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Wanny Basuki, PhD.

BSL3 Facility Manager

Source of Laboratory Waste
Disinfection of laboratory and equipment
Waste treatment methods
Source of Laboratory Waste
Category of Waste Hazard

• General cuts, punctures

• Chemical fire, corrosion, toxicity
• Biological infection
• Radioactive radiation
Source of Biological Contaminated Waste

• PPE and clothing; eq. shoe covers, gloves, disposable tyvek suit
• Disposable
Di bl laboratory
l b t materials
t i l (including
(i l di paper andd plastic l ti waste)
t )
• Infectious microorganisms and toxins and contaminated materials
• Animal origin materials
• Sharps; eq. needles
• Laboratory equipment; eq. rotor’s centrifuge, pipettes
• Spill clean up materials and equipments
• Waste water, including from hand wash, eye wash and shower
• Filters and air handling systems
• Air
Disinfection and Decontamination

Disinfection - A chemical or physical treatment which destroys the

most resistant vegetative microbes (or viruses) but not spores,
spores in or
on an inanimate surface.

D t i ti - The destruction
destr ction or removal
remo al of microorganisms
to some lower level, not necessarily zero. (Also applies to removal
or neutralization of toxic agents).

Sterilization - The unequivocal total destruction of all living

organisms. In practice sterility is very difficult to determine. The term
is applied to a very low probability that even one organism has
survived the process.
Disinfection and Decontamination

¾ Disinfection of laboratory and small equipments

• Disinfection of surfaces
eq. floor, bench-top ~ sodium hypochlorite
• Disinfection of equipments
eq. small equipments, pipette ~ 70% alcohol

¾ Decontamination of BSL3 laboratory and large

eq. BSC ~ Gaseous / Formaldehyde
Waste Treatment Methods
Waste Treatment Methods

¾ Heat Treatment/Autoclaving
• Moist heat or dry heat
¾ Chemical
• Phenolic,
Phenolic Chlorine,
Chlorine Alcohol
¾ Gaseous
• Formaldehyde
National Institutes
of Health
Treatment of various waste

Infectious Sharps Infectious

solid liquid

Validation: biological indicator

Autoclave B ill (Geobacillus)
Bacillus (G b ill ) stearothermophilus
t th hil

Process Temperature Laboratory Use

Pasteurization <100°C NO

Boiling 100°C* YES

Steam Pressure 121°C or 134°C YES

*Altitude Dependent
ƒ Temperature: 121 C • Temperature: 134 C
ƒ Pressure: 103 KPa • Pressure: 186 KPa
ƒ Time: 15 minutes • Time: 33-10
10 minutes
Process Equipment Temperature Time

Sterilization Oven 160-180°C 2 Hours

Destruction Incinerator 800-1000°C

800-1000 C Variable∗

*Depends on Nature of Waste

Hazards Associated with Chemical Germicides

• Phenolics - skin depigmentation

• Chlorine - highly toxic
• Glutaraldehyde
Gl t ld h d - contactt t dermatitis
d titi
• Formaldehyde - potential carcinogen
• Ethanol – flammable

• Accidental ingestion, poisoning

• Toxicity of residue for research
‰ Categories of laboratory waste may be processed differently
‰ Waste materials should be packaged and transported to protect
th workers
the k andd environment
i t
‰ Waste treatments and disposal methods should be considered
for each category
g y accordingg to local regulations
‰ Researchers should understand tasks in the laboratory requiring
‰ Germicides
G i id should
h ld be
b usedd that
th t are effective
ff ti against
i t the
relevant organisms and are appropriate for the decontamination
‰ Use of germicides should meet the need for decontamination
while avoiding the creation of additional hazards