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CONTROLLED GRAZING

To prevent overgrazing the number of animals to be fed in a certain area must be kept with in the
carrying capacity of the grassland. In order to prevent animals over grazing some areas they may be
confined to certain parts of the field cattle are tied in particular areas each day to ensure even grazing of
the field which are kept in fenced paddocks. When one paddock has been grazed the sheep orcattle are
moved to a new area to prevent overgrazing.

TRANSHUMANCE /SEMI-NOMANDS

It is a seasonal migration along with the live stock especially in winters from the high land areas to the
Valley when the summer approaches they move back to the highland pastures, but below snowline. In
winter the high land pastures are covered with snow and the temp drops below freezing point which
does not support pastures and the water sources like rivers, lakes and stream also freezes so that's why
they move to the Valley where the temp are suitable for hem to survive . Where water and pastures are
available. Some times they move selling their surplus such as animals, wool, skin and milk live stocks and
their products with the daily goods and while in Valley they keep them in sheds to protect the live socks.
In summer they move back to the high land pastures below snow line because in summer rich pastures
grow as the snow and the glaciers melt so therefore water is available for these pastures to grow.

AREAS

They are mainly found in Northern Northern mountains and Western high lands

1- From Himalayas they migrate towards to Kashmir Valley.

2- From K.K they migrate to Gilgit and Hunza valley

3. From Hindukush to Chitral and Swat Valley

4- From Safed Koh to Peshawar and Kohat Valley

TYPES OF LIVE STOCK

1- Sheep, Goat, Cattle, Dzo, Yak.


2- Goats are sure footed.
3- These can adapt in high land Climate and mountainous topography.

ADVANTAGES

1- They have good access to rich pastures. In summers in high land areas and in Winters in the
Valley.
2- Good accessibility of water resources because Lakes and Rivers are perennial.
3- Unlike nomads they do not have to travel long distances for these resources.
4- They have source of income of they have surplus.
5- Do not hire labour
DISADVANTAGES

1- Lack of facilities.
2- No Permanent home.
3- Unreliable income.
4- Poor Quality animals, difficult to be commercial.

INPUT

1- Livestocks.
2- Pastures.
3- Water.
4- Labour.

Process

1- Breeding.
2- Grazing.
3- Milking.
4- Slaughtering.

OUTPUTS:

1- Meat.
2- Wool.
3- Milk.
4- Manure.

SETTLED LIVESTOCK FARMING

1- They do not move in search of water and pasture so they have permanent homes because water
and pasture is available in there areas > They are found in illihyes ogPanjiab and Sindh along
rivers und on doabs. Thesc famers carr grow cr ont-ntixed farning in which they keep livestocks
and also Ca ), hens, goats, bufaloes es 1-They pang their own grazing grounds known as
shamilat. 2- Do ot move long distance for water and pasture 3- Reliable source of water from
rivers and wells 4- Proper sheds in their homes to keep livestocks 5- They use their live stocks to
carrnyout different a gricultural activities such as ploughing Persian, wheel, for threshing,
harvesting, pulling the earts, dung for fertilizer.