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Ecology

Multiple Choice

 

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____

1.

Grass is eaten by a prairie dog. The prairie dog is eaten by a coyote. This is an example of

2.

an abiotic element. b. an omnivore. c. a herbivore. d. a food chain. A bird eats a worm. Who is the predator?

a.

____

 

3.

the worm b. the bird c. both the bird and the worm d. neither the bird nor the worm What do several different populations living together make?

a.

____

a.

a biosphere b. an organism c. a community d. an ecosystem

____

4.

Which is an example of an abiotic element changing an area?

 

introducing a new type of grass b. water flooding the area c. two species of birds competing d. algae growing on crabgrass

a.

____

5.

Grass that gains energy from the sun is an example of a

 

a.

consumer. b. parasite. c. decomposer. d. producer.

____

6.

In a food web arrows point in just one direction because they show

 

a.

which animal is bigger.

b. which animals are related.

c. how energy goes to the animal that is eating.

d.

how energy goes to the animal that is eaten.

____

7.

Two members of the same species fight over who gets a certain food. Members of different species try to take

 

over a certain nesting area. These are both examples of

a.

community. b. competition. c. mutualism. d. commensalism.

____

8.

If scientists are studying the egrets, herons, marsh crabs, and cordgrass, but not the water or rocks in a salt marsh, what level of organization would they be studying?

 

a.

individual organism b. population c. community d. ecosystem

____

9.

Coyotes prey on prairie dogs. In order for the prairie dog population to survive, how many prairie dogs are

 

needed compared to coyotes?

a.

fewer prairie dogs than coyotes b. many more prairie dogs than coyotes c. about the same number of

prairie dogs as coyotes

d. there is no relationship between the number of prairie dogs and coyotes

 

10.

When there is a lot of pollution, rain can be acidic, harming plants and animals. What is this an example of?

 

a.

competition between a population and a community b. a mutualistic type of symbiosis c. an abiotic factor

affecting an ecosystem

d. an individual affecting a community

____

11.

What effect does biodiversity have on a community?

 

a.

It makes destruction by insects impossible. b. It makes primary succession more likely. c. It enables

species to survive in a desert.

d. It enables the community to withstand changes.

 

12.

The speed of water is an important abiotic factor in a freshwater ecosystem because

 

a.

a tributary has different plants than a river. b. faster water has a higher salt content. c. animals must adapt

so they are not washed away.

d. animals cannot live in fast-moving water.

 

13.

What word describes the mammals, fish, birds, and plants that live in an environment?

 

a.

abiotic b. the population c. the biosphere d. biotic

____

14.

A community is several species of animals interacting, while a population is

 

a.

members of one species in an area.

b. the biotic and abiotic elements of an area.

c. the nonliving elements

of a habitat.

d. a single organism.

____

15.

The five levels of organization in the environment, from first to fifth level are

 

a.

organism, population, biosphere, ecosystem, community.

b. organism, population, biotic elements, abiotic

elements, community.

c. organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere.

d. organism, population,

____

16.

biosphere, abiotic elements, ecology. Which of the following is abiotic?

 

a.

a gar b. an alligator c. grass d. water

____

17.

Organisms that can make their own food from sunlight are called

 

a.

decomposers. b. consumers. c. producers. d. carnivores.

 

18.

Grass is eaten by a prairie dog. The prairie dog is eaten by a coyote. This is an example of

 

a.

an abiotic element. b. an omnivore. c. a herbivore. d. a food chain.

____

19.

One food web arrow goes from a prairie dog to a coyote, showing that

 
  • a. the coyote is bigger.

b. the coyote eats the prairie dog.

c. the prairie dog eats the coyote.

d. the prairie

 

20.

dog is a producer. Without wolves, Yellowstone Park had

____

____

21.

  • a. too many elk. b. too much grass. c. too many rabbits. d. too many cows. The largest population an environment can support is its

 
  • a. carrying capacity. b. limiting factor. c. population. d. symbiosis.

____

22.

One type of competition involves individuals competing for resources. The other involves competition

  • a. organisms. b. populations. c. environments. d. relationships.

 

between different

____

23.

Young wasps are eating the tomato hornworm that is their host. What is this an example of?

 
  • a. commensalism b. mutualism c. parasitism d. competition

____

24.

A bird eats a worm. Who is the predator?

 
  • a. the worm b. the bird c. both the bird and the worm d. neither the bird nor the worm

____

25.

Rocks, temperature, and water are what part of the environment?

 
  • a. biotic b. abiotic c. population d. living

____

26.

What do several different populations living together make?

 
  • a. a biosphere b. an organism c. a community d. an ecosystem

____

27.

Which is an example of an abiotic element changing an area?

 
  • a. introducing a new type of grass

b. water flooding the area

c. two species of birds competing

d. algae

____

28.

growing on crabgrass Grass that gains energy from the sun is an example of a

 
  • a. consumer. b. parasite. c. decomposer. d. producer.

____

29.

A diagram with arrows showing energy flow from grass, to a rabbit, to a fox is

____

30.

  • a. an energy pyramid. b. a food web. c. a food chain. d. a population chart. In a food web, arrows point in just one direction because they show

 
  • a. which animal is bigger.

b. which animals are related.

c. how energy goes to the animal that is eating.

  • d. how energy goes to the animal that is eaten.

____

31.

After one species disappears, the other species in the ecosystem

 
  • a. benefit. b. are thrown out of balance. c. die. d. are unaffected.

____

32.

Limiting factors determine an area’s carrying capacity because

 
  • a. the number of animals is limited. number of animals is unlimited.

b. ecosystems are small.

c. animals need resources to survive.

d. the

____

33.

Two members of the same species fight over who gets a certain food. Members of different species try to take

  • a. community. b. competition. c. mutualism. d. commensalism.

 

over a certain nesting area. These are both examples of

____

34.

An environmental study reporting on the way temperature, water quality, and minerals affect the animals in a

  • a. individual organism b. population c. community d. ecosystem

 

salt marsh would be considering which level of organization?

____

35.

The plants a ladybug lives on, the aphids the ladybug eats, and the birds that would eat the ladybug are all

36.

  • a. biotic elements of an ecosystem. b. predators. c. producers. d. abiotic elements of an ecosystem. Herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores are all

____

  • a. decomposers. b. producers. c. predators. d. consumers.

____

37.

Animals that eat a variety of meats, fruits, and vegetables are

 
  • a. producers. b. carnivores. c. omnivores. d. herbivores.

____

38.

A scientist studying the way egrets, herons, and crabs interact, who is not interested in abiotic factors such as

  • a. population b. ecosystem c. community d. biosphere

 

the rocks, water, and temperature, is studying what level of environmental organization?

____

39.

Rocks, temperature, and water are what kind of things?

 
  • a. biotic b. abiotic c. population d. living

____

40.

What level of organization comes after population?

 
  • a. biosphere b. organism c. community d. ecosystem

____

41.

What word describes a community of organisms and their environment?

 
  • a. individuals b. ecosystem c. population d. community

____

42.

What living things make food from sunlight?

 
  • a. consumers b. parasites c. decomposers d. producers

____

43.

What happened to other living things when the wolves no longer lived in Yellowstone?

____

44.

  • a. They were better off. b. They were out of balance. c. They died. d. They were not changed. When is food a limiting factor?

 
  • a. when a population is large too much water

b. when there’s too much food

c. when a population is small

d. when there’s

 

45.

What is an animal that catches and eats another animal called?

____

 
  • a. prey b. predator c. producer d. herbivore

____

46.

In which relationship do living things help each other?

 
  • a. parasitism b. mutualism c. organism d. predator

____

47.

Coyotes prey on prairie dogs. In order for the prairie dog population to survive, how many prairie dogs are needed compared to coyotes?

 
  • a. fewer prairie dogs than coyotes

b. many more prairie dogs than coyotes

c. about the same number of

prairie dogs as coyotes

d. There is no relationship between the number of prairie dogs and coyotes.

 

48.

What kind of elk do wolves kill?

____

 
  • a. the strong and healthy b. the smart and quick c. the old, injured, and diseased d. the energetic and fast

____

49.

When there is a lot of pollution, rain can be acidic, harming plants and animals. What is this an example of?

 
  • a. competition between a population and a community

b. a mutualistic type of symbiosis

c. an abiotic factor

affecting an ecosystem

d. an individual affecting a community

____

50.

It has been a very harsh winter. The ground is covered in snow, and the trees are covered in ice. Many deer die because they cannot find food. This is an example of

 
  • a. producers providing food.

b. a limiting factor controlling a population.

c. a biosphere in trouble.

  • d. predators harvesting the weak and the sick.

____

51.

Bears eat fruits such as berries and animals such as fish. They hibernate in the winter. They give birth to live young. Which of these terms applies to bears?

 
  • a. They are decomposers.

b. They are at the bottom of the energy pyramid.

c. They have a mutualistic

relationship with berries.

d. They are consumers.

____

52.

Suppose there were a bird that always sat on a horse's back and ate the insects that would bite the horse. What would this be an example of?

  • a. mutualism b. parasitism c. competition d. commensalism

____

53.

When a parasitic worm invades an animal, who is the host?

 

a. the producer

b. the animal

c. the decomposer

d. the worm

____

54.

As loggers take more trees out of a forest, there are fewer places for a certain type of bird to build a nest. What is this an example of?

 

a. a predator attacking prey

b. the forest's carrying capacity becoming smaller

c. a food web becoming

smaller

d. a symbiotic relationship

Use the image below to answer the following questions.

____ 53. When a parasitic worm invades an animal, who is the host? a. the producer
 

55.

The arrows on the food web show that

____

 

a. prairie dogs eat grass. b. deer eat prairie dogs. c. squirrels eat grass. d. squirrels eat coyotes.

 

56.

____

 

57.

Three organisms on the food web have arrows pointing away from them and no arrows pointing toward them. They are a. omnivores. b. herbivores. c. decomposers. d. producers. Three organisms on the food web have arrows pointing toward them but no arrows pointing away from them.

____

This is because

a. they make their own food. energy.

b. they give energy to others.

c. nothing shown eats them.

d. they need no

____

58.

What does the arrow between the grasshopper and the coyote represent?

 

a. energy flowing from producers to consumers

b. energy flowing from consumers to producers

c. energy

flowing from the coyote to the grasshopper

d. energy flowing from the grasshopper to the coyote

Completion

Complete each sentence or statement. Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below.

coniferous forest

tropical rain forest

savanna

  • 59. It is winter. You are in a place with tall trees full of leaves. It is 0°C. You are likely in a ____________________.

  • 60. You are in a place with many trees that receives 300 cm of rainfall per year. You are likely in a _________________________.

Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below.

intertidal Sargasso Sea

coral reef

  • 61. Most organisms in the

____________________

ecosystem could not live in cold water.

Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below.

 

community

prey

biosphere

ecology

predator

symbiosis

coevolution

commensalism

62.

Populations of organisms that live in and interact in a particular area form a(n) ____________________.

63.

The study of interactions between living things and their environment is ____________________.

64.

A spider that feeds on live insects is an example of a(n) ____________________.

65.

The part of Earth where life exists is the ____________________.

66.

When the close interaction between two organisms results in long-term changes in both organisms,

 

has taken place.

 

Use the terms from the following list to complete the sentences below.

 

population

biotic

abiotic

community

67.

A river carrying nutrients is a(n)

____________________

factor that helps the ecosystem.

68.

Plants, animals, and all living things are

factors.

____________________

69.

Two or more individuals of the same kind living together are a(n) ____________________.

70.

All the populations of living things in the same place are a(n) ____________________.

Matching

 

Match each item with the correct statement.

 

a.

temperate grassland

c.

alpine tundra

b.

coniferous forest

d.

tropical rain forest

71.

nearly 1,400 species of birds live here

72.

has trees with cones

 

____

73.

 

____

74.

main plants are grasses found on mountain tops

 

____

 

Match each item with the correct statement.

 

a.

nonpoint-source pollution

e.

renewable resource

b.

conservation

f.

pollution

c.

overpopulation

g.

point-source pollution

d.

nonrenewable resource

____

75.

the preservation and wise use of natural resources

 

____

76.

an unwanted change in the environment that is caused by harmful substances

____

77.

pollution that comes from only one source

 

____

78.

a natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which it is consumed

79.

____

80.

a natural resource that forms at a rate slower than it is consumed too many organisms in an area for the resources available

____

 

Match each item with the correct statement below.

 

a.

herbivore

d.

food web

b.

food chain

e.

omnivore

c.

carnivore

f.

energy pyramid

____

81.

an organism that eats only animals

82.

____

83.

a triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy an organism that eats both plants and animals

____

____

84.

an organism that eats only plants

 

85.

____

86.

a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem

____

Short Answer

 

87.

Certain ants take a sweet liquid called honeydew from tiny insects called aphids. In exchange for the honeydew, the ants protect the aphids from predators. What kind of relationship is this? Explain your answer.

  • 88. Using the example of the salt marsh, explain why ecologists state that saving a large animal, such as the heron or egret, can also save an ecosystem.

  • 89. How might an omnivore be a link both at the beginning of a food web and near the end?

  • 90. How does the energy in a fish get into the fish? How does the energy stored in the fish get released from the fish? Other INTERPRETING GRAPHICS Use the art below to answer the following questions.

88. Using the example of the salt marsh, explain why ecologists state that saving a large
  • 91. The arrows on the food web show that

    • a. prairie dogs eat grass.

    • b. deer eat prairie dogs.

c squirrels eat grass.

d. squirrels eat coyotes.

  • 92. Three organisms on the food web have arrows pointing away from them and no arrows pointing toward them. They are

  • a. omnivores.

c. decomposers.

  • b. herbivores.

d. producers.

  • 93. What does the arrow between the grasshopper and the coyote represent?

    • a. energy flowing from producers to consumers

    • b. energy flowing from consumers to producers

    • c. energy flowing from the coyote to the grasshopper

    • d. energy flowing from the grasshopper to the coyote

INTERPRETING GRAPHICS

Use the figure below to answer the following questions.

88. Using the example of the salt marsh, explain why ecologists state that saving a large
  • 94. How many of the continental 48 states lost over 80% of their wetlands during this period?

  • 95. What percentage of wetlands acreage did your state lose between the 1780s and the 1980s?

Ecology Answer Section

MULTIPLE

CHOICE

48.

ANS:

C

49.

ANS:

C

50.

ANS:

B

51.

ANS:

D

52.

ANS: A

53.

ANS: A

54.

ANS:

B

55.

ANS: A

56.

ANS:

D

57.

ANS:

C

58.

ANS:

D

  • 7. COMPLETION

59.

ANS:

coniferous forest

60.

ANS:

61.

ANS: coral reef

62.

ANS: community

63.

ANS: ecology

64.

ANS: predator

65.

ANS: biosphere

66.

ANS: coevolution

67.

ANS: abiotic

68.

ANS: biotic

69.

ANS: population

70.

ANS: community

71.

ANS:

D

72.

ANS: B

73.

ANS: A

74.

ANS:

C

75.

ANS:

B

76.

ANS: F

77.

ANS: G

78.

ANS: E

79.

ANS: D

80.

ANS:

C

81.

ANS:

C

82.

ANS: F

83.

ANS: E

84.

ANS: A

85.

ANS: B

86.

ANS: D

87.

ANS:

mutualism; The aphids

and ants help each other.

88.

ANS:

  • 1. ANS:

D

  • 2. ANS:

B

  • 3. ANS:

C

  • 4. ANS:

B

  • 5. ANS:

D

  • 6. ANS:

C

ANS:

B

  • 8. ANS:

C

  • 9. ANS:

B

  • 10. ANS:

C

  • 11. ANS:

D

  • 12. ANS:

C

  • 13. ANS:

D

  • 14. ANS: A

  • 15. ANS:

C

  • 16. ANS:

D

  • 17. ANS:

C

  • 18. ANS:

D

  • 19. ANS:

B

  • 20. ANS: A

ANS: A

  • 22. ANS:

B

  • 23. ANS:

C

  • 24. ANS:

B

  • 25. ANS:

B

  • 26. ANS:

C

  • 27. ANS:

B

  • 28. ANS:

D

  • 29. ANS:

C

  • 30. ANS:

C

  • 31. ANS:

B

  • 32. ANS:

C

  • 33. ANS:

B

  • 34. ANS:

D

  • 35. ANS: A

  • 36. ANS:

D

ANS:

C

  • 38. ANS:

C

  • 39. ANS:

B

  • 40. ANS:

C

  • 41. ANS:

B

  • 42. ANS:

D

  • 43. ANS:

B

  • 44. ANS: A

  • 45. ANS:

B

  • 46. ANS:

B

  • 47. ANS:

B

tropical rain forest

  • 21. MATCHING

  • 37. SHORT ANSWER

The heron and the egret

can survive only if the salt

marsh remains intact to

provide shelter and food

for the organisms that the

birds need to eat.

  • 89. ANS: Sample answer: An omnivore can be at the beginning because it eats plants. It also can be near the end because it eats other consumers or can be eaten by other consumers.

  • 90. ANS: Sample answer: The fish stores some of the energy it gets from the food it eats. The energy in the fish is released from the fish when the fish is eaten by another organism.

OTHER

  • 91. ANS: A

  • 92. ANS: D

  • 93. ANS: D

  • 94. ANS: Seven states have lost over 80% of their wetlands.

  • 95. ANS: Answers will vary, depending on which state the student lives in.