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# c

A
PROJECT
ON
SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE ARCH DAMS

BY

GUIDED BY

## Dr. D. NEELIMA SATYAM

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ABSTRACT:

#c\$\$%c&'c(c&c&'c\$ )&ccc\$c&\$c&%cc# c
'%c &'c \$#*+\$,c --.c /#(#c (\$&c c +c (&-c #c +(+c \$c \$c
&%\$c&c+c#c'%+(c&'c+'&c\$c&&0c#c\$c&\$c''(c+c&c
\$(c +&c &'c #c 1(\$&.c #c \$ )/\$.c \$)'&+\$&.c /\$ )'&+\$&.c #\$c
\$,c(\$c&'c2c&%c\$c\$(&c/c#0c #c/\$cc\$+c&cc
(&%c%\$-c&c%%c\$%+0 c#c/\$c%%cc#c&c#\$c\$c-'(\$c
''(c&c#c& )%\$c\$(c\$\$%c&'c\$c\$0c \$%.c#c&c&'c\$(#c\$c+c
&c \$#*+\$,c &&c c +0c #c \$(c ''(c &'c \$#*+\$,c \$%&-c /#c \$&c
&c\$(&c\$c+c#&+-#c(&+c+%0c c(&+c&-\$c&&% c
/#(#ccc''(cc'c%c\$\$% cc&cc(#&&c\$ c+c&c+c\$(c
&c&'c\$(#c\$c\$%&-c/#c\$&c&c\$(& 0ccc

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[. INTRODUCTION

[.[ Reservoir:

c &c c \$c %\$-.c \$'(\$%c %\$,c (\$c c (&+( -c \$c \$c \$(&c \$c 0c &\$%c
\$,-.c\$c/\$c&&%c&c\$c%\$,c\$c cc\$c&0c &/.c#c c&c
c/\$c&+(c--cc+ cc\$c(cc'&c\$c(&\$\$%c%\$- c&c
&'c/\$c&c&c#c+\$c&'c\$c\$ c(&+(c'&c#c+&0c#+c\$c\$c\$c\$ c
&c 1c &-#0 c #c (#\$-c c \$c  c -\$%%c \$c (&\$%c +-c
''c&c&'c\$c\$0c#cc(\$%%c&c'&c\$ c(&+c%,c \$cc/#(#c\$&+c 345c&'c
#c&\$%c(\$&c&((+c+-c#c&&& c\$&c'&c6+c&c0c &c&'c
#c c (\$c c %%c &c &c /\$c +-c & )&&&c &.c 1(c #c \$%\$\$c
.c/#(#c\$%&c(\$c\$c+\$\$%c(#\$-cc# c&)&&&c&c+c&c%-c&'c
&/0c+-c#c&c&'c%&/c'%&/.ccc&c&% c&cc#c/\$c\$ c'&c\$&+c
+&c +(#c \$c -\$&.c /\$c +%c \$c #&%((c &/0c &c -+%\$c #c /\$c
+%.c \$c &c c (\$c &c #c c &c &c /\$c +-c #c \$c \$&0c #c
&c/\$c c%\$c%\$c+-c# c&c&'c%&/c'%&/c &cc#c\$0c c# c
&&&c\$&.c# c&c&c1(c/\$c /#c#c(#\$-cc#cc c#-#0c
#+cc%\$-c#c/\$ c+-c#c&c&'c%&/ c'%&/.c#c&c\$%&c
#%cc'%&&c(&&%0 c
c
c&'c&c
'c\$c&cc&%c&c+&.ccc(\$%%c\$c-% )+&c&0cc#c&# c
#\$.c'ccc&c#\$c&c+&.cccc\$c+%+&c&0c(\$+c c
&c&'c#c(\$.c\$c-%c+&c&cc&c(&&(\$%%c'\$%.cc c#c-\$%c
\$((cc \$c&c%&c+% +&c&0c

-+)!78c9(&\$%c/c&'c\$.c&c\$c%%/\$c

## 70cFull reservoir level (FRL) 8c#c'+%%c&c%%c

cc#c#-#c/\$c %%c&c
/#(#c#c/\$c+'\$(c/%%cc+-c&\$%c&\$-c(&&0c#c''(c&\$-c&'c
#c&cc(&+c+&c#c'+%%c&c%%0c#c
cc#c#-#c%%c\$ c

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/#(#c/\$ccc&cc#%c'&c\$&+c+c/#&+c\$ c\$\$-c&'c/\$c#&+-#c# c
%%/\$0c c(\$c&'c\$c/#&+c%%/\$c-\$.c#c
cc*+\$%c&c#c(c%%c&'c# c
%%/\$0c &/.c'c#c%%/\$cc-\$.c#c
cc*+\$%c&c#c%%c&'c#c&c&'c# c
-\$0c
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0cMaximum water level (MWL)8c#c\$1+c/\$c%%cc#c\$1+c%%c& c
/#(#c#c/\$c+'\$(c/%%cc/#c#c-c'%&&c\$c&c#c%%/\$0c# c
\$1+c/\$c%%cc#-#c#\$c#c'+%%c&c%%c&c#\$c&c+(#\$-c&\$-c c
\$\$%\$%c/c#c/&c% %c&c\$&c'%&&0c#c\$1+c/\$c%%cc\$%&c(\$%%c# c
\$1+c&&%c%%c 9c&c\$1+c'%&&c%%c
0 c
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20cMinimum pool level8c#c+c&&%c%%cc#c%&/c%%c+c&c/#(#c# c
/\$cc/#\$/c'&c#c&c+c&\$c (&&0c#c+c&&%c%% c
-\$%%c(&&c&c#c%\$&c&'c#c%&/c&+%c&c%+(/\$c&'c#c\$0 c
&/.cc#c(\$c&'c\$c&c'&c#&%((c&/:c#c+c&&%c%%cc'1 c
\$'c(&-c#c+c/&,-c#\$ c*+c'&c#c''(c/&,-c&'c+0 c
#c&\$-c%&/c#c+c&&%c%%cc&c+'+%c\$cc(\$%%c#c\$c&\$-0 c
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[.2 DAMS:

cc \$c c \$c #\$+%(c +(+c &'c '\$%c &+c \$\$%c +%c \$(&c \$c c &c
(\$c\$ &c&cc+\$cc'&c&+ -c/\$c'&c\$&+c+&c0-0.c'%&&c
(&&%.c /\$c +%c '&c #+\$c &c %&(,.c -\$&.c -c -\$&.c (\$&.c &c
&%%+&c(&&%0 c\$c\$c\$ &c\$c(&%c&'c\$(#c&#0cc(&c#&+ %c
c\$c/c\$c/c\$c\$ \$0cc/cc\$%&c\$c+(+ +%c\$(&c\$c:c#&/.c
 +&c c &c &c &c /\$c + &c c 0\$c \$c -\$%%c (&+( c #c
&+\$&+c \$(#c &'c # c /#c #c \$%%c c \$&/ \$c #c '&+\$&c c -&&0
\$%%.c \$c #&&/c \$& c \$%&c (&+(c \$c &c \$c # \$c c &c %&c
#&&/0c

## [.3 Arch Dams:

(#c\$cc\$c&%c(&(c\$.c(+c+\$cc%\$0c  c \$&c&c-c
\$c&'c#c+c&' c#c&ccc&/c/-#.cc&\$c\$ c %\$-c\$+c&'c\$%c
c\$-c# c \$c&'c#c/\$c+c\$c&# c %&\$cc\$(#c\$(&c&c#c
(\$&c /\$%%0 c +(('+%c \$(#c \$(&c c c &c \$ c +'c &&%#(c +(+.c \$c
(\$%c(\$ c +cc\$,cc#c(&+(&c&'c\$c\$(# c \$c&c+c#\$c&c+(+\$% c
(&+.c +(#c \$c &c ;&c &c (\$(,. c 1c \$c #c c #c +(+c \$+c  c
/\$c%&\$0 c#c(&%c-c&'c\$c(&(c\$(#c\$ c(%+c&c&%c#c\$ &c
&'c# c&c''(c\$c(&&(\$%c&&&c'& c#c/\$c&+-c+(+.c+c\$%&c
# c \$&c&'c#c&c+\$%c\$+\$ c +(+c'&c#c(&&%c\$c%\$c&'c
#c &+c /\$c (&c /#c #c +& c &c '+(&c &'c #c &;(0c #c \$+\$% c
c #c \$(c \$+&.c - c (&\$&.c #&c &'c \$\$%.c \$ c
&(+c +c c -c /#c # c --c \$c \$(#c .c +\$+c &' c
(%\$\$&.c'&c#c-c&'c\$c\$(#c\$c\$ cc\$+\$c/&, 0c

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-+c) 8c\$(c\$%-c&'c(#c\$c

## [.4 Basics of Arch Dams

(#c \$c *+c \$c #-#c %%c &'c c \$c '&(c \$\$%c c &c &c (\$c \$c +''(c
-0c #c \$c '&(c \$-\$c \$c \$(#c \$c c #c #&\$(c +c &c c #c
&c #c.c +%'c /#(#c c /\$c +c \$#c #c\$.c #c /-#c &'c #c\$c
%'c\$c'\$%%c\$%%c#c'&(c(&0c#c'&(c#\$c''(c\$c\$c(%+c+c\$c&c
%c &c \$c \$+.c (#(\$%c \$(&.c %-.c %c\$((++% \$&c\$c\$#*+\$,0 c
#c \$(#c *+<c &-#c \$c #c /\$c +#c \$-\$c 0c #c /-#c &'c #c \$c \$%&c
+#c#c+(+c&/c&c#c-&+0 c

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-+)28c\$(c
&(c\$(-c&c(#c\$c

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c &c&'.c#c\$(#c\$cc\$c&'c(&(c\$c%\$(cc\$c=>=c#\$c\$%%0c#c
'&+\$&c&c\$+c'&c\$c\$(#c\$c+ccc\$%c\$c&&&\$c&c#c
(&(0c#c\$c/&c\$(c-c'&c\$c\$(#c\$8c ^   c/#(#c#\$c(&\$c
\$+c&'c(+\$+c\$c
   c/#(#c#\$c&#c+\$c\$c&/\$c
(+c#\$c\$(\$%%c(\$-cc\$+c%&/c#c(0cc\$c#\$cc  ^ 
c
c&#cc#&<&\$%c\$c(\$%c%\$c\$cc(\$%%c\$c &c\$0c(#c\$c/#c&c
#\$c&c(&-+&+c\$(#c&c%\$c\$c(c\$c +%%)\$(#c\$0cc\$c(\$c
(&.c\$c\$(#c\$c(\$c#\$c %c&c&c)c%c(\$%c'&(c\$c
#'&c*+c%c(&(c#\$c&c\$c -\$c\$c&c\$(#)-\$c\$0cc\$(#c\$c
\$c(&&%c(&+(cc&c&+\$&+c\$\$.c%c\$\$%cc'(\$%c/#cc
#\$c&cc%c/#c''(+%c&c#c0c c

## (#c\$c\$c-\$%%c(%\$'c\$c#.c+c&c#(,0c 'c/#c&'c\$ c\$(#c\$?c\$cc

@7!c &'c #c\$?c#-#c &c%c cc #0cc \$c\$c #-#c \$&c-\$c #\$c @7!c +c
%c#\$c2@7!cc(&c+0c#(,cc\$c\$&c&'c2@7!c&c-\$0c&\$%%.c\$c\$(#c
\$?c\$cc#&(\$%%c;+c\$c#(,c\$c# c(c+c&'ccc/(c\$c#(,c\$c#c(0 A7!Bc
&\$(&c;&c\$c&\$%%c%\$(cc !ccc#c\$(#c\$c\$c\$c%\$c'%%c/#c
-&+c\$'c#c(&&%c(&&%c\$c(+0 c

## 2 DEFINITION OF SAFETY OF ARCH DAM:

\$'cc'c\$c#c\$*+\$(c\$-\$c\$c+(&&%%c%\$c&'c&c/\$0 c
#c+(+\$%c-cc\$\$c\$c#c\$cc(& c\$'c'c&-.c
%-.c\$c&#c&%c&c&'c'\$%+c/%%c&c&((+0cc\$'c\$%+\$&.c#'&. c
#&+%c'c\$%%c-'(\$c'\$%+c&c\$c(&+(c\$&\$c\$\$%c&c\$+ c
#\$c #c +(+\$%c \$%c &'c #c\$c c \$\$ 0c -c &'c (&(c \$(#c \$c
\$c1#c\$c(c&/\$c%&-c\$c\$\$% c'\$%+.c'c%\$-c%cc'&c#c
%\$)%\$(c \$\$%c (\$c 1c ;& c &-c \$c (\$(,-c 0c &-c #\$c #c
+%\$c%&\$ )-c(\$\$(c&'c\$c\$(#c\$cc%cc#c(&c-#c&'c#c
(&(c +%c '&+\$&c &c &# c &c &'c '\$%+c &((+c '.c c \$c /\$c
;&c &-c \$c (\$(,-c -# c +\$%%c 1#\$+c #c (\$\$(c &'c #c (&(c &c (\$c
(&&c +c &c +*+ c %&\$c +&.c &c -#c '&c +'\$(c \$%&-c /#(#c
\$\$%c %-c (&+%c &((+0 c C##c +(#c \$\$%c '\$%+c (&+%c \$(+\$%%c &((+c c +,&/.c
(\$+c #c #\$c & c c &c &+%.c \$c \$%&c (\$+c &'c #c #c
+\$(c c \$(#c \$c \$c #c '\$(c #\$c \$(#c \$(&c -#c \$c &c &'c #c
&&c\$\$cc;& c&-c\$c(\$(,-0cC#c(c&c%-c'\$%+.c/&cc
&'c &\$%c '&+\$&c %-c \$%c (\$ c #&+%c c (&0c #c 'c c c
&\$%c%-c&'c&(,c/-c/#c#c'&+\$& c\$cc(&\$(c /#c#c\$.c\$c#c
(&c c &\$%c %-c \$%&-c #c (&\$( c /c #c \$c \$c '&+\$&c &(,0c #c
%-c &'c &(,c /-c (\$%%c &((+c \$%&- c &c &\$%c '\$ %+c %\$c %\$c %-c &c
\$%&-c#c%c&'c(&c&'c/&c&'c# c%\$c/-c%-0c
&c\$c&(,c/-c&cc
,\$(\$%%c (\$\$%c &'c '\$%+.c #c (& c &'c %-c +c (c &c =   =c \$c 'c
+'\$(c&/\$c'&c#c\$0 c
c
C#%c\$c\$(#c\$c-#cc(\$\$%c&'c--c\$c\$%%c+\$%c'&+\$&c%&(,c\$c# c
&&.c%\$-.c+\$%c/-c&'c&(,cc#c\$+c(&+%c\$-c#c\$'c&'c# c

c
c

\$0c c '\$(.c #c 'c '\$%+c &'c \$c \$(#c \$c \$c \$%\$c \$c c 7D4Dc +%c ' &c
%\$(c&'c\$c%\$-c/-c&'c&(,cc#c%'c\$+0 c%-c\$%c\$%&-c#c\$ )
'&+\$&c(&\$(c&'c\$c(&(c\$(#c\$cc%c%,% c(\$+c&'c#c/--c&+(cc
\$(#c \$(&c \$c c &'c #c +(+c &c # c &(,0c &/.c \$(#c \$c /#c
%\$%c'%\$c\$+c%&.c&c\$(#c\$c/#c\$+ c#+c%&(,c+&cc&(,c
'&+\$&c /#c \$*+\$c #\$c -#c (&+%c  c +(%c &c %-c \$%&-c #c
'&+\$&c(&\$(c\$c#&+%cc(&0 c
c
#c (\$c *+-c (\$%c (&\$&c (%+c +(+\$%c '&\$&c \$c
&\$& c&'c(&(c(\$+cc\$%,\$% )\$---\$c\$(&.c\$c'&+\$&c&c\$+c
&&c+c&c&&-.c/#(#c'c.c(&+%c%\$c&c\$%0 c
c
3 METHOD OF ANALYSIS:

+\$%%.c #c &\$%c ' )%c \$\$%c c 'c '&c #c \$(c \$c \$(c
\$\$%c&'c\$(#c\$0c\$%c%&\$c#&c\$cc+c'&c\$(cc\$\$%c&%.c'c#c
\$c #\$c \$c %c -&c \$c +'&c \$\$%c \$\$c (\$c c \$+ c '&c #c
(&(c\$c'&c#c'&+\$&c&(,0c#c\$#\$(\$%c'&+%\$&c\$c\$&\$(#c(\$c
\$%&cc%&.c+c#c\$((+\$(c&'c+(#c#&c#&+%cc'cc(&\$&c/#c
#c')%c\$\$%0c

#c'&\$(c&'c(&(c\$(#c\$c+c\$(c%&\$-c(&&c#&+%cc\$%+\$ c
+-c'%(&c\$c 0c &(c\$c'&+\$&c &(,c \$\$%c \$\$ c+c c
#c\$\$%c#&+%ccc&c#c\$c&'c'%c\$c%\$&\$&c-\$& c
c c+\$&c/#c\$&c&'c(\$c\$\$% c\$\$cc#c(&c''(c&c
(&(%+.c#c''(c&c#c\$c& c#&+%cc\$%+\$cc\$\$c c
\$\$%0c%%c\$%(\$%c\$(c%&\$c#&+%cc(&c\$c(& c\$((&-c&c#c
&\$%c &'c &((+( c c #c (\$-&c &'c +\$%.c ++\$%.c \$c (\$%c %&\$-c
(&\$&0c
c
#c\$(c+%c&'c\$\$%c#&+%c(%+c&#c'%(&c\$cc%&cc# c
\$0c9%&c&'c(&+c'%(&c &c\$c+\$%c\$c'&c(#(,-c#c+(\$% c
+%.c\$c/#c&%c#c#&+%cc(&%\$c/#c#c&c'%(& c
\$+cc+\$&c&&-c(&c77 )3.cc&c&c'c\$c&% c
(\$%\$c#c\$#\$(\$%c&%0c #c\$%c&&c\$c\$+c&'c#c\$cc& c
(\$%%c ,&/0c
&c #c \$&.c /#c (&\$-c (&+c '%(&c &c &c
'%(&.c c c #c ''\$%c '%(&c \$#c #\$c #c \$&%+c '%(&c #\$c c
\$-'+%0c c +%c \$c +c &c \$%+\$c #c \$c '&\$(c c #c &c &c
\$(#c%&\$- c(&\$&0c
c

#c'&\$(c&'c(&(c\$(#c\$c+c\$#*+\$,c%&\$-c#&+%cc\$%+\$c c
(&+(-c \$c # )&\$%c %\$ )%\$(c \$(c \$\$%c +-c #c ' )%c
#&0c#c
c&%c&'c#c\$cc#&+%c\$((&+c'&c#c\$/\$ c\$c#c\$)
'&+\$&c&(,c\$(&c''(0c \$\$%c\$\$c'&c#c(&( c\$c'&+\$&c&(,c
#&+%cc\$%#cc--c+c(& \$&c&c#c''( c&'c#c\$c&'c%&\$-c(\$%c
&'c\$#*+\$,c&0c#c-c\$#*+\$,c'&c#c\$' c\$%+\$&c&'c\$(#c\$cc#c
\$1+c (%c \$#*+\$,c  0c #c c c \$ c 1%c \$c c (\$\$%c &'c
&+(-c#c%\$-c-&+ c&&c#\$c(&+%cc&((+ c\$c#c\$c0cc c#&+%c
c (&c &c c \$c 1c %&\$-c (&&.c '& c /#(#c -'(\$c \$\$-c /&+%c c
\$((\$%.c+c#c\$c+c&c++c\$c#+ c#\$c%'c\$c&c&/\$0c

c
c

(c+c-&+c&&c'&c#c  c#&+%cc%&c'&c\$c(c-&+c
&&c\$\$%.c+c\$cc+% cc\$c&\$%(c-&+c&&c\$\$%c#&+%c
\$%+\$&c&'c#c%,%#&&c&' c#c c-&+c&&c(&c\$%0c#c\$#*+\$,c
&c &'c #c \$c \$c  c (&+c +-c #c & )(+c &)+&&c
#&.c+c'c\$1+ cc1(c#c\$%%&/\$%c\$%+c\$c%\$c )#&c\$\$%c
(\$cc#%'+%c&c\$- c#cc&'c;&c&-c\$c%c(\$(,-c0# c\$c\$c
c (&c \$'c '&c #c c '. c \$'c #c ''(c &'c (\$(,c \$c ;&c &-c #\$c c
\$((&+c'&.cc(\$cc#&/c#\$ c#c(&(cc&c& )(&c\$c'c(\$%c
&c&c&%0 c
c
Post-earthquake Safety Evaluation

c &)\$#*+\$,c \$'c \$%+\$&c c *+c &c \$+c #c \$'c &'c #c \$c '.c \$c
\$\$--c c #&+%c &((+c \$c #c \$c .c &c #c (c '&\$(c &'c #c \$c
+c &c \$c &+%\$c c #&+%c (\$c +\$\$%c \$\$-0c #c \$%+\$&c #&+%c
(&c#c''(c&'c\$(c%&\$c\$c/%%c\$cc\$'#&(,c\$#*+\$,c#\$c\$\$%c
&((+c \$'c \$c \$;&c *+\$,0c
\$(&c &'c \$'c '&c #c & )\$#*+\$,c (&&c \$c #c
\$c\$c#&c-c'&c#c++\$%c(\$0c
c
7 Sliding Stability

&c\$+c\$'c\$-\$c%-c\$%&-c'c,\$(\$%%c\$%c'\$%+c%\$c c
#c\$c.c\$c#c\$c'&+\$&@'\$(.c&cc#c'&+\$&.c#c#\$c'(&c'\$(&c&' c
\$'c\$+-c&c(&#&c#\$%%cc704c'&c&\$%c\$c+++\$%c%&\$-.c\$c-\$c #\$c
7c'&c1c%&\$-0c#c\$'c'\$(&c\$+c#\$c\$%c#\$cc\$%+\$c/# c
(c&c(&\$c#\$c-#c\$\$ 0c
c
c
(#c\$c\$c+;(c&c\$&+c%&\$0c&\$c(\$cc(\$-&<c&c c\$(c. c
\$(c\$c\$(0c\$(c%&\$c\$c+\$c%&\$c#\$c&c&c(#\$-.c&c(#\$-c c
%&/%c(&\$c&c#c\$+\$%c&c&'c\$&c&'c#c+(+0cc\$Ec&c& c
\$(c%&\$cc-&ccc''0c1\$%c&'c\$(c%&\$c(%+c\$c%&\$.c# \$+%(c
%&\$c '&c &\$%c &c '%&&c (&&.c '&(c '&c '%&/-c /\$c (#\$--c (&. c +%'.c
'&(c'&c(c1\$&.c\$c\$%cc(\$+cc\$+ c(#\$-0c\$(c
%&\$c\$c\$&cc\$+0c#c\$c(\$%%c(&c&c%c c+\$&0c(\$+c&'c#c
c\$c /#(#c #c \$(.c #c\$%c \$c \$-c (#\$\$(( c&'c#c\$c\$c /%%c\$cc
''c\$''(c#c\$?c#\$&0c1\$%c&'c\$(c%&\$ c(%+c\$#*+\$, )+(c
'&(.c%\$)+(c'&(.c'%+-c\$c '&(.c&c'&(c(\$+cc#c\$(c&'c(.c
.c&c&\$0c
c

\$c%&\$cc\$(#c\$cc#c/-#c&'c#c(&(c%+c\$+\$c+(+c+(#c\$ c
-\$.c-.c\$c&+%c/&,0c#c+c/-#c&'c#c(&(cc\$c&c#c%\$& \$&c
c+%c&'c#c1c-c\$@&c#(\$%c\$+c&'c(&(c(&0c &/. c
\$c(&(c(&\$-c\$+\$%c\$c\$c-\$%c&c(+# )&(,c\$---\$c-\$%% c
/-#c\$&+c74!c&+cc(+(c'&&c('0c c#c\$(c&'c\$+c\$ \$.c
#c +c /-#c (\$c c \$+c '&c #c (&(0c \$c %&\$c c &\$%%c &c &c
(\$%c&&%#c&c&c#c-&+-c&'c#c(&\$(&c;&0c#c#&+%cc\$,c& c
\$((&+c/#c\$\$%<-c #c\$0c
c
&\$c&c#c\$c%'.c#c/-#c &'c\$+\$(cc(\$%%c-%-%c\$c\$ c

c
c

## c-&cc#cc\$\$%0c \$c&+%c/&,c\$c&'%&/ )&-)/c%%/\$.c

#&/.c\$c#\$c&(\$%c''(c&c#c\$(c\$c\$(cc\$c# c
/-#c#&+%cc(&0 c

&\$%c/\$c%&\$c(%+c#&\$(c+c&c#c\$c'\$(c+%-c'&c# c
&c\$c\$%/\$c+-c#c&\$%c&\$&c&'c#c#&%((c&;(0c#c& c
%%c#&+%c(&&c&c#c \$1+c&\$%)#-#)/\$)%%c C.c/#(#cc++\$%%c
#c %%c &'c #c %%/\$c (c '&c +-\$c %%/\$c \$c #c &c &'c # c %%/\$c -\$c '&c
-\$c%%/\$0c&\$%c\$%/\$c(\$cc&\$c'&c#&(\$%c&\$& c(&0c
c

&c(&+\$&c&'c& \$%c/\$c%&\$.c#\$/\$c\$c\$%/\$c+c\$c(& c
&c\$c%\$%c/#c#c\$c&c\$(c&\$%c&c#c\$c+'\$(0c c\$&c&c#c\$ c
+'\$(.c#\$/\$c+c#&+%c\$%&cc\$%c&c#c'&+\$&c&(,c\$c#c\$%% c
'%&&c\$c'%\$,c(c&c/\$c%&\$c(\$+c'&+\$&c&(,c&c'&c\$c&+( c
\$&\$%c'&\$&c\$ccc#c\$0c c(&+\$&c&'c/\$c%&\$.c\$c(&\$ c
+c/-#c&'cF 0Gc('c\$cc\$+c'&c'#c/\$0 c
c
(-cc#c&&c( &.c\$%/\$c-\$%%c&+(cc/#c&&c- c
&'c#&c+(cc#c#\$/\$0c#c''(c&'c\$%/\$.c#'&.cc&c+(c&# c
%c\$c(&cc%&/c#c\$%/\$c%\$&0c#c''(c# c
/#c #c \$%/\$c #c c %c #\$c !5c &'c #c \$c #-#0c
&c #c \$&.c c c
-\$%%c(&c(&\$c&c-&c\$%/\$c%&\$cc\$c\$(#c\$cc\$\$%. c
\$c\$cc&c'&c%(0c '.c#&/.c\$%/\$c''(c+%'c+c&c\$c'\$%+ c
%\$c&c/#(#c%-c\$%cc-c\$\$%<.c+%'c#&+%cc(&0 c
c

#c\$(c'%&&c%&\$c(%+c#&\$(c+c&c#c\$c'\$(c+%-c'&c# c
&c\$c\$%/\$c%\$&c/#(#c&((+c+-c#c\$\$-c&' c#c'%&/c- c
'%&&c 
0c#c /\$c+c+c&c'%&&c\$c\$%&c\$+c&c\$c%\$%c /#c#c
\$c&c\$(c&\$%c&c#c\$c+'\$(c\$c&c\$%%c'%&&c\$c'%\$,c&'c#c'&+\$&c&(,0 c
c
8.4 Uplift

%'c&c&c/\$c+c%&c/ #c/\$cc#c\$%c\$(c/#c# c
&c&'c\$c\$(#c\$c\$c/%%c\$cc#c'&+\$&c;&.c(\$(,.c\$c\$0c c\$( c
%&\$-c(&&.c#c''(c&'c&c/\$c+cc&c+(c&\$%c(& c
c/#c#c(&(c \$c&c(\$c#c(&&-c&\$%c%c c
#&+%c#c1c c7DD!0cc(&+c\$\$%c&'c#c''(c&c &&/c9& c
\$.c\$cGF4)')#-#c#c\$(#c\$.c\$c&c\$c#(,c\$(#c\$c&'c%\$c#-#c\$c( c
%-#.c#&/c\$cc(#\$- c&'c%c#\$c !cc ))c00c\$&+c%c#\$c45c&'c#c% c
-#c&'c#c(&(0c(\$+c&'c#c&c(#\$-cc.c#c''(c&'c&c/\$ c
+c&cc/#c\$c\$(#c\$c\$cc-&cc#c\$(c&'c\$c(\$(,0 c
C#c#c c+%c\$c'%c(&&c'&c\$c-\$c#(,c\$(#c\$c(\$c#\$ c
%c(\$(,-c/%%c%&c\$c#c\$ )'&+\$&c'\$(.c+%'c#&+%cc(& c
\$c \$%c \$c 1\$%c %&\$c &c &#c '\$(c &'c #c (\$(,0c %'c &c &c c &c c
(&cc#cc\$\$%c'&c#c\$(#c\$0 c
c
%'c#&+%c\$%/\$cc(&cc#c%-c\$%c\$\$%c&'c#c&\$%c'\$%+ c
%\$c /#c #c '&+\$& c &c \$%&-c #c \$)'&+\$&c '\$( c C#c *+.c
+&c&'c+%'c +c\$c#c(&\$(c+'\$(c/c\$c\$(#c\$ c\$c#c'&+\$&c

c
c

&(,c (\$c c c +-c #c '%c \$\$c '&c <&c \$- c &c c '&-c
\$-c \$\$%0c c -\$%.c #c +&c &'c +%'c +c c '%+( c c #c
-&%&-(\$%c( &&c&'c#c'&+\$&c&(,c\$c#c\$c&'c#c\$.c c%&(\$&c\$c%-#c
&'c\$.c\$cc#c(\$(,c%-# 0c

c
1-c \$(#c \$c \$c ++\$%%c +;(c &c %c +c +c &c \$c \$\$%c
&cc#c&c&c\$ c\$0c &/.c#c-'(\$(c&'c%c+c\$c\$ c
\$&\$%c\$(c%&\$cc&c#cc#0c
&c )#\$c\$c&\$c\$c\$(# c
\$.cc#c&'c%c#\$c7@Gc&'c#c\$c#-#c&+(c-%-%c'&\$& c
\$cc7!c&c74c .c\$c#+c#c''(c\$cc-&0 c
c

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 %    
  


    
  
  


½ ½   

#


      
    
  



 
   
          

  
 
   
  
    "   
      
 

  
     

&    



##         

 
   

 
  
 
 

 
   

  
'  
 
   
    
  
c

c
c

\$+c %&\$c c \$(#c \$c +%c '&c #c ''(c /c #c (%&+c
\$+c /#c (&+(&c;&c/c (\$%c &&%#c\$c -&+c&c'%%cc
(&(c&cc#c&-#.c\$c#c(&(c\$+c+-c#c&\$&c&'c# c
\$0c
c
8.[[ Temperature Distribution

>\$\$&c&'c\$+c#&+-#c#c\$c#(,c\$%cc&c#c#(, c
&'c#c\$0c
&c%\$%c#c\$(#c\$.c\$c%\$c\$+c+&c'&c#c& c
\$+c&c#c+\$c&c#c\$c\$+c&c#c&/\$c'\$(c& c
\$c\$&\$%c\$&1\$& 0c
c
Air Temperature

\$c &'c \$c \$+ c \$c \$c \$c c \$c \$c &c #c \$c \$c \$+c
\$+c \$c #c \$c c &c \$c \$ c %&(\$&0c \$\$c '&c #c \$c \$&c #&+%c c
\$;+c'&c# c''(cc%\$&c\$c%\$+c#\$c\$c1c/c#c\$&c\$c
#c\$c0c
#c\$(+\$%c\$c\$+c\$\$c'&c\$c&c&'c4c\$c&c%&-cc*+c&c\$%c\$ c
(#\$c#&/-c\$&+c\$c\$+c\$c/%%c\$c#c\$1+c\$c+c(& c
\$+0c
c
Reservoir Water Temperature

#c&c/\$c\$+c\$c /#c#c\$c\$&0c\$c&'c\$+ c
'&c#c&+c/\$c\$c&\$cc\$+-c\$+c(%c\$c\$c%&/ c
#c/\$c+'\$(c\$c%&(\$&c\$c#c\$0c+(#c\$\$c++\$%%c(%+c&c(&-c c
&#c'&c\$%c&#c\$(#c\$ c\$c'&c\$c&c&'c\$%c\$0c

&%\$c\$\$&c&c#c1&c'\$(c&'c\$c\$c(\$c#c\$+c&'c#c+(+0 c
#c&%\$c\$\$&.c#'&.c#\$c#cc''(c&'c+(-c\$+c%&\$c'&c# c
/c (&&c \$c (\$-c '&c #c +c (&&0c #c \$c (&(c
\$+c#&+%cc\$;+c'&c#c''(c&'c&%\$c\$\$& c&c#c&/\$c'\$(c\$c
&c#c&&c&'c+\$c'\$(c&c(&cc& c/\$0c#c\$&+c&'c\$+c
c+c&c&%\$c\$\$&cc&c#c%&c\$ c&\$&c&'c#c1&c+'\$(c\$c
/%%c\$c#c%\$+0 c
c
Concrete Temperatures

#c\$-c&c\$%+c&'c(&(c\$+c\$-c'&c1&+c&c\$c\$c/\$ c
(\$cccc\$c%'c#&c&c#c ')%c#&0c c#c%' c
#&c\$+c1\$%c+&\$%c\$+c\$\$&c\$c\$%c&c#c-c&'c\$ c
#&(\$%c'%\$c%\$.c/#\$cc
 c#c\$c\$%c&c#c'\$(c&'c\$c' )%c
&%c&'c#c\$c+-c\$c(&+(c&+ \$c(&&0c
c

c
Safety Evaluation Earthquakes and Associated Ground Motions

#c\$'c\$%+\$&c\$#*+\$,c'&c\$\$%c&'c1-c\$(#c\$c*+-c\$#*+\$, c

c
c

## %&\$-cc#c\$1 +c(%c\$#*+\$,c 0c c

c
Response Spectrum Earthquake Input

)('(c &c (\$c &'c \$#*+\$,c -&+c & &c \$c *+0c #c &c
(+c+cc&&#%c%&c&c\$&c#c&%c&'c%&/c- c&(#cc#c
&c (+c (&(-c /#c #c \$+\$%c '*+ (c &'c #c \$0c &c (\$c
#&+%cc%&c'&c&#c#&<&\$%c\$c(\$%c-&+c&&0 c#c(\$c#&+%cc
%&c'&c 45c \$-0c c \$&. c #c %\$&#c &c'\$(&c \$c  c\$c &c\$c
&(+c )('(c +:c \$%\$ %.c #c %\$&#c c  c /\$,c \$c
\$%%c7D" c\$cc+0 c
c
Spatial Variation of Ground Motion

(&c \$#*+\$,c -&+c &&c \$c 9\$(&\$c \$c +-c #c 7DDGc &#-c
\$#*+\$,c   .c  9.c 7DDGc (\$c #\$c #c (c +c '&c \$ (#c \$c #&+%c
\$c \$%&-c #c \$c '&+\$&c '\$(0c &/.c #c (&c \$+c &&c \$c
9\$(&\$c \$c (%+c (&+&c '&c &#c #c (\$&c &&-\$#c \$c #c \$ )
'&+\$& c\$(&0c#c&&.c#'&.c\$c&c' )'%c\$((%&-\$c#\$c/&+%c
#\$cc(&c'c#c\$c/c&c#0c1(c'&c&c(&-c\$c\$c\$(#c\$c c
\$/\$.c/#(#c(%+c' )'%c&&c\$c%&(\$&c&c#c(\$&c%&c\$c\$%% c
'%&&c\$/\$c'&c#c\$.c&#c(\$c&'c\$+c' )'%c-&+c&&c\$(&c#c
(\$&c+\$%c'&c\$\$%c&'c\$(#c\$c#\$c&cc &0c
c

(#c\$c#&+%cc\$%+\$c'&c\$%%c\$&\$c%&\$c(&\$&c+-c#c\$' c
'\$(&0c -c &c #c &\$%c &'c &((+(.c #c \$(c %&\$-c (&\$&.c
@  .c @   .c \$c    #&+%c c (&0c # c ++\$%c %&\$-c (&\$&c
(&c#c''(c&'c\$%%c%&\$c#\$c\$c1c+-c# c&\$%c&\$&c&'c#c\$0c#c
+++\$%c%&\$-c (&\$&c 'c &c#c %&\$c \$(-c &c #c \$c+-c #c'%&&c \$-0c
#c 1c %&\$-c (&\$&c(%+c \$c &'c # c ++\$%c %&\$-c (&\$&c %+c #c
''(c &'c #c \$1+c %c \$#*+\$, 0c C#c \$c c %&/c /\$c %%c &c c
&c \$c c 1(.c c ''(c #&+% c c (&c c \$c (\$%c %&\$-c
(&\$&0c
c

a. Summer Condition:
Uc \$1+c\$c(&(c\$+ c
Uc&\$%c#-#c/\$c%%c C.c&c#c&c&\$%c/\$c%%c&((+-c\$ c#cc&'cc
cc\$1+c\$c\$+c
Uc\$c%&\$c
Uc%c%&\$c'c\$%(\$% c
Uc\$%/\$c'c\$%(\$% c
c
x. Winter Condition:
Uc +c\$c(&(c\$+ c
Uc&\$%c#-#c/\$c%%c C.c&c#c&c&\$%c/\$c%%c&((+-c\$ c#cc&'c
cc+c\$c\$+ c
Uc\$c%&\$c
Uc%c%&\$c'c\$%(\$% c

c
c

Uc (c%&\$c'c\$%(\$% c
Uc\$%/\$c'c\$%(\$% c
c

-c&c#cc&'c'%&&-.c&c&c&#c&'c#c'&%%&/-c+++\$%c%&\$-c(&\$& c
#&+%cc(&0c#c\$1+c\$c (&(c\$+c#&+%cc+ c/#c#c
+c '%&&-c \$c #c +c \$c (&(c \$+c #&+%c c %& c /#c
#c /c '%&&-.c +%c #c &c &\$%c \$c (&(c \$+c \$ c #c c &'c
(c'%&&-c(\$cc\$%#0 c
c
a. Summer Flooding:
Uc
%&&c/\$c%% c
Uc \$1+c\$c(&(c\$+.c&c\$c(&(c\$+c&((+-c\$ c#c
ccc&'c'%&&c
Uc\$c%&\$c
Uc%c%&\$c'c\$%(\$% c c
Uc\$%/\$c'c\$%(\$% c

x. Winter Flooding:
Uc
%&&c/\$c%% c
Uc +c\$c(&(c\$+.c&c\$c(&(c\$+c&((+-c\$ c#cc
ccc&'c'%&&c
Uc\$c%&\$c
Uc%c%&\$c'c\$%(\$% c
Uc (c\$(c'c\$%(\$% c
Uc\$%/\$c'c\$%(\$% c
c
(\$%c%&\$-c(&\$& c(&&c&c#c\$&\$%c+c/\$c%%cC c
&c\$c(&%c&c\$/&/c(&&0c#c\$c(&c\$c\$c\$'-+\$c\$-\$ c
&%c\$%c(&&c+c&c#c+(c&c%\$(,c&'c/\$c+0 c
c
Uc +cCc&c&c#\$/\$. c/#(#c\$%(\$% c
Uc &c&\$%c\$c(&(c\$+c\$c#\$c c
Uc\$c%&\$c
Uc%c%&\$c'c\$%(\$% c
77)F c
Uc\$%/\$c'c\$%(\$% c
c

1c%&\$-c(&\$&c(%+c\$c&'c#c++\$%c%&\$-c (&\$&c%+c#c
''(c&'c#c\$1+c(%c\$#*+\$,0 c
c
Uc+c++\$%c%&\$-c(&\$&cHc  c
UcCc++\$%c%&\$-c(&\$&cHc  c
c
C#c&c#\$c&c c-&+c&&c-&.c#c''(c&'c\$(#c c#&+%c c
(&c/#c\$(#c&'c# c++\$%c%&\$-c(&\$&c(c\$&0 c
c
c c

c
c

[ STATIC ANALYSIS
c
#c\$((\$%c#&c&'c\$\$%c'&c(&+-c'%(&c\$cc%&cc#c
\$c(%+c#c&\$% c'c%c
c\$cc(\$c(\$c(&++c&%+&c
&(+.c \$c \$%(\$%0c # c
c c \$\$%c #&+%c c (&+(c c %&-c \$c
\$((+\$c #)&\$%c &%c &' c #c \$)'&+\$&c 0c #c \$c c /#(#c
\$&+c\$(c%&\$c\$c\$%c#&+%cc(0 c
#c+%c&'c\$\$%c#&+%c cc\$&\$%cc&c&c'\$(%\$c1\$\$&. c
\$&.c\$c\$%+\$&c&'c#c'-0 c
c
Finite Element Analysis

#c 'c %c &(+c c #c +(\$%c #&c &c &'c +c '&c #c +(+\$%c
\$\$%c &'c \$(#c \$0c #c -+%c \$+c #\$c #c \$c c \$%\$c '\$%\$c /#c #c
-\$%c #&c &'c 'c %c \$\$%c &'c %\$(c &%c I,/(.c 7D37:c \$#c \$c
C%&.c7D3F0c
c

c c

-+)48c-%c
c%c&%c

## #.c#c\$(c%&\$c\$c&cc\$%c\$c#c +%c&cc+0c \$1+c%c\$c

(&c c c \$c \$(#c \$c ++\$%%c &((+c \$c #c '\$(c &' c #c \$.c #'&c
\$%+\$&c &'c c &c #c '\$(c &' c #c \$c c *+0  c \$&c &c #c \$(#c \$c
(\$%c .c #c \$-+c &'c  #c #\$c c (\$+c c #c -c \$c
/-c &c #&+%c c 1\$.c (\$%%c '&c c #c \$(# c \$c \$c #&c /#c
(\$(,c(&0c
c

c
c

[[ DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

%%c \$c c (c <&c 2c \$c #-#c #&+%c c \$%+\$c +-c \$(c \$\$%c
(#*+0c \$c c <&c c \$c \$%&c *+c \$(c \$\$%c &c \$c (\$c c (\$c \$0c
+%.c #)&\$%c %\$ )%\$(c ')%c \$\$%c c #c &c (&&c
(#*+c+c'&c\$(c\$\$%0c
c
c%\$)%\$(c\$(c\$\$%c&'c\$(#c \$c(\$%%c(&c&'c#c'&%%&/-c'&+ c
\$(c8c
70c\$&c&'c-c&c\$%+\$&c\$#*+\$,c\$c#c\$&(\$c-&+c&&: c
0c%&c&'c\$&\$c# )&\$%c' )%c&%c(%+- c
\$)'&+\$&c\$c\$ )/\$c\$(&c''(:c
20c('(\$&c&'c\$(c\$\$%c&.c\$-.c\$c& )&&c\$&&.c
'c\$%(\$%:c\$ c
G0c &+\$&c&'c#c\$#*+\$,c&c\$c\$&.c\$&.c\$ c
\$%+\$&c&'c#c+%0 c
c
#c -c &c \$%+\$&c \$#*+\$,c '& c \$(#c \$c c #c \$1+c (%c \$#*+\$,c
 0c#c\$#*+\$,c-&+c&& c(%+c#c#&<&\$%c\$c(\$%c&c(\$.c
&c #c(&&c&'c\$((%\$& c c#&0c #c \$c\$%c +'&%c \$c#c'1c
&+\$c&'c#c'&+\$& c&%0c
c
#)&\$%c' )%c&%c'&c#c\$(#c\$c\$c#c'&+\$&c&(,c\$ c
\$%%c (\$%c &c #&c (c '&c #c \$(c \$\$%.c 1(c #\$c #c \$)/\$c
\$(&c''(c#&+%c\$%&ccc c#c\$c#&\$( c\$c&%c&c
c #c '*+()c #&\$(c .c \$ c \$&\$0c c (c \$'c
\$%+\$&c&'c\$c\$(#c\$c#&+%cc\$c&c#c\$(c\$\$% c&c&'c#c\$c
(&(.c '&+\$&c &(,.c \$c #c -c %&c \$c #c &c &&. c 'c \$%(\$%0c
\$(c &+%+c &'c %\$(c \$c \$(c -#c &'c #c (&( c '&c \$#*+\$,c
1(\$&c \$c  0c \$-c \$&(\$c /#c \$&c &'c -c c #c (&(c
\$(#c+(+c\$c#c'&+\$&c&(, c+cc(&c/#c#c%%c&'c-&+c#\$,-.c
\$&+c&'c& )%\$c&c%& cc#c\$c\$c'&+\$&.c\$c#c&c&'c
#c'&+\$&c &(,0c
&c # c +&c &'c \$'c \$%+\$&.c \$c \$-c\$%+c &'c45c &c 7!5c
#&+%cc+0cc45 c\$-c#&+%cc\$%c&cc\$c%-c\$% c\$\$%c&'c\$%%c
\$0c
&\$%cc*+c'&c#c\$%+\$&c&'c#c\$#*+\$,c'&\$(c&'c#c\$c\$ c
&\$c c \$%-\$(c \$&c &'c #c \$%c \$(c c +c &c #c ++\$%c %&\$-c
(&\$&c \$c #c \$(c c #&0c c \$c %\$c &c \$\$%.c \$(c \$c
\$(c &c \$c ++\$%%c (&+c c /&c \$\$c \$\$%c \$c (&c
\$'/\$c&c&\$c#c&\$%c&0 c
c
Reservoir and Foundation Effects

\$(c&c&'c\$(#c \$c&c\$#*+\$,c-&+c&&cc\$''(cc\$(& c
/c#c\$c\$c&+c/\$.c\$(&c/c#c\$c\$c'&+\$& c
&(,.c\$-.c\$c#c(#\$\$((c&'c\$#*+\$,c-&+c&&0cc\$%(c\$\$\$% c
&'c#c(c\$'c&'c#c\$cc\$(#.c'c#c''(c&'c#c'\$(&c\$c+&& c
\$c&%ccc#c\$\$%0 c

Dam-Water Interaction

\$(&c &'c \$c \$(#c \$c /#c #c &+c /\$c %\$c &c \$c (\$c c #c \$c
\$&c&0c#cc(\$+c#c \$c(\$&c&c/#&+c%\$(-c#c/\$c c
(&\$(c/#c0c#c'\$(c#\$c/\$c&c/#c#c\$c(\$c#c&\$%c\$c#\$cc c
&&0c#c\$c\$c(\$c#c\$+\$%c&c&'c#c\$.c/#(#cc+c\$''( c

c
c

## #c&c(+c&\$ c\$c#(c#c''(c\$#*+\$,c\$c'&(0c c(\$ c

\$%&c (\$+c \$c (\$c c \$-c +c &c \$\$%c \$&&c &'c +c /\$c \$c #c
&c&+\$c\$c\$\$&c&/\$c#c+\$0c#c''(cc&c(#\$-c# c
\$#*+\$,c&c& 'c#c\$c/#c(c&c#\$c'&c#c\$c/#cc&. c
/#c#cc+%c-c&c#c(#\$\$((c\$c(&&c&'c\$#*+\$,c-&+ c
&&c\$c&c#c\$ )/\$c\$(&c&%c+0 c
c
c

c
c

Dam-Foundation Interaction

\$(&c&'c# c\$c/#c#c'&+\$&c&(,c%\$c&c\$c(\$cc\$&c&. c
\$%c+c&c'%1%c&'c#c'&+\$&c&(,0c\$ )'&+\$&c\$(&c\$%&c(\$ c
#c\$c&c'c\$-c\$-c'&c\$\$%c\$-cc#c'&+\$& c&(,c\$c#c
\$\$&c\$-c\$&(\$c/#c/\$c&\$-\$&c\$/\$c'&c#c\$c\$ c(&cc
#c\$\$%0c#c''(c&'c\$ )'&+\$&c\$(&cc&c# c'&+\$&c'%1%c
 #&\$c \$c \$c7DDF0c c#c'&+\$&c &(,c(&c & c'%1%.c \$\$&c\$-c
(\$c\$c\$&c&c%&-\$c'+#0 c
c\$((.c\$)'&+\$&c\$(&c''(c\$c(\$%%ccc\$c=  =c
\$%c'&+\$&c&%.cc/#(#c&%c'%1%c&'c#c'&+\$&c&(,cc(& c
+cc\$c\$c\$-c\$c-&0 c
c
cc

## [2 Historical incidents and failures involving arch dams:

c
requipa èPeru. #c#)\$(#c(&(c\$c'\$%cc7DF4c\$c\$c+%c&'c'\$(+ c
(\$+cc\$c\$-c&(,c/#(#c\$c#&+-#c#c\$0c '%&/c /\$c&\$%c\$c#c

c
c

0c

## Matilija, California . #c(&(c\$c/\$c(&%cc7DGDc\$c/\$c\$c(&\$&c&' c

-\$c\$c\$(#c+(+0c c/\$c7F2c'c#-#c/#c\$c(c%-#c&'cF !c'0c c7DF4 c
#c\$c/\$c;+-c&cc+\$'c\$c\$c+%c&'c &\$&c&'c#c(&(c+c& c
1\$c\$---\$0c
&+\$&c(&&c/c\$%&c;+-c&cc&&0c#c& c
/\$c\$.c#c\$c/\$c+\$%%c&%#.c\$c#cc/\$c+-cc\$c/ c
\$c&/\$0c

## Vajont, Switzerland. #c#)\$(#c(&(c\$.c/#(#ccD!4c'c#-#.c/\$ c

&&cc\$c#+-c%\$% )-\$c/\$0c '%&/c&c#c&c/\$c&\$%c\$ c
#c0c#c+%-c&&-c/\$c\$c&cc\$c+(#c\$c2!!c'0c#c\$ c
77)7G7c %'c +''c %%c \$\$-.c +c #c &c /\$c \$c &\$%c %&0c #c +%-c '%&&c
(\$+c-\$c%&c&'c%'cc#c &/\$c\$\$0c

## Malpasset, Fran^e #c#)\$(#c(&(c\$.c/#(#c/\$c 7"c'c\$%%.c'\$%c+c&c\$ c

&c&'c#c%'c\$+cc(c7D4D0c#c& c/\$c#&+-#c&c c
+c&c%-c&c\$c&(,c/-c'&cc(&c&'c\$c'\$+%c/#c-(c'&%\$&c c
#c&(,c&'c#c%'c\$+0c#c(%c(\$+c&'c#c'\$%+c/\$c&c(%c+c& c
#c\$\$-c&'c\$c'%&&cc#\$c#c\$c/\$cc&& 0c &/.c\$cc%\$-c'%&& c
/\$c-c\$c/#c#c'\$%+c&((+0c#c&''(\$%c\$#c&%%c/\$c2DFc&%c,%% c
c#c+-c'%&&.c/#(#c+%c+(,c#c%%\$-c&'c
;+0c#c\$c/\$c\$ c
(&%c%&0c

## Le Gage, Fran^e #c>c#c74!E c#-#c\$(#c\$c%&c1c(\$(,-c& c

&#c'\$(c&'c#c\$c\$'c'c'%%-c&'c#c&cc7D440c \$(,-c(&+c& c
/&c'&c#c1cFc\$0c'c#c'\$%+c&'c \$%\$c\$.cc\$-c/\$c\$\$& c
\$c\$c/c#(,c\$(#c\$c/\$c(& +(c+\$0c

## El Fryle Dam, Peru #c !!Ec#-#c\$(#c\$c1(c\$c\$;&c%c&c&c&'c# c

\$+c+-c'%%-0c#c\$cc&c(&%%\$0cc(&(c#+c%&(,c\$+ c
/\$c(&+(c\$c#c\$c/\$c\$0 c

## Moyie River, Idaho #c42)'&&c#-#c(&(c\$(#c\$.c%&(\$c&c#c &c. c

/\$c\$&1\$%cFGc'c#(,c\$c#c\$c\$c Gc'c/c\$c#c(0c+-c\$\$- c
&'c\$c\$;&c'%&&cc7D F.c#c%%/\$.c/#(#c/\$c%&(\$c&c&c\$+.c/\$ c
+0c#c&&c(&% %c/\$#c&+c&c&'c#c\$+0c#c\$+ c
/\$c%\$(c\$c#c\$cc%%cc+0 c
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lla Sella Zerxino, llessandria, Italy #c(&(c\$(#)-\$c+(+c/\$c&%c2Dc
'c#-#c/#c\$c(c%-#c&'c F c'c\$c\$c&c(\$\$(c&'c 7G.!!!c
0c c'\$% c
&c+-+c72.c7D24.c\$c\$c+%c&'c&&-c\$c%-c&cc'&+\$&0c c
#+c%c/c%&0 c
c
Lake Lanier, North Carolina #c(&\$)\$+c(&(c\$(#c\$c/\$c(&+(c c
7D 40c c#\$c\$c#(,c&'c7 )7@ c'c\$c#c\$c\$c7c'&&c\$c#c&0c c/\$cF ?c#-# c
/#c\$c(c%-#c&'c 2Fc'0cc&'c#c\$+c((%&\$c\$&c/\$#c&+c\$ c
\$c+%c&'c#c'\$%+c&'c&'c&(,cc#c\$+c&c6\$+\$c 7.c7D F0c#c\$c&' c
#c\$c/\$c+#\$0 c

## GlenoèItaly #c+%%)\$(#c(&(c\$c(&\$c 4c\$(#c'&c\$c&\$%c%-#c&' c

4!c'0c &(c-\$c(&c\$c+c#cc&'c#c\$0c&\$%c(c%-#c/\$ c
"F2c'0c#c\$c/\$c7G2c'c#-#0c c/\$c(&%cc7D 2c\$c'\$%c&c( c
7.c7D 2c&%c2!c\$c\$'c'%%-0cc\$(#c'%%c+c&c\$c&&c\$&c\$0c& c
F!!c&c%&c#c%0 c

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c

## Lake Hodges, California #c+%%)\$(#c(&(c\$c/\$c(&%cc7D7"cc# c

c&'c\$c-&0c c/\$c72Fc'c#-#c/#c\$c(c% -#c&'cF7Fc'c\$c\$c& c
(\$\$(c&'c22.44!c
0c#c\$c/\$c\$\$-cc(\$(,ccc7D7"c+cc& c
(&%%c'\$%0c

'0cc&&c&'c#c\$c'\$%cc7D Gc+c&c&\$&c&'c#c(&(0 c

## Tolla, Fran^e #cc#c\$(#c\$c/\$c D4?c#-#c/#c\$c(c%-#c&'cG24c'0 c

/cc%((c
\$(.c#c\$c1(cc(\$(,-0c c/\$c+ c
c&0c \$(,-c\$c#\$cc#c +%c&'c%\$-c\$+c0 c

## Koelnxrein, ustria \$(,c\$c+\$\$%c%\$,\$-c\$\$cc#c%&/c'&+\$& c

-\$%%c/#c#c&c/\$c"!5c'+%%c/&c\$c\$'c'c'%%-0c
+%%c+%'c+ c
/\$c&c&c#cc\$cc#c (\$%c&&c&'c#c\$0c \$;&c\$c/\$ c
+\$,c/c7D"Dc\$c7DDG0 c

## Zeuzier, Switzerland #c\$c#\$c\$'\$(&%c'&c !c\$.c#c-\$c&c'%( c

+\$c+c&c/\$c&c&'c#c%'c\$+0 c

## Leguase^a, Spain #c(&(c+%%)\$(#c\$.c/#(#c/\$cFFc'c#-#c/#c\$c( c

%-#c&'c 2!c'c\$c#%c\$c&c&%+c&'c&%c7Fc
.c/\$c(&+(cc7D4" c
\$c'\$%cc7D"30c#c\$c&c'\$%c+(+\$%%.c\$\$%c+c&c&\$&c+ c
&c&#c\$--c\$c#c' '(c&'c'<-c\$c#\$/-0c&c\$%c&'c#c'\$%+c\$c- c
c#c%\$+0 c

## Meihua (Plum), China #c1\$%c\$&c\$(#c\$c/\$c3 c'c#-#c\$c#\$c\$ c

(c%-#c&'c 77c'0c c/\$c(&%cc7D"7c#%c\$c&c&'c&%cD2c
0c  c
'\$%c#&%c\$'c'%%-cc7D"70c#c\$c'\$%c\$c\$c+%c&'c+(+\$%c'\$%+c+c& c
1(c+%'c&c\$%&-c\$c#\$%c;&c\$c(cc(&c77 )"020 0c#c
(#c/\$c\$\$&c\$'c'\$%+0 c
c
Idxar, Yugoslavia #c(&(c\$(#c\$c/\$c7 4?c#-#c/#c\$c(c%-#c&'c24Gc'0 c
c/\$c(&%cc7D4Dc\$c'\$%cc7DF!0c
\$%+c/\$c+-c'c'%%-c\$c+% c
'&c-c\$c&&c&'c#c'&+\$&0 c

## Vaughn Creek, US #c(&(c\$(#c\$c/\$cF ?c#-#c/#c\$c(c% -#c&'c27 c

'0c#c\$c/\$c(&%cc7D Fc\$c'\$%c+-c'c'%%-0c\$-c\$c&& c
\$\$%cc#c\$c(\$+c'\$%+0 c
c
c
c
c
c
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[3 CONCLUSIONS:

70c #c \$(c #c %\$c &c & )%\$c &c c +c c (&&\$&c /#c \$ )
/\$.c /\$)'&+\$&.c\$c\$ )'&+\$&c\$(&c+c(c'&(c\$c#c
\$(#c\$c(\$&cc\$\$%c\$c&%\$c&0 c
0c #c/\$c%%cc#c&c#\$c\$c-\$c''(c&c#c&#c%\$c\$c& )%\$c
\$\$%c&'c\$(#c\$0c
20c #c\$(#c \$c \$c &c (&&(\$%.c \$'c #\$c -\$c \$.c&c #c&c
-&-\$#c(&&c1c'&c\$+\$%c\$+0 c
G0c -c &'c \$+c c c \$;&c &\$(c c (\$c &'c \$(#c \$c (\$%%.c
(\$+c #c /\$c +c /#(#c c 1c &c #c \$(#c c %\$\$%%c ( \$c &c
\$+c(\$+c&'c#c\$(#c\$(&0 c
40c c(\$c&'c'c%c\$\$%.c%&\$c&cc\$%cc#c/\$c#c\$c\$(-c&c
#c\$0c\$c%&\$c\$(-c\$c#c&c#c%&(,c\$c%\$(cc#&+-#c
#cc&c&c&-c&((+-c/c#c(&\$(&c;&0cc c

c
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[4 REFERENCES:

## 70c -c&'c(#c\$cJc-c \$+\$%c'&c &(c(#c\$ccC\$c&+(c

(#(\$%c9+%(\$& 0c
0c K &%c '&c (c \$\$%c &'c \$(#c \$c (%+-c \$(&c ''(Lc c
60&-+<c\$c0 \$&0 c
20c K \$(,c \$%c &'c &(c \$(#c \$c +-c (&c 9%\$c \$\$-c \$c
(&+c%\$&Lcc 0c\$<\$#c\$c0c0c\$;\$ 0c
G0c '&\$&c&cC,\$ c