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ApplicationReport SLUA420A – May2007 RevisedJanuary2009 – FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFET SimonWen

ApplicationReport

SLUA420A

May2007

RevisedJanuary2009 –

FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFET

SimonWen

BatteryMonitoringProducts

bycreatingacurrentbypassduringcharging. chargetermination,itisnecessarytoreducethechargeaddedtotheoverchargedcells

imbalanceandtoachievethegoalofhavingallcellsreaching100%state-of-chargeat

whichmayleavesomecellsunderchargedandothersovercharged.Toremedythis

cells.However,thechargerterminateschargingbasedonthesummedvoltageonly,

self-discharge,capacity,andimpedancecanleadtodifferentchargestatesamongthe

Theneedforcellbalancingcomesfromthefactthatcell-to-celldifferencesin

ABSTRACT

Contents

1InternalCellBalancinginbq20zxxSolution

1

2ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing

2

3Discussions

5

4Summary

6

5Acknowledgment

6

ListofFigures

1InternalCell-BalancingCircuitofbq29330AFE

2

2ExternalCell-BalancingCircuitWithCell1BypassingActive

3

3FastCellBalancingofTwoSeriesCells

5

4IssuesWithBalancingTwoAdjacentCells(a)andEveryOtherCell(b)

6

ListofTables

1SelectCorrectDutyCycleD-Value

2

1InternalCellBalancinginbq20zxxSolution

cycles.Thesmallcell-balancingcurrentinthisconfigurationmaynotmeettheneedsofsomeapplications.

showstheD-valueforeachdeviceandfirmwareversion),equivalenttoanumberofcharge/discharge

takes2000mAh

about6.8mA.Tobalanceacell-to-cell,state-of-charge(SOC)differenceof10%fora2000-mAhpack,it

2x100+330=530

seriestothecell-balancingchannels,thetotalbypassingresistanceforanactivecell-balancingchannelis

thevoltagesensing.Thetypicalfilterresistorvalueis100

220

beingbalanced,typicalRds(on)is260

internalbypassFETsis330

twoofthefourinternalcell-balancingchannelsinthebq29330AFE.Thetypicalon-resistanceofthese

end(AFE)ICs(bq29312forbq20z80,andbq29330forbq20z70/z90/z75/z95/z40/z45).Figure1illustrates

Thebq20zxxfamilyofgasgaugesperformscellbalancingusingintegratedMOSFETsintheanalogfront

.(Thisisassumingonlyonecellisbeingbalanced;iftwoadjacentcellsare

,andifthreeadjacentcellsarebeingbalanced,typicalRds(on)is

.)ThegasgaugecircuitusesasetofR-CfiltersforeachoftheVCxinputstosuppressnoisesfor

.Becausethefilterresistorsareconnectedin

inthisexample.Withanominalcellvoltageof3.6V,thecell-balancingcurrentis

10%/(6.8mA

D)=134hoursofchargetime(dutycycleD=0.22for2-cell;Table1

SLUA420A

May2007

RevisedJanuary2009FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFET1 –

ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing www.ti.com
ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing www.ti.com

ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancingwww.ti.com

Note:Infirmwareversionsbq20z80v102,bq20z70v110,andbq20z90v110,Disvariable,

recommendedfornewdesign(NRND).

andearlierdevices(whichincludesv102)arereplacedbybq20z80Av110andarenot

thecorrectD-valuebasedonthedeviceandfirmwareversions.Alsonotethatbq20z80v110

2-cell.Disaconstantvalueof0.4inthelatestfirmwareversions.UseTable1todetermine

dependingonthenumberofseriescellsandis0.4for4-cell,0.3for3-cell,and0.22for

Table1.SelectCorrectDutyCycleD-Value

FIRMWAREVERSION

CELL-BALANCINGDUTYCYCLED-VALUE

2SERIESCELLS

3SERIESCELLS

4SERIESCELLS

bq20z80v102(NRND)

0.22

0.3

0.4

bq20z70v110

0.22

0.3

0.4

bq20z90v110

0.22

0.3

0.4

Anyfuturereleaseofz70,z80,andz90

 

0.4

CHG FET DSG FET VCC DSG 100 bq29330 100n CELL 2 100 AFE (Analog Front
CHG FET
DSG FET
VCC
DSG
100
bq29330
100n
CELL 2
100
AFE
(Analog Front End)
100n
CELL 1
100
100n
Cell-Balancing Current
Rs

PACK+

Figure1.InternalCell-BalancingCircuitofbq29330AFE

2ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing

filteringresistorwith1-k

externalMOSFETturnonopportunitieswithvariedcellvoltages,itisnecessarytoreplacethecircuit FETwaschosenbecauseofitslowgate-to-sourcethresholdvoltageVgsth.Inordertoexpandthe

theexternalMOSFETs,specifically,Si1034XN-channeldualMOSFETsinatinySC-89package.This

ispossible.Figure2showsthecell-balancingcircuitfora2-cellapplication.Inthiscircuit,Q1andQ2are

UsingexternalMOSFETstospeedupthecell-balancingprocessbyincreasingthecell-balancingcurrent

resistorinplaceoftheoriginal100-

value.

2FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFETSLUA420A

May2007 –

RevisedJanuary2009 –

www.ti.com ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing
www.ti.com ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing

www.ti.comExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing

Note:Thepreviouseditionofthisapplicationreportindicatesthat10k

canbeused.Recentstudy

2mVpercell

recommendedmaximumfilterresistorvalueis1k

accuracyforgaugingandcellbalancing,thiserrormustbeminimized.Therefore,the

typically10~20mV.AstheImpedanceTrack

voltagecanbecalibratedaccurately,individualcellvoltageswillnotbeaccurate;theerroris

currentateachVCxpinisdifferent.Witha10-k

showsthatduetothedifferentfiniteinputimpedancebetweeneachVCxpin,theleakage

filterresistor,eventhoughthestack

™gaugerequireshighvoltagemeasurement

,andtheresultingvoltageerrorisabout

ensureadraincurrentofmorethan100mAatlowVgsvoltage(suchas1.2V).

toevaluatethesedevicesintermsofmaximumVgsth,absolutemaximumratingforVdsandVgs,andto

suchasDMN2004DWK,NTZD3154N,andSi1024X,canbeconsideredinthiscase.Caremustbetaken

chemistry,thisexerciseisespeciallyimportant.DualN-channelMOSFETswithlowerVgsthresholds,

Q2toturnon.Fortheexternal,fastcellbalancingtoworkforlowercellvoltages,suchastheLiFePO

andQ2is1.5V,forinstance,thecellvoltagemustbehigherthan1.5/0.426=3.52VinorderforQ1or

between~0.413to0.435whenonlyasinglecellisbeingbalanced.Therefore,iftheturnonVgsforQ1

the1-k

integratedcell-balancingFETformaresistor-divider,generatingavoltagedividingratioof0.426across

Whentheinternalcell-balancingFETisturnedon,thetwoexternalfilterresistorsandtheRds(on)ofthe

resistor.Thisisatypicalvaluewhencellvoltagevariesfrom3Vto4.2V;theratiocanvary

4

CHG FET DSG FET PACK+ VCC DSG 1k bq29330 100n 50 CELL 2 Q2 1k
CHG FET
DSG FET
PACK+
VCC
DSG
1k
bq29330
100n
50
CELL 2
Q2
1k
AFE
(Analog Front End)
100n
50
CELL 1
Q1
1k
100n
Rs
Figure2.ExternalCell-BalancingCircuitWithCell1BypassingActive

bypassingFET;themainbypassingcurrentflowsthroughthe50-

filterresistorsandtheinternalFETon-resistanceformavoltagedivider,providingtheVgsfortheexternal

FET,andthebottom1-k

currentflowsfromthecathode(thepositivetab)ofthecellthroughthetop1-k

bythegasgauge.InthecircuitofFigure2

Theoperationprincipleofthiscircuitissimple.Thestateoftheinternalcell-balancingFETsiscontrolled

,ifanyinternalFETisturnedonbythegasgauge,asmall

filterresistor,theinternal

filterresistorandreturnstotheanode(thenegativetab)ofthecell.Thetwo

resistor.

SLUA420A

May2007

RevisedJanuary2009FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFET3 –

ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing www.ti.com
ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancing www.ti.com

ExternalFETforAcceleratedCellBalancingwww.ti.com

0.4),andthevalueiscalculatedas

calculatedusinganominalvoltageofV=3.6V,totalbypassingR=700

requiredtobalancethedifferenceofonemAhincellcapacity.ThedefaultvalueofDF:MinCellDeviationis

configuredbasedonDandthebypassingcurrent.TheDF:MinCellDeviationgovernsthechargingtime

Notethatthebq20zxxgasgaugedataflash(DF)constant“

2-cellbatterypack,assumingtheuseofthebq20z70v110firmware).

differenceinSOCfora2000-mAhbatteryleadsto14hoursoftotalchargetime(usingD=0.22fora

nominalcellvoltageof3.6V,thebypassingcurrentis65mA.Thesamecalculationforbalancinga10%

serieswiththeexternalMOSFET,theexternalbypassingpathresistanceissummedto55

Theaverageon-resistanceofQ1,Q2isabout5

whenVgs2V.Witha50-

resistanceplacedin

.Ata

MinCellDeviation

”mustbecalculatedand

anddutycycleD=40%(D=

takinganominalvalueof3.6V.

DF:MinCellDeviation=R

3.6/(V

D)=1750seconds/mAh,whereRisin

andVisvolts,usually

R=50+5

inFigure2

Applyingthesamecalculationtotheexternalcell-balancingcircuit:Byusingthefastcell-balancingcircuit

,iftheapplicationisa2-seriespackusingbq20z70v110firmware,D=0.22(seeTable1

,itisnecessarytoprogramDF:MinCellDeviation=250seconds/mAh.

),and

Note:ThetypicalRds(on)oftheintegratedcell-balancingFETisnotaconstantvalue–itisa

ofthe500

balancing

andwhenbalancingthreeadjacentcellssimultaneously,220

sametime,Rds(on)isevenlower.Whenbalancingtwoadjacentcells,Rds(on)is~260

turnedonatatime

from420

Benchmeasurementofafewbq29330devicesindicatesthatthetypicalRds(on)ranges

FET.Thehigherthecellvoltage(andhencethehighertheVds),thelowertheRds(on).

functionofVds,thedrain-to-sourcevoltageoftheFETaswellasthecurrentthroughthe

(at3V)to300

(at4.2V)ifonlyasingleinternalcell-balancingFETis

.Ifmultipleadjacentinternalcell-balancingFETsareturnedonatthe

,

.ForInternalcell

,instead

,itisrecommendedtousethesmallestpossibleRds(on),whichis220

inthetechnicalreference,whencalculatingDF:MinCellDeviation.

havebeenonly3.2mAh,lessthan0.2%ofSOC.

calibrationtolerance.Withtheinternalcellbalancing,thebypassedchargeinthesametimeperiodwould

hoursofcell-balancingtime.The1-mVdifferencebetweentheOCVofthetwocellsfallswithinthevoltage

thatwiththefastcell-balancingcircuit,a2.1%SOCdeficitofa1900-mAhcellcanbeeliminatedin2.57

stabilized.Theresultingvoltageswere3784mVforcell1and3785mVforcell2.Thistestdemonstrated

completed.Whenthechargerwasdisconnected,thecellswereallowedtorestuntilvoltageswere

automaticallyturnedoff(ChgStat=0x200)bythegasgauge,indicatingthatthecellbalancingwas

0x240),cellbalancingisactive.Thetestchargecurrentis208mA.After2.57hours,cellbalancingwas

statusisindicatedbytheorangecurve,ChgStatinFigure3

balancingwasactivated(inthiscase,thebypassingFETQ2forcell1wasturnedon).Thecell-balancing

Then,achargerwasappliedtothecircuitinFigure2

2was3492mV,correspondingtoanSOCof3.5%.TheimbalanceinSOCwas5.6%–3.5%=2.1%.

voltage(OCV)ofcell1was3595mV,correspondingtoastate-of-charge(SOC)of5.6%;theOCVofcell

evaluationmodule.Thecellswereartificiallyunbalancedandleftsufficientlyrested.Theopen-circuit

Ademonstrationofthecircuitwasdoneontwonew,1900-mAhbatterycellswithabq20z70v110

;the[CB]flagwasset,indicatingthatthecell

;whenChgStatishigh(numericalvalue

4FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFETSLUA420A

May2007 –

RevisedJanuary2009 –

www.ti.com Discussions
www.ti.com Discussions

www.ti.comDiscussions

3900 1200 CellV2 3850 1100 CellV1 3800 ChgStat 1000 3750 900 3700 800 3650 700
3900
1200
CellV2
3850
1100
CellV1
3800
ChgStat
1000
3750
900
3700
800
3650
700
OCV=3595mV, SOC=5.5%
3600
600
OCV=3492mV, SOC=3.5%
3550
500
3500
400
Cell Balancing Time: 2.57 hrs
3450
300
3400
200
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Time, sec
Voltage, mV
Charging Status

Figure3.FastCellBalancingofTwoSeriesCells

3Discussions

isanotherreasonthatthemaximumrecommendedRextis1k

withhigherRext,VdsstressseenbyM2canbeworseandcanevenexceedthemaximumvoltage.This

belowtheabsolutemaximumvalueof8.5VfortheinternalbalancingFETs;so,thisisfine.Apparently,

ashighas4.2V+2x4.2x1000/(2x1000+300)=7.85V.ThemaximumVdsunderthissettingisstill

adjacentcellsarebeingbalanced).AssumingamaximumrecommendedRextof1k

atapproximately4.2V,whenRds(on)forM1andM3isatthelowestvalue(about300

VdsofM2canbecalculatedbasedontheworst-caseRds(on)onM1andM3.Assumethatthecellsare

internalswitchM2isseeingahigherVds,whichmayexceedthemaximumVdsitcansustain.Infact,the

Figure4

TheotheraspectistheVdsvoltagestresswheneveryothercellisbeingbalanced.Asillustratedin

lastlytheupperone.

simultaneouslybalanced,thelowestcellofthethreeisactuallybalancedfirst,andthenthemiddle,and

determinestoturnoffM1andkeepM2on.Similarly,inthecasewhenthreeadjacentcellsare

happensfairlyquicklygiventhefastexternalbalancing,Q2willbeenabledwhenthegasgauge

basisbytheImpedanceTrack

issuebecausetheamountoftimerequiredforbalancingeachcellisevaluatedonapercharging-cycle

Rext2;therefore,Q2remainsoffevenwhentheinternalswitchM2isenabled.Inpractice,itisnotan

andM2areturnedon,nocurrentisflowingthroughRext2becauseIbiasthroughM1andM2cancelat

circuitofattemptingtobalancetwoadjacentcellssimultaneously.WhentheadjacentinternalFETsM1

AFEs.First,twoorthreeadjacentcellscannotbefast-balancedatthesametime.Figure4

Twodesignaspectsareimportantwiththeexternalcellbalancingwhenusingthebq29330orbq29312

ashowsthe

™algorithm.Oncethebalancingofthelowercellisfinished,which

b,thetopandthebottomcellsarebeingbalanced.Duetothecell-balancingbias,themiddle

whenno

,VdsofM2canbe

.

SLUA420A

May2007

RevisedJanuary2009FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFET5 –

Summary www.ti.com
Summary www.ti.com

Summarywww.ti.com

IC pin Rext4 RBAL3 OPEN + M3 Battery - Q3 Cell Rext3 II balancebalance RBAL2
IC pin
Rext4
RBAL3
OPEN
+
M3
Battery
-
Q3
Cell
Rext3
II
balancebalance
RBAL2
II
biasbias
+
M2
Battery
-
Q2
Cell
Rext2
II
I I I I
balance
balance
balancebalance
balance
balance
RBAL1
RBAL1
RBAL1
RBAL1
RBAL1
I I I I
II
bias
bias
bias
biasbias
bias
+
+
+
+
+
M1
Battery
Battery
Battery
Battery
Battery
- - - - -
Q1
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Rext1
Rext1
Rext1
Rext1
Rext1
(a)
IC pin Rext I I I II balancebalance balance balance balance RBAL3 RBAL3 RBAL3 RBAL3
IC pin
Rext
I
I I
II
balancebalance
balance
balance
balance
RBAL3
RBAL3
RBAL3
RBAL3
II
I
I I
biasbias
bias
bias
bias
+
+
+
+
M3
Battery
Battery
Battery
Battery
-
- - -
Q3
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Rext
Rext
Rext
Rext
RBAL2
OPEN
+
M2
Battery
-
Q2
Cell
Rext
I
I I I
II
balance
balance
balancebalance
balance
balance
RBAL1
RBAL1
RBAL1
RBAL1
RBAL1
I
II
I I I
bias
bias
bias
biasbias
bias
+
+
+
+
+
M1
Battery
Battery
Battery
Battery
Battery
-
- - - -
Q1
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell
Rext
Rext
Rext
Rext
Rext
(b)

V

+

Vds

-

V

Figure4.IssuesWithBalancingTwoAdjacentCells(a)andEveryOtherCell(b)

4Summary

implementingthiscircuit.

bq20z80/z70/z90/z75/z95ImpedanceTrack

Thisapplicationreportdocumentsafastcell-balancingcircuitusingexistingbq29330/bq29312AFEfor

™gasgaugesandacoupleofvariousdesignaspectswhen

5Acknowledgment

Inc.

ThisapplicationreporthasadoptedresultsfromsomeinsightfuldiscussionswithLonSchneider,Nexergy,

6FastCellBalancingUsingExternalMOSFETSLUA420A

May2007 –

RevisedJanuary2009 –

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