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<a href=Energy 36 (2011) 233 e 240 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Energy journal homepage: www.els evier.com/locate/energy Energy savings and emissions reductions for rewinding and replacement of industrial motor M. Hasanuzzaman * , N.A. Rahim , R. Saidur , S.N. Kazi Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Centre of Research UMPEDAC, Level 4, Engineering Tower, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia article info Article history: Received 25 January 2010 Received in revised form 21 September 2010 Accepted 25 October 2010 Available online 24 November 2010 Keywords: Energy savings Industrial motor Emission abstract Electric motors consume 30 e 80% of total industrial energy around the world. This study estimates the economic viability of replacing rewound and standard motors with high ef fi ciency motors (HEMs) in the industrial sector. The ef fi ciency of a motor is degraded when it is rewound and it is better to rewind a larger motor compared with a smaller motor. It was found that a HEM can save on average 5.5% of energy compared with a standard motor. In addition, the payback period was found to be reasonable when a motor is operated at a 50% load. HEMs will also save a sizeable amount of energy and reduce emissions. It was estimated that 67,868 MWh/year energy and US$ 4,343,531 per year could be saved by introducing HEMs. By contrast, 44,582 tons of CO , 333 tons of SO and 122 tons of NO emissions could be reduced through the aforementioned energy savings. This study found that rewound motors of a larger size and HEMs are economically viable. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The industrial sector is the largest energy user around the world. The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy ef fi cient tech- nologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy [1] . Industrial motors use a major fraction of total industrial energy. Electric motors have broad applications in industry, business, public service and household electrical appliances, powering a variety of equipment including wind blowers, water pumps, compressors and machine tools. In industrially developed and large developing countries, electric motors account for a considerable proportion of total national power consumption [2] . The induction motor is the main driven system in modern industrial society [3] . Electric motors consume 30 e 80% of total industrial energy around the world ( Table 1 ). In Malaysia, electric motors consume about 48% of the industrial energy consumption. Electric motors are also responsible for consuming about 40% of electricity worldwide. In Malaysia, the bulk of electricity in the industrial and commercial sectors is consumed by electric motors. Activities and processes in * Corresponding author. Centre of Research UMPEDAC, Level 4, Engineering Tower, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel.: þ 603 79677611; fax: þ 603 79675317. E-mail addresses: hasan@um.edu.my , hasan.buet99@gmail.com (M. Hasanuzzaman). 0360-5442/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.046 industries are heavily dependent on electric motors for compacting, cutting, grinding, mixing, fans, pumps, materials conveying, air compressors and refrigeration. Motors are also used widely in the commercial sector for air conditioning, ventilation, refrigeration, water pumping, lifts and escalators. Energy losses in a large number of industries prevail, and potential energy ef fi ciency improvements are imminent [4] . Among the various sectors contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the contribution of the industrial sector is signi fi cant. Thus, lowering GHG emissions from the industrial sector would reduce overall GHG emissions. Energy conservation means less reliance on energy imports and, thus, less GHG emissions. Previous studies have reported that the imple- mentation of selected options at little or no cost in the industrial sector could reduce GHG emissions by 10 e 30% [5,6] . The instan- taneous emissions associated with electricity generation vary with the demand for electricity. Indeed, the fuel mix needed for elec- tricity generation changes with the kinds of power plants needed to supply the amount of electricity required as well as the fl uctuating rate of the corresponding emissions [7] . Any reduction in carbon dioxide emissions afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the marginal emissions factor (MEF). The accurate estimation of MEF is crucial for performance assessment because its application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO reduction strategies " id="pdf-obj-0-7" src="pdf-obj-0-7.jpg">

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Energy

<a href=Energy 36 (2011) 233 e 240 Contents lists available at S c i e n c e D i r e c t Energy journal homepage: www.els evier.com/locate/energy Energy savings and emissions reductions for rewinding and replacement of industrial motor M. Hasanuzzaman * , N.A. Rahim , R. Saidur , S.N. Kazi Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Centre of Research UMPEDAC, Level 4, Engineering Tower, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia article info Article history: Received 25 January 2010 Received in revised form 21 September 2010 Accepted 25 October 2010 Available online 24 November 2010 Keywords: Energy savings Industrial motor Emission abstract Electric motors consume 30 e 80% of total industrial energy around the world. This study estimates the economic viability of replacing rewound and standard motors with high ef fi ciency motors (HEMs) in the industrial sector. The ef fi ciency of a motor is degraded when it is rewound and it is better to rewind a larger motor compared with a smaller motor. It was found that a HEM can save on average 5.5% of energy compared with a standard motor. In addition, the payback period was found to be reasonable when a motor is operated at a 50% load. HEMs will also save a sizeable amount of energy and reduce emissions. It was estimated that 67,868 MWh/year energy and US$ 4,343,531 per year could be saved by introducing HEMs. By contrast, 44,582 tons of CO , 333 tons of SO and 122 tons of NO emissions could be reduced through the aforementioned energy savings. This study found that rewound motors of a larger size and HEMs are economically viable. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The industrial sector is the largest energy user around the world. The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy ef fi cient tech- nologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy [1] . Industrial motors use a major fraction of total industrial energy. Electric motors have broad applications in industry, business, public service and household electrical appliances, powering a variety of equipment including wind blowers, water pumps, compressors and machine tools. In industrially developed and large developing countries, electric motors account for a considerable proportion of total national power consumption [2] . The induction motor is the main driven system in modern industrial society [3] . Electric motors consume 30 e 80% of total industrial energy around the world ( Table 1 ). In Malaysia, electric motors consume about 48% of the industrial energy consumption. Electric motors are also responsible for consuming about 40% of electricity worldwide. In Malaysia, the bulk of electricity in the industrial and commercial sectors is consumed by electric motors. Activities and processes in * Corresponding author. Centre of Research UMPEDAC, Level 4, Engineering Tower, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel.: þ 603 79677611; fax: þ 603 79675317. E-mail addresses: hasan@um.edu.my , hasan.buet99@gmail.com (M. Hasanuzzaman). 0360-5442/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.046 industries are heavily dependent on electric motors for compacting, cutting, grinding, mixing, fans, pumps, materials conveying, air compressors and refrigeration. Motors are also used widely in the commercial sector for air conditioning, ventilation, refrigeration, water pumping, lifts and escalators. Energy losses in a large number of industries prevail, and potential energy ef fi ciency improvements are imminent [4] . Among the various sectors contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the contribution of the industrial sector is signi fi cant. Thus, lowering GHG emissions from the industrial sector would reduce overall GHG emissions. Energy conservation means less reliance on energy imports and, thus, less GHG emissions. Previous studies have reported that the imple- mentation of selected options at little or no cost in the industrial sector could reduce GHG emissions by 10 e 30% [5,6] . The instan- taneous emissions associated with electricity generation vary with the demand for electricity. Indeed, the fuel mix needed for elec- tricity generation changes with the kinds of power plants needed to supply the amount of electricity required as well as the fl uctuating rate of the corresponding emissions [7] . Any reduction in carbon dioxide emissions afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the marginal emissions factor (MEF). The accurate estimation of MEF is crucial for performance assessment because its application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO reduction strategies " id="pdf-obj-0-30" src="pdf-obj-0-30.jpg">

Energy savings and emissions reductions for rewinding and replacement of industrial motor

M. Hasanuzzaman a , c , * , N.A. Rahim b , c , R. Saidur a , c , S.N. Kazi a

a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia b Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia c Centre of Research UMPEDAC, Level 4, Engineering Tower, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

article info

Article history:

Received 25 January 2010 Received in revised form 21 September 2010 Accepted 25 October 2010 Available online 24 November 2010

Keywords:

Energy savings

Industrial motor

Emission

abstract

Electric motors consume 30e80% of total industrial energy around the world. This study estimates the economic viability of replacing rewound and standard motors with high efciency motors (HEMs) in the industrial sector. The efciency of a motor is degraded when it is rewound and it is better to rewind a larger motor compared with a smaller motor. It was found that a HEM can save on average 5.5% of energy compared with a standard motor. In addition, the payback period was found to be reasonable when a motor is operated at a 50% load. HEMs will also save a sizeable amount of energy and reduce

emissions. It was estimated that 67,868 MWh/year energy and US$ 4,343,531 per year could be saved by introducing HEMs. By contrast, 44,582 tons of CO 2 , 333 tons of SO 2 and 122 tons of NO x emissions could be reduced through the aforementioned energy savings. This study found that rewound motors of a larger size and HEMs are economically viable.

2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The industrial sector is the largest energy user around the world. The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efcient tech- nologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy [1]. Industrial motors use a major fraction of total industrial energy. Electric motors have broad applications in industry, business, public service and household electrical appliances, powering a variety of equipment including wind blowers, water pumps, compressors and machine tools. In industrially developed and large developing countries, electric motors account for a considerable proportion of total national power consumption [2]. The induction motor is the main driven system in modern industrial society [3]. Electric motors consume 30e80% of total industrial energy around the world (Table 1). In Malaysia, electric motors consume about 48% of the industrial energy consumption. Electric motors are also responsible for consuming about 40% of electricity worldwide. In Malaysia, the bulk of electricity in the industrial and commercial sectors is consumed by electric motors. Activities and processes in

* Corresponding author. Centre of Research UMPEDAC, Level 4, Engineering Tower, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel.: þ603 79677611; fax: þ603 79675317. E-mail addresses: hasan@um.edu.my, hasan.buet99@gmail.com (M. Hasanuzzaman).

0360-5442/$ e see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

industries are heavily dependent on electric motors for compacting, cutting, grinding, mixing, fans, pumps, materials conveying, air compressors and refrigeration. Motors are also used widely in the commercial sector for air conditioning, ventilation, refrigeration, water pumping, lifts and escalators. Energy losses in a large number of industries prevail, and potential energy efciency improvements are imminent [4]. Among the various sectors contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the contribution of the industrial sector is signicant. Thus, lowering GHG emissions from the industrial sector would reduce overall GHG emissions. Energy conservation means less reliance on energy imports and, thus, less GHG emissions. Previous studies have reported that the imple- mentation of selected options at little or no cost in the industrial sector could reduce GHG emissions by 10e30% [5,6]. The instan- taneous emissions associated with electricity generation vary with the demand for electricity. Indeed, the fuel mix needed for elec- tricity generation changes with the kinds of power plants needed to supply the amount of electricity required as well as the uctuating rate of the corresponding emissions [7]. Any reduction in carbon dioxide emissions afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO 2 intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the marginal emissions factor (MEF). The accurate estimation of MEF is crucial for performance assessment because its application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO 2 reduction strategies

234

M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233e240

 

Nomenclature

0.746

Conversion factor from horsepower to kW

AES

Expected annual bill savings (US$)

Subscripts

c

Average energy cost (US$/kWh)

BM

Build margin

COEF

Emission coefcient of fuel (kg/kg or litter)

ee

Energy-efcient motor

E

Motor efciency rating (%)

i

Fuel type

EF

Emission factor (kg/kWh)

j

Power plant

F

Amount of fuel (kg or litter)

MEF

Marginal emission factor

GEN

Electricity delivered to the grid (kWh)

OM

Operational margin

hp

Motor rated horsepower

re

Rewind motor

hr

Annual operating hours

std

Standard motor

L

Load factor (percentage of full load)

w

Emission weighted factor

NCV

Net caloric value of fuel

y

Year

OXID

Oxidation factor of the fuel

[8]. Electricity generation has recently focused on the problems of urban air pollution, acid deposition, contamination from nuclear accidents and nuclear wastes and the increased concentration of carbon dioxide and other GHGs in the atmosphere [9]. The elec- tricity generation sector in Korea is under pressure to mitigate GHGs as directed by the Kyoto Protocol [10]. Energy savings and emissions reductions can be achieved either by reducing total energy use or by increasing the production rate per unit of energy used. By contrast, improving energy efciency is the key to reducing GHG emissions. Therefore, energy research organisations and governments are actively engaged in developing methods for assessing energy efciency. This assessment can provide a basis for establishing energy policy and help reduce GHG emissions [11]. Fig. 1 presents the distribution of energy consumption by motor for various applications in a typical plant. Saidur identied the following losses occurring in induction motors [2]. The efciency of a motor is determined by intrinsic losses that can be reduced only by changing the motors design. There are two types of intrinsic losses: xed losses, and variable losses. Fig. 2 shows the various losses in the motor. Fixed losses are independent of motor load and consist of magnetic core losses and friction and windage losses. Magnetic core losses consist of eddy current and hysteresis losses in the stator. Variable losses are dependent on load and consist of resistance losses in the stator and rotor and miscellaneous stray losses. Resistances to current ow in the stator and rotor result in heat generation that is proportional to the resistance of the material and the square of the current. Stray losses arise from a variety of sources and are difcult to either measure directly or calculate, but are generally proportional to the square of the rotor current [2]. A motor s function is to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy for performing useful work.

Even though standard motors operate efciently in the typical range of 83e92%, energy efcient motors perform signicantly better. An efciency gain to only 92e94% results in a 25% reduction in losses. Motor energy losses can be segregated into ve major areas, each of which is inuenced by design and construction

[29e33].

A common cause of motor failure is a problem with the motor windings, and the solution often is to rewind the old motor. Because it is economical in terms of initial cost, rewinding motors is common, particularly for motors with a higher horsepower. However, the motor rewinding process often results in a loss of motor efciency. It is generally cost effective to replace motors under 20 horsepower with new high efciency motors (HEMs) rather than rewind them. When deciding whether to buy a new motor or rewind the old one, it is wise to consider the cost differ- ence between the rewound and a new HEM as well as the relevant energy costs to operate them. A paperboard plant with 485 motors, where an average of three motors were repaired per month, of which about 70% required rewind or replacement [35]. The facility operated 8000 h/year. Collected motor information is shown in Table 2. A robust and efcient induction motor usually converts 90e95% of input electrical power into mechanical work. However, because of the huge amount of energy such motors use, a minor change in efciency will have a major impact on operating cost. A HEM uses specic materials to reduce core and copper losses. Therefore, it generates less heat and requires smaller and more energy efcient cooling fans [36]. Future energy challenges and the environmental crises such as fossil fuel emissions and global warming are urging the world to focus on energy saving programs more than ever. An effective way to face these challenges is to improve the efciency of

Table 1

Electric motor energy use by country.

Country

Motor energy usage (%)

Reference

US

75

[13, 14]

UK

50

[15]

EU

65e72

[16, 17]

Jordan

31

[18]

Malaysia

48

[19]

Turkey

65

[20]

Slovenia

52

[21]

Canada

80

[22]

India

70

[23]

China

60

[24]

Korea

40

[25]

Brazil

49

[26]

Australia

30

[27]

South Africa

60

[28]

234 M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233 e 240 Nomenclature 0.746 Conversion factor

Fig. 1. Energy consumption by motor for various applications in a typical plant [12].

M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233e240

235

Copper (I 2 R) loss 58% Stator loss Rotor loss Core (Iron) loss 12% Eddy current
Copper (I 2 R)
loss 58%
Stator loss
Rotor loss
Core (Iron)
loss 12%
Eddy current loss
Hysteresis loss
Friction and
External fan windage
Internal fan windage
windage loss
14%
Stray losses
Bearing, grease, loading spring
Surface loss due to current
Harmonics
15%
Leakage flux

Fig. 2. Losses in a typical motor [30,34].

electric motors, one of the greatest energy consumption appara- tuses in the world [37]. Energy efciency is one of the most important and cost effective ways of meeting the demands of sustainable development [38]. In the literature, a number of works have been reported about the use of HEMs to reduce the energy consumption of motors. However, there is no detailed work on the cost effectiveness of rewound motors. The aim of this study is to analyse the energy consumption, energy savings, emissions reductions, bill savings and payback period of rewound, standard and high efciency motors with different capacities and loading operations.

2. Methodology

2.1. Data collection

Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) conducted a detailed survey on consumer behaviour towards electricity consumption and the end usage of electricity in the industrial sector in Malaysia in 2006. The survey investigated total energy consumption, types of energy supply, types of equipment and energy consumption and usage behaviour. The energy consumption of electric motors in the industrial sector in Malaysia was collected from the TNB nal report and is presented in Table 3.

  • 2.2. Formulation of energy savings, bill savings and payback period

The primary goal of a motor manufacturer is reducing produc- tion costs while preserving available power. A motor can be made

Table 3

End use electricity consumption by electric motor in the industrial sector in 2006

[39].

Industry

No of industry

Electricity

Average

 

consumption

(MWh/year)

(MWh/year)

Food and beverages

5

22,293

4458

Textile

2

5835

2917

Fabricated metal

2

32

16

Paper industry

5

96,648

19,329

Glass

4

100,097

25,024

Wood

7

47,710

6815

Basic iron steel

4

633,541

158,385

Automobile

2

27,531

13,765

Chemical

2

56,640

28,320

Rubber

11

29,791

2708

Plastic

3

28,405

9468

Cement

4

99,131

24,782

Petrochemical

2

55,738

27,869

Consumer appliances

3

3635

1211

Electronics

3

26,929

8976

Total

59

1,233,957

to be more efcient by improvements in design: magnetic cores with plates made of ferrosilicon alloys, better lled slots using more copper, larger rotor conductors, improvements in air-gaps, core heads, fans and bearings, and better dimensional design. HEMs typically cost 10e25% more than standard motors [40]. The annual energy savings (AES) attained by replacing standard efcient motors with high energy efcient motors can be estimated by using the following equation [40e 42]:

AES ¼ hp L 0:746 hr

  • 1 (1)

E std

ee 100

1

E

1

E

ee 100

The AES attained by replacing rewound motors with high energy efcient motors can be estimated by using the following equation:

AES ¼ hp L 0:746 hr

  • 1 (2)

E rd

The annual bill savings associated with the above energy savings can be calculated as [42]:

Savings ¼ AES c

(3)

A simple payback period for different energy saving strategies can be calculated by using Equation (4).

Simple payback period ðyearsÞ ¼

Incremental cost

Annual dollar savings

(4)

The input data needed to estimate the energy savings and payback period for different strategies are shown in Tables 5e7.

Table 2 Breakdown of motor horsepower and motor repair [35].

Motor size

Number of motors

<20 horsepower

347 (Replacement, not repaired)

  • 20 15

  • 25 10

  • 30 2

  • 40 3

  • 50 27

  • 75 18

  • 100 21

  • 125 32

  • 400 6

  • 750 4

2.3. Motor efciency and rewind cost

Motors operate at their maximum ef ciency when they are fully loaded. Efciency drops dramatically below 70% loading.

Table 4 Motor rewind practices [44].

Motor hp

Failed motor rewound (%)

1e5

20

6e20

61

21e50

81

51e100

90

100e200

91

>200

95

236

M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233e240

Table 5 Typical motor efciency and cost [46].

Motor hp Rewind High efciency Standard motor Rewind

High efcient

cost

motor cost

efciency

efciency motor

(US$)

(US$)

efciency

5

330

375

82.5

80.5

90.8

7.5

380

525

83.5

81.7

91.3

10

500

638

86.0

84.2

92.3

15

550

825

86.6

85.0

92.6

20

600

975

87.3

85.8

93.2

25

660

1238

88.7

87.7

93.9

30

760

1500

89.4

88.5

94.3

40

880

1950

89.7

88.9

94.5

50

980

2325

90.4

89.7

95.0

60

1100

3750

90.8

90.2

95.2

75

1320

4500

90.5

90.0

95.3

5325

  • 100 90.6

1650

91.1

95.5

7385

  • 125 90.1

2200

90.6

95.2

  • 150 91.3

2400

8650

91.8

95.5

92.3

  • 200 91.8

2650

10,620

95.7

  • 250 92.6

2860

13,650

93.1

95.7

  • 300 92.8

3080

15,100

93.2

95.9

3500

  • 400 92.2

20,000

92.6

96.0

Over-sizing is often a means to ensure greater reliability [43]. A motor needs to be rewound for two reasons: (i) when excess heat has damaged the insulation so that electricity passes from winding to winding without going through all of them or (ii) when the winding has been detached at a place away from the end of the coil. The ef ciency of a motor is degraded when it is rewound. Most studies of the effects of rewinding have found that some degradation of ef ciency occurs each time a motor is rewound. The available studies are characterised by small samples and varied methods; however, the ndings specify that the degradation of ef ciency associated with rewinding falls in the range of 1 e2% [44]. According to a recent study by the Green Motor Practices Group, properly planned and performed rewinds cause no ef - ciency loss in electric motors. Performance improvements, increased power density, reliability and ef ciency come from advances in materials and craftsmanship. For example, better resins and insulating tapes improve thermal dissipation. Auto- mated coil forming technology and the precise application of insulating tapes ensure consistent coil duplication for improved installation and operation. A qualied service provider can ensure that a rewound motor meets the original ef ciency [43]. A larger

Table 6 Efciency of standard, rewound and high efciency motors at different loads [47].

Motor hp

Load (50%)

 

Load (75%)

 

Load (100%)

 

E std

E rd

E ee

E std

E rd

E ee

E std

E rd

E ee

5

70.1

68.4

77.2

73.8

72.0

81.3

82.5

80.5

90.8

7.5

71.0

69.4

77.6

74.7

73.1

81.7

83.5

81.7

91.3

  • 10 73.1

71.6

78.5

77.0

75.4

82.6

86.0

84.2

92.3

  • 15 73.6

72.3

78.7

77.5

76.1

82.9

86.6

85.0

92.6

  • 20 74.2

72.9

79.2

78.1

76.8

83.4

87.3

85.8

93.2

  • 25 75.4

74.5

79.8

79.4

78.5

84.0

88.7

87.7

93.9

  • 30 76.0

75.2

80.2

80.0

79.2

84.4

89.4

88.5

94.3

  • 40 76.2

75.6

80.3

80.3

79.6

84.6

89.7

88.9

94.5

  • 50 76.8

76.2

80.8

80.9

80.3

85.0

90.4

89.7

95.0

  • 60 77.2

76.7

80.9

81.3

80.7

85.2

90.8

90.2

95.2

  • 75 76.9

76.5

81.0

81.0

80.6

85.3

90.5

90.0

95.3

  • 100 77.4

77.0

81.2

81.5

81.1

85.5

91.1

90.6

95.5

  • 125 77.0

76.6

80.9

81.1

80.6

85.2

90.6

90.1

95.2

  • 150 78.0

77.6

81.2

82.2

81.7

85.5

91.8

91.3

95.5

  • 200 78.5

78.0

81.3

82.6

82.2

85.7

92.3

91.8

95.7

  • 250 79.1

78.7

81.3

83.3

82.9

85.7

93.1

92.6

95.7

  • 300 79.2

78.9

81.5

83.4

83.1

85.8

93.2

92.8

95.9

  • 400 78.7

78.4

81.6

82.9

82.5

85.9

92.6

92.2

96.0

Table 7 Input data for motor energy consumption, energy and bill savings [19].

Parameters

Value

Average usage hours

6000

Average electricity cost (US$/kWh)

0.064

motor is better to rewind than a smaller motor is (Table 4). Green Motor Practices Group members investigated the efciency of rewound motors ( Fig. 3). Based on the investigation, the best tted equation is used to calculate this efciency (Table 5). The ef ciency of standard, rewound and high efciency motors under different loading operations are calculated using Fig. 4 and shown in Table 6 . The increment price of a HEM is calculated based on Table 8 and shown in Table 14.

2.4. Reduction of emissions from the electricity consumption of the motor

Energy savings by using a HEM have been calculated based on the survey of 59 industries in Malaysia. This showed that HEMs can save an average 5.5% energy (Table 10).

2.4.1. Emissions calculation The Kyoto Protocol species a exible mechanism called the clean development mechanism as a cost effective instrument for mitigating global GHG emissions. The clean development mech- anism facilitates the participation of developing countries since emissions baselines are necessary to determine emissions reductions and the baseline emissions factors of power plants can be calculated by using the combined margin [49]. The combined margin is a combination of the operating margin and build margin factors [49,50]. The analysis of the baselines is then carried out by using a simple operating margin and simple ad justed operating margin because the low cost/must run resources in Peninsular, Sarawak and Sabah constitute less than 50%. This result was found to be similar to those for the simple operating margin because low cost/must run resources constitute less than 50% of the total grid generation. Therefore, the rest of this study and the baseline calculations will only focus on the simple operating margin [49].

2.4.2. Operating margin The operating margin refers to adjustments in the existing grid mix because of project activity. The planning horizon is rather short-term. Therefore, the short-term marginal costs (the oper-

ating costs for the last unit produced by a plant to meet the demand) are relevant. The emissions produced by the plants, which are on the margin, are taken to calculate the operating margin [49]. The operating margin has been calculated by using Equation (5):

1.2 1 y = 8E-05x 2 - 0.018x + 1.3844 R 2 = 0.9964 0.8 0.6
1.2
1
y = 8E-05x 2 - 0.018x + 1.3844
R 2 = 0.9964
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Efficiency Reduction (%)

Motor Capatity (hp)

Fig. 3. Efciency reduction of a rewound motor [45].

Efficiency (%)

M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233e240

237

100

80

60

40

20

0

Efficiency (%) M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233 e 240 237 100 80

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percentage of full load (%)

Fig. 4. Relationship between motor loading and efciency [2].

EF OM ;y ¼

P

F i;j;y COEF i;j

i;j

  • (5)

P

GEN j;y

j

The emissions coefcient COEF i,j is obtained from Equation (6):

COEF i;j ¼ NCV i EF OXID

  • 2.4.3. Build margin

(6)

The build margin stands for the investment alternatives in other sources of electricity. The planning horizon is rather long-term. Planned projects can be entirely displaced or only delayed by the project, and it also represents the trend or types of technology and fuels used for newly installed capacity power generation. The build margin emissions factor is calculated as the generation-weighted

average emissions factor by using the following formula [49]:

EF BM;y ¼

P

F i;j;y COEF i;j

i;j

  • (7)

P

GEN j;y

j

  • 2.4.4. Combined margin

The nal step in applying the consolidated methodology for determining the baseline is to calculate the baseline emissions factor. This is calculated as the weighted average of the emissions factor of the operating margin and build margin. The formula used

to calculate this weighted average combined marginal emissions factor is as follows [49]:

Table 9

Average electric motor life [48].

Motor hp

Average life (year)

Life range (year)

Less than 1

12.9

10e15

1e5

17.1

13e19

5.1e20

19.4

16e20

21e50

21.8

18e26

51e125

28.5

24e33

Greater than 125

29.3

25e38

Table 10

Motor horsepower and percentage of energy savings.

Motor hp

Energy savings (%)

5

10.1

7.5

9.3

10

7.3

15

6.9

20

6.8

25

5.9

30

5.5

40

5.4

50

5.1

60

4.8

75

5.3

100

4.8

125

5.1

150

4.0

200

3.7

250

2.8

300

2.9

400

3.7

Average

5.5

EF MEF;y ¼ w OM EF OM;y þ w BM EF BM;y

(8)

The emissions factors of the operating margin and build margin are weighted equally, each 50%, by default, although different

weights can be used with appropriate justication. The MEF of the

electricity system in Great Britain from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2009 was estimated as 0.69 kg CO 2 /kWh. An attempt was then made to project the MEF into the future to enable the assessment of long-term demand-side interventions scheduled to be built over the coming seven years and estimated of the MEF of 0.60 kg CO 2 /kWh in 2016 [8]. Table 11 shows the combined MEFs in 2006 in Malaysia.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Rewinding a failed motor or replacing with a HEM

Table 8 Increment price of a HEM over a standard motor [19].

Energy savings, bill savings and the payback period associated

with energy savings as a result of using a HEM are presented in

Motor hp

Increment price (US$)

Table 12 for different motor sizes and loads. Replacing a failed

  • 1 24

motor rather than rewinding saves energy in a number of ways. The

  • 2 25

market assessment found that industrial end users rewind 40% of

  • 3 27

the motors that fail each year and the percentage of motors

repaired increases with the horsepower capacity of the motor [44].

  • 4 60

    • 5.5 65

  • 7.5 91

According to the energy savings analysis, using HEMs can save

  • 15 147

  • 20 197

  • 25 246

Table 11

  • 30 257

Combined MEFs in 2006 in Malaysia.

 
  • 40 231

  • 50 281

Combined marginal emissions factors (kg/kWh)

 
  • 60 574

CO 2

SO 2

NO x

  • 75 518

0.6595

0.0049

0.0018

238

Table 12

M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233e240

Energy and bill savings and payback period for a HEM over a failed rewound standard motor at different loads.

Motor hp Increment price (US$) Energy savings (kWh/year)

 

Bill savings (US$/year)

 

Payback period (year)

 
 

Load (50%)

Load (75%)

Load (100%)

Load (50%)

Load (75%)

Load (100%)

Load (50%)

Load (75%)

Load (100%)

5

45

1855

2643

3154

85

122

145

0.5

0.4

0.3

7.5

145

2541

3620

4320

117

167

199

1.2

0.9

0.7

138

  • 10 2744

3909

4665

126

180

215

1.1

0.8

0.6

  • 15 3813

275

5433

6483

175

250

298

1.6

1.1

0.9

  • 20 4873

375

6942

8284

224

319

381

1.7

1.2

1.0

  • 25 4956

578

7060

8425

228

325

388

2.5

1.8

1.5

  • 30 5490

740

7820

9332

253

360

429

2.9

2.1

1.7

  • 40 7020

1070

10,001

11,935

323

460

549

3.3

2.3

1.9

1345

  • 50 8188

11,664

13,919

377

537

640

3.6

2.5

2.1

  • 60 9199

2650

13,104

15,638

423

603

719

6.3

4.4

3.7

3180

  • 75 12,202

17,383

20,744

561

800

954

5.7

4.0

3.3

3675

  • 100 14,911

21,242

25,349

686

977

1166

5.4

3.8

3.2

  • 125 19,569

5185

27,877

33,267

900

1282

1530

5.8

4.0

3.4

  • 150 19,024

6250

27,102

32,341

875

1247

1488

7.1

5.0

4.2

  • 200 23,377

7970

33,302

39,740

1075

1532

1828

7.4

5.2

4.4

  • 250 23,026

10,790

32,803

39,144

1059

1509

1801

10.2

7.2

6.0

  • 300 27,514

12,020

39,196

46,774

1266

1803

2152

9.5

6.7

5.6

  • 400 45,215

16,500

64,412

76,866

2080

2963

3536

7.9

5.6

4.7

energy but increases the initial purchase cost of the new motor (Table 12). The amount of saved energy is increased by increasing the motor load. Payback period analysis shows that payback period increases with the horsepower of the motor. It has also been found that payback period decreases by increasing the percentage of the load. Therefore, it is better to rewind a larger horsepower motor. Table 4 shows that 81% of motors with more than 20 horsepower are rewound and that this percentage is increased by increasing the horsepower.

3.2. New standard efcient motor or HEM

Energy savings, bill savings and the payback period associated with energy savings as a result of using a HEM are presented in Table 13 for different motor sizes and loads. According to the energy savings analysis, using HEMs can save energy (Table 12). The amount of saved energy is increased by increasing the motor horsepower and operating load. Payback period analysis shows that the payback period is less than two years even though the motor is operated at a 50% load. It has also been found that payback period

decreases by increasing the percentage of the load. Table 9 shows that the average motor life is more than 12 years.

3.3. Energy and bill savings and emissions reductions

Energy is an indispensable factor for continuous development and economic growth. The demand for energy is increasing rapidly in developing countries because of automation, industrialisation and urbanisation. The energy demand in Malaysia increased by 20% between 1999 and 2002 [51]. As a result, the installation capacity of energy increased from 14,291 MW in 2000 to 19,227 MW in 2005. It is predicted that it will be 25,258 MW by the end of 2010 [52,53]. Electric motors consume about 48% of the energy in the industrial sector in Malaysia. By using HEMs, about 5.5% energy could be saved. The amounts of energy savings, bill savings and emissions reductions are shown in Table 14. A survey result of 59 industries in Malaysia showed that the total amount energy savings would be is 67,868 MWh/year and the corresponding bill savings US$ 4,343,531 per year. In Malaysia, there are about 3000 industries in different sectors [39]. If HEMs could be used in all these industries, about

Table 13

Energy and bill savings and payback period for a HEM over a standard motor at different loads.

Motor hp Increment price (US$) Energy savings (kWh/year)

 

Bill savings (US$/year)

 

Payback period (year)

 
 

Load (50%)

Load (75%)

Load (100%)

Load (50%)

Load (75%)

Load (100%)

Load (50%)

Load (75%)

Load (100%)

5

63

1459

2078

2480

67

96

114

0.9

0.7

0.5

7.5

80

2020

2878

3435

93

132

158

0.9

0.6

0.5

  • 10 2977

97

2090

3552

96

137

163

1.0

0.7

0.6

132

  • 15 4210

2955

5023

136

194

231

1.0

0.7

0.6

3819

  • 20 5440

167

6491

176

250

299

1.0

0.7

0.6

  • 25 5854

202

4110

6986

189

269

321

1.1

0.7

0.6

  • 30 6540

237

4591

7805

211

301

359

1.1

0.8

0.7

306

  • 40 8496

5964

10,138

274

391

466

1.1

0.8

0.7

376

  • 50 10,045

7051

11,987

324

462

551

1.2

0.8

0.7

  • 60 11,455

446

8041

13,670

370

527

629

1.2

0.8

0.7

  • 75 15,656

550

10,990

18,683

506

720

859

1.1

0.8

0.6

13,316

  • 100 18,970

725

22,637

613

873

1041

1.2

0.8

0.7

17,553

  • 125 25,005

899

29,840

807

1150

1373

1.1

0.8

0.7

  • 150 23,745

1073

16,668

28,336

767

1092

1303

1.4

1.0

0.8

  • 200 28,875

1422

20,269

34,458

932

1328

1585

1.5

1.1

0.9

  • 250 27,364

1770

19,208

32,654

884

1259

1502

2.0

1.4

1.2

  • 300 33,992

2119

23,861

40,564

1098

1564

1866

1.9

1.4

1.1

  • 400 57,383

2816

40,281

68,477

1853

2640

3150

1.5

1.1

0.9

M. Hasanuzzaman et al. / Energy 36 (2011) 233e240

239

Table 14

Energy and bill savings and the potential emissions reduction of motors in the surveyed industries.

Industry

Energy savings Bill savings Emission reduction

 

(MWh/year)

(US$/year)

CO 2

SO 2

NO x

 

(tons)

(tons) (tons)

Food and beverages

1226

78,471

805

6

2

Textile

321

20,540

211

2

1

Fabricated metal

2

113

1

0

0

Paper industry

5316

340,200

3492

26

10

Glass

5505

352,341

3616

27

10

Wood

2624

167,939

1724

13

5

Basic iron steel

34,845

2,230,064

22,890 171

63

Automobile

1514

96,909

995

7

3

Chemical

3115

199,373

2046

15

6

Rubber

1639

104,866

1077

8

3

Plastic

1562

99,986

1026

8

3

Cement

5452

348,943

3581

27

10

Petrochemical

3066

196,199

2014

15

6

Consumer appliances

200

12,795

131

1

0

Electronics

1481

94,790

973

7

3

Total

67,868

4,343,531

44,582 333

122

345,084 MWh/year of energy could be saved. GHG emissions reduction is one of the most important challenges. By introducing high energy efciency motors, GHG emissions could be reduced by 44,582 tons of CO 2 , 333 tons of SO 2 and 122 tons of NO x in the 59 industries surveyed in Malaysia.

4. Conclusion

Industrial motor efciency improvement is one of the most important energy saving options. By introducing HEMs into the industrial sector, 5.5% of energy could be saved. The HEM payback period range is 0.5e2 years, even though the motor is operated at a 50% load. Rewinding a motor degrades its efciency in the range of 1%e2%. By contrast, rewinding large horsepower motors is economically viable. Using HEMs in the industrial sector in Malaysia could save a huge amount of energy and reduce emissions. The proper planning of rewinding and replacing motors (with HEMs) could save about 6% of their total yearly energy consump- tion. Energy savings and emissions reductions are greater at higher motor operation loads.

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