Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7
PVP-Vol. 491-1, Computational Technologies for Fluid/Thermal/ Structural/Chemical Systems With Industrial Applications -- 2004 Volume 1 July
PVP-Vol. 491-1, Computational Technologies for Fluid/Thermal/
Structural/Chemical Systems With Industrial Applications -- 2004
Volume 1
July 25-29, 2004, San Diego, California USA
PVP2004-3107
CFD SIMULATION OF A HYDRAULIC SERVO VALVE
WITH TURBULENT FLOW AND CAVITATION
Q. Chen
B.Stoffel
Chair of Turbomachinery and Fluid Power
Darmstadt University of Technology
Magdalenenstr.4, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany
Tel: (00)49-(0)6151-162753
Fax: (00)49-(0)6151-162453
e-maih chen @tfa.maschinenbau.tu-darmstadt.de
Chair of Turbomachinery and Fluid Power
Darmstadt University of Technology
Magdalenenstr.4, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany
Tel: (00)49-(0)6151-162153
Fax: (00)49-(0)6151-162453
e-mail: stoffel@tfa.maschinenbau.tu-darmstadt.de
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
In this paper the internal flow in a hydraulic servo valve
was investigated. The objectives of this research work were to
investigate the turbulent flow and the cavitation phenomenon in
the valve by using numerical simulation method in the form of
CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics). The geometry of this
valve is described by a 3D model and hybrid mesh elements ---
tetrahedron and hexahedron---are applied to generate the
necessary computational meshes for the further calculation.
Using the CFD commercial code FLUENT, the internal flow
was studied for the turbulent flow situation. In addition,
cavitation phenomenon was also investigated with the
multiphase
model
and
standard
k-c
turbulence
model.
In recent years, flow simulation in the form of CFD
became one of the simulation technologies which have been
used in the fluid power technology field. CFD can be used to
supply the useful information for dimensioning, design and
testing. Using numerical flow simulation, the internal flow in
any component can be studied at lower cost and effort in
contrast to the experimental method. Therefore more and more
attention has been paid to CFD in the fluid power technology.
In [1], the geometry of the piston of a directional valve has
been optimized and the valve has been investigated in terms of
cavitation. In [2], a 2/2 switching valve was studied using the
flow development with increasing slide position from nearly
Simulation results show that the flow in this valve is
closed to the full stroke at different
temperatures. Buerk [3]
characteristically
turbulent and the cavitation emerges actually
in the small gap region between the spool and the valve base.
investigated by numerical simulations the pressure distribution,
pressure forces and Mach number in pneumatic seat valves and
also compared them with results from experimental
Keywords: hydraulic servo valve, CFD, turbulent
multiphase, cavitation
flow,
measurements. Kipping [4] carried out the experimental
analysis and numerical calculations of the internal flow in
hydraulic slide valves. Three different valve models were
  • 1 Copyright © 20 04 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/18/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

served for the measurements where oil, water and air were chosen as the flowing medium respectively.
served for the measurements where oil, water and air were
chosen as the flowing medium respectively. In addition, the
influence of the frequency at the inlet and at the outlet and the
influence of the bevel angle were also analyzed. Dietze [5]
studied the internal flow in hydraulic seat valves by
measurements and the numerical calculations. Different 2D
and 3D valve models with the different cone angles were built
up to study the flow and the flow effects on the valve
characteristics. The results of steady and unsteady simulation
of the flow in the valves were analyzed and also compared with
the test results.
gi
component of gravitational vector
[m/s 2]
k
in the ith direction
turbulence kinetic energy
[m2/s2]
m
mass transfer due to cavitation
the number of multi-phases
[kg/s]
n
[---]
Prt
turbulent Prandtl number
[---]
S
k
source
tem
for k
[ m-is-2
]
S
e
source
tem
for ,~
]
T
Cavitation is a phase change phenomenon which occurs in
fluid systems under certain conditions. If the dynamic alteration
of the static absolute pressure reaches or drops below the vapor
pressure of the liquid, which is dependent on the fluid
temperature, vapor bubbles are formed inside the fluid and can
collapse as they are convected into the regions which have
higher pressure [6]. Normally, cavitation is a harmful
phenomenon in hydraulic components and systems. It not only
disturbs the flow continuity and changes the physical
performance, but also, in many cases, it results in undesirable
effects such as intensive noise, vibration and erosion of the
solid surfaces subjected to it. Therefore, the investigation about
cavitation is of practical significance, and more research work
about the cavitation phenomenon is carried out, e.g., on
hydrofoils, in turbomachinery and in valves, etc.
u
temperature
velocity
drift velocity for the phase p
[ m- 1s-3
[°C]
[m/s]
Vdr,p
[m/s]
vm
mass-averaged velocity
[m/s]
Y,.
contribution
of
the fluctuating
[ m-is -2 ]
dilatation to the overall dissipation rate
a k
[---]
fl
[---]
e"
[m2/sa]
/'/t
[kg/m-s]
tim
[kg/m-s]
The cavitating flow issued from the gap of a poppet valve
has been studied numerically in [7] using RNG k-e turbulence
model, and the results of the numerical simulation were
compared with flow visualization experimental methods. Leino
et al. [8] have investigated the pressure, velocity and cavitation
sensibility in a water hydraulic poppet valve using CFD
modeling. The influences of different types of grids and
different turbulence models to the convergence of the solution
have been compared. Experimental tests have also been carried
out with a half-cut poppet valve where the flow can be
observed.
/9
volume fraction of phase k
thermal expansion coefficient
turbulence kinetic energy
dissipation rate
turbulent viscosity
viscosity of the mixture
density
mixture density
[kg/m a]
Pm
[kg/ma]
cr k
turbulent
Prandtl number for k
[---]
cr c
turbulent Prandtl
density of water
viscosity of water
density of vapor
viscosity of vapor
number for ,~
[---]
Pw
[kg/ma]
rlw
[kg/m-s]
p~
[kg/m3]
fir
[kg/m-s]
Referring to the above mentioned publications, CFD has
become a common simulation method which can be used in
research and development of the various components.
MATHEMATICAL MODELS
NOMENCLATURE
When the turbulent flow in the servo valve is investigated
using the standard k- ,~ viscous model, the mean velocity of the
fluid at the inlet is 8.488m/s.
Cle
constant
[---]
C2,
constant
[---]
The transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy k
and it's dissipation rate ,~ are described as:
C3~
constant
[---]
F
body force
[N/m2]
~t (pk)+~x
(pku,)=
0_~j [(/~
+/6)crk ~0k ]+ G,
G b
generation of
turbulence kinetic
[ m-I s-3
]
(1)
+Gb-P~-Yu
+Sx
energy due to buoyancy
G k
generation of
turbulence kinetic
[ m-is-3
]
and
energy due to the mean velocity gradients
  • 2 Copyright © 20 04 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/18/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

.~t-(PC) + .~-(p~u~) = .~-[(,Lt + 'tt' ) OC ] + nV,.Vm) :-~)-.]-V.LUm(~TVm "t'-VYm )]']" "
.~t-(PC) + .~-(p~u~) = .~-[(,Lt + 'tt' ) OC ] +
nV,.Vm)
:-~)-.]-V.LUm(~TVm "t'-VYm )]']"
"
"
z
~'c
~j
E
~,2
C,
..
~(G,
+C3~G~,)-C:.pT+ S ~
(2)
Pm g + F +
V. (~
ctkp k Vdr,k Vdr,k )
(lO)
k=l
In the above equations, G K and G b are expressed
as:
where
F
is
a
body
force,
and
~m
is
the
viscosity of the
mixture:
,
,
att i
(3)
G k
=
-pu
i
uj
c~ci
t/
(11)
/2m = ~
ak,u,
k=l
,u,
OT
(4)
Gb = J~gi Pr,
OXi
v dr, p is the drift velocity for secondary phase p:
_L(O
and
fl
=
P'OT"
p
(5)
V
dr ,p
=
V
p
-
V
m
(12)
For the cavitation calculation, the mixture model is applied.
It is assumed that the phases move at the same velocity, so it is
a homogeneous multiphase model. The mixture model is a
single-fluid model, which treats the density of this fluid
changing from the liquid state to the vapor state. The mixture
model solves the continuity equation for the mixture, the
momentum equation for the mixture, the energy equation for
the mixture, and the volume fraction equation for the secondary
phases [9].
From the continuity equation for secondary phase
p,
the
volume
fraction
equation
for
secondary
phase
can
be
depicted as:
p)
(13)
The continuity equation for the mixture is:
To
get
converged
and
physically
plausible
results
for
cavitating flows, the original equation for the turbulent
8
~t(Pm)+ V'(Pm ~m) = ~
(6)
viscosity was modified by a factor which is dependent on the
mixture density. The turbulent viscosity, which is described in
Eq. (14), referring to [10], is defined by an UDF(User Defined
Function) to calculate the cavitation in this servo valve.
where Vm is the mass-averaged velocity:
!y-,.-,11 n
_
]2 m
~
(7)
~, = cu" k2 [0.5542+ 997.6458(,o- 0.5542)m ]
(14)
P.
c
997.6458
and Pm is the mixture density.
GEOMETRY AND MESH
n
(8)
Pm
= Z
ak
" Pk
k=l
In Eq.
(8),
a,
is the volume fraction of phase k.
n
a k =
1
(9)
k=l
The momentum equation for the mixture can be expressed
In this study, the geometry of the servo valve is described
as a 3D model. For the generation of the necessary mesh,
hybrid 3D meshes were adopted to preprocessing of the
problem, so to say, the tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes are
the chosen mesh types. The whole computational mesh is cited
directly from [11]. Figure 1 shows the geometry and the meshes
for this valve. The generalized meshes have 426525 cells.
as:
  • 3 Copyright © 20 04 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/18/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

In Fig. 1, a is the inflow geometry, b is the outflow geometry, c is the
In
Fig.
1,
a
is
the
inflow
geometry,
b
is the outflow
geometry, c is the mesh for the whole geometry which connects
the inflow and outflow parts together
and also joints with
a
short pipe, d represents
a combined mesh which puts the x-y
and x-z cross sectional plane meshes in the same figure. In d.,
the line, which is named plane 1, expresses a plane vertical to x
axis.
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
a. Inflow geometry
b. Outflow geometry
The velocity inlet and the pressure outlet are chosen as the
boundary conditions through the whole investigation for this
hydraulic servo valve. For turbulent flow, the flow velocity at
the inlet is constant. But in the part of cavitation calculation, the
flow velocity increases firstly from 0 to 8.488m/s linearly, then
it is kept unchanged until the converged solution is reached.
The pressure at the outlet is always 2e5 Pa.
FLUID
Water is chosen as the
fluid for the study of the turbulent
flow in the servo valve. Relevant properties of this fluid are:
Pw = 1000 kg/m ~
r/w
=
0.001 kg/m-s
Besides
water,
water
also
another
fluid
in
the
context
with
the
study
vapor
of the cavitating flows.
is
It's
relevant
properties are:
p~
= 2.558e-2 kg/m n
r/v =1.26e-6 kg/m-s
SIMULATION RESULTS
c. Mesh for the whole geometry
1. Turbulent flow
In the turbulent flow situation, the flow velocity at the inlet
corresponds to the flow rate of 10 l/rnin. Figure 2-4 presents
some simulation results on turbulent flow in this valve.
I//
I//
7~
5.87~
t Olzmel
NN
d. x-y and x-z cross sectional meshes
Figure 1: Geometry and meshes
Figure 2: Contours of static pressure
  • 4 Copyright © 20 04 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/18/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

regions. It can be seen obviously that in each region there exists one pair of vortices
regions.
It
can
be
seen obviously
that
in each region there
exists one pair of
vortices -
one is clockwise
and the other
is
1.12e~[2
counter clockwise.
1J~e~12
9.7'~'0t
g.~m.01
t lte.~
gOle¢~ll
8.71~61
83¢e~1
.~:, 1 i~.o2
7J~s~l
7.~01
e.lTe~o~
i
i
~ i,-
I
l
6,S3e.6~
;,.41"{i
6~
~;i' ,,3
~ .. ... • .. ,
,
5.89e~
s~se,~l
"~:
.'-:L-
--
4.4211~1.,c ,: ~.;v .¢ .'~(:..
3.31e~
1 .~.~.~01
1.11e.~.01
7.~.00
r ~se+oo
--I05.51
31~110
x
3.61e-o2 3.72e~
.~
47.~7
~r
1~,2oo4 ]
[ Com~ursof Veocly M~nl~de(n~s)
FeD04, LZ~04 I
FLUENT6.1 (3d, ~,
=.ke)
Figure 5: Vector distribution of the velocity on x-y plane
Figure 3: Contours of velocity magnitude
Figure 5 shows the vector distribution of
velocity on x-y
plane. It can be seen apparently that the velocity in the gap
Figure 2 and Fig.
3 show
that both
the static pressure and
space reaches a relatively high value of 105.51 m/s.
the velocity magnitude in the gap between the valve base and
the spool vary significantly. The static pressure reduces quickly
to 2.1e6 Pa, and it reduces continually after water flows
through the gap. There is a small region, which is very close to
the gap, where the pressure value is negative. The flow velocity
increases from 8.488m/s to 14.51m/s upstream of the gap when
2. Cavitation
In addition to turbulent flow, the cavitation phenomenon in
this servo valve
was
also
investigated. In the CFD solver
it's close to the gap, and it reaches a very high value of
117.29m/s
in
the central
zone of
the gap. According
to
the
FLUENT, there are many implemented multiphase models
which are offered to solve the different problems. So it is
analyses of the static pressure and the velocity magnitude,
it
can be concluded that cavitation should emerge plausibly
this region.
in
theoretically possible to study cavitation using the appropriate
model and parameters. In this paper, the mixture multiphase
are
chosen to study the unsteady cavitation. The vaporization
model and the standard k-8
turbulent
viscous
model
pressure of water is 3540Pa.
i
1.1~
..
G2
As
in
the
study of
turbulent flow,
the contours of static
9~ 9,~'e.~1
pressure, velocity magnitude and the velocity vector
distribution are chosen as parts of the simulation results.
e~ 9~
~.~
~:~;.
~,~"
:~ ~
7~
6~
s~
6~
N
*-
~-,~
~
a.lsn.~Ol
;ii~ii~i ~,~
..
~
-,
':'.~
~
..
,
:-.~
...
~
,
..
6~o~.m
2
2.~
..
i;t
32~.<1o
~.Sle.O.2
Ve~:Ity v,~:~ors Cc~a By vniocsy ~
(.w)
Feno4, 2oc4
FLUIBWI6.1 (~1. ~t~g~, ll~(e)
Figure 4: Vector distribution of the velocity
....
~ ......
L.',.,%,,~
In Fig.
(see Fig.
4, the vector distribution of the velocity in plane 1
1 (d))---one y-z cross sectional plane of the outflow
geometry
is
shown
where
there
are
four
symmetric
flow
Figure 6: Contours of velocity magnitude(cavitation)
  • 5 Copyright © 20 04 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/18/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

Figure 6 shows the contours of the velocity magnitude on 2 planes which correspond to the
Figure 6 shows the contours of the velocity magnitude on 2
planes which correspond to the mesh of Fig.
1 (d) . The flow
velocity increases when water flows through the gap between
the valve base and the spool. It has the highest value of
92.5m/s in the center of the gap.
Figure 8 illustrates the vector distribution of the velocity on
the same plane as the one in Fig.5. The velocity vector has the
highest value of 94.6m/s in the gap, and where water flows
from the inlet into the cavity, 2 big vortices appear near to the
wall of the cavity.
When the cavitation phenomenon is investigated, the
volume fraction of vapor is also considered specially as one of
the most important parameters that are used to evaluate if the
cavitation occurs and to which extent it influences the internal
flow of this servo valve.
Comparing Fig. 8 with Fig. 5, it can be concluded that even
if the highest value of velocity vector distribution (94.6m/s)
under the cavitation state is a little smaller than the
correspondent value (105.51 m/s) when only turbulent model is
considered, the cavitation phenomenon occurs actually in this
hydraulic valve.
CONCLUSIONS
i?)
2,10o-,01
S.4Te-O~Z
In this paper, the interval flow in a hydraulic servo valve
was investigated for the turbulent flow situation. Besides,
cavitation phenomenon in the valve was also studied.
According to the analysis of the vapor volume fraction,
cavitation phenomenon occurs also in the gap between the
valve base and the spool. It can be concluded that cavitation
occurs in the region where the static pressure decreases below
the vaporization pressure of water. This cavitation region also
accords with the region where the flow velocity reaches a very
high value.
2.6Be.g4
¢.~nlour=of volu~
REFERENCES
Figure 7: Contours of vapor volume fraction
[1] Feuser, A., and Seifert, V., 2002, "Simulation Technology
Support for Improvements in Modern Fluidic Drives,"
In Fig. 7, vapor volume fraction is well represented. An
Proc., 3 ra International
Fluid
Power Conference, Shaker
obvious
cavitation phenomenon
occurs on
the
vertical
face
Publishing Corp., Aachen, pp. 269-289.
which
is close
to
the
gap and
the volume fraction of vapor
[2] Schuster, G., 2002, "Possible Use of CFD in Research and
reaches 84.5%.
Development,"
Proc.,
3 ra
Internationl
Fluid
Power
By referring to Fig.2 in turbulent flow situation where no
cavitation is taken into account, it can be concluded that
cavitation arises just in the region where the value of the static
pressure is a little smaller than the vaporization pressure.
Conference,
Shaker Publishing Corp., Aachen,
pp. 341-
348.
[3] Buerk, E., 2002, "Numerical (CFD-Simulation) and
Experimentally Determined Pressure Distributions and
Pressure Forces in Pneumatic Seat Valves," Proc., 3 rd
International Fluid Power Conference, Shaker Publishing
Corp., Aachen, pp. 383-396.
[4] Kipping, M.,
1997,
"Experimental
Investigation and
Numerical Calculation of Internal Flow in a Hydraulic Slide
Valve," Ph.D. Thesis, Darmstadt University of Technology,
pp. 1-176.
.te,
a~
~,.~.
,
;
:~Tf.
0~"~
7 ,~,~'a~-'
-"
":-
~
-
"
~"
~"
="
:
-
<¢,.
~,):
.~
~i4.,
-'-
,
,
,
~.0~
0~
Or"
%
.'
,'
2
"
"i
|'-
[5] Dietze, M., 1996, "Measurement and Calculation of the
Internal Flow in Hydraulic Seat Valves," Ph.D. Thesis,
Darmstadt University of Technology, pp. 1-159.
[6] Stoffel, B., and Striedinger, R., 2000, "Cavitation"--- lecture
manuscript, Darmstadt University of Technology, pp. 2-3.
I
[7] Gao, H., Fu, X., Yang, H. and Tsukiji, T., 2002, "Numerical
......
~¢ Veiny ~
0U~'.] (~U~t, ~TIIIIeQ4
I
'o,%,~.,,~
..........
I
and Experimental Investigation of Cavitating Flow within
Hydraulic Poppet Valve,"
Proc., 3rd
International
Fluid
Figure 8: Velocity vector distributions (cavitation)
Power Conference, Aachen, Germany, Vol. 1, pp. 331-339.
[8] Leino, T., Koskinen, K.T., and Vilennius, M. ,2003, "CFD -
  • 6 Copyright © 20 04 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/18/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use

Modeling of a Water Hydraulic Poppet Valve- Comparison of Different Modeling Parameters." The 8th Scandinavian International
Modeling of a Water Hydraulic Poppet Valve- Comparison
of Different Modeling Parameters." The 8th Scandinavian
International
Conference
on
Fluid
Power,
Tampere,
Finland, Vol. 1 (2), pp. 277-286.
[9] FLUENT 6.1 User's Guide, Chapter 10, pp. 15-16, Chapter
22, pp. 16-19.
[10] Reboud, J. L., and Delannoy, Y., 1994, "Two Phase Flow
Modeling of Unsteady Cavitation," 2nd Symposium an
Cavitation, Tokyo.
[ 11 ]Habr,
Ph.D.
K., 2001, "Simulation of Whole Hydraulic Systems,"
Thesis, Darmstadt University of Technology, pp. 93.
7
Copyright © 20 04 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 02/18/2016 Terms of Use: http://www.asme.org/about-asme/terms-of-use