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Materials Selection and Case

Studies Class Notes

Week 10
Material Properties
Ashby`s Design Approach
Design Requirements and Materials Specification
Ranking-Modelling Performance
Materials for Mechanical Elements
- Performance Indices
• Design of a structural element is specified by three
parameters, or groups of parameters:
– Functional requirements (F)
– Geometry (G)
– Material Properties (M)
• We can quantify the interdependence if we can specify
performance, p, as a function of F, G and M:
– p = f(F, G, M)
• We can simplify further if the three groups of parameters
are separable, i.e:
– p = f1(F) . f2(G) . f3(M)
• The materials grouping f3 is of interest here

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Material Selection
• Material properties limit performance
• Material performance is a combination of its
properties. A complex issue
• Depending on design needs material performance is
studied. For e.g. if need is lightweight materials then
material properties of stiffness-to-weight ratio or
strength-to-weight ratio should be considered.
• How to solve this complex issue:
– Materials Selection Charts are useful
– Ashby plots is widely used one
– A good way to optimize properties
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ASHBY PLOTS: Material Property Charts
• Key Tools for
– Property comparison
– Material selection
• Many available for
different properties
• The one on left hand
side is modulus-density

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How to Read an Ashby Plot
Log (Property 1) vs Log (Property 2) We will use these for design!

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An example: Ashby formalization

What is the Follows from its Performance Resulting

structure function e.g., index materials index
required to do? required to be (M)
E.g. carry a stiff and of a
transverse load certain span
Use structural mechanics to link materials, geometry and function to performance
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Example 1: Lightweight stiff rod

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Example 2: Flexure-Tether, Max
displacement without failure

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Specific Stiffness Strength Map

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Structural Integrity
“Capability of a structure to carry out the operation for which it was designed”
Aerospace Design Parameters
• Aerospace Materials Keywords:
– Airworthiness Materials

– Structural Integrity
– Lightweight Construction Constraints

• Aim: Lightest Airworthy Vehicle

• There is no doubt that any of the

disciplines of Aeronautics and Astronautics Load Analysis

can contribute to an accident

– Engine Failure Mechanics

– etc.
• The vast majority of non-human induced Optimum aircraft structure
accidents are due to structural (material) that meets the design
failure. objectives

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