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Engineering

Dr. Muhammad Waseem

National Centre of Excellence in Geology,

University of Peshawar

Reference Course Book

An LRFD Approach, 3rd Edition,

Barker and Puckett (2013)

Acknowledgment

Part of these Lecture notes have taken from the

Lectures of Prof. Dr. Shazad Rehman course on

Bridge Engineering

Course Objective

The main purpose of this course from my point view

is to provide students with initial and basic

knowledge about Bridge Engineering both with

theory and hands-on exercises. This course, in my

knowledge has not been offered to the students at

CECOS.

What is a BRIDGE?

• Generally bridges carry a road or railway across a

natural or artificial obstacle such as, a river, canal

or another railway or another road

• Bridge is a structure corresponding to the heaviest

responsibility in carrying a free flow of transport

and is the most significant component of a

transportation system in case of communication

over spacings/gaps for whatever reason such as

aquatic obstacles, valleys and gorges etc.

Bridge is the KEY ELEMENT in a

Transportation System

It Controls the Capacity of the System

number of lanes required to handle the traffic volume,

the bridge will be a constriction to the flow of traffic. If

the strength of a bridge is deficient and unable to carry

heavy trucks, load limits will be posted and truck traffic

will be rerouted.

The bridge controls both the volume and weight of

the traffic carried by the transportation system.

Highest Cost per Mile of the System

Bridges are expensive. The typical cost per mile of a bridge is many times

that of the approach roads to the bridge.`

achieved between handling future traffic volume and loads and the cost of

heavier and wider bridge structure.

If the Bridge Fails, the System Fails

The importance of a Bridge can be visualized by considering the

comparison between the two main components of a highway

system i.e. a road and bridge itself.

ultimately a crack, thus making a sort of inconvenience but it

wont result in stopping of the flow of traffic as traffic can pass or

otherwise a bypass can be provided. The traffic no doubt will

pass with a slower speed but in case of a bridge its flow is

completely stopped incase of the failure of the bridge, that is the

reason its often called “If the bridge fails the structure fails” as

the function of the structure could no longer be served at all.

Classification of Bridges

Stone/Brick

Suspension Cable-Stayed

Form

Structural Arrangement

Discussion on Classification According To

STRUCTURAL FORM

Distinctive Features of Girder Bridge

Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge

Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge

Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge

Distinctive Features of Cable-Stayed

Bridges

Distinctive Features of Girder Bridges

•Widely constructed

•Usually used for Short and Medium spans

•Carry load in Shear and Flexural bending

•Efficient distribution of material is not possible

•Stability concerns limits the stresses and associated economy

•Economical and long lasting solution for vast majority of bridges

•Decks and girder usually act together to support the entire load in

highway bridges

Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge

•Economical as compared to equivalent straight simply supported

Girder or Truss bridge

•Suitable site is a Valley with arch foundations on a DRY ROCK

SLOPES

•Conventional curved arch rib has high Fabrication and Erection

costs

•Erection easiest for Cantilever Arch and most difficult for Tied

Arch

•Arch is predominantly a Compression member. Buckling must be

worked to the detail so as to avoid reductions in allowable

stresses.

Distinctive Features of Arch Bridge

•Classic arch form tends to favor Concrete as a construction

material

•Conventional arch has two moment resistant components :

The deck and the Arch Rib.

•Near the crown of the arch and the region where Spandrel

Columns are short, undesirable B.M. can occur. By using Pin

ended columns it can be avoided

•Space beneath the arch is less and hence danger for

collision with the Rib, specially on a highway

•Curved shaped is always very pleasing and arch is the most

successful and beautiful structure

Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge

•The open web system permits the use of a greater overall

depth than for an equivalent solid web girder, hence

reduced deflections and rigid structure

•Both these factors lead to Economy in material and a

reduced dead weight

•These advantages are achieved at the expense of

increased fabrication and maintenance costs

•Other bridge types have rendered the truss bridge types

less likely to be used due to its high maintenance and

fabrication costs.

•The truss is instead being used widely as the stiffening

structure for the suspension bridges due to its acceptable

aerodynamic behavior since the wind gusts can pass

through the truss as is not with the case in girder, arch

bridges.

Distinctive Features of Truss Bridge

member by member using lifting equipment of small

capacity.

•Rarely aesthetically pleasing complexity of member

intersections if viewed from oblique direction

•In large span structures poor aesthetic appearance of

the truss bridge is compensated with the large scale of

the structure. For moderate spans its best to provide a

simple and regular structure

Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge

•Major element is a flexible cable, shaped and supported in such a way that it transfers

the loads to the towers and anchorage

•This cable is commonly constructed from High Strength wires, either spun in situ or

formed from component, spirally formed wire ropes. In either case allowable stresses

are high of the order of 600 MPA

•The deck is hung from the cable by Hangers constructed of high strength ropes in

tension

•As in the long spans the Self-weight of the structures becomes significant, so the use

of high strength steel in tension, primarily in cables and secondarily in hangers leads to

an economical structure.

•The economy of the cable must be balanced against the cost of the associated

anchorage and towers. The anchorage cost may be high where foundation material is

poor

Distinctive Features of Suspension Bridge

•The main cable is stiffened either by a pair of stiffening trusses or by a system of girders

at deck level.

•This stiffening system serves to (a) control aerodynamic movements and (b) limit local

angle changes in the deck. It may be unnecessary in cases where the dead load is great.

•The complete structure can be erected without intermediate staging from the ground

•The main structure is elegant and neatly expresses its function.

•It is the only alternative for spans over 600m, and it is generally regarded as

competitive for spans down to 300m. However, shorter spans have also been built,

including some very attractive pedestrian bridges

•The height of the main towers can be a disadvantage in some areas; for example, within

the approach road for an AIRPORT

Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge

n material, weight, and cost..

As compared with the stiffened suspension bridge, the cable

are straight rather than curved. As a result, the stiffness is

greater

The cables are anchored to the deck and cause compressive

orces in the deck. For economical design, the deck must

participate in carrying these forces

All individual cables are shorter than full length of the

superstructure. They are normally constructed of individual

wire ropes, supplied complete with end fittings, prestretched

and not spun.

There is a great freedom of choice in selecting the structural

arrangement

Less efficient under Dead Load but more efficient in suppor

Distinctive Features of Cable-stayed Bridge

structures erected to date

•When the cables are arranged in the single plane, at the

longitudinal center line of the deck, the appearance of the

structure is simplified and avoids cable intersections when the

bridge is viewed obliquely

Discussion on Classification According To

SPAN

Medium Span Bridges (up to 50m)

Large Span Bridges (50-150m)

Extra Large ( Long ) Span Bridges (over 150m)

Small Span Bridges (up to 15m)

Culvert Bridge

Slab Bridges

T-Beam Bridge

Wood Beam Bridge

Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam Bridge

Pre-cast Concrete I-Beam Bridge

Rolled Steel Beam Bridge

Large Span Bridges (50 to 150m)

Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned concrete Box Girder

Post-Tensioned Concrete Segmental Construction

Concrete Arch and Steel Arch

Extra Large (Long) Span Bridges

(Over 150m)

Cable Stayed Bridge

Suspension Bridge

Design Philosophies

Load < Resistance

What does the statement tells you?

When the effect of different loads reaches the material resistance, potential for

failure exist.

Importance:

In the Bridge design loads are constantly changing due to the live and other

environmental loads. The material resistance also does not remain constant due

to the structure deterioration. These uncertainties are there should be accounted

in the design.

At least you should be aware about the above statement

DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN

PROCEDURES

Three distinct procedures employed are:

2. Load Factor Design (LFD)

3. Load & Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

In the ASD method, load and resistance have equal probability of occurrence.

Dead, Live and different Environmental loads are applied to the structures.

They have different probability of occurrences. In the ASD Uncertainties is not

considered!

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

• Safety in the design was obtained by specifying that the effect of the load

should produce stresses that were a fraction of the yield stress fy, say one-

half. This value will be equivalent to providing a safety factor of two,i.e.,

F.O.S = Resistance, R = fy = 2

Effect of load, Q 0.5fy

• Since the specification set limits on the stresses , so this became known as

allowable stress design.

• ASD methods were developed for design of statically determinate metallic

structures.

• The stresses in the members are zero before application of the load ( Not

true for thin elements of rolled beams)

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

• For steel bridge design, the required net area of a tension member is selected by :

allowable stress ft

required Agross = effect of the load = C

allowable stress fc

required S = effect of the load = M

allowable stress fb

SHORTCOMINGS OF ALLOWABLE

STRESS DESIGN

ASD is not suited for design of modern structures due to the following

shortcomings:

1. The resistance concept is based on the elastic behavior of homogeneous

materials.

2. It does not give reasonable measure of strength which is more fundamental

measure of resistance than as allowable stress.

3. The safety factor is applied only to the resistance and loads are considered

to be deterministic (i.e., without variation).

4. Selection of a safety factor is subjective and it does not provide a measure

of reliability interms of probability of failure.

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

LFD was introduced to refine the ASD philosophy.

Loads are multiplied by the load factors and load combination factors, which

are generally greater than unity.

The factored loads are combined to produced maximum load effect in the

member.

Uncertainty is considered for the material resistance and factors less than unity

are multiplied to the resistance to achieve it.

ϒ(ΣβDL DL+ΣβLLLL)< φRn

Where:

ϒ= Load factor applied to all the loads

βDL = Load combination coefficients for Dead Load

βLL = Load combination coefficients for Live Load

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

Advantages:

Load factor is applied to each load combination to account for likely hood of the

its occurrence simultaneously.

In this method consideration is given to the fact that different loads has

different levels of uncertainty. Larger load factors are used for loads with

large uncertainty.

Disadvantages:

It is not as simply as ASD.

LOAD & RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

To overcome the deficiencies of ASD, LRFD is LFD design, LRFD method was

developed which is based on:

a) The strength of material

b) Consider variability not only in resistance but also in the effect of loads.

c) Provide a measure of safety related to probability of failure.

d) LRFD achieves relatively uniform levels of safety for different limit states.

Thus the safety criteria is:

ΦRn ≥ η Σ γ Qi

Where Φ is the resistance factor, Rn is the nominal resistance, γ is the

statistically based load factor and Qi is the effect of load and η is the load

modification factor.

This equation involves both load factors and resistance factors.

Reliability theory is used to derive different load and resistance factors in LRFD.

LOAD & RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

ΦRn ≥ η Σ γi Qi

η is the load modification factor that takes into its account the ductility, redundancy

and operational importance of the bridge.It is given by the expression

η = ηd ηr ηi ≥ 0.95

Where ηd is the ductility factor, ηr is the redundancy factor and ηi is the operational

importance factor.

LOAD & RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

LOAD & RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

PROBABILITY OF FAILURE

Failure is defined as the realization of one of a

number of pre-defined limit states.

mean and standard deviations of the resistance and

load distribution functions are known.

PROBABILITY OF FAILURE

Consider the probability density functions for the

random variables of load Q and Resistance density

functions for a hypothetical example limit state.

As long as the resistance R is greater than the effects

of the load Q, there is a margin of safety for the

limit state under consideration.

Probability of Failure

Probability of Survival,

ps = P (R > Q)

Probability of Failure,

pf = 1- P (R < Q)

Probability of Failure

Normal and Lognormal

Distributions

Probability of Failure

LIMIT STATES

Limit State:

“A limit state is a condition beyond which a structural system or

structural component ceases to fulfill the function for which it is

designed”.

Bridges shall be designed for specified limit states to achieve the objectives of

constructability, safety and serviceability.

Generally the limit states that are considered in bridge design are:

SERVICE LIMIT STATE

This limit state refers to restrictions on stresses, deflections and

crack widths of bridge components that occur under regular

service conditions.[A1.3.2.2]

• For the limit state the resistance factors Φ = 1.0 and nearly all

the load factors γi are equal to 1.0.

cover different design situations.

Note: Service Limit State is material specific. The load conditions are nominal

conditions expected during the normal operation of the Bridge.

SERVICE LIMIT STATE

Service I:

This service limit state refers to the load combination

relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with 90 km/h

wind.

Service II:

This service limit state refers to the load

combination relating only to steel structures and is intended to

control yielding and slip of slip critical connections.

Service III:

This service limit state refers to the load

combination relating only to tension in pre-stressed concrete

structures with the objective of crack control.

Note: Service II due to vehicle loads

Service I is for crack and compression stress in pre-stressed members

SERVICE LIMIT STATE

• Service IV:

This load combination refers to the crack control

in the pre-stressed columns. It is generally

applicable to the substructure design. It is based

on the wind speed of 84 miles/h.

FATIGUE AND FRACTURE LIMIT STATE

• This limit state refers to restrictions on stress range caused by a design

truck.

• The restrictions depend upon the stress range excursions expected to occur

during the design life of the bridge.[A1.3.2.3].

• This limit state is used to limit crack growth under repetitive loads and to

prevent fracture due to cumulative stress effects in steel elements,

components, and connections.

• Since, the only load that causes a large number of repetitive cycles is the vehicular

live load, it is the only load effect that has a non-zero load factor in the table 3.1

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

• This limit state refers to providing sufficient strength or resistance to satisfy the

inequality

ΦRn ≥ η Σ γi Qi

• This limit state include the evaluation of resistance to bending, shear, torsion, and

axial load.

• The statically determined resistance factor Φ will be less than 1.0 and will have

values for different materials and strength limit states.

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Strength-I:

This strength limit is the primary load combination

relating to the full live load use of the bridge without wind. It is

applied to almost all the bridges. Most checks against failure

will occur in this limit state

Strength-II:

This strength limit is specific the basic load

combination relating to the use of the bridge by permit/ special

vehicles without wind.

Strength-III:

This strength limit is the basic load combination

relating to the bridge exposed to wind velocity exceeding 90

km/h (55 m/h). Significant vehicular load is not considered.

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

Strength-IV:

This strength limit is the basic load combination

relating to very high dead load/live load force effect ratios in the

superstructure of the bridge. Load factor for DC is higher than

DC for other load combinations.

Strength-V:

This strength limit is combination of Strength I and

Strength III in which wind and live load affect the Bridge. Live

Loads are reduced from Strength I. Wind loads are reduced

from Strength III.

EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATE

during a major earthquakes or floods or when collided by a

vessel, vehicle, or ice flow[A1.3.2.5].

probability of these events occurring simultaneously is very low.

EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATE

Extreme Event -I:

This extreme event limit state is the load

combination relating to earthquake. This limit state also include

water load and friction.

This extreme event limit state is the load

combination to ice load, collision by vessels, vehicles and to

certain hydraulic events with reduced live loads.

GRAVITY LOADS

Gravity loads are the loads caused by the weight

of an object on the bridge and applied in a

downward direction toward the center of the

earth. Such loads may be:

B. Transient Gravity Loads

A. Permanent Gravity Loads

Permanent gravity loads are the loads that remain on the bridge

for an extended period of time or for the whole service life.

Such loads include:

structural attachments --------------------------------------- (DC)

B. Transient Gravity Loads

As the name implies these loads change with time and may be applied from

several directions or locations.

Transient loads typically include gravity load due to the vehicular, rail or

pedestrian traffic as well as lateral loads such those due to wind, water, ice, etc.

____ which of these loads is appropriate for the bridge under consideration

____ how these loads are applied for the most critical load effect.

B. Transient Gravity Loads

For transient load each code has described the following criterion:

Design lanes

Fatigue Loads

Pedestrian Loads

Multiple Presence

Dynamic Effects

Centrifugal Forces

DESIGN LANE

Number of lanes a bridge may accommodate must be established.

a) Traffic lane

b) Design Lane.

Traffic Lane:

The traffic lane is the number of lanes of traffic that the traffic

engineer plans to route across the bridge. A lane width is associated with a

traffic lane and is typically 3.6 m.

Design Lane:

Design lane is the lane designation used by the bridge engineer for

the live load placement.

The design lane width may or may not be the same as the traffic lane.

DESIGN LANES

According to AASHTO specifications,

•AASHTO uses a 3m design lane and the vehicle is to be

positioned within that lane for extreme effect.

•The number of design lanes is defined by taking the integral

part of the ratio of the clear roadway width divided by

3.6m.[A3.6.1.1.1]

•The clear width is the distance between the curbs and/or

barriers.

VEHICULAR DESIGN LOADS

•A study by the transportation Research Board (TRB) was used as the basis for the AASHTO

loads TRB (1990).

•Loads that are above the legal weight and are /or length limits but are regularly allowed to

operate were cataloged. Those vehicles that were above legal limits but were allowed to

operate routinely due to grandfathering provisions are referred to as ‘Exclusion Vehicles’.

•These exclusion trucks best represents the extremes involved in the present truck traffic.

•For analysis, simpler model was developed which represents the same extreme load

effects as the exclusion vehicles.

This model consists of three different loads:

1.Design truck

2.Design tandem

3.Design Lane

VEHICULAR DESIGN LOADS

Design Truck:

According to AASHTO design specifications(1996), the design truck is a model that

resembles the semitrailor truck. as shown in the figure.[A3.6.1.2].

Variable Spacing

The variable spacing provide a more

satisfactory loading for continuous

spans and the heavy axle loads may

be so placed on adjoining spans as to produce maximum –ve moments.

This design truck has the same configuration since 1944 and is commonly referred to

as HS20-44(denoting Highway Semitrailer 20 tons with year of publication 1944).

DESIGN TANDEM

The second configuration is the design tandem and is illustrated in the figure.It

consists of two axles weighing 110kN each spaced at 1.2m.

interconnected axles of equal weight.

DESIGN LANE LOAD

The third load is the design lane load that consists of a uniformaly distributed load of 9.3

N/mm and is assumed to occupy a region 3m transversly. This load is same as uniform pressure

of 64 lbs/ft² applied in a 10ft (3m) design lane.

The load of design truck and design tandem must each be superimposed with the load effects

of the design lane load. This combination of load and axle loads is a major deviation from the

requirements of the earlier AASHTO standard specifications where the loads were considered

separately.

FATIGUE LOADS

• When the load is cyclic the stress level is below the nominal

yield strength.

1. Range of live load stress

2. Number of stress cycles under service load conditions.

FATIGUE LOADS

1. Under service load conditions, majority of trucks do not exceed the legal

weight limit. So it would be unnecessary to use the full live load model.

Instead it is accommodated by using a single design truck with the variable

axle spacing of 9m and a load factor of 0.75 as prescribed in

table.[A3.4.1.1].

2. The number of stress load cycles is based on traffic surveys. In lieu of

survey data, guidelines are provided in AASHTO [A3.6.1.4.2]. The average

daily truck traffic (ADTT) in a single lane may be estimated as

ADTTSL = p(ADTT)

Where p is the fraction of traffic assumed to be in one lane as defined in

table4.3.

PEDESTRIAN LOADS

• The AASHTO pedestrian load is 3.6 x 10-3 MPa, which is applied to sidewalk that are integral

with a roadway bridge.

• If load is applied on bridge restricted to pedestrian or bicycle traffic , then a 4.1 x 10-3 MPa is

used.

• The railing for pedestrian or bicycle must be designed for a load of 0.73 N/mm both

transversely and vertically on each longitudinal element in the railing system.[A13.8 and A18.9].

• In addition as shown in the figure , the railing must be designed to sustain a single

concentrated load of 890 N applied to the top rail in any direction and at any location.

DECK & RAILING LOAD

• The deck must be designed for the load effect due to design truck or design tandem ,

whichever creates the most extreme effect.

• The deck overhang, located outside the facia girder and commonly referred to as the

cantilever is designed for the load effect of a uniform line load of 14.6 N/mm located 3m from

the face of the curb or railing as shown in the figure.

• The gravity load for the deign of deck system are outlined in AASHTO[A3.6.1.3.3].

• The vehicular gravity loads for decks may be found in AASHTO [A3.6.1.3].

MULTIPLE PRESENCE

Trucks will be present in adjacent lanes on roadways with multiple design lanes but it is unlikely

that three adjacent lanes will be loaded simultaneously with the three heavy loads.

Therefore, some adjustment in the design load is necessary. To account for this effect AASHTO

[A3.6.1.1.2] provides an adjustment factor for the multiple presence. A table for these factors is

provided.

DYNAMIC EFFECTS

Dynamics : The variation of any function with respect to

time.

Dynamic Effects : The effects i.e., deformation or stress

resultant due to the dynamic loads.

system of a vehicle creates axle forces. These forces are produced by

alternate compression and tension of the suspension system.

• This phenomenon which is also known as IMPACT is more precisely

referred to as dynamic loading.

• These axle forces exceed the static weight during the time the

acceleration is upward and is less than the static weight when the

acceleration is downward.

DYNAMIC EFFECTS

• As the dynamic effects are not consistent & is well portrayed by Bakht

& Pinjarker (1991 ) & Paultre (1992 ). It is most common to compare the

static & dynamic deflection.

• A comparison of static and dynamic deflections is illustrated in the

fig.4.12.

DYNAMIC EFFECTS

From this figure dynamic effect is the amplification factor applied to the

static response.

This effect is also called dynamic load factor, dynamic load allowance or

impact factor and is given by,

IM = Ddyn

Dstat

Here Dstat is the maximum static deflection and Ddyn is the additional

defection due to the dynamic effects.

DYNAMIC EFFECTS

According to AASHTO specifications, DLA is illustrated in table 4.7[A3.6.2].

DYNAMIC EFFECTS

Paultre(1992) outlines various factors used to increase the static loads to account for dynamic

load effect. The following illustration shows various bridge design specifications from around

the world.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCES

As a truck moves along a curvilinear path, the change in the direction of the velocity causes a

centrifugal acceleration in the radial direction. This acceleration is given by,

ar = V² ….4.1

r

Where ‘ V ’ is the truck speed and ‘ r ’ is the radius of curvature of the truck movement.

Since F= ma , so substituting ar in the Newton’s second law of motion,

Fr = m V² …..4.2

r

Where Fr is the force on the truck.

Since mass m = W

g

CENTRIFUGAL FORCES

So, we can substitute ‘ m ‘ in eq.4.2 to obtain an expression similar to that given by AASHTO,

Fr = V² W

rg

Fr = CW

Where C = 4 v²

3 Rg

Here v is the highway design speed(m/s), R is the radius of the curvature of traffic

lane(m), and F is applied at the assumed centre of mass at a distance 1800 mm above the deck

surface.[A3.6.3]

Because the combination of design truck with the design lane load gives a load approximately

four thirds of the effect of the design truck considered independently, a four third factor is used

to model the effect of a train of trucks.

Multiple presence factor may be applied to this force as it is unlikely that all the lanes will be

fully loaded simultaneously.

BRAKING FORCES

•Braking forces are significant in bridge loads consideration. This force is transmitted to the deck

and taken into the substructure by the bearings or supports.

•This force is assumed to act horizontally at 1800 mm above the roadway surface in either

longitudinal direction.

•Here , the multiple presence factor may be applied as it is unlikely that all the trucks in all the

lanes will be at the maximum design level.

•The braking force shall be taken as 25% of the axle weights of the design truck or the design

tandem placed in all lanes.

PERMIT VEHICLES AND MISCELLANEOUS

CONSIDERATIONS

•Transportation agencies may include vehicle loads to model characteristics of their particular

jurisdiction.

For example the Department of Transportation in California (Caltrans) uses a different load

model for their structures as shown in the fig.4.19.

•In all such cases, the characteristics of truck loads should be based on survey data. If such data

is not available or achievable, then professional judgment should be used.

LATERAL LOADS

Following forces are considered under lateral loads:

• Fluid forces

• Seismic Loads

• Ice Forces

FLUID FORCES

• Fluid forces include

1. Water forces and

2. Wind forces.

• The force on a structural component due to a fluid

flow (water or air) around a component is established

by Bernoulli’s equation in combination with empirically

established drag coefficients.

WIND FORCES

• The velocity of the wind varies with the elevation above the

ground and the upstream terrain roughness and that is why

pressure on a structure is also a function of these parameters.

• If the terrain is smooth then the velocity increases more rapidly

with elevation.

• The wind force should be considered from all directions and

extreme values are used for design.

• Directional adjustments are outlined in AASHTO[A3.8.1.4].

• The wind must also be considered on the vehicle.This load is

1.46 N/mm applied at 1.8 m above the roadway

surface.[A3.8.1.3].

WATER FORCES

• Water flowing against and around the substructure

creates a lateral force directly on the structure as well

as debris that might accumulate under the bridge.

• If the substructure is oriented at an angle to the

stream flow, then adjustments must be made. These

adjustments are outlined in the AASHTO [A3.7.3.2].

• Scour of the stream bed around the foundation should

also be considered as it can result in the structural

failure. AASHTO [A2.6.4.4.1] outlines an extreme limit

state for design.

SEISMIC LOADS

anticipated earthquake/seismic effects can govern the

design of the lateral load resistance system.

other lateral loads such as wind govern the design.

PROVISIONS FOR SEISMIC LOADS

• The provision of the AASHTO specifications for seismic design

are based on the following principles[C3.10.1]:

elastic range of the structural components without significant

damage.

in the design procedures.

collapse of all or part of the bridge. Where possible damage

should be readily detectable and accessible for inspection and

repair.

ICE FORCES

• Forces produced by ice must be considered when a

structural component of a bridge, such as a pier, is

located in water and the climate is cold enough to

cause the water to freeze.

• Due to the freeze up and break up of ice in different

seasons ice forces are produced.

• These are generally static which can be horizontal

when caused by thermal expansion and contraction or

vertical if the body of water is subject to changes in

water level.

• Relevant provisions are given in AASHTO section 3.9.

FORCES DUE TO DEFORMATION

In bridge we have to consider the following forces due to deformation:

1. Temperature

3. Settlement

TEMPERATURE

Two types of temperature changes must be included in the analysis of the

superstructure.

i. Uniform temperature change

ii. Gradient or non-uniform temperature change

In this type of temperature change, the entire superstructure changes temperature by a

constant amount. This type of change lengthens or shortens the bridge or if the

supports are constrained it will induce reactions at the bearings and forces in the

structure. This type of deformation is illustrated in the figure.

TEMPERATURE

Gradient or Non-uniform temperature change:

In this type the temperature change is gradient or non-uniform heating or cooling of the

superstructure across its depth. Subjected to sunshine, bridge deck heats more than the girder

below. This non-uniform heating causes the temperature to increase more in the top portion of

the system than in the bottom and the girder attempts to bow upward as shown in the figure.

TEMPERATURE

The temperature change is considered as a function of climate. AASHTO defines two climatic

conditions, moderate and cold.

Moderate climate is when the number of freezing days per year is less than 14. A

freezing day is when the average temperature is less than 0C.

Table 4.21 gives the temperature ranges. The temperature range is used to establish the change

in temperature used in the analysis.

CREEP & SHRINKAGE

The effects of creep and shrinkage can have an effect on the structural

strength, fatigue and serviceability.

serviceability problems that might lead to secondary strength.

Creep and shrinkage are highly dependent on material and the system

involved.

SETTLEMENT

the foundation.

•Elastic deformation include movements that affect the response of the

bridge to other loads but do not lock in permanent actions.

•This type of settlement is not a load but rather a support characteristic

that should be included in the structural design.

•Inelastic deformations are movements that tend to be permanent and

create locked in permanent actions.

SETTLEMENT

instabilities, or foundation failures. Some such movements are the

results are the loads applied to the bridge and these load effects may be

included in the bridge design.

•Other movements are attributed to the behavior of the foundation

independent of the loads applied to the bridge.

•These movements are treated as loads and are called imposed support

deformations.

•Imposed support deformations are estimated based on the

geotechnical characteristics of the site and the system involved. Detailed

suggestions are given in AASHTO, section 10.

COLLISION LOADS

2.Rail Collision Load

3.Vehicle Collision Load

COLLISION LOADS

Vessel Collision load:

On bridge over navigable waterways the possibility of vessel

collision with the pier must be considered. Typically, this is of

concern for structures that are classified as long span bridges.

Vessel collision loads are classified in AASHTO [A3.14].

If a bridge is located near a railway, the possibility of collision of

the bridge as a result of a railway derailment exists. As this

possibility is remote, the bridge must be designed for collision

forces using extreme limit states.

The collision force of a vehicle with the barrier, railing and parapet

should be considered in bridge design.

Influence Lines

• Influence lines is particularly useful in the

analysis of the moving loads ( Traffic Loads) in

Bridge Engineering.

Definition:

From the previous lecture, we know the different

types of loads are acting over the bridge. The loads

are present in combination or individually. The

responsibility of the Bridge Engineer is to design

and analyze bridge for the critical effects of these

loads.

Sign Convention

Influence Lines For Determinate

Structures

Influence Lines For Determinate

Structures

Influence Lines For Determinate

Structures

Influence Lines For Determinate

Structures

Influence Lines For Determinate Structures

Muller Breslau Principle (Betti’s Theorum)

Muller Breslau Principle (Betti’s Theorum)

An influence function/Line for an action maybe established by removing the constraint associated

with the action and imposing a unit displacement. The displacement at every point in the structure i

The Influence function.

“ The structure displaced shape is the Influence Function”

Muller Breslau Principle (Betti’s Theorum)

Statistically Indeterminate Beams

Two ways:

(1) Unit loads Traversed over the Beam

(2) Muller Breslau method for construction of

the qualitative influence lines.

qualitative Influence Lines.

Statistically Indeterminate Beams

Statistically Indeterminate Beams

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

• The live loads position over the bridge are

uncertain.

• The loads are placed at more than one

locations and loads effects are calculated.

Maximum and minimum effects are noted and

used in the analysis.

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

AASTHO VEHICLE LOADS

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures

Statistically Indeterminate Beams

Influence Lines for Indeterminate Structures

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures

Structures, Same Example in the SAP 2000

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures

Influence Lines for Indeterminate

Structures (SAP2000)

Material Properties)

• Define Lanes

• Define Vehicle

• Define Vehicle Classes

• Define Load Cases

Integration of Influence Function

Integration of Influence Function

Integration of Influence Function

Integration of Influence Function

Superstructure Analysis

Slab Girder Bridge

3D Model

Beam Line Model

Beam Line Model

AASTHO Method for Superstructure

Analysis

• These distributions factors may be used for

bridges with fairly regular geometry. It is limited

to system with:

a) Constant cross-section

b) Number of beams are four or more girders

c) Girders with same stiffness

d) Roadway cantilever portion not exceeding 3.0 ft

e) Plan curvature is small

f) Cross-section is consistent with section shown in

the Table on the next slide

AASTHO Method for Superstructure

Analysis

To the Book Page 179

Example 11.1 and 11.2

Lever Method

Lever Method

Lever Method

Lever Method

Lever Method

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