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Subject Index

Note: Page numbers followed by b indicate boxes, f indicate figures and t indicate tables.

A Cased wellbore, 4, 4f
Anisotropic stress, 190, 191f breakdown pressure, 4–5
in parallel fractures, 184–186 hydraulic fracture from, 69
Arrested period, 57 Cauchy principal value, 94
Axial load, 199 Circular fracture, 11–14, 12f
energy consideration, 14–15
Complex fracture networks, 139–143,
B
149–153
Backpressure, 17 schematic, 181f
Backstress, 17 Complex fractures
Basis function, 29 examples, 190–195
Biot’s poroelastic parameter, 199 interaction among, 190–195
Bonding, 126–127 Constant height fracture
Borehole pressure, 100 KGD model, 6–8, 6f
Boundary conditions models, 5–11
3-D fracture modeling, 26, 26f PKN model, 8–11, 8f
natural fracture, 163–171 Continuity equation, 52
for turning fracture, 113, 113f Continuity of fluid mass, 161
Boundary element method, 181, 183 Control volume, 25f
Boundary integral method, 112–113 Convection
Breakdown pressure of interior node, 36f
cased wellbore, 4–5 mesh generation before and
deviated wellbore, 75f, 76, 77f, 78f after, 37f
for elastic hole, 1–2 Coordinate
experiments on, 198–199 for deviated wellbore, 70, 70f
hole, 1–2, 20, 74, 199 for turning fracture, 112f
initiation pressure compared to, 198 Coupled geo-mechanics reservoir
of open hole, 198–199 model, 139
pore pressure relating to, 199 Critical fracture inclination angle, 100
for poroelastic hole, 1–2 Crossing criterion. See Fracture crossing
of wellbore, 2–3 criterion
Crossing with offset, 133–134
C Cross-linked gel treatment, 149–153, 153t,
Calculated critical fracture angle, 101f 154f
Cased hole study
data used in, 82t D
deviated wellbore, 78–88, 82t Delaunay triangulation method, 39
for horizontal well, 126 Desktop Interface Separation Laboratory
for link-up of mini-fractures, Apparatus for Simulation of Hydrofrac
98–99 (DISLASH), 205–206
stress distribution, 78–88 Developed grid, curved fracture, 114f
228 Subject Index

Deviated wellbore on hydraulic fracture tip, 201–202


breakdown pressure, 75f, 76, 77f, 78f on hydraulic impedance method, 215
case study data, 75t on in situ stress measurement, 209–211
cased hole study, 78–88, 82t introduction to, 197
coordinate for, 70, 70f in laboratory, 197–208
experiments on, 200–201 limitations, 197–198
fracture plane, 69, 76, 76f, 87–88 massive hydraulic fracture simulation,
fracture propagation experiment for, 205–206
200–201 measured downhole pressure curve,
hole problem, 73 211–213
hydraulic fracture initiation, 70–78 near-wellbore tortuosity estimation and
in situ stress components, 71–73, 210–211 mitigation, 215–216
introduction to, 69 on open hole breakdown pressure, 198–199
link-up of mini-fractures along, 69, scaling, 199
89–104, 201 shear-induced dilation, 162
perforation strategy, 78–88 similitude analysis, 207–208
stress distribution around, 70–78
tensile stress, 74
turning, 69, 105–132, 200 F
Diagonal swap triangulation, 39f Far-field stress, 190
Direct crossing, 133–134 Field experiments, 133, 208–216.
DISLASH. See Desktop Interface Separation See also Experiments
Laboratory Apparatus for Simulation of Filtercake
Hydrofrac fines relating to, 19–20
Dislocation density function, 92, 93, 94, 95 fluid leakoff relating to, 19–20
Distribution effect, 153–155 poroelasticity and, 16–21
Downhole pressure curve, 211–213 wellbore, 4
Down-hole pressure record, 3f Fines, 19–20
Dry zone, 12f, 14 Finite element formulation
3-D fracture modeling, 29
proppant transport, 55–57
E Flow rate distribution, 184
Echelon fracture, 129–130, 129f Fluid flow equation, 140–141
Elastic hole breakdown pressure, 1–2 2-D fracture, 107–108
Elasticity equation horizontal wellbore, 107–108
2D DDM, 181–182 for turning fracture, 113
general elasticity solution, 181 Fluid leakoff
Element matrices, 29, 29f, 30f filtercake relating to, 19–20
Energy consideration, 14–15 leakoff coefficient, 18, 19
Experiments. See also Fracture propagation pore pressure, wellbore pressure, and, 17,
experiment 18f, 18t
on deviated wellbore, 200–201 pressure-dependent, 159
DISLASH, 205–206 Fluid mass, 161
in field, 133, 208–216 Fluid motion, 23–27
on fracture crossing criterion, 133–134, Fluid pressure
135, 203–205 link-up of mini-fractures relating to, 99–100
on fracture propagation, 199–200 net, 110, 110f, 111, 111f, 179–180
fracture width and pressure measurement, Fluid properties, 58t
213–215 Fracture containment, 199–200
on horizontal wellbore, 200–201 Fracture contour, 60f, 62f
Subject Index 229

Fracture crossing criterion on fracture crossing criterion, 133–134,


experiments on, 133–134, 135, 203–205 135
fracture propagation experiment, 133–134, for horizontal wellbore, 200–201
135 in laboratory, 199–200
testing, 203–205 length history methods, 202
Fracture element, 91f Fracture starter, 124–125
Fracture front node generation, 34–35 Fracture tip. See Tip element
Fracture geometry, multiple transverse, 188, Fracture toughness, 197–198
189f, 190 Fracture turning. See Turning fracture
Fracture half length, 188t Fractures. See specific fracture types
Fracture inclination Fracturing
angle, 89, 97, 98, 100 of horizontal well, 122–130
link-up of mini-fractures, 100 introduction to, 1
Fracture initiation pressure, 198 multi-stage, 177
Fracture network, 133 of wellbore, 1–5
complex, 139–143, 149–153, 181f Friction factors, 213–214
simple, 144–149 comparisons, 214t
Fracture opening equation Frictional law, 162–163
natural fracture, 163 Front movement, 32–33, 33f
three-dimensional fracture modeling, 28–29
Fracture opening width measurement, 18–19, G
19f, 55, 213–215
Galerkin method, 29
Fracture plane
Gas Research Institute (GRI), 214–215
2D DDM relating to, 183–184
GdK model. See Khristianovic-Geertsma-de
deviated wellbore, 69, 76, 76f, 87–88
Klerk model
Fracture propagation
General complex fracture model.
of 3-D hydraulic fracture, 30–33, 31f, 45,
See Unconventional fracture model
45f, 102
General elasticity solution, 181
case studies and discussion, 164–171
Governing equations, 49–53
complex fracture networks, 139–143, 149–
G-plot, 212
153, 181f
GRI. See Gas Research Institute
containment, 199–200
Grid plane, 114–115, 114f
criterion, 138–139
Growth
experiments on, 199–200
in situ stress relating to, 5
hydraulic fracture and natural fracture
link-up of mini-fractures and, 94–95
interaction, 133–139, 144–155
nonsymmetric, 106–112, 109t
introduction to, 133
GYCO-1 code, 23
of link-up of mini-fractures, 95
in naturally fractured formation, 133–176
parallel fractures, comparisons, 185f H
pressure, 15, 20 High native fracture permeability, 164–167
proppant transport equation, 143 Hole breakdown pressure, 74, 199
of shear slip, along natural fracture, 156–171 open, 198–199
simple fracture network, 144–149 poroelasticity effect on, 20
stress shadow relating to, 193 Hole problem, 73
tip element, 142, 201–202 Horizontal in situ stress, 105
Fracture propagation experiment Horizontal well
conclusions, 202–203 bonding in, 126–127
for deviated wellbore, 200–201 cased hole study for, 126
in field, 133 completion practice, 130
230 Subject Index

Horizontal well (Continued) hydraulic fracture, 45, 45f, 199–200


conditions, before fracturing, 124 measurement of, 209–211
echelon fracture, 129–130, 129f mini-frac method, 209
fracturing of, 122–130 vertical distribution of, in vertical wellbore,
longitudinal fractures, 124, 124f, 125 105
multiple transverse fractures in, 186–190 Induced closure stress, 180, 181
perforation strategy for, 126–129, 126f Initiation pressure, 198
technology, 122–123 Instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP)
transverse fractures, 124, 124f, 125–126, defining, 209, 210f, 216
130, 180f wellbore, 2–3, 209
for unconventional shale reservoir, 186 Instrumented fracture, 213
Horizontal wellbore Instrumented rock test specimen, 201f
experiments on, 200–201 Interaction of hydraulic fracture with natural
fluid flow equation, 107–108 fracture, 133–139, 144–155
fracture propagation experiment for, Interior node
200–201 convection of, 36f
hydraulic fracture from, 105 generation, 36–37
net fluid pressure, 110, 110f, 111, 111f refinement, 38f
nonsymmetric growth from, 106–112 Interpolation between meshes, 40–41
pumping time, 109f, 110f Intersection angle, 135
Hydraulic fracture ISIP. See Instantaneous shut-in pressure
arrested period, 57 Isolation plug, 177
from cased wellbore, 69 Isotropic far-field stress, 190
closure of, 57
downhole pressure curve, 211–213 K
experiments on, 201–202
Khristianovic-Geertsma-de Klerk (KGD)
grid plane, 114–115, 114f
model, 108
from horizontal wellbore, 105
constant height fracture, 6–8, 6f
in situ stress, 45, 45f, 199–200
initiation, 70–78
intersection angle, 135 L
mapping technique, 115 Laboratory, 197–208. See also Experiments
massive, 205–206 fracture propagation experiment in,
natural fracture with, 133–139, 144–155 199–200
process, 1 Leakoff coefficient, 18, 19
propagation of, 30–33, 31f, 45, 45f, 102 Length history methods, 202
shut-in analysis, 57–58 Link-up of mini-fractures
stress distribution, 116 borehole pressure in, 100
tip element, 201–202 calculated critical fracture angle for, 101f
turning, 112–122, 200 cased hole study for, 98–99
Hydraulic impedance method, 215 Cauchy principal value, 94
Hydraulically induced fracture wellbore, 1–2 data used in study on, 98t
along deviated wellbore, 69, 89–104, 201
dislocation density function, 92, 93,
I 94, 95
In situ stress fluid pressure relating to, 99–100
in 3-D fracture modeling, 43f, 44f, 46–47 fracture element, 91f
deviated wellbore, 71–73, 210–211 fracture inclination, 100
growth relating to, 5 growth and, 94–95
Subject Index 231

introduction to, 89 N
Muskehlishvili’s method for, 89 Natural fracture
from perforated holes, 89–104 boundary conditions, 163–171
problem formulation, 89–92 case study and discussion, 164–171
propagation, 95 continuity of fluid mass, 161
by remote load, 96, 97f distribution effect, 153–155
results and discussion, 96–103 fracture opening equation, 163
solution method, 92–94 fracture propagation in, 133–176
stress intensity factor in, 95, 96f frictional law, 162–163
Local stresses, 183 hydraulic fracture with, 133–139, 144–155
Longitudinal fractures, 124, 124f, 125 intersection angle, 135
permeability, 161–162
pressure drop in, 161
M
shale formation, 133
Mapping technique, 115 shear slip along, 156–171
Massive hydraulic fracture, DISLASH, theoretical development, 159–171
205–206 Near-wellbore pressure loss (NWPL),
Measured downhole pressure curve, 211–213 215–216
Measurement Near-wellbore tortuosity, 130
fracture opening width, 18–19, 19f, 55, estimation and mitigation, 215–216
213–215 Net fluid pressure
of fracture width and pressure, 213–215 horizontal wellbore, 110, 110f, 111, 111f
of in situ stress, 209–211 stress shadow and, 179–180
for propagating net pressure, 15 Neumann equation, 32
Mesh generation Newton method, 142
3-D fracture modeling, 34–41 No native fracture permeability, 167–171
construction of elements, 39 No poroelastic solution, 18–19
before and after convection, 37f Node generation, 34–35
interior node generation, 36–37 Node insertion, 37–38
interior node refinement, 38f Nolte-plot, 212
interpolation between meshes, 40–41 Non-Newtonian fluid, 65, 213–214
node generation, on fracture front, 34–35 Non-orthogonal crossing, 138
node insertion inside domain, 37–38 Nonsymmetric growth
remeshing parameters, 59t of 2-D fracture, 106–112
Micro-annulus, 126, 201 data used in, 109t
Micro-cracks, 15 from horizontal wellbore, 106–112
Mini-frac method, 209 NWPL. See Near-wellbore pressure loss
Mini-fractures. See Link-up of mini-fractures
Mode-I fracture, 28 O
Multiple perforation clusters, 177
Multiple transverse fractures Open hole breakdown pressure, 198–199
fracture geometry for, 188, 189f, 190 Opening width
in horizontal wells, 186–190 measurement, 18–19, 19f, 55, 213–215
input parameters, 187t time variation, 42f
parameter influences on fracture half
length, 188t P
stress shadow in, 186–190 P3D. See Pseudo 3-D fracture models
Multi-stage fracturing, 177 Parallel fractures
Muskehlishvili’s method, 89 2D DDM for, 184
232 Subject Index

Parallel fractures (Continued) equation, 143


anisotropic stress in, 184–186 finite element formulation, 55–57
input data, 185t fracture contour, 60f, 62f
interaction between, 184–190 governing equations, 49–53
multiple transverse fractures, 186–190 introduction to, 49
propagation comparisons, 185f power indices, parameters, 51t
stress shadow in, two, 184–186 remeshing parameters, 59t
Perforated holes, 89–104 results and discussion, 58–65
Perforation strategy rock and fluid properties and pumping
deviated wellbore, 78–88 schedule, 58t
for horizontal well, 126–129, 126f shut-in analysis, 57–58
multiple perforation clusters, 177 time history, 60f, 61f, 63
Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model Proppant-laden slurry, 65
constant height fracture, 8–11, 8f Pseudo 3-D fracture models (P3D), 65–67
for stress shadow, 186–187 UFM model, 139, 140, 149–153, 182, 188
Permeability Pumping schedule, 58t
high native fracture, 164–167 Pumping time, 109f, 110f, 117
natural fracture, 161–162
no native fracture, 167–171 Q
for unconventional shale reservoir, 167
PKN model. See Perkins-Kern-Nordgren Quadrilateral elements, 39, 39f
model
Plane strain condition, 67 R
Pore fluid, 3–4 Remeshing parameters, 59t
Pore pressure Remote load, 96, 97f
breakdown pressure relating to, 199 Rock properties, 58t
wellbore pressure, fluid leakoff, and, 17, Rock samples, 197–198
18f, 18t instrumented rock test specimen, 201f
Poroelastic hole, 1–2
Poroelastic solution, 18–19
Poroelasticity effect S
filtercake and, 16–21 Shale formation, 133
for hole breakdown pressure, 20 Shale reservoir. See Unconventional shale
no poroelastic solution, 18–19 reservoir
poroelastic solution, 18–19 Shear slip, 156–171
Porosity, 3–4 Shear-induced dilation, 159–160
Power indices, 51t experiments, 162
Power law fluid, 66 Shut-in analysis, 57–58
Premature screen-out, 122 Similitude analysis, 207–208
Pressure. See Specific types of pressure Simple fracture network, 144–149
Pressure drop, 161 Simulation, massive hydraulic fracture,
Pressure loss, NWPL, 215–216 205–206
Pressure measurement, 213–215 Slick water treatment, 149–153, 153t, 154f
Pressure-dependent fluid leakoff, 159 Slippage process, 134
Principal stress, 136 Slurry
Propagating net pressure, 15 flow equation, 55
Proppant concentration equation, 56 motion, 49, 50–51
Proppant transport, 53–54 property, 58–63
continuity equation, 52 proppant-laden, 65
Subject Index 233

Solid-free fluid, 49 finite element formulation, 29


Spiral fracture, 128–129 fluid motion, 23–27
Starter crack, 87–88 fracture opening equation, 28–29
Strain energy density, 116 front movement, 32–33, 33f
Stress. See specific types of stress in situ stress in, 43f, 44f, 46–47
Stress components, tangent plane, 90, introduction to, 23
90f, 91 material parameters, 41t
Stress distribution mesh generation, 34–41
cased hole study, 78–88 P3D, 153–155
around deviated wellbore, 70–78 propagation of hydraulic fracture, 30–33,
hydraulic fracture, 116 31f, 45, 45f, 102
turning fracture, 116 results and discussion, 41–47
Stress field expression, 177–178 stress intensity factor, 30, 33
Stress intensity factor time variation, opening width, 42f
3-D fracture modeling, 30, 33 time variation, radius, 42f
in link-up of mini-fractures, 95, 96f UFM, 139, 140, 149–153, 182, 188
Stress shadow wellbore pressure comparisons, 44f
calculation, 179–180 Time domain, 31–32
complex fracture interaction, 190–195 Time history, 60f, 61f, 63
flow rate distribution relating to, 184 Tip element
fracture propagation relating to, 193 fracture propagation, 142, 201–202
general elasticity solution, 181 hydraulic fracture, 201–202
induced closure stress, 180, 181 Tip screen-out, 59
introduction to, 177 Tortuosity, 130
local stresses, 183 Near-wellbore estimation and mitigation,
in multiple transverse fractures, 215–216
186–190 Transverse fractures, 124, 124f, 125–126,
net fluid pressure and, 179–180 130, 180f. See also Multiple transverse
parallel fracture interaction, 184–190 fractures
PKN model for, 186–187 Tri-axial loading cell, 199
problem formulation, 177–184 Turning fracture
in two parallel fractures, 184–186 boundary conditions for, 113, 113f
boundary integral method for,
112–113
T coordinate for, 112f
Tangent plane, 90, 90f, 91 data used in study, 117t
Tensile strength, 198–199 of deviated wellbore, 69, 105–132,
Tensile stress, 74 200
Tension zone, 87–88 fluid flow equation for, 113
TerraFrac code, 23 fracturing horizontal well, 122–130
Three-dimensional (3-D) fracture modeling. hydraulic fracture, 112–122, 200
See also Proppant transport introduction to, 105
basis function, 29 mapping technique, 115
boundary conditions, 26, 26f nonsymmetric growth, from horizontal
correction factors, 182 wellbore, 106–112
discretization of equation, in time domain, pumping time and, 109f, 110f, 117
31–32 results and discussion, 117–122
element matrices, 29, 29f, 30f strain energy density, 116
equations (2-24) and (2-29), 32 stress distribution, 116
234 Subject Index

2D DDM. See Two-dimensional Vertical wellbore, 1


displacement discontinuity method cased, 4f
2-D fracture. See Two-dimensional fracture horizontal section, 2f
Two-dimensional displacement discontinuity vertical distribution of horizontal in situ
method (2D DDM) stress, 105
elasticity equation, 181–182
fracture plane relating to, 183–184 W
for parallel fractures, 184
Two-dimensional (2-D) fracture Wellbore. See also Deviated wellbore;
fluid flow equation, 107–108 Horizontal wellbore
nonsymmetric growth of, 106–112 breakdown pressure of, 2–3
stress field expression, 177–178 cased, 4–5, 4f, 69
vertical growth of, 106 constant height fracture models, 5–11
down-hole pressure record, 3f
U filtercake, 4
fracturing of, 1–5
Unconventional fracture model (UFM), 139, hydraulically induced fracture, 1–2
140, 149–153, 182, 188 ISIP, 2–3, 209
Unconventional shale reservoir, 133 vertical, 1, 2f, 4f, 105
horizontal well for, 186 Wellbore pressure
permeability for, 167 comparisons, 44f
net, 20f, 44f
V pore pressure, fluid leakoff, and, 17,
Vertical growth 18f, 18t
of 2-D fracture, 106 Width measurement, 18–19, 19f, 55,
factors controlling, 1 213–215