measure of differences between


national cultures (chapter 2)
 Five central theories of cultural dimensions (Hall, Hofstede,
Trompenaars/Hampden-Turner, Schwartz, and GLOBE)
 Significant differences in assumptions, approach, and
empirical analysis among the five theories and their
application in practice

--- 68 ---
Cross-cultural Management

References (1/2)

Adams, J. T. (1931), The epic of America, Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Cateora, P. R./Gilly, M. C./Graham, J. L. (2011), International marketing, 15th edition, New York: McGraw-
Hill/Irwin.

Engelen, A./Tholen, E. (2014), Interkulturelles Management, Stuttgart: Schäffer-Poeschel.

Hall, E. T. (1989), The dance of life: The other dimension of time, New York: Anchor Books.

Hall, E. T. (1976), Beyond culture, New York: Anchor Books.

Hall, E. T. (1966), The hidden dimension, New York: Doubleday.

Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and


organizations across nations, 2nd edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

House, R.J./Hanges, P.J./Javidan, M./Dorfman, P.W./Gupta, V. (2004), Culture, leadership, and


organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kwintessential (2012), Hofstede’s intercultural dimensions [Online], Available:


http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/intercultural/dimensions.html.

--- 69 ---
Cross-cultural Management

References (2/2)

Leung, K./Bhagat, R. S./Buchan, N. R./Erez, M./Gibson, C. B. (2005), Culture and international business:
Recent advances and their implications for future research, Journal of International Business Studies
36(4), 357-378.

Morschett, D./Schramm-Klein, H./Zentes, J. (2015), Strategic international management, 3rd edition,


Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.

Stern (2005), stern-Umfrage: Ehrlichkeit, Fairness und Gerechtigkeit sind wichtigste Werte der Deutschen
- Überwiegende Mehrheit ist überzeugt, dass Werte im Leben weiterhelfen [Online], Available:
http://www.presseportal.de/pm/6329/746987.

Trompenaars, F./Hampden-Turner, C. (2012), Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in


global business, 3rd edition, London: Nicholas Brealey Publications.

Ueda, K. (1974), Sixteen ways to avoid saying “no” in Japan, in Condon, J. C./Saito, M. (eds.), Intercultural
encounters with Japan, Tokyo: Simul Press,185-192.

--- 70 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

1. Excursion planning

2. National culture as a driver for differences across nations

3. Literature research and academic writing

4. Presentation and presenting

5. Questions and answers about the cases

--- 71 ---
Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

Writing

a) Searching for literature

b) Structure

c) Formatting

--- 72 ---
3.a) Searching for literature Cross-cultural Management

Different types of literature can be used for different steps in the research process

• Different sources: Academic textbooks, monographies, edited volumes, scientific


textbooks, articles etc.
• Academic textbooks are useful for the first steps in your literature search and for
introducing the basic definitions, frameworks etc.
• To express basic knowledge, it is essential to work with scientific textbooks
• To give an overview of current trends and discussions in the respective field of study, it
is mandatory to conduct a journal article search

--- 73 ---
3.a) Searching for literature Cross-cultural Management

There are sources that are not suitable for an academic paper – be very careful
with internet sources for they are often not reliable

Websites without clear labeling of the originator/company


• Information on the internet can easily be shifted, deleted, or changed so that in some
cases evaluating the information can be difficult. Everybody can upload information on
the internet
• Be careful with data from private homepages and websites with insufficient site notices
 Always check who the creator of the content really is (e.g., by checking the person’s
CV or searching further information by using search engines)
• Never quote Wikipedia
 Everybody can upload something on Wikipedia
 Can only be used as a first glimpse of the topic
Others:
• Unpublished seminar papers, bachelor or master theses
• Magazines such as Cosmopolitan, Men’s Health, GQ, etc.
• Lecture material, e.g. slides

--- 74 ---
3.a) Searching for literature Cross-cultural Management

You can find relevant literature of any kind on online databases, in our library as
well as on the library‘s website

• Journal articles and textbooks


 Optimal online access: At the computer lab (URZ) on the OvGU campus and when
connected via the university’s WiFi
 (Selected) databanks:
 Library  https://www.ub.ovgu.de/
 Scopus  http://www.scopus.com/
 EBSCOhost  https://www.ebscohost.com/
 Science Direct  http://www.sciencedirect.com./
 Google Scholar  https://scholar.google.de/
 Elektronische Zeitschriftenbank  http://rzblx1.uni-
regensburg.de/ezeit/fl.phtml?bibid=UBMD&colors=7&lang=de
 Springerlink  http://link.springer.com/search?facet-content-type=%22Book%22&from=SL

• In case you do not find what you are looking for or if you do not have access to specific
contents, our library is always worth a visit

--- 75 ---
3.a) Searching for literature Cross-cultural Management

General remarks on literature quality

• Publication:
 The source needs to be published ( seminar paper, master or bachelor theses
cannot be cited!)
• Originality:
 Always cite the primary not the secondary source!
• Actuality:
 Cite the most recent edition of a book
• Rankings:
 Check the JOURQUAL-ratings, try to cite high-rated journals
• Author and Publisher:
 The publisher may give a hint on whether the source is of high quality or not (e.g.
Springer Verlag or Oxford University Press)
 Concerning the author: reputation or known for his/her expertise in the respective
field may indicate quality

--- 76 ---
3.a) Searching for literature Cross-cultural Management

The VHB-JOURQUAL 3 rating is relevant to business research and an indicator for


the quality assessment of journal articles

• A+ to B rated journals
are recommended
• C is still good but try
not to go below C

• Links:
Management:
http://vhbonline.org/vhb4you/jourqual
/vhb-jourqual-3/teilrating-abwl/

International Management:
http://vhbonline.org/vhb4you/jourqual
/vhb-jourqual-3/teilrating-int/

Marketing:
http://vhbonline.org/vhb4you/jourqual
/vhb-jourqual-3/teilrating-mark/

Entrepreneurship:
http://vhbonline.org/vhb4you/jourqual
/vhb-jourqual-3/teilrating-int/

--- 77 ---
3.a) Searching for literature Cross-cultural Management

Not enough sources yet? Do a backward and forward search (snowball principle)

• Backward search: check the reference list of the journal article or book that the author
for articles that may be relevant to your topic
Author A (1975)

Author B (2005) Author XY (2014)

Author C (2012)

• Forward search: check the authors who have cited the journal article or book you have at
hand  you might find even more recent studies with relevance to your topic

Author A (1975) Author A (2015)

Author B (2005) Author XY (2014) Author B (2016)

Author C (2012) Author C (2017)

--- 78 ---
3.a) Searching for literature Cross-cultural Management

The quantity of possible or required sources depends on the topic and research
question

• There is no right answer to the question how many sources should be used
• Besides relevancy to the topic and research question it depends on availability of
literature in the respective field of research
• The number of sources should relate to the scope of the paper/thesis:
Rule of thumb:
 Seminar paper ≥ 20 sources
 Bachelor thesis ≥ 30 sources
 Master thesis ≥ 40 sources
• A good paper is not about having as many names and uncommented thoughts of
someone else as possible in your references (i.e., “name dropping”)  it’s the quality
that’s crucial!
• If in doubt and especially if the literature basis is too thin and incomplete you should
always contact your supervisor

--- 79 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Things you should do while searching for literature

During literature research Besides searching for literature

• Starting with the first day of your • Note every idea about the research
literature search: highlight relevant topic that comes to your mind down
text passages in a way that you can
easily find them again in case you • Talk to your fellow students, friends,
want to refer to them in your paper and family members about your topic
and get fresh ideas
• Take structured notes of the
references and list them right from the • Develop and/or use a system in which
beginning you can easily collect and organize
the literature you gathered so that
• Keep track of your literature - you can find everything when you
especially when you have many need it
sources - using MS Excel or the
reference management program Citavi • If you conduct your literature search
 free download via: together with your fellow students,
http://www.urz.ovgu.de/Unsere+Leist use shared folders (e.g., Dropbox,
ungen/Anwendungen/Campuslizenzen Facebook, Google Docs)
/Citavi.html

--- 80 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

There needs to be a clear line of argumentation throughout your paper

General structure of a research paper

• Cover page
• Table of Contents (where applicable: List of Abbreviations, List of Figures, List of Tables)
• Introduction
• Main Body
• Conclusion and outlook
• List of References
• Appendix (if necessary)
• Declaration of Authorship

--- 81 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Cover page

• Name of the university


• Information on the respective faculty, e.g., Faculty of Economics and Management
• Information on the respective chair/ department, e.g., Chair of International Management
• Topic and type (e.g., seminar paper, bachelor or master thesis) of the scientific work
• Optional for seminar paper: the name of the course including semester
• Name and title of the auditor, e.g. Prof. Dr. Susanne Enke,
• Student information:
₋ Name, address, email, matriculation number, study program, number of semesters
studied
• Date of submission

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 82 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Cover page (example)

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 83 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Table of Contents

• The structure reveals preliminary information and shapes a logical structure (“guiding thread“)
of the work  focus of each chapter should be clear!
• Chapter titles should be short and firm (little use of expletives, dominance of substantives)

 Avoidance of new or unknown abbreviations, formula or symbols within headings

• Logical relations  Focus on conciseness and flow of information


• Consistency: At least two subtopics per section, e.g. 2.1, 2.2 or 3.3.1, 3.3.2

• Level of detail within the structure:

 A minimum of one page per section (subchapter)

 Three levels of detail are mostly adequate and enough ( better are two levels!)

• Proportion of the sections  theory and result section should be of equal size (depends on type
of research)

• Headings within text and Table of Contents are to be conform (suggestion: automatical Table of
Contents provided by Word)
Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 84 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Table of Contents (example)

Table of Contents
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………………………………………. III
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. IV
1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
2 Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
2.1 Process Management………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
2.1.1 Implementation of Process Management……………………………………………………………. 4
2.1.2 Types of Processes……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.2 Corporate Culture………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.2.1 Components and Development of Corporate Culture…………………………………………….. 11
2.2.2 Effects of Corporate Culture on Organization and Employees………………………………….. 14
3 The Impact of Implementing Process Management on Corporate Culture……………………………… 16
3.1 Challenges and Opportunities for the Company………………………………………………………… 21
3.2 Challenges and Opportunities for the Employees……………………………………………………….. 25
4 Discussion and Outlook ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
List of References………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 85 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

List of Abbreviations

• Frequently used long words can be substituted by abbreviation (e.g. “PD” for “Power
Distance”)
• Consistency in usage: one word = one abbreviation
• With the first occurrence of the word follows the explanation: „Power distance (PD) is one
out of six cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede (2001) and can be defined as […].“
• In the case of more than three abbreviations, a list of abbreviations becomes obligatory.
• The abbreviations are listed in alphabetical order
• Common abbreviations (e.g „e.g.“, „i.e.“) do not have to be mentioned within a list of
abbreviations
• Official abbreviations (e.g. OECD) are to be left unchanged
• Suggestion: continuous entry of each new abbreviation

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 86 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

List of Abbreviations (example)

List of Abbreviations

B2B Business to Business

CEO Chief Executive Office

CPC Cost per click

CTR Click-through rate

EU European Union

IDV Individualism

SEA Search engine advertising

SEO Search engine optimization

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 87 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

List of Figures/ List of Figures

• Figures and tables condense information and bring a clear shape


• Figures and tables should be chosen wisely since space is limited and both figures and
tables are included in the page count
• They are consecutively titled and numbered (e.g. Figure 1: title XY) including a source
within the text that is mentioned near the respective text passage
• Figures and tables have to be explained sufficiently
• If the scientific work contains more than three figures/tables, an appendix, including all
figures/tables in alphabetical order and under indication of their page number, is
obligatory
• When referring to a table or figure in your text the first letter should be capitalized (e.g.,
“As seen in Table 1 …”; “As illustrated in Figure 3 …”)

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 88 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

List of tables / List of figures (examples)

List of Figures
Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs…………… 4
Figure 2: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory…………. 11
Figure 3: Process of Motivation…………………….. 21
Figure A1: Research model………………………….. 38

Figures and tables in the


List of Tables appendix have to be
labelled with an A in front
Table 1: Definitions of Motivation…………………. 3
of their number
Table 2: Overview of research studies………….... 7
Table A1: Overview of measurement items……… 39
Table A2: Regression analysis results……………. 42

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 89 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Introduction

Purpose of an introduction You should not miss

• Spark interest • What do we know? (state-of-the-art)


• Lead to the topic • What don’t we know and why is it
important to know? (research gap and
• Point out relevance of the topic why it is important to close it)
• Distinguish own work/ research • How do you close the research gap
question from peer work with your paper?
• Inform about the structure of the • What is the contribution of your
paper (what happens in the next paper?
chapters?)
• Don’t state results or findings of your
• Inform about the goal of the paper paper in the introduction or any
definitions

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

--- 90 ---
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Theoretical background and definitions

• Definitions of constructs, models, theories, and terms that are used in the course of this
paper
• Results of the literature review
• Content is descriptive since it is just stating current literature – discussion with regard to
the current state of research
• Definitions have to be clear, if there are several definitions for one term decide for one
and stick to it throughout the paper

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Main Body

• Heart of your paper


• The following questions have to be answered:
 What are the consequences that I can draw from the literature review with regard to
answering the research question?
 Which hypotheses can be derived?
 Which method should be chosen? How was my search/empirical work conducted?
• The quality of your paper is mainly determined by how you use the statements/
arguments from literature:
 Are you simply stating the arguments or are you discussing them?
 Do you describe what others found or are you critically assessing their findings?
 Do you formulate bold statements or are they also backed up by literature?

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Conclusion

• Very important part of your paper  don’t neglect it!


• What was the objective/ research question at the beginning of the scientific?
 Restate the research question and show your central findings: Answer the research
question
• What answers are given to the research question?
 State the results of the scientific work presented in short form
• Which implications/ consequences emerge from research and how might they be relevant
for further research and (companies-)management
 State the impact on theory and practice that your findings have
• Formulate the limitations of your study and possible avenues for future research

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

List of References

• All sources mentioned in the text have to be stated in the List of References!
• Use Citavi for managing your sources
• Use the formatting guidelines of the chair you write your research paper at (e.g., Chair of
International Management: http://www.im.ovgu.de/im/en/)

To plagiarize means…“[…] to present as new and original an idea or product derived from
an existing source.” (Colquitt, 2012: p. 749)
 Any research paper that includes plagiarism will be graded with 5.0 and hence fail

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Appendix

• Is not meant to be an extension of the text


• Not supposed to be a trash bin
• Contains attachments that are not necessarily important to clarify the written content:
 Tables
 Graphs
 Sizeable example calculations
 Evidence
 Guideline for interviews
 Questionnaires
 Transcripts
• The attachments (e.g., figures, tables) in the appendix have to be labelled with an A

Cover page Table of Contents Lists of A., F. & T Introduction Main Body Conclusion References Appendix

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

General formatting guidelines (Chair of International Management) (1/2)

Layout/ Formatting
• Font: A proportional font (e.g., Times New Roman)
• Font size: 12 pt
• Line spacing: distance of 1.5 spacing (18pt)
• The text must be formatted using hyphenation justification
• The text must be formatted using full justification
• New paragraphs start on a new line and are intended (no blank line between paragraphs)
• New titles must be written with larger line spacing proportionate to their classification
level in the Table of Contents
• Margins:
- Left margin: 3 cm
- Right margin: 2.5 cm
- Top and bottom margin: 2.5 cm

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

General formatting guidelines (Chair of International Management) (2/2)

Page numbering (should be centered at the bottom of each page)

• Cover page (without page number)


• Table of Contents II.
• List of Abbreviations III.
Only recommended in the case of
• List of Figures IV. many abbreviations or more than
three figures or tables
• List of Tables V.
• Introduction (Arabic page numbers from here on)
• Main body
• Conclusion
• List of References
• Appendix
• Declaration of Authorship (without page number)

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Citation guidelines (general)

• All statements and data that are retrieved from other sources have to be indicated
appropriately!
• The formatting is used following the rules by Academy of Management Journal Style
Guides
 The source in brackets must be added to its corresponding position in the text (i.e.,
in-text citation  ) and not in footnotes:
The authors identify an effect size of 0.2 … (Jacoby et al., 1974a: 15).
• Check the guidelines on our website http://www.im.ovgu.de/im/en/

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Citation guidelines (direct quotation)

Direct quotation (copying someone else’s words)


• For direct quotations, you may use sources both in German and English language (do not
translate!)
• The reference is provided together with the page number(s) after the direct quotation
indicated by quotation marks:
“...” (Smith, 2001: 115).
• If parts of the direct quotation are excluded, those parts will be indicated with square
brackets covering three full stops:
“... by which attitudes […] are affected…” (Smith, 2001: 115).
• Direct quotations should be used carefully!
• They are most likely used for providing important definitions and particularly striking or
brilliant formulations
• Each direct quotation should be explained and integrated in the line of argumentation.

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Citation guidelines (direct quotation)

Indirect quotation (paraphrase of someone else’s words)

• Overall finding or argumentation  page numbers will not be indicated


However, it would be naive to believe that, similar to how Packard (1966) tried to
persuade in his book “The Hidden Persuaders”, marketing gives the society a silver bullet.
• Concrete passages from the source  page number needs to be indicated.
The authors identify an effect size of 0.2 … (Jacoby et al., 1974a: 15).
 Two authors: When using a source written by 2 authors, both authors have to be
mentioned always
Pearce and Robinson (2010) indicate…
 Three or more authors: When citing a source from ≥ 3 authors it is obligatory to cite all
within the first entry
 First (indirect) citation: (Greenhaus, Callanan, & Godshalk, 2010)
 All Following (indirect) citations: (Greenhaus et al., 2010)

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Illustration of figures within the text (example)

• The title and source are placed below the figure


• The figure must be referred to in the text (e.g., “Figure 1 illustrates the sales…”)

100
80
60 East

40 West

20 North

0
1. Quarter 2. Quarter 3. Quarter 4. Quarter

Figure 1: Sales per Quarter (McFigure, 2011: 99)

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Illustration of tables within the text (example)

• The title and source are placed above the table


• The table must be referred to in the text (e.g., “Table 1 illustrates the sales…”)

Table 1: Development of Sales (McTable, 2011: 312)

1. Quarter 2. Quarter 3. Quarter 4. Quarter

East 20.4 27.4 30.9 20.4

West 30.6 38.6 34.6 31.6

North 45.9 46.9 45.0 43.9

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Indication of sources within the List of References/ Bibliography (1/2)

• Sources have to be listed in alphabetical order (surname of the first author)


• Formatting is made according to the rules of Academy of Management Journal Style
Guides
• In case of identical authorship, the order is determined by the year of publication (oldest
first):
Hall, D. T. 1976. Careers in organizations. Santa Monica: Goodyear Publishing
Company, Inc.
Hall, D. T. 1996. Protean careers of the 21st century. Academy of Management
Executive, 10(4): 8-16.
• In the case an author has published twice within a year, the sources have to be labeled
with lower case letters („a“, „b“, etc.) and need to be listed alphabetically according to the
initial letters of the title:
Hall, D. T. 1996a. Careers in organizations. Santa Monica: Goodyear Publishing
Company, Inc.
Hall, D. T. 1996b. Protean careers of the 21st century. Academy of Management
Executive, 10(4): 8-16.

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3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

Indication of sources within the List of References/ Bibliography (2/2)

• Book
Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W., & Engel, J. F. 2001. Consumer behavior (9th ed.). Forth
Worth etc.: Harcourt College Publishers.
• Article/ chapter from a miscellany
Dutton, J., Bartunek, J., & Gersick, C. 1996. Growing a personal, professional
collaboration. In P. Frost & S. Taylor (Eds.), Rhythms of academic life: 239–248. London:
Sage.
• Journal article
Heather, B. 2015. Knowledge inheritance in global industries: The impact of parent firm
knowledge on the performance of foreign subsidiaries. Academy of Management
Journal, 58(5): 1438-1458.
In case of an unknown author; indicate the journal
Harvard Business Review. 2003. How are we doing? 81(4): 3.
• Internet source
Statista. 2016. Leading 5 purchasing countries of IKEA products from 2012 to 2015.
http://www.statista.com/statistics/255586/leading-5-purchasing-countries-of-ikea-
products/.

--- 104 ---


SOURCE: Academy of Management Journal (2014)
3.b) Structure and formatting Cross-cultural Management

References

Academy of Management Journal. 2014. Academy of management journal - Style guide for
authors. http://aom.org/uploadedFiles/Publications/AMJ/AMJ%20Style%20Guide(1).pdf.

Baker, M. J. 2000. Writing a literature review. The Marketing Review, 1(2): 219-247.

Bryman, A. 2012. Social research methods (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Döring, N., & Bortz, J. 2016. Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation in den Sozial- und
Humanwissenschaften (5th ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Kornmeier, M. 2007. Wissenschaftstheorie und wissenschaftliches Arbeiten: Eine Einführung


für Wirtschaftswissenschaftler. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.

Verband der Hochschullehrer für Betriebswirtschaft e.V. [VHB] 2016. Teilrating Allgemeine
Betriebswirtschaftslehre. http://vhbonline.org/vhb4you/jourqual/vhb-jourqual-
3/teilrating-abwl/.

Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. 2002. Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: Writing a
literature review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2): xiii-xxiii.

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Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

1. Excursion planning

2. National culture as a driver for differences across nations

3. Literature research and academic writing

4. Presentation and presenting

5. Questions and answers about the cases

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Executive summary

Executive summary
One major way of boosting economic development and fighting global poverty is to create productive and sustainable job
opportunities. Job-related events – finding or losing a job, or experiencing a substantial change in job-related income – are crucial
factors in pushing people into poverty or saving them from it. Worldwide, more than 200 million people of working age are
unemployed. Over the next 15 years, on account of population growth and demographic change, 600 million additional jobs need to
be created to keep current employment rates stable.
Nine out of ten jobs in developing countries are provided by private-sector companies. Yet globally, 38% of private-sector employers
report difficulties in filling vacant positions owing to the unavailability of adequately trained staff. The result is a serious mismatch: on
the one hand, all those job vacancies; on the other, vast numbers of job-seekers who do not have the skills (private) employers are
looking for. These so-called skills gaps – the difference between the skills needed for a job and those possessed by a worker –
represent a major constraint on development.
Since the public education system in many countries is often unable to provide a sufficient number of qualified people and to equip
graduates with the skills required by employers, private-sector companies need to step in to bridge the gaps in hard and soft skills.
Yet, companies are sometimes reluctant to invest in closing skills gaps, since the costs are tangible and clearly visible, whereas the
benefits are often intangible and accrue only over time. In addition, the companies often cannot reap the (full) benefits of their
investment, if the newly upskilled workers then leave the company to realize a higher income somewhere else.
It is the aim of the initiative “Let’s Work” to provide effective solutions to the global jobs crisis, by harnessing the potential of the
private sector to create more and better jobs in emerging and developing countries. In that spirit, this report – which takes the
perspective of practitioners from the private sector – has the following objectives:
• to demonstrate that there can be a business case for private-sector enterprises in emerging and developing countries to tackle
skills gaps at all three levels, and that there can be a win-win situation for companies and society.
• to present good practices, and examples of their application, by and for private-sector companies on three different levels: the
current and prospective workforce; along the value chain; and in the local community.
• to present and showcase hands-on methods for assessing the costs and benefits of initiatives to bridge skills gaps.
• to provide concrete recommendations for identifying and addressing skills gaps step-by-step, by means of a practitioners’ guide
based on good practices that are applicable in various sectors and regions.

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Selected good practices to bridge skills gaps in your company

--- 108 ---


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Mapping the characteristics of the German "family" of social enterprises against


the EU definition

--- 109 ---


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Consolidated balance sheet

--- 110 ---


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

U.S. Industries spend nearly $230B per year on appearance and maintenance

Total Estimated annual spending per rentable sq. ft. ($/sq. ft.) Estimated annual spending ($B)
gross sq. Rentable
ft. in the sq. ft. in the Mainten- Environ- Mainten- Environ-
Industry type U.S. (B)(5) U.S. (B)(11) Janitorial(1) ance(2) Exterior(3) mental(4) Total Janitorial(1) ance(2) Exterior(3) mental(4) Total

Services
• Office 9.5 8.1 1.30 1.80 0.30 0.10 3.50 10 14 3 1 28
• Hospital/Long term care(14) 2.7 2.2 1.60 1.90 0.20 0.30 4.00 3 4 1 1 9
• Other health care 0.6 0.5 2.00 1.80 0.20 0.30 4.30 1 1 <1 <1 2
• Lodging/Hotel(6) 2.0 1.7 1.20 2.00 0.20 0.30 3.70 2 3 <1 1 6
• Food retail(7) 1.0 0.9 2.50 4.60 0.70 0.40 8.20 2 4 1 <1 7
• Disc/Mass merch/Dept(15) 1.5 1.3 1.00 0.90 0.70 0.40 3.00 1 1 1 1 4
• Food service(8) 1.3 1.2 3.70 3.30 0.70 2.60 10.30 4 4 1 3 12
• Other retail & service 10.6 8.8 1.00 3.20 0.70 0.40 5.30 9 28 6 3 46

Manufacturing 12.5 10.0


• Food(9) 1.1 0.8 3.00 3.80 0.30 0.40 7.50 2 3 <1 <1 5
• High Tech/Pharma/Chem 0.9 0.7 2.50 6.00 0.50 0.50 9.50 2 4 <1 <1 6
• Large gen manufact.(10,12) 1.4 1.1 0.50 5.00 0.40 0.30 6.20 1 6 <1 <1 7
• Small gen manufact.(10) 9.1 7.4 0.80 5.50 0.40 0.30 7.00 6 41 2 2 51

Institutions
• Education (public & 11.7 11.1 1.20 1.00 0.20 0.00 2.40 13 12 2 <1 27
private)(13) 7 8 2 1 18
• Government 7.1 6.0 1.20 1.40 0.30 0.20 3.10

60.5 51.8 1.20 2.60 0.40 0.30 4.40 63 133 19 13 228


Total/average
(1) Costs associated with cleaning work areas, restrooms, cafeteria and support space (10) Costs estimated as a weighted average of manufacturing excluding food/high
(2) Preventive and remedial upkeep and repair of a building and its tech/pharma/chemicals
components (HVAC, electrical, plumbing, painting) (11) Estimated by applying IFMA %'s from total sq.ft. to rentable sq.ft. for each category from
(3) Costs associated with exterior maintenance such as landscaping and grounds, 2006 study
roadways and parking facilities; estimated from a 20-4 IFMA study (12) Manufacturers with revenue >$100M
(4) Waste removal, asbestos abatement, etc. (13) Based on NCES; ASU 2006 cost study; APPA; BCG analysis
(5) Department of Energy estimates for gross sq. footage from 2004 and 2005 or (14) Includes ambulatory surgery centers; gross sq. ft. estimated from various health care
Progressive Grocer estimates; projected to 2007 sources and BCG analysis
(6) Costs estimated from a 2004 IFMA study (15) Sq. ft. estimated from Chain Store Guide Publications and BCG analysis; costs estimated
(7) Costs estimated from SCJ/BCG analysis and retail & service IFMA estimates; sq. ft. from SCJ/BCG analysis and retail and service IFMA estimates
estimated from Progressive Grocer estimates and BCG analysis, interviews Note: IFMA sample sizes very small; cost estimates for rentable space inflated to 2007
(8) Costs based on $ as a percentage of sales data from NRA and BCG analysis Source: International Facility Management Association, 2006; Dun and Bradstreet Market
(9) Costs assumed to be similar to consumer goods manufacturing Identifiers (2007); Statistical Abstract of the U.S. 2007; U.S. Department of
Commerce
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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

--- 112 ---


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Whatever you do or present: Think about those who will listen to it…

--- 113 --- Painting: John Morgan (1861) - The Jury


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Elements of a good presentation

Content

Elements of a
Body language Design
good presentation

Voice

“It’s the whole ‘package’ of a presentation that is graded. Students really


shouldn’t underestimate the importance of any of these elements!”

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Structure and a clear focus makes it easier to absorb the content of your
presentation

“It would really help me to absorb the details if the student


could explain to me in 2-3 sentences what the presentation
and the underlying research is about”

• While preparing your presentation slides, you should address the following questions:
 What is the aim of your presentation?
 What are the main aspects you would like to highlight?
• The creation of a presentation draft might help to structure your ideas
• Do not provide a completely formulated presentation script as you might become misled
into reading out the text
• To bring some notes written on a few cards can be helpful

If you can give your grand parents an elevator pitch about your topic you are well prepared

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Thoroughly thinking about the content of your presentation is so important


because it helps you deliver what your audience needs most – the “so what”

You often spend most time on collecting ...but in the end, your audience is mainly
and analyzing information... interested in the 'so what' for them

Time Value
spent perceived
Synthesizing
Synthesizing What is the result?
What decision do
we need to take?
What are the
consequences?

Collecting and
analyzing information Collecting and
analyzing information

Formulating the problem


How do we perform?
Formulating the problem What are the root causes?

Effective written communication helps you transform data analyses results


to a compelling "so what" for your audience

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

The design and structure of your slides should help the audience to follow your
presentation – not distract, annoy or upset them

“If the design would directly point me to the main points the
student is trying to make, it would make it much simpler to
follow the presentation. I don’t want to be distracted by
formal mistakes or wrong emphasizes”

• Slides should be structured in a clear and reader-friendly manner


• Make use of a simple slide master to have a consistent layout for all
slides (rule of thumb: slide master should structure max. 20% of a slide)
• The slide master should fix on slides
 Title of lecture/seminar
 Author of presentation
 Topic of presentation
 Slide numbers

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Make sure your slides are structured well, present information logically, and don’t
overburden the audience

• Invest time in the general structure of slides


 Less is more
 Simple is better
 Different is more motivating
• Make sure your slides follow a logical visual structure
 Differentiate between main points and sub points
 Differentiate between antecedents or causes, moderators or mediators, and
consequences or results
• Provide information and contents on slides carefully
 Concentrate on one main idea per slide
 Use few and short bullet points
 Make use of graphical illustrations (with indicating their sources!) to support
your arguments

--- 118 ---


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Example: Good slide titles tell the story

Do you prefer to read this story... …or this story?

Historic revenue 2003-2013 Revenue growth is stagnant since 2009

Historic cost level 2003-2013 In the meantime, costs increased 15%

Forecast margin development Important to act now, to avoid losing


money next year

Alternatives for profitability A cost reduction plan is most likely to


achieve objective of staying profitable

Recommendations Recommend assigning a cost reduction


to investigate focus areas

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Action titles: Use the slide title to guide the reader to the key point

Action titles are powerful slide titles that...

Highlight the key insight from the page


• Refer to the entire page or a critical insight within the page
• Do not use the subtitle to continue the title

Match the body of the slide


Content • Make a claim directly supported by the data on the page
• Use the same language in the title and the slide

Link together the story of the deck


• Test: Can you tell the main points of the presentation from reading the titles?
• Test: Do the titles match the executive summary?

Are concise
• Try to write short titles; stretch to two lines only if necessary
Form • Adopt newspaper headline style

Are precise

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Choice of colors: Use them but only wisely and where appropriate

• Choose pleasant colors – for background and writing


• Use an acceptable contrast
• Avoid bizarre combinations
• Use a consistent color design
• Use color to emphasize important points

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Cross-cultural Management

Backgrounds can be pleasant and add to a


successful presentation.

--- 122 ---


Cross-cultural Management

But they can also be disturbing and distracting.

--- 123 ---


Cross-cultural Management

It is also important how font colors interact.

Missing contrasts are as obstructive as …

--- 124 ---


Cross-cultural Management

... Unpleasant strong contrasts like red and blue. The


human eye cannot process both colors simultaneously.
This is why it jumps back and forth. The effect is almost
intolerable for the audience.

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Font size

• The font size should not be too small.

•...but it should also


not assail the
audience.
• A happy middle way is always the best.

--- 126 ---


Cross-cultural Management

D. Republic of Italy
I. National Institutions – Part 1
Parlamento Italiano [Italian Parliament] (www.parlamento.it/)
Camera dei Deputati [Chamber of Deputies] (www.camera.it/)
Senato delle Repubblica [Senate of the Republic]
(www.senato.it/senato.htm)
Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri [Presidency of the Council of
Ministers] www.palazzochigi.it/)
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT) [National Institute of Statistics]
(www.istat.it/)
Ministero per le Politiche Agricole (MiPA) [Ministry for Agricultural Policies]
(www.politicheagricole.it/)
Ministero delle Comunicazioni [Ministry of Communications]
Examples of don’ts:
(www.comunicazioni.it/)
• Font too small
Ministero della Difesa [Ministry of Defence] (www.difesa.it/)
• Slide too full
Ministero delle Finanze [Ministry of Finance] (www.finanze.it/)
Guardia di Finanza (www.gdf.it/) • Text positioned too closely
Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) [Ministry of Foreign Affairs]
• Contrast is intolerable
www.esteri.it/)
Ministero per il Commercio con l'Estero
--- 127 ---
(MCE) [Ministry for Foreign
4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Keywords or sentences

• Too long sentences that tie attention and concentration of the audience for a
longer time should be avoided. In this particular time frame, the audience can
hardly follow the presenter because it is busy reading all provided
information. So, do not put too much information on a slide and structure it
well, so that the audience benefits from your presentation and is not left
confused, which can happen easily.

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Animations, figures, and effects (1/2)

• Use the advantages of PowerPoint


 Possibilities of visualization
 Staggered page reproduction
• Use effects only sparely, no show!
• Use graphics and icons only supportively

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Animations, figures, and effects (2/2)

Animations may support a


dynamic and lively
presentation

be ridiculous, too!
they can
... but

--- 130 ---


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Visualization of quantitative information

Customer A
Part A 2,8 t Customer B
Part B 1,3 t Customer C
Sum 4,1 t Customer D

Chart Circle Bars

100

01 02 03 04 01 02 03 04 05
Columns Curves Matrix

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Visualization of qualitative information

Organigram Decision tree Flow chart

A
B
C
Jan. ... Feb.
Time plan Phases/processes Cause and consequence

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

You should also consider other visual aids next to PowerPoint slides

• Handouts
• Overhead transparencies
• Videos
• Exemplary material to pass through
• Flip chart or black board
• Role plays

--- 133 ---


4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural5. Polish
Management

Summary: Tick and tie everything

 Fix Hints
Label the chart • Label the axis and the chart (in the column title)
• Put labels directly on the chart, not in a legend
• Data segments should have values and totals
Provide data sources for slides with • Be brief, but enable the reader to find data you used
charts and analyses • “Google” and “Desk research” are not sources
All figures should add up • Round everything up so that everything adds up
Update all labels • On charts and off charts; check your graphics, too
Check title and sub-title format • Do not leave 3-line titles or exaggerated subtitles
Observe margins • Remember that slides need margins to be readable
No gridlines in tables! • Lose the line
Remove unneeded lines • Make slides more readable
Check your font size • 12, 14 and 16 are OK; 10 should be only used in extreme
cases
Check and update other related • All figures in the entire deck referring to data on this slide
slides should also be cascade-updated
Emphasize important points • Use bold, and text colors
• Boxes (e.g. dashed) and call-outs are also very helpful

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Tipp & Tricks: How to make your life easier and your slides better

Follow general principles Pay attention to your style Use and train shortcuts

• Sketch before you click: • Be coherent regarding • Strg + C, Strg + X, Strg +


Use paper and your brain ₋ Styles V
• Save slides and forms in ₋ Fonts (size + type) • Alt + Tab
sample deck ₋ Language • Alt + shift + arrows
• Modify and use your quick • Respect borders and • Alt + …
access toolbar standards
• Shift + Mouse
• Read through the titles of • Use Gridlines and Guides
your slides  is there a • Strg + Mouse
• Quickly align: Use format
storyline? • Strg + Shift + Mouse
alignment commands
• Use call-outs to bring your • …
• Use pictures: you may look
points across
for copy right free pictures
on google

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Your voice: Try to make the presentation lively but focused

“I’ve been in the same position as the student – so I’ll have


sympathy for the usual problems and nervousness. But I want
to see an effort to present the content well. The delivery is
almost as important as the content itself!”
• The way how you are saying something is important as well as what you are saying
• Speak loudly and clearly
• Do not speak too fast or too slowly
• Leave a pause between explaining main aspects
• Try to present in a lively and interactive way, try to avoid monotone voice
• Do not read out texts
• Formulate definitions by yourself
• Provide time to read - rule of thumb: 1 min per slide

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4 Presentations and presenting Cross-cultural Management

Your body language: Use your gestures to support what you are saying

• Your body language also sparks the interest in the audience


• Use your hands to emphasize main ideas
• Keep strong eye contact with your audience
• Do not turn your back on the audience
• Make sure that you do not cover you own visual aids
• Try to avoid too frequent moving

--- 137 ---


Concluding remarks Cross-cultural Management

…but try to prepare what you can to make your life easier

• The content of the presentation has to mirror the topic:


 Illustration of your previous work
 Focus on target group: Your audience must be able to understand all steps
of work and the line of argumentation
• Every presentation needs an appropriate outline
• Stay within given time limits – and give yourself some room for maneuver
• Sort out the organizational issues: Room, projector, emergency plans
• Have your presenter cards with keywords
• Print your slides for supervisor (e.g., 4 slides on one page in landscape
format)
• Think about your audience and what it is important for them

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Cross-cultural Management

Agenda for today

1. Excursion planning

2. National culture as a driver for differences across nations

3. Literature research and academic writing

4. Presentation and presenting

5. Questions and answers about the cases

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Chair of International Management

Thank you for your attention!

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