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Audi e-fuels:

Decarbonization of the mobility sector


Dr. Hermann Pengg, Audi AG
The problems
Problem 1:
We need to reach the 2°C goal
Transport contributes about 24% in the EU to GHG (world: 15%)

7%

Source: Meinshausen (2009); EEA: CO2 Emissions EU-27 (2012)


Problem 2:
Electrification alone will not solve the GHG problem of transport

~5.000 TWh EU energy consumption in the mobility sector in 2020 1


Naval transportation 1%

Aviation 14% Heavy duty mobility 33% Individual mobility 50% Railway 3%

Long range Short range

Electrification contributes little to aviation, New cars p.a.: 5% of existing cars 


shipping and heavy duty total substitution takes 20 years

Source: 1 Eurostat, European Commission, DG Energy and Transport: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030
Problem 3:
A renewable electricity system generates about 30% excess energy

Simulation of residual load in German electricity system, with 78% renewable energy share on total electricity consumption;
idealizations: no export/import, perfect grid („copper plate assumption“), weather date from 2007

60 Backup power needed


scarcity
40

20
Residuallast [GW]

-20

-40

-60
Long term storage
-80
needed
-100 surplus: - 187,7 TWh
surplus scarcity: 43,5 TWh
-120
Jan Feb Mar Apr Mai Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Dez

Source: Simulation Fraunhofer IWES 2010

Seite 5 Audi e-gas project | AUDI AG


Simulation
A solution
Audi calculates a complete carbon footprint for each
vehicle – the lifecycle analysis
Current
legislation

vehicle fuel
exhaust pipe recycling
manufacturing production

„all emissions included“ – cradle to grave LCA

*numbers for A3 TFSI

Seite 8 Audi e-gas project | AUDI AG


Audi e-fuels – sustainable, fast, and high leverage measures
for the mobility sector

+ +
renewable water CO2 Audi e-fuels
energies

Audi e-fuels:
• no fossil-based sources; no need of arable land
• compatible with existing infrastructure
• large CO2 reduction
Biomass-free low carbon fuels: Renewable electricity or direct
sunlight can be converted into green hydrogen, diesel, gasoline
or natural gas
sunlight,
CO2 methanation
or FT
Electricity
H2 CH4
Natural gas
grid
Electrolysis

electricity Hydrogen Diesel/ Natural Gas


Gasoline
Natural gas
filling station

Electric Fuel cell D/G vehicle Natural gas


vehicle vehicle vehicle
-10-
Audi & Partners demonstrate that PtX technologies are
ready for commercialization TRL*)
ETOGAS
Catalytic methanation, 6 MW (DE/DK) 8-9
e-gas
Electrochaea
Green Biological methanation, pilot (DE/DK) 6-7
Green Electricity hydrogen Joule
Direct sunlight (H2) Direct sunlight / GM cyanobacteria, demo (USA) 4-5
e-diesel
CO2 Sunfire
Water HTE, Fischer-Tropsch; demo (DE) 7-8
CO2
Global Bioenergies
e-gasoline Isobuten using GM E.coli; demo (FR/DE) 6-7

*) Technology Readiness Level (TRL): 1: proof of concept; 4: Pilot in lab; 5: Pilot in relevant surrounding; 9: industrial scale
Audi e-gas plant, Werlte
The Audi A3 Sportback g-tron
Where can I buy Audi e-gas?

Simple Navigation with Audi e-gas App

> 900 CNG stations


Audi e-gas
Biomethan
Audi e-gas on > 600 CNG stations
Natural gas
Audi A4 Avant g-tron: The next evolution

► 2.0 l / 135 kW (170 PS), 270 Nm

► CNG: > 500 km


gasoline: 450 km

► consumption: < 4 kg / 100 km

► Market entry Ende 2016

► Comes with Audi e-gas 2.0


PtX and other low-carbon fuels offer a unique solution for a
rapid decarbonization of the whole transport sector

~5.000 TWh EU energy consumption in the mobility sector in 2020 1


Naval transportation 1%

Aviation 14% Heavy duty mobility 33% Individual mobility 50% Railway 3%

Long range Short range

Power-based renewable gaseous -85% Electric power


& fluid fuels (wtw)

Source: 1 Eurostat, European Commission, DG Energy and Transport: European Energy and Transport, Trends to 2030
Thank you!
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