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Unit 6

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

6.1. Building ships


A modern shipyard is designed for building ships as cheaply and
quickly as possible. Ships can be built in about sixteen months and costs can
be kept to a minimum. They are designed by naval architects. The largest
shipping companies have their own naval architects. In Europe and Japan,
shipyards employ naval architects to design a ship for a customer, or offer
basic designs, which can be varied to suit the customer‟s needs. Ship
owne rs may also go to independent firms of shipping consultants and ask
their naval architects to design a ship for them.
When ship owners decide to order a new ship, they tell the naval architect:
 the type of cargo they want to carry
 the routes the ship will ply
 the desired speed
 the ship‟s dimensions
 the price they are ready to pay
The ship must also comply with the rules of the classification
society and international regulations. Before a shipyard will start the
building of a ship, the final construction plan must be approved by a
classification society. The classification will serve as a guide during the
whole period of building. Classification Societies are the authorities with the
most profound influence on shipbuilding, merchant ship design and ship
safety.
Among the most important are Lloyd's Register of Shipping, det
Norske Veritas, the American Bureau of Shipping, Bureau Veritas, Registro
Italiano, Germanischer Lloyd and Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. Of a ll these famous
societies Lloyd's of London is the most famous and respected. Lloyd‟s
Register of Shipping is concerned with the maintenance of proper technical
standards in ship-construction and the classification of ships, i.e. the record
of all relevant technical details and the assurance that the ship will meet the
required standards.
Vessels that are classed with Lloyd's Register are awarded the
classification +100 A 1. The cross (+) indicates that the ship has been built
under the supervision of surveyors from Lloyd's Register, while "100 A"
indicates that the vessel has been built in accordance with the recommended
standards. "1" indicates that the safety equipment, anchors and cabins are as
required. Surveys at regular intervals are carried out by the Society's
surveyors to ensure that the vessel is still complying with the standards. The
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Society is also empowered to allot loadline certificates to determine and


assess tonnage measurements and to ensure compliance with safety
regulations. Surveyors all over the world carry out these required surveys
and report to headquarters in London and other national centres. A ship
failing to meet the standards will lose her classification and become a
burden to the owners.
The building of a ship follows a well-ordered sequence of events.
After the vessel has been ordered, the plans are completed in the drawing-
office. Next, the final plans must be approved by a classification society
such as Lloyds Register of Shipping. This is necessary if the owner wants
his ship to be classed. While the ship is being built, constant checks are
made to make sure she is being built to the standards of the society.
Classification will show that the ship is seaworthy and able to carry cargo
she has been designed to carry.
Nowadays a shipyard is organized so that each stage in the building
of a ship is done in a continuous chain of shops. Conveyor rolle rs and
moving cranes on rails link each shop. First of all, steel plates and bars are
taken from the stockyard to the pre paration shop. Here they are cleaned
by shot blasting. Then, they are coated with a primer paint to prevent
corrosion. Later, they are cut and shape d automatically by machines.
Cutting is done by gas torches and shaping by giant presses. After that, the
pieces are welded together in prefabrication sheds to form sections.
Welding is now used instead of riveting for joining pieces of metal
together. The prefabricated sections are then transferred to the building
berth. Eventually, they are lifted into position by giant cranes.
When a ship is ready she is launched. Some ships are built on a
slipway and slide into the water. Others are built in a dry dock. The dock is
then flooded with water and the ship is floated out. After launching, the ship
is berthed in a fitting-out basin for completion. The main machinery,
together with auxiliaries, piping systems, deck gear, lifeboats,
accommodation equipment, plumbing systems, and rigging are installed on
board, along with whatever insulation and deck coverings are necessary.
Fitting out may be a relatively minor undertaking, as with a tanker or a bulk
carrier, but in the case of a passenger vessel, the work will be extensive.
Although fitting-out operations are diverse and complex, as with hull
construction there are four main divisions:
(1) collection and grouping of the specified components,
(2) installation of components according to schedule,
(3) connection of components to appropriate piping and/or wiring systems,
and
(4) testing of completed systems.
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 113

The tendency in planning has been to divide the ship into sections,
listing the quantities of components required and times of delivery.
Drawings necessary for each section are prepared and these specify the
quantities of components required. A master schedule is compiled,
specifying the sequences and target dates for completion and testing of each
component system. This schedule is used to marshal and synchronize fitting
work in the different sections and compartments. A completed ship goes for
sea trials before she is handed over to her new owners. During these the
ship and her equipment are thoroughly tested.

6.2. Construction
The designing, construction and fitting out of a vessel are a very
complicated matter. When designing a ship the naval architect must take
into consideration not only the purpose for which the ship will be built, but
also the enormous stresses the ship will be exposed to when sailing in
adverse weather and rough seas.
Deformations of the ship‟s hull due to hogging and sagging must be
avoided by implementing additional strengthening that will also provide
support. These strengthening are called stiffeners, or stringers. They may
consist of beams, girders, keelson and stanchions.

The backbone of a ship is her keel. It is a longitudinal beam located


at the very bottom of the ship and extending from stem to stern. The ship is
given her rounded shape by a series of symmetrically curved frames.
Frames can be compared to the ribs in a human body. They are fastened to
the keel, providing support and giving shape to the hull. The frames that are
in the middle are larger than those at the sides and are known as floors. The
frames are held in position by longitudinal stringers. Additional bracing is
provided by beams extending across the width of the ship. Deck-beam
brackets serve as joints between deck beams and the transverse frames. The
rows of steel plantings in the metal hull are called strakes.
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6.3. Propellers
The screw-propeller "screws" its way through the water, driving
water aft and the ship ahead. Some propellers have adjustable blades instead
of fixed blades. If a propeller turns clockwise when viewed from aft, it is
said to be right-handed; a left- handed propeller turns anti-clockwise. In a
twin-screw ship the starboard propeller is usually right-handed and the port
propeller left-handed. They are outward-turning, which reduces cavitation.
The "face" of the propeller blade is the surface seen from aft. The
other surface of the blade is called the "back". The "leading edge" of the
blade is that edge that thrusts through the water when producing ahead-
thrust. The other edge is called the "trailing edge".

6.3.1. The Controllable Pitch Propeller, or CPP, fitted with adjustable


blades. By turning (adjusting) the blades, the thrust that is being developed
can be varied whilst maintaining constant shaft-revolutions. In this way the
vessel's pitch can be controlled by changing the position of the propeller
blades. By pitch is understood the distance that the propeller will travel after
one revolution.
The blades can even be put in a position that will produce an astern-
thrust while still rotating in the same direction. The vessel's manoeuvrability
is increased considerably. The greatest advantage of the CPP, however, is
that engine-wear is reduced because a constant RPM can be maintained
while proceeding at any speed.
Limitations of the CPP include the power that can be satisfactorily
transmitted (installations for more than 25,000 bhp are uncommon). Another
disadvantage of the CPP is the complicated mechanism controlling the
blade-angle. Furthermore, the boss is enlarged to house bearings for the
blades. This increased boss-size reduces the maximum efficiency that can be
obtained. CPPs are mostly used in vessels that have variable rated
capacities.

6.3.2. The Voith Schneider Propeller, or Vertical Axis Propeller,


consists of a horizontal disc rotating around a vertical axis. Projecting
vertically down from this disc are a number of blades whose positions can
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 115

be varied. By doing so a thrust can be produced in any desired direction. An


obvious advantage of such a propeller is that it offers a high
manoeuvrability for vessels that require to be highly manoeuvrable. The
horizontal driving shaft, however, necessitates the introduction of a bevel
gear, with consequential limitations on the maximum power that can be
produced.

6.3.3. The Shrouded Propeller, or Ducted Propeller, is integrated into a


"tunnel", or duct. Enlargement of the tail- race and the thrust that can be
produced is achieved by shaping of the duct, as is often done with heavily
loaded propellers (e.g. with tugs). Other advantages of the duct are: it
protects the propeller from fouling and reduces propeller noise. However,
the system is quite costly.

6.3.4. Jet propulsion is achieved by drawing water into the ship and then
thrusting it out by mean pump. In this way the vessel is "jet-propelled". It's
an attractive means of propulsion where it is desirable to have no moving
parts outside the hull of the ship, where a protected screw is desired, and for
small vessels with high rating capacities. Therefore it is widely employed in
Ultra-Shallow-Draft (USD) Vessels. Jet propulsion involves higher speeds
and outstanding manoeuvrability because the duct is movable. However,
because of the resistance caused by the flow of the water through the duct,
its efficiency is lower than that of the ordinary screw-propeller.

6.4. Rudders
The choice of the type of rudder that is used will largely depend on
the shape of the stern, the size of the vessel and the capacity of the steering
gear.

6.4.1. The Balanced Spade rudder (or balanced rudder) is used for
vessels with a long "sharp" stem. Not much strength is applied to the rudder
stock and the steering gear can be made quite compact. Because of the large
rudder area it offers good manoeuvrability.
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6.4.2. The Semi-Balanced rudder (or Gnomon Rudder) is used where


the size of the rudder requires that it is supported at an additional point to
the rudder bearing, but where it is still desired to reduce the size of the
steering gear. This type of rudder offers a high manoeuvrability.

6.4.3. The Unbalanced Rudder is used in vessels whose stern-shape is


not fit to carry a balanced rudder. Furthermore these rudders are usually
fitted on smaller ships of relatively deep draft. The number of pintles fitted
will depend on the required strength. There are single-pintle rudders and
multi-pintle rudders. The rudderstock must be able to endure large stresses.

Unbal anced Single-Pintle Rudder Unbal anced Multi-Pintle Rudder

6.4.4. The Flap Rudder has at its rear end a "flap" that can move at a
greater angle than the main portion of the rudder. It is used in vessels that
require considerable manoeuvrability. The complicated linkage system
between the flap-portion and the main portion is vulnerable and often the
source of malfunction.

6.5. Manoeuvrability
In order to enable a ship to proceed on a straight path, make turns or
take avoiding actions, she must be controllable and manageable not only in
calm waters during anti-cyclones, but also in turbulent seas during gales and
in adverse weather.
Considering this control in the horizontal plane, the manoeuvrability
of a ship must be related to the following:
1. the ease with which a ship can be maintained on a given course.
The term "steering" is applied here and the main factor affecting the
ship's performance is her dynamic stability (static stability, that is: when the
ship is not moving, is of course of no importance when it comes to
"steering");
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 117

2. the response of the ship to movements of the rudder;


3. the ability to turn completely round within a specified space.

The rudder acts as a servo-system, or intermediary-system, that


causes the hull to take up a position in which the required forces and
moments are generated hydrodynamically onto the hull. Rudders are fitted
aft, because in this position they are most effective in causing the hull to
take up the required position.
During trials a number of manoeuvres are commonly carried out.
One of the most important tests is the turning circle. It is a standard
manoeuvre carried out by all ships as an indication of the efficiency of the
rudder.

6.6. Stability
Most travellers take it for granted that their ship will float the right
way up. This it will only do if it has been correctly designed and
constructed. A ship will experience many forces that will try to turn it over.
The ship must of course be capable to resist these forces by what is
commonly known as stability. Too much stability is undesirable because
this may cause unpleasant motions and can be costly due to high fuel
consumption. Too little stability will make the ship heel over easily and
capsize. Thus, as with so many other features of design, stability is a
compromise.
A body is said to be in a state of equilibrium when the resultant of all
the forces that act on it is zero and the resultant moment of the forces is also
zero. If a body, subject to a small disturbance, from a state of equilibrium
tends to return to that state, it is said to possess a positive stability - it is in a
state of equilibrium. If, following the disturbance, the equilibrium is reduced
even more, then the body is said to be in a state of unstable equilibrium - it
has a negative stability. To reach the state of equilibrium, buoyancy and the
gravity (weight) must be equal and the two forces must act along the same
line.
Another term for buoyancy is upthrust, which of course is related to
Archimedes' Law (or Archimedes' Principle), which says that when a body
is immersed in a liquid it will experience an upthrust that is equal to the
weight of the displaced liquid.
For conventional ships the longitudinal stability is always high. This
is not always the case for offshore drilling barges and other less
conventional vessels.
Unless a ship is stable it will not float upright, because, although in
the upright position it is in equilibrium, there will always be disturbances -
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from the sea, air or movement within the ship - which will force it out of the
upright position.
An "unstable” ship will not return to this position. And even if it
does not actually capsize, it would be unpleasant to be in a ship that lolls to
one side constantly.
Circumstances that will cause a ship to heel may be external or
internal. External influences are:
- the action of the wind, which will be most influential with ships with
high freeboards and large superstructures;
- the action of waves, causing the rolling and pitching, heaving,
surging, swaying and yawing of vessels in rough seas;
- water properties, such as
1. density (or specific gravity). The density of the water in which a
vessel floats will affect her draft and trim. Density will mainly depend upon
the temperature and the salinity of the water;
2. kinematic viscosity. This is particularly relevant to the frictional
resistance a ship will experience when proceeding through the water.
3. salinity. Values for samples of seawater will vary from area to area
and will depend, among other things, upon the salinity. Many objects will
float in the Dead Sea, but would sink in fresh water.
Internal influences mostly relate to the human element, or, as it is
often called, the Human Factor (HF). Examples are:
- the action of the rudder when a ship is being manoeuvred;
- loading and discharging cargoes: if the stowage plan has been drawn
up badly the vessel will soon heel over to port or starboard.

6.7 Tasks

TASK 1 Study the sentences below which show the sequence of events in
the building of ships. Write them out in a paragraph using the above
sequence words to introduce each stage in a sentence.
1st – plans are completed by naval architects;
2nd – plans are approved by the classification society;
3rd – parts of the ship are prepared;
4th – parts of the ship are put together;
5th – ship is launched;
6th – ship is fitted out and completed;
7th – ship goes for sea trials;
8th – ship is handed over to her new owners.
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 119

TASK 2. Study the paragraph "Classification", then match the


following parts of sentences with the sentences in the appropriate
categories below; write down each sentence in full.
A - .............. carry out surveys at regular intervals.
B - .............. the vessel has been classed with Lloyd‟s Register.
C - .............. standards according to which classification will take place.
D - .............. the required standards.
E - .............. allot load line certificates, assess tonnage and ensure
compliance with safety regulations.
F - .............. the ship has been built under the supervision of surveyors from
Lloyd's Register.
G - .............. proper technical standards during the construction.
H - .............. the safety equipment, anchors and cabins are as required.
I - ............... the vessel will comply with the standards.
J - ............... the final construction plan.
K - .............. the vessel will continue to comply with the standards.
L - .............. the vessel has been built in accordance with the recommended
standards.

Pre-construction stage
The Society has made up ________________________________________
The Society approves ___________________________________________
The Society ensures that _________________________________________
During construction
The Society checks the maintenance of _____________________________
The Society assures that the ship will meet __________________________
Upon and after completion of construction
The Society awards "+100 A 1" to indicate that _______________________
The Society awards "+" to indicate that _____________________________
The Society awards "1OOA" to indicate that _________________________
The Society awards "1" to indicate that _____________________________
The Society's surveyors _________________________________________
The Society ensures that _________________________________________
The Society is empowered to _____________________________________

TASK 3 Building the ship: matching


Match the parts with the functions - fill in A, B, C, etc, or a combination.
Parts: 1 – Beam; 2 – Bracket; 3 – Brace; 4 – Bulkhead; 5 – Deck;
6 – Floor; 7 – Frame; 8 – Girder; 9 – Keelson; 10 – Shell; 11 – Stanchion;
12 – Stiffener; 13 – Strake; 14 – Stringer
Functions: A – Strengthening; B – Shaping; C – Plating; D – Separation;
E – Support
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

TASK 4 Propelle rs: applications, advantages and disadvantages


Fill in the applications, advantages and disadvantages of the various types of
propellers.

Propellers Applications Advantages Disadvantages


Controllable ............................ ............................ ............................
Pitch ............................ ............................ ............................
Propeller

Voith ............................ ............................ ............................


Schneider ............................ ............................ ............................
Propeller

Ducted ............................ ............................ ............................


Propeller ............................ ............................ ............................

TASK 5 Rudders : applications, advantages and disadvantages


Fill in the applications, advantages and disadvantages of the various types of
rudders.

Advantages and/or
Rudders Application
disadvantages
Balanced rudder .......................................... ..........................................
.......................................... ..........................................

Semi-balanced .......................................... ..........................................


rudder .......................................... ..........................................

Unbalanced rudder .......................................... ..........................................


......................................... ..........................................

Flap rudder ......................................... ..........................................


.......................................... ..........................................
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 121

Task 6 Questions on stability


Answer the questions about the text in full sentences.
1 What is meant by stability?
2 Why is stability a compromise?
3 What is meant by ‟equilibrium‟?
4 Explain: positive stability.
5 Explain: negative stability.
6 What is Archimedes‟s Principle?
7 Mention the factors that will cause instability.
8 On what does the density of the water have its effects?
9 What factors determine the specific gravity of water?
10 What is the relation between the kinematic viscosity and the frictional
resistance of a ship proceeding through water?
11 What is the relation between "the action of the rudder when a ship is
manoeuvring” and HF?

6.8. Vocabulary
adjustable blades ~ pale ajustabile
allot ~ a repartiza; a distribui
anti-fouling paint ~ vopsea antivegetativă
balance rudder ~ cârmă compensată
bearing ~ lagăr, cuzinet
berthing ~ dană
bevel ~ teşit
bevel wheel ~ roată dinţată conică
bhp = brake horse power ~ cai putere
blade angle ~ unghiul palei
boss ~ butuc al elicei
brace ~ a îmbina; suport
bracket ~ guseu, consolă, postament de fixare
building berth ~ dană de construcţie
buoyancy ~ flotabilitate
cavitation ~ cavitaţie
centre of gravity ~ centru de gravitaţie
chain of shops ~ lanţ de ateliere
classification society ~ registru naval
coat ~ a vopsi
constant check ~ verificări constante
conveyor roller ~ bandă rulantă
dry dock ~ doc uscat
duct ~ tub
ducted propeller ~ elice cu tunel
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edge ~ margine, muchie


equipme nt ~ echipamente
equlibrium ~ echilibru
fitting out ~ dotare, armare, asamblare
fitting-out basin ~ bazin de armare
freeboard ~ bord liber
frictional resistance ~ rezistenţă la frecare
gale ~ vânt puternic, furtună
gas torch ~ aparat de sudură
girde r ~ traversă, grindă
heaving ~ ridicare, resacă
heel over ~ a lua bandă, a se înclina transversal
hogging ~ arcuire
hull ~ cocă, osatură a navei
immerse ~ a (se) scufunda
keel ~ chilă
keelson ~ contrachilă
launch ~ a lansa
linkage ~ transmisie, mecanism cu pârghii
loll ~ canarisire stabilizată, a se înclina dintr- un bord în altul
maiden trip ~ primul voiaj al navei
maintain ~ a menţine, a întreţine
maintenance ~ întreţinere
manoeuvrability ~ manevrabilitate
movable ~ mobil, transportabil
moving crane ~ macara mobilă
naval architect ~ inginer proiectant
naval architecture ~ construcţii navale
obtainable ~ procurabil, care poate fi obţinut
operational ~ funcţional
pintle ~ balama, ax vertical
pitch ~ pas al elicei
pitching ~ tangaj, înclinare longitudinală
pivoting point ~ punct de pivotare/rotire
prefabrication shed ~ atelier de asamblare
preparation shop ~ atelier de pregătire
press ~ presă
prime r ~ grund
prime r paint ~ grund
rated capacity ~ putere nominală
rear end ~ pupa
revolution ~ rotaţie
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 123

rivet ~ a nitui
rolling ~ ruliu, înclinare transversală
rudder stock ~ axul cârmei, parte anterioară a cârmei compensate
sagging ~ deformare, contraarcuire
sample ~ mostră
sandblast ~ sablare
sea trial ~ probă de mare
seaworthy ~ în stare de navigabilitate
shaft ~ ax
shell plating ~ bordaj metalic exterior
shipowne r ~ armator, proprietar
shipyard ~ şantier naval
shot blasting ~ curaţare cu alice
shrouded propeller ~ elice cu duză/în tunel
slipway ~ cală de lansare
spares ~ piese de schimb
specific gravity ~ greutate specifică
stern tube ~ etambou, tub etambou
stiffener ~ element de rigidizare, eclisă
stockyard ~ magazie
stowage plan ~ plan de încărcare, cargoplan
strake ~ filă de bordaj
stresses ~ tensiuni
stringer ~ obturator/curent longitudinal, stringher
subject to ~ supus la
superstructure ~ suprastructură
surging ~ balans vertical
survey ~ a inspecta, inspecţie
surveyor ~ inspector de registru
swaying ~ derivă laterală (datorită ruliului)
thrust ~ a împinge; presiune, contrapresiune
trailing edge ~ bord de scurgere, margine pupa
transverse ~ traversă, transversal, oblic
twin-scre w ship ~ navă cu două elice
upthrust ~ flotabilitate, împingere verticală a navei
weld ~ a suda
yawing ~ ambardare, ambardee
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6.9. The Gerund

6.9.1. Form and use


The gerund has exactly the same form as the present participle: running,
speaking, working.

Active Passive

Simple Playing being played

Perfect having played having been played

It can be used in the following ways:


a) as subject of a sentence:
Keeping a copy of your letters is a good idea.
Speaking is one of the four important skills.

b) as complement of a verb:
Her hobby is repairing engines.
Their interest is visiting all the museums.

c) after prepositions:
He was accused of smuggling.
The man is interested in repairing the engine.

d) after certain verbs: admit, avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, excuse,
finish, forgive, involve, keep, mind, miss, remember, risk, stop, suggest,
understand etc.:
Do you mind waiting a moment?
Does he consider admitting the truth?

e) in noun compounds:
e.g. a diving board (a board for diving off)
The gerund here carries the main stress.

6.9.2. The gerund as subject


Either infinitive or gerund can be the subject of a sentence when an action is
being considered in a general sense. We can say:
It is easier to read French than to speak it.
Reading French is easier than speaking it.
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 125

The gerund is used in short prohibitions:


No smoking!
No waiting!
No fishing!

Gerunds are used in the saying:


Saying is believing.

6.9.3. Gerunds after pre positions


A gerund often comes after a verb + preposition, an adjective + preposition
or a noun + preposition. In these patterns to- infinitive is not used.
a. When the verb is placed immediately after the following preposition the
gerund form must be used: after, against, as a result of, as well as,
because of, before, besides, by, by means of despite, for, how about, in, in
addition to, in favour of, in spite of, instead of, on, on account of, since,
through, what about, with, without.
What can you do besides typing?
I have no objection to hearing your story again.
He is good at diving.
She is fond of climbing.
I‟ m tired of arguing.
Do you feel like going out?
After swimming I feel cold.
I‟m sorry for keeping you waiting!
Aren‟t you interested in yachting?
There‟s no point in waiting!

b. A number of verb + preposition combinations take the gerund. The most


common of these are: admit to, agree/disagree with, aim at, apologize for,
approve/disapprove of, believe in, benefit from, care for, confess to, count
on, depend on, feel like, get on with, insist on, object to, pay for, put up
with, rely on, resort to, succeed in, think of, vote for
I don’t care for standing in queues.
He insists on repairing the fuse.

c. A gerund can also follow a verb + object + preposition. We can use:


accuse ... of, blame ... for, change ... with, congratulate ... on, deter ...
from, discourage ... from, excuse ... for, excuse ... from, forgive ... for,
prevent ... from, punish ... for, remind ... of, stop ... from, strike ... as,
thank ... for, use ... for etc.:
I‟d like to congratulate you on breaking the world record.
They want to prevent the people from going on strike.
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d. A gerund can follow an adjective + preposition. We can use: afraid of,


amazed at, angry about/at, anxious about, ashamed of, aware of, bad at,
bored with, capable of, content with, dependent of, different from/to, exited
about/at, famous for, fed up with, fond of, good at, grateful for, guilty of,
happy about/with, interested in, keen on, nervous of, pleased about/with,
ready for, responsible for, satisfied with, sorry about/for, successful in,
surprised at, used to, worried about, wrong with.
What‟s wrong with borrowing a little money?

6.9.4. Difference between gerund and –ing participle


The gerund differs from present participle in that the former has both
verbal and nominal characteristics:
a. Verbal characteristics of the gerund:
 It has the category of voice and aspect:
The watch being finished they went in their cabins.
 It can be determined by an object:
He insisted on my helping him.
I cared for his feeling better.
 It can be determined by an adverbial:
I‟d suggest leaving a little earlier.
They announced arriving a little late.
 It may be used as part of the predicate:
He finished writing the long letter.
They stopped delivering the parcels.

b. Nominal characteristics of the gerund:


 It can be preceded by a preposition:
It will prevent him from s moking.
He was congratulated on winning the contest.
 It can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a
possessive adjective:
I don‟t mind his coming so late.
Do you mind my opening the window?
 It can be subject or object in the sentence:
Collecting stamps is his hobby.
I hate his coming home late.

6.10. Infinitive and gerund constructions


a. Verbs which may take either infinitive or gerund:
advise need
agree permit
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 127

allow prefer
begin propose
can/could bear recommend
cease regret
continue remember
forget require
hate start
intend stop
like try
love used to
mean want

b. Verbs taking infinitive or gerund without change of meaning:


1. begin, start, continue, cease:
I began working/ I began to work.
He continued living/ to live about the shop.

2. can’ t bear (chiefly used in the negative):


I can’ t bear waiting/to wait.

3. intend (after it an infinitive is more usual than a gerund):


I intend to sell it/selling it.

4. advise, allow, permit, recommend


If the person concerned is mentioned we use the infinitive:
He advised me to apply at once.
She recommends them to buy the big tins.
They don‟t allow us to park here.
But if this person is not mentioned, the gerund is used:
He advised applying at once.
She recommends buying the big tins.
They don‟t allow parking.

5. It needs/requires/wants can be followed either by the gerund or by the


passive infinitive, the gerund being the more usual:
The grass wants cutting.
The grass wants to be cut.
128 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

6.11. Grammar Practice

Gerund
Exercise 1
Complete these sentences with …ing forms. Use these verbs.
do, s wim, wait, work, ring, complain, write, waste, go, think
1. We went ……….yesterday because it was such a nice day.
2. I haven„t finished ……….my essay.
3. I hate……..for buses, ………time.
4. I„m having a baby. I stopped ……….three weeks ago.
5. It„s worth……….to see if there are any tickets left.
6. It„s not worth………..after five o„clock.
7. Instead of………., what about………..something about it!
8. I can„t help……….it„s a bit too expensive.

Exercise 2
Fill in the verbs in the –ing form.
Jill loves going shopping, but last Saturday everything seemed to go wrong
for her.
„As you know I love ………. (go) shopping – especially on Saturdays. I
usually hate ……….(get) up early, but on Saturdays I can‟t help
………(wake) early, having breakfast, ……….(do) the washing up, then
………(get) out to the shops.
But last Saturday everything went wrong! First of all, just as I was about to
leave, the phone rang. It was one of my neighbours who asked if I wouldn‟t
mind ……… (take) her with me. So, instead of ………. (leave) at 9, it was
nearer 10 before we set off. Of course, she couldn‟t help ………. (offer) me
a cup of coffee. I was afraid of ……… (upset) her. I‟m not used to ………
(drink) coffee at that time of the day. But it was no use ………. (refuse).
Half way into the town the car broke down! I normally enjoy ………
(drive), but when things go wrong, I hate cars. My friend suggested ………
(try) to stop another driver and ………. (ask) for help. By this time it had
started ………. (rain). Nobody stopped for us! You can imagine that I was
not in a very good mood. And then she started ………(offer) me advice;
what about ……….(go) to the nearest phone box…it‟s no good
……….(look) under the bonnet. She went on and on ……… (complain).
Finally, I lost my temper. It‟s no use …….. (make) silly suggestions!, I
shouted. So she left in silence to get a bus. As she left, the car started! But
what a day!‟
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 129

Exercise 3
Complete each of these sentences with a verbal noun (…ing form).
Use one of these words in each one.
fly, drive, parachute, play, earn, spend, relax, sing, dance, work
1. ………..is the quickest way to travel?
2. ………money is more fun than ……….it!
3. ………..and ………..are both dangerous hobbies, but more people
are injured ……….football.
4. ……….hard makes you tired, but then you can really enjoy ……….
5. I prefer ………to …….., so I like ballet more than opera.
6. Dangerous ……….kills hundreds of people on the roads every year.

EXERCISES GERUND + INFINITIVE

Exercise 1
Gerund or infinitive?
The words you need to complete this puzzle are either the gerunds (verbal
nouns) or the infinitives missing from the sentences below. Choose them
from the list on the right.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1. At last I decided to give up ..smoking..cigarettes. (pretend)


2. I really need to ………my hair. (come)
3. I don„t like ……….money to friends. (ring)
4. Why don„t we stop to ………hello to Aunt Mary? (say)
5. We„ve managed to ………tickets for the show. (send)
6. I wish you would stop ………you know more than you do. (lend)
7. I„ll never forget ………the President and his wife. (wash)
8. I hope you won„t forget to ……..us as soon as you land. (visit)
130 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

9. Would you mind ………me to move this case? (help)


10. I never remember to ……….my brother a birthday card. (meet)
11. Do you remember ……….the old village church? (smoke)
12. I„m really looking forward to ………back. (get)

Exercise 2
Larry has written a composition with the title „My likes and dislikes‟.
Complete it by giving the correct form of the words in brackets.
First, I am going to tell you about the things I like. I (1 enjoy/play) (=enjoy
playing) tennis and (2 be fond of/swim). Last year I (3 succeed in/pass) my
junior life-saver‟s test, and I (4 hope/take) the senior test next year. I (5
want/train) as a teacher of physical education when I leave school. If the
weather is fine, I always (6 like/be) out-of-doors, if possible, but I (7
prefer/stay) indoors when it is cold or wet. However, it (8 be fun/go) to a
disco on a cold winter‟s evening, even though I (9 not be good at/ dance).
Now, some of the things I do not like. I (10 start/smoke) when I was only
12, but I (11 stop/buy) cigarettes three years ago, and I simply (12
hate/smell) tobacco smoke now. I believe it (13 be always best/tell) the
truth, so I (14 dislike/lie) and it makes me very angry when someone does
something wrong and then (15 deny/do) it.

Exercise 3
Complete each sentence with a form of one of the verbs from the list. Use
each verb once only.
afford, bear, continue, expect, happen, learn, love, offer, prefer, pretend
a. John really ..loves.. spending all day at the beach.
b. I„m completely broke, so I can„t ……….to go on holiday.
c. Excuse me, but do you …………to know the way to Old Street?
d. We ………..our team to win, but they were badly beaten.
e. Kate ……….to speak French and German when she was at school.
f. Even when the examiner told him to stop, Bill …………speaking.
g. I„m sorry, but I can„t ………..to listen to this awful music!
h. Last week George ……….to help me pain my bike.
i. Paul ……….to have a bad leg so he didn„t have to go to the gym.
j. Sam usually ……….playing football to doing homework.

Exercise 4
Correct the errors. Some sentences do not have errors.
a. Jim can„t afford going to the cinema twice a week.
Jim can‘t afford to go to the cinema twice a week
b. David wishes leaving the room.
……………………………………………………………….
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 131

c. Are you waiting to use the phone?


……………………………………………………………….
d. I„d really like going swimming on Saturday.
……………………………………………………………….
e. Everyone decided to put off the football match.
……………………………………………………………….
f. Emma pretended leaving, but waited outside.
……………………………………………………………….
g. Jack agreed to meet me at the beach.
……………………………………………………………….
h. My bike seem having something wrong.
……………………………………………………………….
i. The director refused answering Helen„s phone call.
……………………………………………………………….
j. What exactly do you intend to say to Mrs Dawson?
……………………………………………………………….

Exercise 5
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.
a. Tom suddenly realized he had forgotten to lock/locking his door.
b. On the way back we stopped to have/having some tea.
c. Could you stop to talk/talking please?
d. Learning a language means to be/being interested in another culture.
e. Ann tried to open/opening the window, but it was too high to reach.
f. Please remember to take/taking the dog for a walk.
g. Cathy says she will never forget to sky-dive/sky-diving for the first time.
h. I don‟t really remember to start/starting school when I was five.

Exercise 6
Complete each sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.
a. Would you like to go to the beach?
..... Do you fancy ........going to the beach?
b. The boy admitted stealing the bike.
................................... steal the bike.
c. In my opinion you are wrong.
I feel ...........................................
d. Why don‟t we wait for the bus?
............................... waiting for the bus.
e. David often interrupts me.
.............................. interrupting me.
f. Is it all right if you come back later?
.................................... coming back later?
132 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

g. Think what being a millionaire would be like!


..................................................... being a millionaire!
h. Paula said that she hadn‟t written the letter.
............................................... writing the letter.
i. It‟s not my fault if I eat a lot.
...................................... eating a lot.
j. The building collapsed and we saw it.
....................................................... collapse.

Exercise 7.
Choose the correct verb underlined in each sentence.
a. Helen choose/enjoyed to learn French.
b. I really can‟t afford/stand to travel by plane.
c. Do you mind/want coming back in half an hour?
d. Tina meant/suggested to buy some potatoes, but she forgot.
e. Kate denied/refused opening the office safe.
f. Bill admitted/agreed making a serious mistake.
g. My parents decided/disliked to send me to a different school.
h. I really fancy/like a trip to the country.

Exercise 8.
Complete each sentence with a form of one of the verbs in the list.
deny, enjoy, expect, imagine, manage, mean, try, practice, pretend,
refuse
a. If you ……try….to work a bit harder, I‟m sure you‟ll pass the exam.
b. Harry …………to have toothache and left school early.
c. The builders are not sure of the exact date, but……….to start work
soon.
d. Ann …………to call you last week, but she forgot.
e. The woman arrested by the police……….robbing the bank.
f. You should…………speaking to the audience, to gain confidence.
g. It‟s interesting to………myself living on a desert island.
h. I phoned the director six times, but she ………..to speak to me.

Exercise 9.
Translate into English making use of a gerund or a gerundial construction.
1. Mulţumesc că m-aţi ajutat.
2. Maşina mea necesită reparaţii/trebuie reparată.
3. Vă deranjează dacă fumez aici?
4. El a ieşit din cameră fără să răspundă la întrebare.
5. Îmi displace să mă uit la televizor toată ziua.
6. Nu pot să- mi permit să cheltui toţi banii pe care- i am.
Unit 6 Sh ip Construction 133

7. Ne-am amânat plecarea din cauza sosirii lui John.


8. Vara florile au nevoie de apă în fiecare zi.
9. Îmi place să înot în lac când plouă.
10. Nu are rost să plângi.
Unit 7
MANNING AND WATCHKEEPING

7.1. Short history


As powered ships developed in the 19th century, their crews evolved
into three distinct groups: (1) the deck department, which steered, kept
lookout, handled lines in docking and undocking, and performed at-sea
maintenance on the hull and non- machinery components, (2) the engine
department, which operated machinery and performed at-sea maintenance,
and (3) the stewards department, which did the work of a hotel staff for the
crew and passengers. The total number of crew varied widely with the
function of the ship and with changes in technology. For example, an early
20th-century transatlantic liner might carry 500 stewards, 300 crew
members in its engine department (most of them occupied in hand- firing the
boilers), and 70 crew in its deck department. The later adoption of oil fuel
and also of the diesel engine allowed a drastic cut in the engineering
department. Still later, such devices as autopilots for steering and automatic
constant-tension mooring winches allowed reductions in the deck
department. Meanwhile, the need for stewards on passenger ships has
remained high: a cruise ship will still carry a stewards department of several
hundred.

In 1960 a steam-powered cargo ship (operating under the U.S. flag)


might have carried a crew of 45, comprising 20 deck (6 licensed officers),
16 engineering (6 licensed officers), 8 stewards, and 1 radio officer. By
1990 the crew for a similar ship, which was likely to be diesel-powered,
might number 21 - all three departments having been shrunk by
technological advances that reduced not only labour but also the need for
watch-standing, especially in the engine room, where automatic control and
monitoring has obviated the need for constant attendance on machinery.

As of 1990 U.S. law required distinct deck and engine departments


and sufficient personnel for three watches a day - requirements difficult to
meet with a crew of less than 20. However, experiments in fleets of other
maritime nations show that current technology allows a crew to number as
few as 10. In order to attain such minimal crewing, the traditional
distinction between engine and deck departments must be removed in
favour of persons trained as "ship operators." With machinery automated to
the extent that it can be monitored and controlled from the ship's
wheelhouse - and with much of the maintenance done by special roving
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 135

teams that can come by air from a distant home base - crews on the order of
10 in number may become generally accepted.

7.2. The organization of a ship‟s crew


The man in charge of a ship is the Master. He is responsible for the
ship, her cargo and the safety of the crew. He must be well qualified and an
experienced navigator. Although his correct title is the Master, he is
addressed as “Captain”. The organization of the crew of a cargo ship is
changing, but it is still customary to find Deck, Engine, Catering and Radio
Department in ships of a reasonable size. Each department is made up of a
varied number of officers, petty officers and ratings.
The Chief Officer, or first Mate as he is often called, is the Master‟s
chief officer and head of the Deck Department. He is assisted by a Second
Officer (Mate), a Third Officer (Mate), and sometimes a Fourth Office r
(Mate). Several companies employ a First Officer as well as a Chief
Officer. The Deck Department also includes a Boatswain (Bosun) and a
Carpenter, both petty officers, and a number of ratings. These are made up
of Able Seamen (AB), Ordinary Seamen (OS) and a middle grade known
as Efficient Deck Hands (EDH). There are other grades of seamen. On
some ships Navigating Cadets are carried for training purposes.
The Chief Engineer is head of the Engine Department. He is
assisted by a Second, Third, Fourth and sometimes Fifth Engineer. The
engine room petty officers are the Storekeeper and Donkeyman. On
tankers there is also a Pumpman. He is also a petty officer. The engine
room ratings are Firemen and Greasers. There may also be Engineer cadets.
The Catering department is under the Chief Ste ward. It is divided
into a saloon and galley section. The former is headed by the Second
steward, the latter by the Ship‟s Cook. They are both usually petty officers.
They are assisted by several stewards and cooks, and by a number of junior
ratings.
The Radio Department often consists of only one man: the Radio
Officer, but on most ships this function doesn‟t exist any more.

7.3. Watchkeeping and equipment ope ration in the engine department


The “round the clock” operation of a ship at sea requires a rota
system of attendance in the machinery space. This has developed into a
system of watchkeeping that has endured until recently. The arrival of
“Unattended Machinery Spaces” (UMS) has begun to erode this traditional
practice of watchkeeping.
The Chief Engineer is directly responsible to the Master for the
satisfactory operation of all machinery and equipment. Apart from assuming
136 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

all responsibility, his role is mainly that of consultant and adviser. It is not
usual for the Chief Engineer to keep a watch.
The Second Engineer is responsible for the practical upkeep of
machinery and the manning of the engine room; he is in effect an executive
officer. On some ships the Second Engineer may keep a watch.
The Third and Fourth Engineers are usually senior watchkeepers or
engineers in charge of a watch. Each may have particular areas of
responsibility, such as generators or boilers. The Fifth and Sixth Engineers
may be referred to as such, or bellow Fourth Engineer may be classed as
Junior Engineers. They will make up as additional watchkeepers, day
workers on maintenance work or possibly act as Refrigeration Engineer.
Electrical Engineers may be carried on large ships or where
company practice dictates. Where no specialist Electrical Engineer is carried
the duty will fall on the engineers.
Various engine room ratings will usually form part of the engine
room complement. Donkeyman are usually senior ratings who attend the
auxiliary boiler while the ship is in port. Otherwise they will direc t the
rating in the maintenance and upkeep of the machinery space. A storekeeper
may also be carried and on tankers a pumpman is employed to maintain and
operate the cargo pumps. The engine room ratings, e.g. firemen, greasers,
etc., are usually employed on watches to assist the engineer in charge.

The traditional watchkeeping system

12 - 4 4-8 8 - 12
a.m. Middle watch Morning watch Forenoon watch
p.m. Afternoon watch Evening watch First watch
Deck Second Officer Chief Officer Third Officer
Engine Third Engineer Second Engineer Fourth Engineer
The Evening watch can be divided into First Dog Watch 1600 – 1800 and
Second dog Watch 1800 – 2000.

The system of watches adopted on board ship is usually a four hour


period working with eight hours rest for the members of each watch. The
three watches in any 12 hour period are usually 12-4, 4-8 and 8-12. The
word “watch” is taken as meaning the time period and also the personnel at
work during that period.

The watchkeeping arrangements and the make up of the watch will


be decided by the Chief Engineer. Factors to be taken into account in this
matter will include the type of ship, the type of machinery and degree of
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 137

automation, the qualification and experience of the members of the watch,


any special conditions such as weather, ship location, international and local
regulations, etc. The engineer officer in charge of the watch is the Chief
Engineer‟s representative and is responsible for the safe and efficient
operation and upkeep of all machinery affecting the safety of the ship.

7.3.1. Ope rating the watch


An engineer officer in charge with perhaps a junior engineer
assisting and one or more ratings will form the watch. Each member of the
watch should be familiar with his duties and safety and survival equipment
in the machinery space. This would include knowledge of the firefighting
equipment with respect to location and operation, being able to distinguish
the different alarms and the action required an understanding of
communication systems and how to summon help.
At the beginning of the watch the current operational parameters and
the condition of all machinery should be verified and also the log readings
should correspond to those observed. The engineer officer in charge should
note if there are any special orders or instructions relating to the operation of
main machinery or auxiliaries. He should determine what work is in
progress and any hazards or limitations this presents. The levels of tanks
containing fuel, water, slops, ballast, etc., should be noted and also the level
of the various bilges. The operating mode of equipment and available
standby equipment should also be noted.
At appropriate intervals inspections should be made of the main
propulsion plant, auxiliary machinery and steering gear spaces. Any routine
adjustments may then be made and malfunctions or breakdowns can be
noted, reported and corrected. During these tours of inspection bilge levels
should be noted, piping and systems observed for leaks, and local indicating
instruments should be observed.
Bilge orders must be promptly carried out and a record of any
required changes in speed and direction should be kept. When under
standby or manoeuvring conditions with the machinery manually operated
the control unit or console should be continuously manned.
Certain watchkeeping duties will be necessary for the continuous
operation of equipment or plant – the transferring of fuel for instance. In
addition to these regular tasks, other repair or maintenance tasks may be
required of the watchkeeping personnel. However no tasks should be set or
undertaken which will interfere with the supervisory duties relating to the
main machinery and associated equipment.
During the watch a log or record will be taken of various parameters
of main and auxiliary equipment. This may be a manual operation or
provided automatically on modern vessels by a data logger. The completed
138 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

log is used to compile a summary sheet or abstract of informatio n which is


returned to the company head office for record purposes.
Where situations occur in the machinery space which may affect the
speed, manoeuvrability, power supply or other essentials for the safe
operation of the ship, the bridge should be informed as soon as possible.
This notification should preferably be given before any changes are made to
enable the bridge to take appropriate action.
The engineer in charge should notify the Chief Engineer in the event
of any serious occurrence or a situation where he is unsure of the action to
take. Examples might be if any machinery suffers severe damage, or a
malfunction occurs which may lead to serious damage. However, where
immediate action is necessary to ensure safety of the ship, its machinery and
crew, it must be taken by the engineer in charge. At the completion of the
watch each member should hand over to his relief, ensuring that he is
competent to take over and carry out his duties effectively.

7.3.2. UMS operation


Where the machinery space is unattended, a duty engineer will be
responsible for supervision. He will normally be one of the three senior
watchkeeping engineers and will work on a 24 hours on, 48 hours off rota.
During his rota period he will make tours of inspection about every four
hours beginning at 7 or 8 o‟clock in the morning.
The tour of inspection will be similar to that for a conventional
watch with due consideration being given to the unattended mode of
machinery operation. Trends in parameter readings must be observed, and
any instability in operating conditions must be rectified. A set list or mini-
log of readings may have to be taken during various tours. Between tours of
inspection the Duty Engineer will be on call and should be ready to
investigate any alarms relayed to his cabin or the various public rooms. The
Duty Engineer should not be out of range of these alarms without
appointing a relief and informing the bridge.
The main log book readings will be taken as required while a tour of
inspection. The various regular duties, such as fuel transfer, pumping of
bilges, and so on, should be carried out during the day work period, but
remains the responsibility of the Duty Engineer to ensure that they are done.

TASK 1 Write a description of the Engine Department manning on a


cargo ship.
Stage 1. Sort out this list of engine room personnel in order of seniority:
Greasers, Electrical Officer, Storekeeper, Third Engineer, Pumpman (on
tankers), Chief Engineer, Donkeyman, Fourth Engineer, Engineer cadets,
Fireman, Second Engineer.
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 139

Stage 2. A composition usually has an opening paragraph to introduce the


subject and perhaps give an overall picture. Read through this opening
paragraph to a description of the Deck Department and then write an
opening paragraph to your description using this as a guide.
The Deck Department is made up of a number of officers, petty
officers and ratings. The Chief Officer is in charge of the department and he
is assisted by a Second Officer, a Third Officer and sometimes a Fourth
Officer. There are two petty officers: a Boatswain and a Carpenter. There
are also a number of deck ratings including Able Seamen, Efficient Deck
Hands and Ordinary Seamen. Sometimes there are navigating cadets too.

Stage 3. Now continue your description by writing out the following notes
in a paragraph to show who is responsible for what:

Chief Engineer – Master – the Engine Department. He (to look after) the
day-to-day running of the department. Second Engineer – maintenance of
the engine room, deck and other machinery. Engine room watchkeeping
duties – Second, third and Fourth Engineers. The maintenance and repair of
all electrical equipment – Electrical Officer. Storekeeper and Donkeyman–
Chief Engineer. Strorekeeper– the storeroom. Donkeyman – lubrication. On
tankers, Pumpman – Chief Officer – loading and unloading oil and water
ballast. Of the engine room ratings, Greasers – general oiling and cleaning
duties, and Fireman – looking after the boilers.

Description of a modern general cargo ship:

A modern general cargo ship has her engine room and bridge
superstructure aft. She may have four holds forward of the bridge and one
hold aft of the bridge. Forward of No1 hold is the forecastle and right
forward is the jack staff. Derricks are supported by masts and Samson posts.
They are stowed fore and aft when the ship is at sea. There are two lifeboats,
one on the port side aft, another on the starboard side aft, abaft the funnel.
The poop and the bridge superstructure are combined. There is an ensign
staff right aft.
140 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

7.4. Vocabulary

auxiliary machinery ~ bilge ~ santină Boatswain (Bosun) ~ şeful


auxiliare marinarilor
breakdown ~ Carpenter ~ Catering department ~
defecţiune marangoz popota
Chief Engineer ~ şef Chief Officer ~ Chief Steward ~ intendent
mecanic secund şef
crew ~ echipaj Deck Department ~ Donkeyman ~ mecanic de
sector/departament auxiliare
punte
Electrical Engineer ~ Engine Department Engineer cadet ~ inginer
inginer electrician ~ sector maşină aspirant
firefighting equipment Firemen ~ fochist greaser ~ marinar mecanic
~ echipament de luptă
contra incendiilor
First Officer ~ ofiţer galley section ~ hazard ~ accident
unu sector bucătărie
to keep a watch ~ a leak ~ scurgere log ~ jurnal
face de cart
main propulsion plant ~ malfunction ~ manning ~ echipare cu
instalaţia principală de defecţiune personal
propulsie
Master ~ comandant Navigating Cadet ~ petty officers ~ maiştri
aspirant
Pumpman ~ mecanic Radio Department ~ Radio Officer ~ ofiţer
de pompe departament radio radio
ratings ~ marinari rota system ~ sistem saloon section ~ sala de
non-stop mese
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 141

Second Officer ~ ofiţer slop ~ reziduu standby equipment ~


doi pertrolier echipament de rezervă
steering gear ~ Storekeeper ~ summon help ~ a cere
mecanism de guvernare magazioner ajutor
Third Officer ~ ofiţer unattended ~ upkeep ~ a întreţine
trei nesupravegheat
watchkeeping ~ cart

7.5. Word Orde r


If we speak about word order we always compare it to the one in
Romanian language where words can change places easily and the meaning
of the sentence can be always understood because of the word–forms that
are very flexible. On the other hand English language, which is a synthetical
one, has a very rigid word order and the syntactical links between words are
mainly determined by their place in the sentence.
The general rule, that must be respected, says that all the parts of the
sentence that are linked by meaning shouldn‟t be separated. Word order in
the sentence is, generally speaking, the following:
a) subject and its attribute complements;
b) predicate preceded by its frequency adverb and followed by the indirect
and direct object;
c) adverbs of manner, place and time.
Any change that can appear in this order modifies the syntactical
links and the meaning of the sentence, too.
There is also the problem of stress that appears by changing the
place of the word according to the word order in an affirmative, negative or
interrogative sentence.
A negative statement is the opposite of an affirmative statement. It
says and means „no‟ and contains a negative word such as not and never.
Full negative forms (do not, etc.) occur in formal style (written or spoken)
and in emphatic speech. Contracted forms (e.g. don’t) are normal in
conversational style. In written contracted forms, the apostrophe is used
where a vowel has been omitted, so for example, in the negative it will go
between the n and ‘t; the two words of the full form did not combine into
the word didn‟t.

7.5.1. The formation of negative statements with be, have and


modals
a. When the sentence contains be (auxiliary or full verb), have (auxiliary or
sometimes full verb when have = have got), or a modal auxiliary (can etc.)
we form the negative by putting not after the auxiliary:
142 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

- affirmative: He is leaving.
- negative: He is not leaving. /He‟s not leaving. /He isn‟t leaving.
If there are a number of auxiliaries in the same sentence, not always
goes after the first one:
- affirmative: He could have been delayed.
- negative: He could not/couldn‟t have been delayed.

7.5.2. The formation of negative statements with do, does and did
Do not (don‟t), does not (doesn‟t) (simple present) and did not
(didn‟t) (simple past) go after the subject to form negative statements with
other verbs. The verb that follows do/does/did + not is always in the form
of a bare infinitive:

- simple present: affirmative: I/you/we/they turn left here.


He/she/it works well.
negative: I/you/we/they don‟t turn left here.
He/she/it doesn‟t work well.

- simple past: affirmative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they stayed in.


negative: I/you he/she/it/we/they didn‟t stay in.

7.5.3. The formation of interrogative sentences (questions)


In written English (and often in spoken English) questions are made
by putting an auxiliary verb: am/is/are, have/has, had, will, before the
subject:
Have you received my letter?

When a verb phrase has no auxiliary, its question form is made with
the auxiliary verb do/does/did (except from the verb be and modal verbs):
I like mechanics.
Do you like mechanics?

After the auxiliary verb do/does/did it must be used the infinitive without to:
Did you understand the instructions?

When who, what or which is the subject of an interrogative sentence,


it comes directly before the verb and the auxiliary do/does/did is not used:
Who left the door open?
Which cost more?
What happened?
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 143

7.5.4. Adve rbs


The normal positions for adverbs are:
 Before the verb: He always repairs pumps.
 At the end of the clause: He repairs pumps daily.
 At the beginning of the clause: Often he repairs pumps.

Some adverbs like sometimes, suddenly, can go in all three positions:


Sometimes the crew have to work long hours.
The crew sometimes have to work long hours.
The crew have to work long hours sometimes.
Others normally go before the verb: ever, never, usually, etc., others go at
the beginning or the end of the clause: yesterday, tomorrow, etc.

7.5.5. Adjectives
Adjectives are placed before nouns, and if there are several
adjectives they have to be put in a certain order as follows:
a) Just before the noun come adjectives that tell you what something is for
(purpose): a new diesel engine, a large conference hall etc.
b) Just before these, there are adjectives that say what so mething is made
of: a steel displacement pump, a large brick conference hall etc.
c) Before theses are words that tell you the origin of something (where it
comes from): a Danis h steel displacement pump, Spanis h leather boots
etc.
d) Before theses are placed colour adjectives: a gray Danish steel
displacement pump, a brown and white German beer- mug etc.
e) Words for age, shape, size, temperature and other adjectives come
before all these: an old wooden boat, a big round gear wheel etc.

7.5.6. Prepositions
In some sentences especially in questions a preposition can come at
the end, instead of an object:
Who did you go with?
What are you looking at?
Do you remember the boy I was going with?
What is she like?
Who is it for?

7.5.7. Direct and indirect objects


Many verbs can be followed by two objects. After these verbs two
structures are often possible: the indirect object can be put before the direct
object (with no preposition), or after it (with a preposition):
144 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

I sent my s hipping company a letter.


I sent a letter to my shipping company.

7.6 Tag Questions


Notes on the forms of tag questions:
a. A tag question is a short question (e.g. have you? /haven‟t you) that
follows a statement. Auxiliaries (be, have, can, may, etc.) used in the
statement are repeated at the end followed by the subject (always a
pronoun):
John was annoyed, wasn‟t he? (affirmative - negative)
He wasn‟t annoyed, was he? (negative - affirmative)

b. With all other verbs, tag questions are formed with do/don‟t and
does/doesn‟t (simple present) and did/didn‟t (simple past):
You like fish, don‟t you? /You don‟t like fish, do you?

This also applies to have and do as full verbs:


You have tea at 4, don‟t you? /You don‟t have tea at 4, do you?
He does his job, doesn‟t he? /He doesn‟t his job, does he?

c. The negative tag at the end can be unabbreviated in formal style or for
special emphasis, though this form is not very usual:
Julia runs for miles a day to keep fit, does she not?

d. Tag questions are also possible with there :


There‟ll be a rail strike tomorrow, won‟t there?

e. Affirmative tags can follow after statements that are negative in meaning:
You never/seldom work on Sundays, do you?

f. Tags can be used after indefinite pronouns:


Everyone‟s ready to leave now, aren‟t they?

g. Note that this and that are replaced by it:


This/That (suit) is expensive, isn‟t it?

Forms of tag questions: affirmative – affirmative tags.


This form is less common that the two kinds of tag question. A negative
– negative form is also grammatically possible but is very rare and is used to
convey aggression:
So he won‟t pay his bills, won‟t he? We‟ll see about that.
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 145

7.6.1. Uses of tag question + Yes/No short ans wers


Many languages have a single fixed expression to conve y the
general idea of „isn‟t that so?‟ to ask people whether they agree with you.
By comparison, English has a complex system of tags that can be used, with
varying forms and intonation, to express a subtle range of meanings. Tags
are the essence of conversational style and are very important in spoken
English. Certain fixed phrases can be used in place of tag: e.g. isn‟t that
true?, don‟t you think/agree? (formal style) and right?, OK? and even eh?
(informal style).
a. Affirmative – negative/negative – affirmative: factual information
When we ask tag questions with a rising tone, we are asking real
questions that expect Yes/No answers. However, tag questions often convey
more than simple Yes/No questions; as well as asking for information, they
can express surprise, anger, interest, etc:
You left the gas on, didn‟t you? (= Did you leave the gas on?)
You didn‟t leave the gas on, did you? (= I hope you didn‟t.)
You couldn‟t do me a favour, could you? (= I hope you can.)

b. Affirmative – negative/negative – affirmative: confirmation


When tag questions are asked with a falling tone, they are more like
statements; the falling tone suggests greater certainty. They ask for
confirmation of what the questioner assumes to be true.
Affirmative- negative expects a positive confirmation:
You locked the door, didn‟t you? (- Yes, I did.)
Negative- affirmative expects a negative confirmation:
You didn‟t lock the door, did you?

c. Affirmative – affirmative tag questions: confirmation etc.


Affirmative – affirmative tag questions with a rising tone sometimes ask
for confirmation of something the speaker already knows, expressing
friendly interest, etc. (i.e. „Tell me more!‟):
So she‟s getting married, is she? (= Tell me more.)
Yes, she‟s got engaged to a doctor. The wedding is in June, etc.
However, with a falling tone, affirmative – affirmative tags are often used
to express one‟s disappointment:
You sold that lovely bracelet, did you? (= I‟m sorry you did.)
Affirmative – affirmative tags can also express less friendly feelings like
suspicion, disapproval and even threat. The tone falls at the end of the
statement and rises only on the tag. No answer is required:
You call this a day‟s work, do you? (= I certainly don‟t!)
I‟ll get my money back, will I? (= I don‟t believe it.)
So you thought you‟d fooled me, did you?
146 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

7.7 Echo Tags


Notes on the form of the echo tags.
1. An echo tag is a response, in tag form to an affirmative or negative
statement by which we may not request further information depending on
the intonation we use:
He has resigned. He has n‟t resigned.
Has he? Hasn‟t he?
2. Where there is no auxiliary (i.e. in the affirmative) do, does or did must
be used:
She works all right. She doesn‟t work all right.
Does she? Doesn‟t she?
3. Echo tags can be formed with there :
There‟ll be a strike soon? There won‟t be a strike
tomorrow?
Will there? Won‟t there?
4. Negative – negative combinations may be used to express anger or
menace, but are very unusual:
He won‟t, won‟t he?

7.7.1 When we use echo tags


Echo tags are used constantly in everyday conversation to request
further information, seek confirmation, to express interest concern anger,
surprise, disbelief, suspicion, etc. or to show that we are listening:
a. To request more information, express interest etc., rising tone.
I‟ve just won $500! – Have you? /You have?
You haven‟t, have you? (= How interesting! Tell me more!)
b. To confirm what might already be known/guessed tone, falling tone:
He's quite a friendly person, isn't he?

7.8 Conditional Clause


A conditional clause is a type of adverbial clause. The event
described in the main clause depends on the condition described in the
conditional clause.

conditional clause main clause


If it rains, we will get wet.

By far the most common conditional conjunction is if, but


conditional clauses can also begin with: unless (= if…..not, except…..if);
provided (that) (= only if); so long as/as long as; on condition that. If
also means „whethe r‟ and introduces an indirect question. There are four
main types of condition expressed by if clauses:
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 147

0. The present condition;


1. The will-condition often called the „first conditional‟;
2. The would-condition or the „second conditional‟;
3. The would-have-condition or the third conditional.

Type 0 conditionals
The pattern is if… + present… + present, and means that the condition can
be true at any time. In this type of condition, if means almost the same as
when or whenever.
If you heat iron it expands.
We can also use continuous:
If you‟re practicing on the drums, I‟m going out.

Type 1 conditionals
The pattern is: if… + present… + will, and the meaning is to predict a likely
result in the future.
If we don‟t hurry, we‟ll miss the ship.
The if-clause expresses an open condition, a real one. Here the present
simple (don‟t hurry) expresses the future. We do not normally use will in an
open condition (after if).
As well as present simple we can use the continuous or perfect in if clause.
If we‟re having ten people to dinner, we‟ll need more chairs.
If I‟ve finished my work by ten, I‟ll probably watch a film on TV.
As well as will, we can use modal verbs and expressions in the main clause.
If we miss the train we can get the next one.
If Simon is hoping to borrow the car, he‟s going to be disappointed.
If you phone at six, they might be having tea.
If you‟re going out, take your key.

Type 2 conditionals
The pattern is: if… + past simple… + would (+infinitive), and the meaning
is imagining the present or future to be different.
If I had lots of money, I would travel round the world.
I‟d tell you the answer if I knew it.
The past tense expresses an unreal condition, or we talk about ‟imaginary‟
present or future.
If you lost the book, you would have to pay for a new one.
The same structure can be used for making suggestions:
Would it be all right if I came round at about seven?
It would be nice if you helped me.
As well as past simple, we can use past continuous or could:
If the sun we re shining, everything would be pe rfect.
148 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

If I could help you, I would, but I‟m afraid I can‟t.


As well as would, we can use other modal verbs such as could or might in
the main clause.
If I had a light, I could see what I‟m doing.
If we could roll the car down the hill, we might be able to start it.

Type 3 conditionals
The pattern is: if…+ past perfect…+ would (+ perfect), and the meaning is:
imagining the impossible, i.e. something which did not happen. The speaker
is dreaming of or imagining a different past. But the past cannot be
changed!
If you had taken a taxi, you would have got here in time.
If you had worked harder last year, you would probably have
passed your exam
Here the past perfect refers to something unreal, an imaginary past action.
We can use could + perfect in the if-clause:
If I could have warned you in time, I would have done.
We can use other modal verbs such as could or might + perfect in the main
clause.
If I‟d written the address down, I could have saved myself some
trouble.
The plan might not have worked if we hadn‟t had one great piece
of luck.
We can also use continuous forms:
If we hadn‟t been evicted by his landlord, he wouldn‟t have been
sleeping in the streets.
7.9 Grammar Practice
Exercise 1.
Use the words to make a question in the tense given.
a. Why/you cry? (present continuous)
Why are you crying?
b. How/you get here? (past simple)
………………………?
c. What/Jack usually do/on Sundays? (present simple)
………………………………………..?
d. How long/you live here? (present perfect)
………………………………………..?
e. Where/David/go? (past continuous)
………………………………………..?
f. Who/you talk to? (present continuous)
……………………………………….?
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 149

g. What/you do? (past continuous)


………………………………….……?
h. When/you usually/get up? (present simple)
……………………………………….?
i. What/Martin/do? (present perfect)
………………………………………..?
j. What/Jim and Ann/buy? (past simple)
……………………………..……?
Exercise 2.
Complete each question.
a. „What …..makes you tired…..?‟ „Running makes me tired.‟
b. „Who…………………………?‟ „I talked to the manager.‟
c. „What…………………………?‟ „I read a newspaper.‟
d. „Who…………………………?‟ „Kate brought the ice-cream.‟
e. „What…………………………?‟ „Joe decided to take the job.‟
f. „Who…………………………..?‟ „I answered most of the questions.‟
g. „Which………………………..?‟ „This house is mine.‟
h. „Who………………………….?‟ „Pat looks after the children.‟
i. „What………………………….?‟ „Helen studies chemistry.‟
j. „Who…………………………..?‟ „Rob helps me with my homework.‟
Exercise 3.
Here are 8 questions to ask a new friend. The words are mixed up. Write out
the questions.
1. we, before, met, have
……………………………………………………………………………..
2. live, you, do, here, near
……………………………………………………………………………..
3. to, do, English, you, speak, like
………………………………………………………………………………
4. interested, you, in, sport, are
………………………………………………………………………………
5. ever, you, abroad, have, been
………………………………………………………………………………
6. you, tennis, play, can
………………………………………………………………………………
7. single, you, or, are, married
………………………………………………………………………..…….
8. me, would, cinema, to, to, go, the, with, like, you
………………………………………………………………………………
150 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

Exercise 4.
Make these sentences negative.
1. He could drive. He couldn‟t drive
2. It‟s raining. …………………………..
3. I can play tennis. …………………………..
4. You should go. …………………………..
5. We were thinking of going. …………………………..
6. They are waiting outside. …………………………..
7. John drives to work. …………………………..
8. I believe you. …………………………..
9. I like cheese. …………………………..
10. They came to the party. …………………………..
Exercise 5.
Make these sentences into questions.
1. We can go early. Can we go early?
2. She is getting married. ………………………………..
3. You were speaking to John. ………………………………..
4. He would like to go. ………………………………..
5. Bob gets the 7.55 train. ………………………………..
6. I know Chris. ………………………………..
7. Britain still uses miles not kilometres. ………………………………..
8. Banks usually close in the afternoon. ………………………………..
Exercise 6.
Choose the correct words underlined in each sentence.
a. Jim got lost, did he/didn‟t he?
b. You don‟t know the answer, do you/don‟t you?
c. The children were making a lot of noise, wasn‟t it/weren‟t they?
d. Harry doesn‟t feel well, isn‟t it/does he?
e. George didn‟t complain, did he/didn‟t he?
f. Something has gone wrong, has it/hasn‟t it?
g. You aren‟t sitting here, isn‟t it/are you?
h. You will read this, will you/won‟t you?
i. Paul likes Jill, isn‟t it/doesn‟t he?
j. You‟re waiting for Sue, isn‟t it/aren‟t you?
Exercise 7
Match each sentence a. to j. with a tag question 1. to 10.
a. Ann catches the bus, 1. wasn‟t she?
b. Jan is leaving in the morning, 2. is she?
c. Sally won‟t be back, 3. didn‟t she?
d. Helen has left, 4. doesn‟t she?
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 151

e. Kate finished the book, 5. will she?


f. Sue hasn‟t got a bike, 6. did she?
g. Tina isn‟t a French teacher, 7. does she?
h. Paula didn‟t say a lot, 8. hasn‟t she?
i. Mary was sitting next to you, 9. has she?
j. Pam doesn‟t like classical music, 10. isn‟t she?

Exercise 8
Add a tag question to each sentence.
a. Harry has been helping you, hasn’t he?
b. You don‟t eat meat, ……………………………….……….…..?
c. Paul was sleeping, ……………………………………….…….?
d. I missed a good film, …………………………………….…….?
e. Jane is leaving in the morning, ……………………………......?
f. We are going to win, ……………………………………..……?
g. Jack hasn‟t done his homework, …………..………………….?
h. You weren‟t having dinner, …………………………..……….?
i. David and Kate aren‟t coming to the party, ………………...…?
j. Sue didn‟t leave early, …………………………………..…….?

Exercise 9
Choose the best sentence in each context.
a. Why did you forget your keys? You are silly!
1. I didn‟t tell you to forget them, did I?
2. I told you not to forget them, didn’t I?
b. Ugh! I can‟t believe it! I‟m sure they must taste horrible!
1. You like eating snails, don‟t you?
2. You don‟t like eating snails, do you?
c. If we go to Italy, we might have problems with the language.
1. You speak Italian, don‟t you?
2. You don‟t speak Italian, do you?
d. I told you to keep the party a secret. It‟s supposed to be a surprise for
Stella. So I just want to make sure.
1. You didn‟t tell her, did you?
2. You told her, didn‟t you?
e. Well, Mr Robinson, I think it‟s time you told the police the truth. You
see, we‟ve found your fingerprints on the murder weapon.
1. You didn‟t murder Lord Chumley, did you?
2. You murdered Lord Chumley, didn‟t you?
f. Only two minutes to the end of the match and United are still 5-1 in the
lead. It looks certain now.
1. United aren‟t going to win, are they?
152 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

2. United are going to win, aren‟t they?


g. I haven‟t seen Ann for ages. She‟s working abroad I think.
1. She‟s got a job in France, hasn‟t she?
2. She hasn‟t got a job in France, has she?
h. I just can‟t answer this question. It would be nice to have some help.
1. You could help me, couldn‟t you?
2. You couldn‟t help me, could you?

If Clause
Exercise 1 Use your imagination to complete these sentences:
a. If I fell overboard …………………………………………
b. ……………………………., he would have been saved.
c. ………………………………., if we finish painting the funnel.
d. If the radio had been manned ……………………………………
e. …………………………………., you would report it to the duty officer.
f. They will miss the boat, ……………………………………………

Exercise 2 Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each pair.


1. If we‟re/we would be late for class, our teacher will be/was angry.
2. If we lived/would live on another planet, we‟d see/we will see the Earth
in the sky.
3. If we take/will take a taxi, we‟ll arrive/we arrived sooner.
4. If we don‟t hurry/won‟t hurry, we‟ll be/we would be late.
5. If we were/are birds, we would be able to/are able to fly.
6. If you don‟t wear/wouldn‟t wear your pullover, you‟ll feel/you felt cold.
7. If I studied/will study harder, I would get/get better marks.
8. If I had/ have a motorbike, I‟d ride/I rode it to school.
9. If you lend/will lend me your bike, I‟ll let/I let you borrow my
skateboard.
10. If I had/would have lots of money, I‟d give/I gave some to all my
friends.

Exercise 3 Complete each sentence, using if, unless or would.


1. If you had asked me to help you, I would.
2. We‟ll have lunch outside in the garden, ……it‟s too cold.
3. John …….. win more races if he trained harder.
4. Come on! …… we hurry, we‟ll miss the plane!
5. …….. you like to see my stamp collection?
6. The manager won‟t be long. …..you take a seat, please.
7. I‟m sure that Carol …….go to the cinema with you, if you asked her.
8. …….you feel like a chat, phone me tonight.
9. What …… you do if you saw a snake?
Unit 7 Manning and Watchkeeping 153

10. I don‟t feel happy …….. I swim every day.

Exercise 4 Complete the sentences for each situation.


a. Helen didn‟t leave early, and so she missed the bus.
If Helen had left early, she wouldn‟t have missed the bus.
b. I didn‟t buy more milk, so I didn‟t have enough for breakfast.
If I ………………………, I………………. enough for breakfast.
c. We forgot to take a map, so we got lost in the mountains.
If we ……………………, we …………… in the mountains.
d. I didn‟t go to bed early, so I didn‟t wake up at 7.00.
If I …………………., I ……………………… at 7.00.
e. Mike didn‟t make a shopping list, and he forgot to buy some coffee.
If Mike ……………………, he ……………………. some coffee.
f. I didn‟t realize you were tired when I asked you to go for a walk.
If I ………………………., I ……………………… for a walk.
g. The Romans didn‟t sail across the Atlantic, so they didn‟t reach
America.
If the Romans …………………., they ………………………..America.
h. I didn‟t turn left at the station, and I lost my way.
If I …………………………., I………………. my way.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in
brackets:
1. If it was necessary to abandon ship, there …… (be) lifeboats and life rafts
available.
2. If you are in the room,…… (leave) immediately.
3. If you …….. (belong) to the rescue-boat crew, you must get your life-
jacket and go to the rescue-boat.
4. A ship …….(be) unstable if a course deviation begins or continues in the
absence of an external cause.
5. If the area of the hull had been concentrated towards the aft end, the ship
………. (be) stable.
6. If the rudder ……… (be) positioned directly behind a propeller, sufficient
lift can develop to push the stern sideways.
7. If the weight of a ship ……….. (be) distributed precisely, the ship would
float at unwanted angles of heel and trim.
8. If w is removed, the upsetting moment ……… (become) zero.
9. If the engine …….. (be) a steam turbine, a speed reducer would have
been essential.
Unit 8
SAFETY ABOARD

8.1 Safety
Safety deals with everything connected to consequences to the ship,
her cargo and the crew, including: small or massive fires, flooding that will
cause such a list that the vessel will capsize and be wrecked, collisions,
groundings, acts of piracy, persons overboard, injuries and casualties, major
environmental pollution, minor damages or damages beyond repair, any
mishap, incident, accident or disaster. These consequences may range from
catastrophic to minor.
When there is a total loss of ship and/or cargo, loss of lives, or a
widespread and severe environmental damage, we speak about catastrophic
consequences.
When there is a severe damage to the ship and/or cargo, when
seriously injured persons require hospitalization, or when there is severe
environmental damage, we speak about major consequences.
When there is a significant damage to the ship and/or cargo, when
injured persons require medical attention, when there is significant local
damage to the environment, we speak about moderate consequences.
When there is minor damage to the ship and/or cargo, when persons
are suffering from minor injuries that do not require medical attention, or
when there is hardly any damage to the environment, we speak of minor
consequences that are negligible.

8.2 Safety factors


The safety of passengers and crew, ship and cargo is determined by
both internal and external factors, but most of all by the human factor. The
internal factors (I.F.) that may influence safety are: the ship‟s dimensions
and draft, her rudder, propulsion system and navigational instruments. The
external factors (E.F.) are formed by weather conditions, currents and tides,
characteristics of fairways and unforeseen events. Good seamanship refers
to the human factor (H.F.) and depends on the quality of the seafarers on
board. And because most vessels have been manned with multi- lingual
crews, special attention should be paid to the introduction of the
internationally standardized form of marine communication on every ship in
the world.
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 155

8.3 Safe working practices


Accidents are usually the result of carelessness, mistakes, lack of
thought or care, and often result in injury. Consideration will now be given
to avoiding accidents, largely by the adoption of safe working practices.

Working clothes should be chosen with the job and hazards in mind.
They should fit fairly closely with no loose flaps, straps or ragged pockets.
Clothing should cover as much of the body as possible and a stout pair of
shoes worn. Neck chains, finger rings and wristwatches should not be worn,
particularly in the vicinity of rotating machinery. Where particular hazards
are present, appropriate protection, such as goggles or earmuffs should be
worn.
When overhauling machinery or equipment, it must be effectively
isolated from all sources of power. This may involve unplugging from an
electrical circuit, the removal of fuses or the securing open of circuit
breakers. Suction and discharge valves of pumps should be securely closed
and the pump casing relieved of pressure. Special care should be taken with
steam operated or steam- using equipment to ensure no pressure built- up can
occur.
When lifting equipment during overhaul, screw- in bolts should be
used where possible. These should be fully entered up to the collar and the
threads on the eyebolt and in the equipment should be in good condition.
Any lifting wires used should be in good condition without broken strands
or sharp edges.
Before any work is done on the main engine, the turning gear should
be engaged and a warning posted at the control position. Lubricating oil in
the working area should be cleaned up and where necessary suitable staging
erected. The turning gear should be made inoperative if not required during
the overhaul. Where it is used, care must be taken to ensure all personnel are
clear before it is used.
Where overhead work is necessary suitable staging should be
provided and adequately lashed down. Staging planks should be examined
before use and where suspected discarded. Where ladders are used for
access they must be secured at either end. Personnel working on staging
should take care with tools and store them in a container.
Boiler blowbacks can cause serious injury and yet with care can
usually be avoided. The furnace floor should be free of oil and burners
regularly checked to ensure that they do not drip, particularly when not in
use. The manufacturer‟s instructions should be followed with regarding to
lighting up procedures. Generally this will involve blowing through the
furnace (purging) with air prior to lighting up. The fuel oil must be at the
correct temperature and lit with a torch. If ignition does not immediately
156 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

occur the oil should be turned off and purging repeated before a second
attempt is made. The burner should be withdrawn and examined before it is
lit.
Entry into enclosed space should only take place under certain
specified conditions. An enclosed space, such as a duct keel, a double
bottom tank, a cofferdam, boiler, etc. cannot be assumed to contain oxygen.
Anyone required to enter such a space should only do so with the
permission of a responsible officer. The space should be well ventilated
before entry takes place and breathing apparatus taken along: it should be
used if any discomfort or drowsiness is felt. Another person should remain
at the entrance to summon assistance if necessary, and there should be a
means of communication arranged between the perso n within the space and
the attendant. Lifelines and harnesses should be available at the entrance to
the space. The attendant should first raise the alarm where the occupant
appears in danger but should not enter the space unless equipped with
breathing apparatus.
Training in the use of safety equipment and the conduct of rescues is
essential for all personnel involved.

TASK 1
Complete the table below to summarize the information given in the extract.
Part of it has been completed for you.

Part of Type of protection Situation


the body
Body Well- fitting clothes Working in machinery space
Neck No ties, no sweat rags …………………………………
Fingers ………………………………. …………………………………
Eyes ………………………………. …………………………………
Feet ………………………………. …………………………………
Head ………………………………. …………………………………
Ears ………………………………. …………………………………

TASK 2
Now use the information in the table to write out statements like this:
If you are working in machinery spaces, you should wear well- fitting
clothes in order to protect your body.
If you are working near machinery in motion, you should not wear ties or
sweat rags, in order to protect your neck.
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 157

TASK 3
Complete the table below:
Causes and consequences of incidents, H.F + Latent Catastrophic
accidents and disasters Failure/ I.F/ E.F. Major
or combination Moderate
Minor
1. Vessel has collided with a whale.
Vessel suffered hardly any damage; no
personal injury.
2. Vessel capsized and sank due to a
miscalculation in the stowage plan that
was imposed by the shore office in
order to meet the charter‟s demands. No
survivors found.
3. Vessel became unmanoeuvrable due
to abnormal engine temperatures
caused by leaking cylinder-gasket that
had not been replaced during the bi-
annual general overhaul. Vessel went
aground – hull moderately damaged.
4. Vessel collided with a vessel on
opposite course because SMCP were
not used during intership
communication. Significant damage to
both vessels and the environment has
been caused.
5. Chief Engineer mortaly injured after
explosion of a starting-air vessel whose
relief- valve mechanism was not set to
"operational”.
6. Six injured crewmembers due to act
of piracy. All six have been
hospitalized. Part of cargo stolen.
7. Significant damage to engine
because seawater-inlets were obstructed
by Nilas- ice.
8. Vessel not under command due to
loss of rudder collided with submarine
rock. Vessel damaged beyond repair.
9. Lack of engine-power due to
insufficient combustion-air caused by
158 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

Causes and consequences of incidents, H.F + Latent Catastrophic


accidents and disasters Failure/ I.F/ E.F. Major
or combination Moderate
Minor
excessive exhaust backpressure. Vessel
became unmanageable and was
wrecked.
10. Engine breakdown caused by
crew‟s negligence, resulting in
grounding, whereby rudder was slightly
damaged. Jury rudder was installed.
Voyage continued.

8.4. Expressing Obligation/Commands


1. Impe rative has the same form as the short infinitive: Hurry!; Wait!;
Stop! etc.
For the negative we put do not/don‟t before the verb: Don’t hurry!; Don’t
wait! etc.

2. Commands are often expressed as obligation by must, while mustn‟t


expresses interdiction:
You must not smoke in the petrol store.
Passengers must come aboard on the main gang board.

3. An indirect form of command, used especially for instructions and


orders, is be + infinitive:
You are to report for duty immediately.
The switchboard is to be manned at all times.

4. Subject + will, mainly for third person commands. This is a formal,


impersonal, peremptory type of command, implying that the person
giving the order is quite certain that he will be obeyed. It is used chiefly
in written instructions by people who have some authority, e.g. captains
of ships, officers of the service etc.
When the alarm rings passengers and crew will assemble at their boat
stations.
The team will report to the gymnasium for weight- lifting training.
You will not mention this meeting to anyone else.

5. Modals should and ought to can be used for mild commands in the
form of advice.
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 159

You should read the instructions.


You ought to plant some trees.

6. Had better + short infinitive can be used for strong advice or


recommending the wisest course of action:
You‟d better take off your wet shoes.
You‟d better not wait any longer
He‟d better stop taking those pills.

TASK 4
Exercise 1 Read the following advice based on an extract from a safety
handbook for engineer officers. Using the imperative, make up a notice
summarizing the main points that might be put on the door of an unmanned
machinery space. The first is done for you:

A seaman should not enter an unmanned machinery space unless he has


been given permission by the officer in charge. While in the space, reports
by telephone must be made at regular intervals to the duty Deck Officer.
A seaman should only do the task which he has been specifically told to do.
If any job is beyond his unaided capability, he should obtain assistance. The
Engineer Officer in charge must be informed by the seaman in person when
he leaves the space.
The maintenance of adequate lighting and cleaning conditions is essential at
all times.
Alarm circuits should be tested regularly to the manufacturers‟ schedules.
At all times, personnel working in unmanned machinery spaces should be
on their guard against the sudden starting of automated machinery.
1. Do not enter without permission from the officer in charge.
2. Report by telephone ……………………………………………
3. ………………………………………………………………….
Now continue. There are about nine orders in all.

Exercise 2 Use your imagination to respond to these statements. (Use


should/ought to for advice, use had better for making a stronger
recommendation).
a. „I‟m spending my leave in Hong Kong this year.‟
b. „The temperature level is far too low.‟
c. „I think he‟s stopped breathing.‟
d. „I overslept again this morning.‟
e. „One of the cadets has a terrible cough and sore throat.‟
f. „I don‟t know how this paint spray gun works.‟
g. „I‟ve just spilled a can of oil over the floor.‟
160 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

h. „The exam starts in two minutes‟ time.‟


i. „My eyesight seems to be getting worse.‟
j. „The weather‟s turning bad.‟

8.5. Terms relating to life-saving appliances


Life-saving appliances on board ships can be of several types as
follows: survival craft; lifeboat (open, partially enclosed, totally enclosed);
self-righting lifeboat; rescue boat; inflatable liferaft; davit-launched liferaft;
survival capsules.

Totally enclosed lifeboat vocabulary


mooring bitts after lifting hook after manhole, after
hatch
steering tower port hole; viewing port navigation light
top hatch handrail air vent
mast shoe, mast step skates release gear sprinkler tube
forward lifting hook tow rope and painter tie non-skid surface deck
plate
glass-fibre hull cover or enclosure gunwale
locking device (from boarding hatches with
inside and outside) slide panels
bracket bilge keel grab lines bucketed
rudder fire extinguisher tiller
battery engine casing cover helmsman seat
wheel high pressure hose (for sprinkler main pipe
sprinklers)
structural stiffeners fender keel
bottom boards buoyancy tank hook tie band
air bottles water tank equipment locker
rowlock fuel tank sprinkler pump
engine engine casing propeller shaft
exhaust pipe propeller
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 161

1. knife = cuţit
2. emergency pack = trusă de prim ajutor
3. paddles = vâsle
4. buoyancy chambers, buoy tubes = flotor
5. painter line = barbetă
6. foot step ladde r, “boarding ramp” = schelă
7. equipme nt bag = echipamente
8. external light = semnalizare exterioară
9. sea-light cell = pilă activă la apă de mare
10. rain catchment pocket = rezervor apă ploaie
11. integral light = iluminat
12. floor inflation valve = valvă inferioară de umflare
13. survival instruction card = reguli de supavieţuire
14. rescue line = saulă de salvare
15. inflate/deflate valve = supapă umflare/dezumflare
16. lifeline = parâmă ţin-te-bine
17. water stabilizing pocket = rezervor apă
18. sea anchor = ancoră
19. relief valve = supapă de siguranţă
20. righting strap = saulă de redresare
21. retro-reflective tape, fluo tape = bandă reflectorizantă
22. spare parts bag = trusă de accesorii
162 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

Terms relating to open lifeboats:

clew ~ colţ de şcotă bilge grab rail ~ brâu de peak ~ colţ de fungă
foot ~ margine de protecţie a gurnei reef points ~ baieră de
întinsură crutch socket ~ picior de terţarolă
gunwale ~ copastie furchet stern post ~ etambou
head ~ margine de grab lines ~ curent de stem band ~ armătură
învergare redresare de etravă
leech ~ margine de keel ~ chilă tack ~ mură
cădere lifting hook ~ ganci throat ~ colţ de
luff ~ margine de lower cross seats ~ bănci învergare
cădere prova de sprijin thwart knees ~ colţar
mast ~ catarg rudder ~ cârmă de banc
mast thwart ~ banc side benches ~ bănci thwart ~ banc
de catarg skates ~ sanie tiller ~ eche
lug sail ~ velă de treime yard ~ vergă

Procedure for launching davit-launched liferaft:


 remove guard rail
 slew davit outboard
 position raft (bag or container)
 make fast the bowsing lines (to the deck cleats)
 hook the davit fall onto the release gear
 heave away on the davit fall taking the raft outside
 inflate raft
 board raft
 release bowsing lines
 lower away

8.6. Passive Voice

8.6.1. Notes on the form of the passive


1. Formation: regular and irregular past participles
We form the passive with a form of be and a past participle. The past
participle does not necessarily refer to past time. Rules applying to the use
of tenses in the active apply in the passive. For example, an action in
progress now requires the present progressive in:
Your steak is being grilled and will be ready in a minute.
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 163

2. Transitive and intransitive verbs


The passive occurs only with verbs used intransitively, that is, verbs that can
be followed by an object:
active: Someone found this wallet on the forecastle.
passive: This wallet was found on the forecastle.
Many verbs can be used transitively or intransitively:
The door opened. (perhaps by itself)
The door was opened. (perhaps by someone)

3. Direct or indirect objects


Verbs like bring and give which can have two objects, e.g. Tom gave me
(indirect) a pen (direct), can have two passive forms:
I was given a pen by Tom. (indirect object becomes subject)
A pen was given (to) me by Tom. (direct object becomes subject)

Because we are often more interested in people (or animals) than things,
personal subjects tend to be more common than impersonal ones. Thus, „I
was given this pen‟ is more likely to occur than „This pen was given to
me‟. In sentences like the second example, to (or for) can be omitted before
a personal pronoun (This pen was given me) but not usually otherwise:
„This pen was given to my fathe r‟.

4. Stative verbs. Many stative verbs cannot be used in the passive, even
when they are transitive: I love beans on toast. (active voice only). Verbs
like measure, which can be stative or dynamic, can only be passive in their
dynamic sense:
stative: This desk measures 125  60 cm.
dynamic: This desk has been measured.

5. Progressive forms. Only present and past progressive forms are


common:
He is being inte rvie wed now.
He was being intervie wed at 10.
However modals with progressive passive sometimes occur:
I know Mark was going to have an interview some time this
afternoon. He may be being inte rvie wed at this very moment.

6. Phrasal verbs. Transitive constructions with the pattern verb + adverb


particle (A gust of wind ble w the flag down) can be used in the passive:
The flag was blown down. (by a gust of wind).
164 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

7. Verb + preposition:
The newsagent‟s has been broken into.
Only a few verbs of the type verb + particle + preposition (We have done
away with the old rules) can be used in the passive:
The old rules have been done away with.

8. The –ing form and the to-infinitive. Passive constructions are common
after verbs followed by the –ing form, such as enjoy, like and remember:
Most people don‟t like being criticized.
And after verbs followed by a to-infinitive:
He hates to be criticized.
We can use the passive (-ing form only) after conjunctions such as on and
after:
On/After being informed that her mother was seriously ill, she
hurried back to England. (i.e. When she was informed…)

9. Verbs generally used in the passive. A small number of verbs are used
more frequently in the passive than in the active: e.g. be born, be married,
be obliged:
I‟m not obliged to work overtime if I don‟t want to.

10. Adverbs of manner in the passive sentences. Adverbs of manner can


occur before or after the participle:
This room has been badly painted/painted badly.

11. We often use abbreviated passive constructions when expressing:


 wishes: I‟d like it (to be) fried/cleaned/repaired. etc.
 preferences: I like it (when it is) fried/ boile d. etc.

8.6.2. Uses of the passive


a. Spontaneous and deliberate use of the passive
In fluent English, passives occur naturally and spontaneously, without a
conscious change from „active‟ to „passive‟. In fact, active equivalent s
would be hard to produce for sentences like:
The origins of the universe will probably never be explained.
The ship was not built in a day.
The passive is sometimes deliberately chosen in preference to the
active, especially when speakers do not wish to commit themselves to
actions, opinions, or statements of fact of which they are not completely
certain:
This matter will be dealt with as soon as possible.
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 165

Thousands of books are published every year and very few of them
are noticed.

b. The passive for focus


We use the passive when we wish to focus on a happening which is
more important to us than who or what causes the happening – or when
there is simply no need to mention the doer. If we say:
The hold was damaged in last night‟s storm.
We are mainly concerned with the hold and what happened to it.

c. The use of „by‟ + agent after passive


An agent is a „doer‟, i.e. the person or thing that performs the action
indicated by the verb.
By + agent in passive constructions tells us who or what did something:
The window was broken by the boy who lives opposite.
The window was broken by a stone.

By + agent is only necessary when the speaker wishes to say who or what is
responsible for the event in question. The position of by + agent at the end
of a clause or sentence gives it particular emphasis:
The window was broken by a slate that fell off the roof.

By + agent is often used with the passive of verbs like build, compose,
damage, design, destroy, discover, invent, make, wreck and write. Note
how a subject-question in the active is often answered by a passive, so that
the important information is emphasized by being at the end:
Who composed that piece? It was composed by Mozart.
What destroyed that village? It was destroyed by a bomb.

8.6.3. Some typical contexts for the passive


1. Formal notices and announcements:
Candidates are required to present themselves fifteen minutes before the
examination begins. They are asked to be punctual.

2. Press reports:
Often the agent is not known or does not need to be mentioned:
The search for the bank robbers continues. Meanwhile, many people have
been questioned and the owner of the stolen getaway car has been traced.

3. Headlines, advertisements, notices, etc:


TRADE AGREEMENTS BROKEN!
PRICES SLASHED!
166 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

ALL GOODS GREATLY REDUCED!


PETROL COUPONS ACCEPTED!

4. Scientific writing (to describe „process‟):


The mixture is placed in a recipient and is heated to a temperature of
300˚ C. It is then allowe d to cool before it can be analysed.

8.7. Grammar Practice

Exercise 1.
Complete the sentences.
(i) Use the present simple passive of the verbs in the box.
use play destroy speak export make

Example: Bread is made from wheat.

1. Football…all over the world.


2. Millions of cars…from Japan every year.
3. A compass…for showing direction.
4. How many languages…in Switzerland?
5. Millions of trees…by pollution every year.

(ii) Use the past simple passive of the verbs in the box.
discover invent play assassinate paint build

Example: President John F.Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas in 1963.

1. The 1990 World Cup for soccer…in Italy.


2. When…television…?
3. The first pyramids of Egypt…around 3000 BC.
4. Penicillin…by Alexander Fleming in 1928.
5. The Mona Lisa (La Gioconda)…by Leonardo da Vinci.

(iii) Use the past continuous or past perfect passive of the verbs in the
box.
not invite clean sell repair intervie w steal

Example: I couldn‟t wear my suit last Saturday. It was being cleaned.

1. When I got back to the car park, my car wasn‟t there. It…….
2. We couldn‟t use the photocopier this morning. It……..
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 167

3. By the time I arrived at the concert hall, there were no tickets left.
They……
4. We didn‟t go to the party on Saturday because we….
5. The man admitted stealing the money while he…by the police.

Exercise 2.
Choose the correct form: active or passive.
Example: A valuable painting stole/was stolen from the Central Art
Galle ry late last night.
The thieves entered/were entered the gallery through a small upstairs
window.

1. Walt Disney created/was created the cartoon character Mickey Mouse.


2. This problem discussed/was discussed at the last meeting.
3. In 1964 Martin Luther King won/was won the Nobel Prize. In 1968 he
assassinated/was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
4. The president arrived/was arrived in Rome yesterday afternoon. Later
he interviewed/was interviewed on Italian TV.
5. Teachers have given/have been given a new pay rise by the government.
The news announced/was announced earlier today.

Exercise 3. Put these sentences into the passive /leaving out someone, they,
we.
Example: Someone might steal the car. The car might be stolen.

1. Someone will clean the room.


2. They had to cut down that tree.
3. Someone should tell Sally what happened.
4. They‟re going to build a new hospital.
5. We can solve the problem.
6. Someone has to finish the job.
7. They may send the man to prison.
8. We must do something now.

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences using the passive perfect infinitive.


Example: Why doesn‟t Kate know about the meeting? She should have
been told (tell) ages ago.

1. Sally is late this evening. She might …. (delay) at work.


2. Why is all this rubbish still here? It ought to… (throw away) yesterday.
3. The sweater I wanted to buy isn‟t in the shop window any more. It
must…. (sell).
168 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

4. It was lucky that you didn‟t fall off the ladder. You might… (kill)
5. You shouldn‟t have left all that money in your hotel room. It could…
(steal)

Exercise 5. Put these sentences into the passive, as in the example.


Example: I don‟t like people shouting at me. I don’t like being shouted
at.

1. I don‟t like people staring at me.


2. I can‟t stand people telling me what to do.
3. I don‟t like people interrupting me.
4. I dislike people making jokes about me.
5. I enjoy people praising me.

Exercise 6. Billy Palmer was a burglar once. He is speaking about a night


some years ago when everything went wrong for him.
Complete Palmer‟s story using the past simple passive with get.

„It was terrible. First of all, my jeans got ripped (rip) as I was climbing over
the garden wall. Then I… (stick) climbing through the bathroom window,
Then I… (bit) by a dog inside the house. The dog made so much noise that
everyone in the house woke up and I… (hit) over the head with an umbrella.
Then, when I finally got out of the house, there was a police car waiting
there. But, to my surprise, I… (not/caught) last night. Although it wouldn‟t
really have mattered if I had. Two weeks later, I… (arrest) burgling another
house and I… (sentence) to three years in prison.

Exercise 7. Put these sentences into the passive, beginning with the words
given.
Example: They promised Robert an interview for the job.
Robert was promised an interview for the job.

1. They showed Sarah the photographs. Sarah….


2. Normally, they pay me my salary every month. Normally, I….
3. I think that they have sent us the wrong ticket. I think that we…..
4. I hope that someone will give Sally the message. I hope that Sally……
5. They didn‟t ask me for my address. I…..
6. I thought that someone had told you about the meeting. I thought that
you…
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 169

Exercise 8. Complete the sentences using the past simple passive of the
verbs in the box and by.

paint write compose and sing invent discover direct

Example: The Old Man and the Sea was written by Ernest Hemingway.

1. Radium ….Pierre and Marie Curie.


2. The Goldrush…Charlie Chaplin.
3. Imagine …..John Lennon.
4. The safety razor…King Camp Gillette.
5. The Chair…..Vincent van Gogh.

Exercise 9. Complete the sentences with by or with.


Example: My desk was covered with papers.

1. These photos were taken…a very cheap camera.


2. These photos were taken…..my sister.
3. The cake was made…dried fruit.
4. The cake was made ….my aunt.
5. The garage was painted…a new kind of paint.
6. The garage was painted…a friend of mine.
7. The safe was blown open….the robbers.
8. The safe was blown open…dynamite.

Exercise 10. Read each sentence. Then make two new sentences in the
passive, beginning with the words in brackets.
Example: People expect that taxes will be reduced soon. (It) (Taxes)
It is expected that taxes will be reduced soon.
Taxes are expected to be reduced soon.

1. People say that the monument is over 2000 years old. (It) (The
monument)
2. People expect that the president will resign. (It) (The president)
3. People think the fire started at about 8 0‟clock. (It) (the fire)
4. Journalists reported that seven people had been injured in the fire. (It)
(Seven people)
170 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

Exercise 11. Complete the sentences using the correct form of have
something done.
Example: I haven‟t had my control heating serviced (my central
heating/service) since last autumn.

1. Are you going to… (these shoes/repair) or shall I throw them away?
2. My neighbours are… (an extension/build) onto their house at the
moment.
3. I must…. (glasses/mend). They keep falling off.
4. Where do you… (your hair/do)? It always looks very nice.
5. I… (four new tyres/fit) on my car last month.
6. I‟ve just… (my suit/dry-clean).

Exercise 12. Something unpleasant happened to each of these people last


week. Make sentences using have something done.
Example: Kate had her wallet stolen (her wallet/steal) from her bag
while she was out shopping.

1. Peter… (his flat/burgle) while he was out at work.


2. Mr and Mrs Woods… (the roof of their house/damage) in a storm.
3. Lynne… (the radio/steal) from her car.
4. My brother… (his nose/break) in a football match.

Exercise 13.
Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form: cause,
damage, hold, include, invite, make, overtake, show, translate, write .

1. Many accidents …are caused… by dangerous driving.


2. Cheese ……….. from milk.
3. The roof of the building ……….. in a storm a few days ago.
4. There‟s no need to leave a tip. Service ………. in the bill.
5. You………. to the wedding. Why didn‟t you go?
6. A cinema is a place where films ………..
7. In the United States, elections for President ………. every four years.
8. Originally the book ……….. in Spanish and a few years ago it ……….
into English.
9. We were driving along quite fast but we……….. by lots of other cars.
Unit 8 Safety Aboard 171

Exercise 14.
Write questions using passive. Some are present and some are past.

1. Ask about the telephone. (when/invent?) …When was the telephone


invented?
2. Ask about glass. (how/make?)
…………………………………………………
3. Ask about Australia. (when/discover?)
……………………………………….................
4. Ask about silver. (what/use for?)
………………………………………………….
5. Ask about television. (when/invent?)
………………………………………………….

Exercise 15.
Put the verb into the correct form, present simple or past simple, active or
passive.

1. It‟s a big factory. Five hundred people …are employed… (employ) here.
2. Water ……….. (cover) most of the Earth‟s surface.
3. Most of the Earth‟s surface ……….. (cover) by water.
4. The park gates ………. (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
5. The letter ………. (post) a week ago and it ……….. (arrive) yesterday.
6. The boat ……….. (sink) quickly but fortunately everybody ……….
(rescue).
7. Ron‟s parents …………. (die) when he was very young. He and his
sister ……….. (bring) up by their grandparents.
8. I was born in London but I ……….. (grow) up in the north of England.
9. While I was on holiday, my camera………. (steal) from my hotel roo m.
10. While I was on holiday, my camera………. (disappear) from my hotel
room.
11. Why ……….. (Sue/resign) from her job? Didn‟t she enjoy it?
12. Why ……….. (Bill/sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
13. The company is not independent. It ………. (own) by a much larger
company.
14. I saw an accident last night. Somebody …………… (call) an ambulance
but nobody ………… (injure) so the ambulance …………….. (not/need).
15. Where …………… (these photographs/take)? In London? ………….
(you /take) them?
172 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

Exercise 16.
Translate into English:

1. Ţi-a mărturisit de ce a fost acuzat?


2. Mi s-a facut o injecţie să nu simt durerea.
3. Se scriu nume de liste pentru a fi distribuite.
4. S-au făcut aluzii la cartea ta.
5. Cartea se vinde bine şi se citeşte repede.
6. Copiilor li se pun întrebări dificile de către profesorii lor.
7. Îi place să fie admirat de colegi.
8. Nu a fost operat înainte de a fi adormit.
9. Studentul a fost avertizat de profesor şi scos din examen pentru că a
copiat.
Unit 9
FIRE FIGHTING

Fire is a constant hazard at sea. It results in more total losses of ships


than any other form of casualty. Almost all fires are the result of negligence
or carelessness. Combustion occurs when the gases or vapours given off by
a substance are ignited. The temperature of the substance at which it gives
off enough gas to continue burning is known as the „flash point‟.

A fire is the result of a combination of three factors:


1. A substance that will burn.
2. An ignition source.
3. A supply of oxygen, usually from the air.
These three factors are often considered as the sides of the fire tr iangle.
Removing one or more of these sides will break the triangle and result in the
fire being put out. The complete absence of one of the three will ensure that
fire never starts.

Fires are divided into three categories, according to the material involved:
Class A. Solid materials, such as wood and furnishings, extinguished
by cooling below the flesh point.
Class B. Oils and inflammable liquids, extinguished by smothering
to exclude oxygen.
Class C. Electrical equipment, extinguished by non-conductive
agents such as dry powder smothering to exclude oxygen.

9.1. Fire – fighting stages


Fire fighting at sea may be considered in three distinct stages, detection –
locating the fire; alarm – informing the rest of the ship; and control –
bringing the means of extinguishing fire.

9.1.1. Detection
The use of fire detectors is increasing, particularly with the tendency to
reduced manning and unmanned machinery spaces. A fire, if detected
quickly, can be fought and brought under control with a minimum of
damage. The main function of a fire detector is therefore to detect a fire as
quickly as possible; it must also be reliable and require a minimum of
attention. An important requirement is that it is not set off by any of the
normal occurrences in the protected space, that is, it must be appropriately
174 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

sensitive to its surroundings. Three phenomena associated with fire are used
to provide alarms: these are smoke, flames and heat.
The smoke detector makes use of two ionisation chambers, one open
to the atmosphere and one closed (Fig. 1). The fine particles or aerosols
given off by a fire alter the resistance in the open ionisation chamber,
resulting in the operation of a cold cathode gas- filled valve. The alarm
sounds on the operation of the valve to give warning of a fire. Smoke
detectors are used in machinery spaces, accommodation areas and cargo
holds.

Fig.1 Smoke detector

Flames, as opposed to smoke, are often the main result of gas and
liquid fires and flames detectors are used to protect against such hazards.
Flames give off ultra- violet and infra-red radiation and detectors are
available to respond to either. An infra-red flame detector is shown in Fig.
2. Flame detectors are used near fuel handling equipment in the machinery
spaces and also at boiler fronts.

Fig. 2 Infra-red fl ame detector


Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 175

Heat detectors can use any of a number of principles of operation,


such as liquid expansion, low melting point materials or bimetallic strips.
The most usual detector nowadays operates on either a set temperature rise
or a rate of temperature rise being exceeded. Thus an increase in
temperature occurring quickly could set off the alarm before the set
temperature was reached. The relative movement of two coiled bimetallic
thermostats, one exposed and one shielded, acts as the detecting element
(Fig.3). Heat detectors are used in places such as the galley and laundry
where other types of detector would give off false alarm.

Fig. 3 Heat detectors

9.1.2. Alarm
Associated with fire detectors is the electric circuit to ring an alarm
bell. This bell will usually sound in the machinery space, if the fire occurs
there, and also on the bridge. Fires in other spaces will result in alarm bells
sounding on the bridge. Any fire discovered in its ea rly stages will require
the finder to give the alarm and make the decision to deal with it himself if
he can. Giving the alarm can take many forms such as shouting „Fire‟,
banging on bulkheads or any action necessary to attract attention. It is
necessary to give an alarm in order to concentrate resources and effort
quickly onto the fire, even if the fire must be left to burn for a short time
unchecked.

9.1.3. Control
Two basically different types of equipment are available on board
ship for the control of fires. These are small portable extinguishers and large
fixed installations. The small portable extinguishers are for small fires
which, by prompt on-the-spot action, can be rapidly extinguished. The fixed
installation is used when the fire cannot be fought or restrained by portable
equipment or there is perhaps a greater danger if associated areas were to be
176 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

set on fire. The use of fixed installations may require evacuation of the area
containing the fire which, if it is the machinery space, means the loss of
effective control of the ship. Various types of portable and fixed fire
fighting equipment are available.

9.2. Fire Fighting Equipment

9.2.1. Portable extinguishers


There are four principal types of portable extinguisher usually found
on board ship. These are: soda-acid; foam; dry powder and carbon
dioxide extinguishers.

1. Soda-acid extinguisher
The container of this extinguisher holds a sodium bicarbonate
solution. The screw-on cap contains a plunger mechanism covered by a
safety guard. Below the plunger is a glass phial containing sulphuric acid.
When the plunger is struck the glass phial is broken and the acid and sodium
bicarbonate mix. The resulting chemical reaction produces carbon dioxide
gas which pressurises the space above the liquid forcing it out through the
internal pipe to the nozzle. This extinguisher is used for Class A fires and
will be found in accommodation areas.

Fig. 4 Soda-aci d extinguisher


Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 177

2. Foam extinguishe r
a. Chemical foam
The main container is filled with sodium bicarbonate solutio n and a
longer inner polythene container is filled with aluminium sulphate (Fig.5a).
The inner container is sealed by a cap held in place by a plunger. When the
plunger is unlocked by turning it, the cap is released. The extinguisher is
then inverted for the two liquids to mix. Carbon dioxide is produced by the
reaction which pressurises the container and forces the foam out.

Fig 5a Fig. 5 b

b. Mechanical foam
The outer container is in this case filled with water. The central
container holds a carbon dioxide charge and a foam solution (Fig.5b). A
plunger mechanism with a safety guard is located above the central
container. When the plunger is depressed the carbon dioxide is released and
the foam solution and water mix. They are then forced out through a special
nozzle which creates the mechanical foam. This extinguisher has an internal
pipe and is operated upright. Foam extinguishers are used on Class B fires
and will be located in the vicinity of inflammable liquids.
178 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

3. Carbon dioxide extinguis her


A very strong container is used to store liquid carbon dioxide under pressure
(Fig.6). A central tube provides the outlet passage for the carbon dioxide
which is released either by a plunger bursting a disc or a valve operated by a
trigger. The liquid changes to a gas as it leaves the extinguisher and passes
through a swivel pipe or hose to a discharge horn. Carbon dioxide
extinguishers are mainly used on Class B and C fires and will be found in
the machinery space, particularly near electrical equipment. The carbon
dioxide extinguisher is not permitted in the accommodation since, in a
confined space, it could be lethal.

Fig. 6 Carbon di oxi de extinguisher

Dry powder extinguis her


The outer container contains sodium bicarbonate powder. A capsule of
carbon dioxide gas is located beneath a plunger mechanism in the central
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 179

cap (Fig. 7). On depressing the plunger the carbon dioxide gas forces the
powder up a discharge tube and out of the discharge nozzle.

Fig. 7 Dry powder extinguisher

The dry powder extinguisher can be used on all classes of fire but it has no
cooling effect. It is usually located near electrical equipment in the
machinery space and elsewhere on the ship.

Maintenance and testing


All portable extinguishers are pressure vessels and must therefore be
regularly checked. The soda-acid and foam extinguisher containers are
initially tested to 25 bar for five minutes and thereafter at four, yearly
intervals to 20 bar. The carbon dioxide extinguisher is tested to 207 bar
initially every ten years and after two such tests, every five years. The dry
powder extinguisher is tested to 35 bar once every four years. Most
extinguishers should be tested by discharge over a period of one to five
years, depending on the extinguisher type, e.g. soda-acid and dry powder
types 20% discharged per year, foam types 50% per cent discharged per
year. Carbon dioxide extinguishers should be weighed every six months to
check for leakage.
Where practicable the operating mechanisms of portable
extinguishers should be examined every three months. Any plunger should
be checked for free movement, vent holes should be clear and cap threads
180 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

lightly greased. Most extinguishers with screw-on caps have a number of


holes in the threaded region. These are provided to release pressure before
the cap is taken off, as they should be checked to be clear.

9.2.2. Fixed installations


A variety of fixed fire fighting installation exist, some of which are
specifically designed for certain types of ships. A selection of the more
general installations will now be outlined.

1. Fire main
A sea water supply system to fire hydrants is fitted to every ship
(Fig. 8).

Fig. 8

Several pumps in the engine room will be arranged to supply the


system, their number and capacity being dictated by legislation. An
emergency fire pump will also be located remote from the machinery space
and with independent means of power. A system of hydrant outlets, each
with an isolating valve, is located around the ship and hoses with
appropriate snap- in connectors are strategically located together with
nozzles. These nozzles are usually with the jet/spray type providing either
type of discharge as required. All the working areas of the ship are thus
covered, and a constant supply of seawater can be brought to bear at any
point to fight a fire. While seawater is best used as a cooling agent in
fighting Class A fires it is possible, if all else fails, to use it to fight Class B
fires. The jet/spray nozzles would be adjusted to provide a fine water spray
that could be played over the fire to cool it without spreading.

2. Automatic water spray


The automatic spray or sprinkler system provides a network of sprinkler
heads throughout the protected spaces. This system may be used in
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 181

accommodation areas, and in machinery spaces with certain variations in the


equipment used and the method of operation. The accommodation areas are
fitted with sprinkler heads that both detect and extinguish fires. The
sprinkler head is closed by a quartzoid bulb that contains a liquid that
expands considerably on heating. When excessively heated the liquid
expands, shatters the bulb and water will issue from the sprinkler head. A
deflector plate on the sprinkler head causes the water to spray out over a
large area. The water is supplied initially from a tank pressur ised by
compressed air (Fig. 9a). Once the tank pressure falls, as a sprinkler issues
water, a salt water pump cuts automatically to maintain the water supply as
long as is necessary. The system initially changed with fresh water to reduce
corrosion effects. The complete installation is divided into several sections,
each containing about 150 to 200 sprinklers and having an alarm valve.
When one or more sprinklers operate water through the section valve and
sounds an alarm and also provides a visual display identifying the section
containing the fire.

Fig 9 Automatic water s pray systems, (a) sprinkler system; (b) sprayer system

In the machinery space the sprinkler heads are known as „sprayers‟


and have no quartzoid bulb. Also the section valves are manually operated
to supply water to the sprayers (Fig 9b). The system is pressurised by
compressed air with a saltwater pump arranged to cut in automatically if the
pressure drops. The accommodation and machinery space systems ma y be
combined by a valve that is normally kept locked shut. The system should
182 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

be regularly checked, by creating fault conditions at the various section


control valves by opening a test valve, and checking for audible and visual
alarms.

3. Foam systems
Foam spreading systems are designed to suit the particular ship‟s
requirements with regard to quantity of foam, areas to be protected, etc.
Mechanical foam is the usual substance used, being produced by mixing
foam making liquid with large quantities of water. Violent agitation of the
mixture in air creates air bubbles in the foam.
An automatic foam induction system is shown in Fig. 10. The
automatic inductor unit ensures the correct mixing of water and foam
compound that is then pumped as the foam making solution to the hydrants
for use. The foam compound tank is sealed to protect the contents from
deterioration and has linked compound supply and air vent valves.

Fig. 10 Foam inducti on system

To operate the system these two linked valves are opened and the fire pump
started. Foam mixing is carefully metered by the automatic inductor unit.
The fire pump and compound tank must be located outside the protected
space.
High expansion foam systems are also available where a foam
generator produces, from foam concentrate and sea water, a thousand times
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 183

the quantity of foam. The generator blows air through a net sprayed with
foam concentrate and water. The vastly expanded foam is an insulator and
an absorber of radiant heat; it also excludes oxygen from the fire.

4. Carbon dioxide flooding


A carbon dioxide flooding system is used to displace the oxygen in the
protected space and thus extinguish the fire. The carbon dioxide is stored as
a liquid under pressure in cylinders. The volume of space to be protected
determines the number of cylinders required. A common battery of
cylinders may be used to protect both cargo holds and machinery space. The
cargo space system is normally arranged for smoke detection, alarm and
carbon dioxide flooding. (Fig.11) Small air sampling pipes from the
individual cargo holds are led into a cabinet on the bridge.

Fig. 11 Carbon di oxi de detection and fl oodi ng system

Air is drawn from each hold by a small fan and each pipe is
identified for its particular hold. If smoke is drawn into the cabinet from one
of the holds it will set off an alarm. The smoke is also passed into the
wheelhouse where it can be detected by personnel on watch.
The location of the fire can be identified in the cabinet and the hold
distribution valve below the cabinet is operated. This valve shuts off the
sampling pipe from the cabinet and opens it to the carbon dioxide main
leading from the cylinder battery. A chart will indicate the number of
184 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

cylinders of gas to be released into the space and this is done by a hand-
operated lever.
The machinery space system is designed to quickly discharge the
complete battery of cylinders. Before the gas is released the space must be
clear of personnel and sealed against entry or exhausting of air. The
discharge valve is located in a locked cabinet, with the key in a glass case
nearby. Opening the cabinet sounds an alarm to warn personnel of the
imminent discharge of the gas. The discharge valve is opened and an
operating lever pulled. The operating lever opens two gas bottles, which
pressurise a gang release cylinder that, in turn, moves an operating cable to
open all the bottles in the battery. The carbon dioxide gas then quickly
floods the machinery space, filling it to 30% of its volume in two minutes or
less. The air sampling system can be checked when the holds are empty by
using a smoking rag beneath a sampling point. Flow indicators, usually
small propellers, are fitted at the outlet points of the smoke detecting pipes
as a visual check and an assurance that the pipes are clear. To check for
leakage the gas cylinders can be weighed or have their liquid levels
measured by a special unit.

5. Inert gas
Inert gases are those which do not support combustion and are largely
nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Large quantities suitable for fire extinguishing
can be obtained by burning fuel in carefully measured amounts or by
cleaning the exhaust gases from a boiler.

Fig. 12 Inert gas generator


Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 185

Inert gas generator


The inert gas generator (Fig. 12), burns fuel in designed qua ntities to
produce perfect combustion. This provides an exhaust gas which is largely
nitrogen and carbon dioxide with very small oxygen content.
The exhaust gases pass to a cooling and washing chamber to
remove sulphur and excess carbon. The washed o r scrubbed exhaust gas is
now inert and passes to a distribution system for fire extinguishing. The
complete unit is arranged to be independently operated in order to supply
inert gas for as long as the fuel supply lasts.

6. Funnel gas inerting


A system much used on tankers where boiler exhaust gases are cleaned and
inerted is shown in Fig. 13. The exhaust gas is cleaned in a scrubbing tower,
dried and filtered before being passed to the deck mains for distribution. The
gas will contain less than 5% oxygen and is therefore considered inert. It is
distributed along the deck pipes by fans and passes into the various cargo
tanks. Seals in the system act as non-return valves to prevent a reverse flow
of gas.
The inert gas is used to blanket the oil cargo during discharging
operations. Empty tanks are filled with gas and the inert gas is blown out
when oil is loaded.
Inert gas-producing units have the advantage of being able to
continuously produce inert gas. A bottle storage system, such as carbon
dioxide flooding, is a tone-shot‟ fire extinguisher which leaves a ship
unprotected until further gas supplies can be obtained.

Fig 13 Funnel gas inerting system


186 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

7. Halon system
Halon 1301 (BTM) and Halon 1211 (BCF) are two halogenated
hydrocarbon gases with special fire extinguishing properties. Unlike other
extinguishing agents, which cool the fire or displace oxygen the Halon gases
inhibit the actual flame reaction. As a result of its low vapour pressure
liquefied Halon can be stored in low-pressure containers. Alternatively if a
standard carbon dioxide cylinder is used then approximately three times as
much gas can be stored. An additional advantage is that the atmosphere in a
Halon flooded space is not toxic, although some highly irritant gases are
produced in the extinguishing process.
A Halon storage system would be very similar to one using carbon
dioxide except that fewer cylinders would be required. The liquefied Halon
is usually pressurised in the cylinders with nitrogen in order to increase the
speed of discharge. Bulk storage tanks of Halon gas are also used with
cylinders of carbon dioxide and compressed air being used to operate the
control system and expel the gas.

9.3. Fire Fighting Strategy


Fighting a fire on board ship may amount to a life or death struggle; to enter
into such a conflict unprepared and unarmed is to invite failure. The
„armaments‟ or equipment available have been described. Now comes the
matter of being prepared. A basic strategy should be followed in all fire
fighting situations. This will involve four distinct aspects, which are
locating, informing, containing and finally extinguishing a fire.
A fire may be located by detection devices fitted in the various
spaces in a ship or simply by smelling or seeing smoke. Alert personnel,
whether on watch or not, should always be conscious of the danger of fire
and the signs which indicate it. Certain areas are more liable to outbreaks of
fire and these should be regularly visited or checked upon.
Once detected the presence of a fire must be made known quickly
to as many people as possible. It is essential therefore that the bridge is
informed of the location and extent of the fire. A small fire might
reasonably be immediately tackled by the finder but attempts should be
made whilst fighting the fire to attract attention. Shouting „Fire‟, banging on
bulkheads, deliberately setting off equipment alarms in the vicinity, all are
possible means of attracting attention. Anyone finding a fire must decide
whether to fight it immediately or whether to leave it and inform others first.
The more people who know of a fire the greater the efforts that can be
brought to bear upon it. If in doubt - inform!
Ships are built to contain fires in the space where they begin. Fire
resisting bulkheads and decks are positioned at appropriate distances in
order to limit the spread of fire, and it remains for fire fighting personnel to
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 187

ensure that these barriers are secure whilst attempting to fight the fire. All
doors and openings should be closed, all ventilation and exhaust fans
stopped, and flammable material isolated from the space. It should be
remembered that a fire exists in three dimensions and therefore has six
sides, so it must be contained on six sides.
A small fire can usually be easily extinguished but it can also
quickly become a big fire, so the fire extinguishing must be rapid if it is to
be effective. Fire fighting strategy will vary according to the location of the
fire. The various areas and their particular prob lems will now be examined.

Accommodation
The accommodation areas will be made up almost exclusively of Class A
material requiring the use of water or soda-acid type extinguishers.
Electrical circuits however should be isolated before directing quantities of
water into an accommodation area. All ventilation and exhaust fans must be
stopped and fire flaps closed. If hoses are employed a water spray should be
used in order to achieve the maximum cooling effect. The accommodation
will no doubt fill with smoke and therefore breathing apparatus should be
available.
The galley area presents a somewhat different fire hazard. Here
Class B materials, such as cooking oil, fat or grease, will be present
requiring the use of foam, dry powder or carbon dioxide extinguishers. A
fire blanket quickly spread over burning cooking utensils could extinguish a
potentially dangerous fire.

Machine ry spaces
Machinery space fires will involve mainly Class B material requiring the
use of foam type extinguishers. Only the smallest of fires should be tackled
with hand extinguishers. The alarm should be quickly given and the bridge
informed. The ventilation fans should be stopped and fire flaps closed. Any
oil tanks close to the fire should be closed off and kept cool by hosing with
water. Foam making equipment should be used on the fire and foam spread
over the tank tops and bilges. Water spray can also be used to cool the
surroundings of the fire, but a water jet should not be used in the machinery
space since it will move any burning oil around and subsequently spread the
fire. Only if the situation becomes hopeless should the space be evacuated
and gas flooding used. The machinery space contains most of the fire
fighting equipment as well as the propulsion machinery. If it is vaca ted then
control of the situation is lost to a „one-shot‟ attempt at gas flooding.
If evacuation is decided upon, all personnel must be made aware of
the decision. The space must then be completely sealed against the entry or
exit of air and all oil supplies isolated at the tank valves. When all these
188 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

matters have been attended to the flooding gas can be admitted and, if the
surrounding bulkheads hold to contain the fire, it will quickly go out.
Cooling of the boundary bulkheads should continue from o utside the space
whilst flooding is taking place.
When the extinguished fire has been left long enough to cool down
the space can be re-entered. This should be done from the tunnel, if there is
one, or the lowest point remote from the seat of the fire. Engineers wearing
breathing apparatus may now enter, taking water spray hoses with them to
cool down any hot surfaces. Cooling and smoke dispersal are the first
priorities to provide an atmosphere in which others can operate and
gradually bring the machinery back into service. Where a machinery space
fire involves electrical equipment then only dry powder or carbon dioxide
extinguishers can be used until the equipment is isolated.

Cargo spaces
Where a fire occurs in a cargo hold with a smoke detection a nd carbon
dioxide flooding system fitted, the procedure is straightforward and has
already been described. It is essential to ensure before flooding that all air
entry and exit points are closed by fire dampers and all fans are stopped.
Oil tankers with their cargo tanks full or empty present a potentially
serious fire hazard. A fire occurring in a cargo tank will doubtless lead to an
explosion or an explosion will lead to fire. The rapid use of foam making
equipment, the cooling of surrounding areas and the isolation of the fire
should immediately take place.
The prevention of fire and explosion conditions is the main
prerequisite with oil tankers. By keeping the tank atmosphere outside of the
explosive limits then no fire or explosion can occur. It is usual practice to
inert the tank atmosphere by displacing the oxygen with an inert gas and
thus effectively prevent a fire or explosion. The inert gas producing systems
have already been described.

Training and awareness


Where is the nearest fire extinguisher? What type is it? How is it operated?
At any position in the ship these questions should be asked and answered.
Knowing how to operate any extinguisher just by looking at it will indicate
some degree of training and an awareness of the fire defenses.
Fire drills are often referred to as „Board of Trade Sports‟, but they
merit a more sober attitude than they receive. Practices are useful and
should be seriously undertaken. Equipment should be tried and tested to
ensure that it works and is ready when needed. Regular maintenance should
take place on extinguishers, fire pumps, hydrants, hoses, etc.
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 189

All engineers should be familiar with recharging and overhauling


extinguishers and those in charge should make sure it is regularly done. The
statutory surveys do much to ensure that equipment is ready for use but the
one year period between leaves a lot of time for neglect.

Breathing apparatus
Many fire fighting situations may require the use of some form of breathing
apparatus. The use of such equipment will ensure a supply of oxygen to the
wearer so that he can perform his particular tasks in safety. Two basic types
are in use – the smoke helmet and the self contained unit using air cylinders.
The smoke helmet arrangement uses a helmet, which covers the head
and is connected to an air hose. A hand operated pump or bellows supplies
the air. A system of signals between user and supplier must be arranged to
ensure safe, correct operation.
The self-contained unit consists of one or two cylinders of
compressed air kept in a harness, which is carried on the back (Fig. 14). The
high-pressure air is fed through a reducing valve and then to a demand
valve. The demand valve is fitted into a facemask and supplies air to meet
the breathing requirements of the wearer. A non-return valve permits
breathing out to atmosphere. A warning whistle sounds when the air
pressure falls to a low value. A standard cylinder will allow for about 20 to
30 minutes‟ operation.

Fig. 14
190 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

9.4. Vocabulary

air sampling system ~ sistem de luat probe de aer


air vent valve ~ supapă de aerisire
bellows ~ membrană; tub; burduf
bimetallic strip ~ lamelă bimetalică
breathing apparatus ~ aparat de oxygen
cap thread ~ capăt filetat
carbon dioxide flooding ~ saturare cu dioxid de carbon
carelessness ~ neglijenţă
coiled ~ spiralat; cu spirală
cut in ~ a cupla; a anclanşa
deflector plate ~ deflector; placă de deflexie
depress ~ a apăsa
discharge horn ~ pâlnie de evacuare
discharge nozzle ~ ajutaj de evacuare
discharge tube ~ tub de descărcare
fan ~ ventilator
fire damper ~ detector de metan
fire detector ~ detector de foc
fire fighting ~ lupta împotriva incendiilor
fire hydrant ~ hidrant
flame detector ~ detector de flacără deschisă
flash point ~ temperatură de aprindere; punct de inflamabilitate
flow indicators ~ indicatori de curgere
foam ~ spumă
give off ~ a degaja; a emana
glass phial ~ fiolă/flacon de sticlă
hand operated lever ~ pârghie/mâner acţionat manual
harness ~ sfoară; ham
hazard ~ pericol
heat detector ~ detector de căldură
hose ~ furtun
hydrant outlets ~ guri de hidrant
ignition source ~ sursă de aprindere
nozzle ~ injector
outlet passage ~ canal de evacuare
overhauling ~ revizie generală; intervenţie
plunger mechanis m ~ mecanism plunger de scurtcircuitare
portable extinguisher ~ stingător portabil
pressurise ~ a presuriza
put out ~ a stinge
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 191

quartzoid bulb ~ incintă cu cuarţ


safety guard ~ dispozitiv de protecţie
screw on cap ~ capac cu înfiletare
scrubbing towe r ~ turn de spălare a gazelor
self contained unit ~ unitate monobloc
set off ~ a declanşa; a lansa
shatters ~ a sparge
casualty ~ accident
shielded ~ ecranat; protejat
smoke detectors ~ detectoare de fum
smoke helmet ~ cască de protecţie împotriva fumului
smoking rag ~ obiecte care fumegă
smoother ~ a egala; a nivela
snap in connectors ~ conectori cu înclichetare
soda acid extinguisher ~ stingător cu acid sulfuric
sprinkler ~ stropitor
swivel pipe ~ tub de injecţie
to meter ~ a măsura
to tackle ~ a aborda
trigger ~ declanşator
upright ~ în sus
wheelhouse ~ timonerie

TASK 1
Insert the type of material for each class of fire: wood, electrical equipment,
furnishing, and flammable liquids.

Class of Fire Material type


Class A
Class B
Class C

TASK 2
Fill in the table with the corresponding devices and installations (there
might be two types with the same substance): soda-acid, foam, dry powder,
carbon dioxide, main, water spray, inert gas, funnel gas inerting, Halon.

Portable extinguisher Fixed installation


192 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

9.5. Direct and Indirect Speech

1. When we want to quote somebody‟s words or thoughts, we can do it in


two ways. We can try to give the exact words that were said (or that we
imagine or thought):
He comes into the Captain‟s cabin and says “I‟ll have a day off”.
And then the Captain thought “Does he really mean it?”
This way of quoting is called „direct speech‟. Usually the words quoted are
introduced by one of the words say and think, put before the quotation. In
writing, quotation marks („…‟ or “…”) are used. In literary writing, a lar ge
number of other verbs are used: ask, exclaim, suggest, reply, cry, reflect,
suppose, grunt, snarl, hiss, whisper.

2. The other way of quoting somebody‟s words or thoughts is to use


„reported speech‟ construction also called „indirect speech‟. In this case,
we talk about the idea that was expressed without quoting the exact words
that were used, and we connect it more closely to our own sentence:
He comes into the Captain‟s cabin and says (that) he‟ll have a day off.
And then the Captain thought whether he really meant it?

9.5.1. Notes on the use of punctuation marks


1. Quotation marks (or „inverted commas‟) go round what is actually
spoken and enclose other punctuation marks such as commas (,), full
stops (.), question marks (?) and exclamation marks (!). They may be
single („…‟), or double (“…”) and are placed high above the base- line at
the beginning and end of the quotation:
„Is that you, Jane?‟ Bob asked.

2. If there is a „quote within a quote‟, we use a second set of quotation


marks. If double quotation marks have been used on the „outside‟, single
ones are used on the „inside‟ and vice versa. The inside quotation has its
own punctuation, distinct from the rest of the sentence:
Ann said, „Just as I was leaving, a voice shouted, “stop!”.‟
„What do you mean, “Are you all right?”?‟ Ann asked.

We can also use a second set of quotation marks when we mention the title
of e.g. a book, film or play:
„How long did it take you to read “War and Peace”?‟ I asked.
However this is often a matter of taste. In print, titles often appear in italics
without quotation marks.
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 193

3. Quotation marks are generally not required with reporting verbs such as
ask oneself, think and wonder when they are used to describe ‟direct
thoughts‟ in „free indirect speech‟:
So that was their little game, he thought.
Where are they now, he wondered.

9.5.2. Indirect speech and the sequence of tenses


We use indirect speech (sometimes called „reported speech‟) when we are
telling someone what another person says or said. The reporting verb (e.g.
say, tell) may be in the present or past (most often in the past) and the tenses
of the reported statement are often (but not always) affected by this.
Compare:
- actual spoken statement: „I can see him now.‟
- direct statement in writing ‘I can see him now,‟ the boss says/said.
- indirect statement (present): The boss says (that) he can see you now.
- indirect statement (past): The boss said (that) he could see you now.

Say and tell someone + optional that can introduce indirect statements. We
never use a comma after say or tell someone:
He said (that)/told me (that) his life was in danger.

If we need to mention the listener, tell + indirect object is generally


preferable to say + to someone. When the reporting verb comes at the end
of the sentence, we cannot use that:
His life was in danger, he told me/he said.

Ask (with or without a personal indirect object) can report a question. Ask
(someone) is followed by if/whether or a question-word:
She asked (me) if/whether I wanted anything.
She asked (me) what I wanted.
We use say/tell to introduce noun clauses not to report questions.

A. Indirect statements: reporting verb in the present


Form with reporting verb in the present:
- actual spoken statements:
„I‟ve read a specialty book and I don‟t understand it.‟
- indirect statements: reporting verb in the present:
If the reporting verb in indirect speech is in the present, the tenses that
follow are usually the same as those used in the original spoken statement.
This is often the case when we report words that have just been spoken:
Jim says/tells me (that) he‟s read the specialty book and doesn‟t
understand it.
194 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

B. Indirect statements with tense changes


Form with reporting verb in the past. The first sentence is the actual spoken
statement and immediately after it is the indirect statement.
a. indirect statements: present simple  past simple:
TOM: ‘I need to go to the bank.‟
Tom said (that) he needed to go to the bank.
b. indirect statements: present continuous  past continuous:
PAM: „I‟m waiting for the First Officer.‟
Pam said (that) she was waiting for the First Officer.
c. indirect statement: present perfect  past perfect:
„I‟ve moved to another company.‟
She said (that) she had moved to another company.
d. indirect statements: past  past perfect:
„I moved to another company.‟
She said (that) she had moved to another company.
e. indirect statements: past continuous past perfect continuous:
„I was waiting for the Captain‟
He said (that) he had been waiting for the Captain.
f. indirect statements: past perfect continuous past perfect continuous:
„I had been waiting for hours before you arrived.‟
He said (that) he had been waiting for hours. (past perfect does not
change)
g. indirect statements: modal „present‟  „conditional‟ or „past‟:
„I can see you tomorrow.‟
She said (that) she could see me the next day.
„I‟ll help you.‟
She said (that) she would help me.
h. indirect statements: the „past‟ or „conditional‟ modal does not change:
„I could see you tomorrow.‟
He said (that) he could see me the next day.
„I would complain if I were you.‟
She said (that) she would complain if she were you.

9.5.3. Notes on the form of indirect speech with tense changes


a. Pronouns change (or not) depending on the view of the reporter:
„I‟ll send you a card, Sue.‟ (actual words spoken by Ann)
Ann told Sue she‟d send her a card. (reported by someone else)
Ann said/told me she would send me a card. (reported by Sue)
I told Sue (that) I‟d send her a card. (reported by Ann)
Some typical pronoun changes are:
I  he/she me/you  him/he r my  his/her
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 195

We  they us  them our  their


Mine  his/he rs ours  theirs myself  himself/he rself
b. Time and place changes
It is often necessary to make time and place changes in relation to tense
changes. Examples of possible time and place changes:
Time: now  immediately/then
two days ago  two days before/earlier
today  that day
tonight  that night
tomorrow  the next/the following day
yesterday  the previous day/the day before
last night  the night before
Place: here  there when what is referred to is
clear
this place  that place
these places  those places
Verbs: come/bring  go/take
c. „Modal present‟ becomes „modal past‟: e.g. can becomes could, will
becomes would, may becomes might:
„I can/will/may see you later,‟ he said.
He said he could/would/might see me later.
d. Conditional statements
Type 1 conditional statements are reported as follows:
„If you pass your test, I‟ll buy you a car,‟ he said.
He said that if I passed my test he would buy me a car.
Type 2 conditional statements are reported as follows:
„If you passed your test, I would buy you a car,‟ he said.
He said that if I passed my test he would buy me a car.
Type 3 conditional statements are reported as follows:
„If you‟d passed your test, I‟d have bought you a car,‟ he said.
He said that if I‟d passed my test he‟d have bought me a car.
e. Exclamations
Note the word order in reported exclamations:
„What a silly boy you are!‟ she exclaimed.
She told him what a silly boy he was.
She told him that he was a silly boy.
196 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

9.6. Grammar practice

Exercise 1.
Complete the sentences using the correct form of say or tell.
Example: I‟ll tell you all about my holiday when I see you.
1. Could you…me how to get to Paris?
2. Do you think she‟s…us the truth?
3. Have you…goodbye to everyone?
4. They…the plane was going to be late.
5. Did he…you that he could play chess?
6. Why didn‟t you…what you wanted?

Exercise 2.
Put these statements into reported speech, as in the examples.
Examples: „I‟m tired,‟ she said. She said (that) she was tired.
„I need to borrow some money,‟ my brother told me. My brother told me
(that he needed to borrow some money.

1. „I can‟t swim very well,‟ I told her.


2. „Mr Mason has gone out,‟ the secretary told me.
3. „I don‟t want to go swimming.‟ Andrew said.
4. „We‟re leaving on Friday,‟ we said.
5. „We had lunch in Luigi‟s restaurant,‟ they said.
6. „I‟ll phone you later,‟ Sarah told Simon.

Exercise 3.
Which questions would you ask to which people?

1. „Will it take long to repair the car? a hotel receptionist


2. „Can I park my car in West Street?‟ a doctor
3. „What time does the film finish?‟ a policeman
4. „Have you got a double room?‟ a mechanic
5. „How many times a day
should I take the medicine? a waiter
6. „What‟s the soup of the day?‟ a cinema attendant

Report the questions. Begin: I asked the…


Example: 1. I asked the mechanic if it would take long to repair the car.

Exercise 4.
Report these sentences using the to infinitive form.
Examples: „I‟ll pay back the money.‟ (she promised) She promised to pay
back the money.
Unit 9 Fire – Fighting 197

„Hurry up.‟ (he told me) He told me to hurry up.


1. „Can I do the washing up?‟ (I offered)
2. „I‟ll phone the police.‟ (she threatened)
3. „You should stop smoking‟ (the doctor advised my brother)
4. „Could you change the light bulb for me?‟ (he asked me)
5. „Don‟t be stupid.‟(she told me)
6. „Would you like to come to my party?‟
7. „I won‟t forget the shopping.‟ (I promised)
8. „Don‟t leave the door unlocked.‟ (she warned them)
Exercise 5.
Report these sentences. Sometimes two answers are possible.
Examples: „I‟m tired,‟ he said. He said he was tired.
„Did you enjoy the film?‟ I asked her. I asked her if she (had)
enjoyed the film.
„Switch off the TV,‟ she told me. She told me to switch off the
TV.
„Can you lend me some money?‟ he asked me. He asked me if I
could lend him some money. He asked me to lend him some money.
1. „I can‟t type‟, I told them.
2. „Are you English?‟ they asked me.
3. „Where are you going?‟I asked her.
4. „We‟re going into town‟ they said
5. „I haven‟t got any money‟, he told me.
6. „Could you speak more slowly?‟ he asked her.
7. „Don‟t touch the wire‟, he warned me.
8. „I was on holiday in July‟, he told her.
9. „What time did you get home?‟ They asked him.
10. „Can you do me a favour?‟ She asked me.
11. „We won‟t be home late‟, we told them.
12. „I‟ve posted the letters‟, I said
13. „My sister doesn‟t know‟, he said.
14. „My parents had gone to bed‟, she said.
15. „You should go to the doctor‟, she told him.
16. „We‟ll do the dishes‟, they promised.
17. „Where do you work?‟ I asked her.
18. „Can you phone the doctor for me?‟ she asked him.
19. „I passed my driving test in 1986‟, he told his boss.
20. „I don‟t know what to do‟, I said.
198 English for Marine Electrical Engineering 2

Exercise 6
Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence.
a. Sally told that she had lost her keys.
Sally said that she had lost her keys.
b. Chris said me that he must leave early.
…………………………………………………………….
c. Maria and Tony said they shall see us tomorrow.
……………………………………………………………..
d. Tom said, I‟m coming to your party.
……………………………………………………………..
e. Sue said that she had written a letter to Lisa.
……………………………………………………………..
f. Steve said us that he was arriving at 8.00.
……………………………………………………………..
g. „I had bought a new bike Pam told us.‟
……………………………………………………………..
h. „What‟s the matter? Ellen told.
……………………………………………………………..
i. Jim says that he had needed some help.
……………………………………………………………..
j. Joe said that he doesn‟t feel well yesterday.
……………………………………………………………..

Exercise 7
Rewrite each sentence in direct speech, ending as shown.
a. Anna told us that she had finished.
„I‟ve finished……….‟, Anna told us.
b. George said that he would be back at 6.00.
„………………………………..‟, George said.
c. Helen said she was going to go shopping.
„………………………………..‟, said Helen.
d. Paul said that he wanted to make a phone call.
„………………………………..‟, said Paul.
e. Tina told the teacher she had forgotten her homework.
„…………………………………‟, Tina told the teacher.
f. David said he had to be back by 3.30.
„………………………………….‟, David said.
g. Jan told me she would let me know.
„…………………………………..‟, Jan told me.
h. Bill said he was going to be late.
„…………………………………….‟, Bill said.
B IB LI O GR A PH Y

1. Blakey, T.N., English for Maritime Studies, Prentice Hall, UK, 1987,
ISBN 0-13-281379-3;
2. Collins Cobuild English Grammar, London, HarperCollins Publishers,
1994, ISBN 0-00-370257-X;
3. Eastwood, John, Oxford Guide to English Grammar, Oxford University
Press, 1994, ISBN 0-19-431-353-0;
4. Balagiu, A., Astratinei, C., Alibec, C., Lungu, D., Zechia, D., Mates, R.,
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906717-74-4;
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year of study), Editura Academiei Navale „Mircea cel Batran‟, 2002,
ISBN 973-8303-15-X;
8. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University
Press, 1994, ISBN 0-521-43680-X;
9. Swan, Michael, Practical English Language, Oxford University Press,
1994, ISBN 0-19-431185-6;
10. Taylor, D. A. Introduction to Marine Engineering, Butterworths, 1995;
11. Thomson, A. J.; Martinet, A.V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford
University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-19-431348-4;
12. Zechia, D., Minea, A., English for Marine Engineering, (Coursebook for
2nd year of study), Editura Academiei Navale “Mircea cel Bătrân”, 2003,
ISBN 973-8303-44-3.