Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Metadata of the chapter that will be visualized in

SpringerLink
Book Title Geotechnics for Natural and Engineered Sustainable Technologies
Series Title
Chapter Title Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) and Decay Factor (K) from Ground Motion Records of
the Intra-plate Region
Copyright Year 2018
Copyright HolderName Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.
Corresponding Author Family Name Satyam
Particle
Given Name Neelima
Prefix
Suffix
Division Department of Civil Engineering
Organization IIT Indore
Address Indore, India
Email neelima.satyam@gmail.com
Author Family Name Dub
Particle
Given Name Shambhavi
Prefix
Suffix
Division Earthquake Engineering Research Centre
Organization IIIT Hyderabad
Address Hyderabad, India
Email
Author Family Name Banerjee
Particle
Given Name Raj
Prefix
Suffix
Division Reactor Safety Division, Department of Atomic Energy
Organization Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Address Mumbai, India
Email
Author Family Name Bandyopadhyay
Particle
Given Name Srijit
Prefix
Suffix
Division Reactor Safety Division, Department of Atomic Energy
Organization Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Address Mumbai, India
Email
Author Family Name Reddy
Particle
Given Name G. R.
Prefix
Suffix
Division Department of Atomic Energy
Organization Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Address Mumbai, India
Email
Author Family Name Payne
Particle
Given Name Suzette
Prefix
Suffix
Division
Organization Seismologist, Seismic Research Group, Idaho National Laboratory
Address Idaho Falls, USA
Email
Author Family Name Coleman
Particle
Given Name Justin
Prefix
Suffix
Division
Organization Lead, Seismic Research Group, Idaho National Laboratory
Address Idaho Falls, USA
Email

Abstract Attenuation of seismic waves in the frequency domain for near- and far-source sites is the key parameter
for inferring source properties, simulating ground motions and hazard analysis. The seismic devastation is
directly related to the attenuation characteristics of the medium and the amount of seismic energy released
during an earthquake. Based on the detailed literature review, it is observed that studies have been done
worldwide to understand the attenuation characteristics by estimating frequency-dependent shear-wave
attenuation factor (Q) for inter-plate region but very limited studies have focused on intra-plate region.
This research paper focuses primarily on the determination of kappa factor (κ) and quality factor (Q) for
intra-plate region as this region has scarcity of observed ground motion data sets. Around 105 recorded
ground motions were collected from Canada and USA, monitored by Idaho National Laboratory, USA,
during 2005–2015. This data is used to determine the farfield source geometric attenuation, kappa factor
and inelastic attenuation of Q-value. An attenuation model of Fourier spectral amplitudes for a shear
window for both horizontal and vertical components is also determined. Stochastic simulation of the
ground motion records using EXSIM was carried out and very well comparable with the recorded ground
motion data. It is also observed that spectral analysis of the ground motions shows a reliable match
between the simulated and recorded spectra which supports the validity of the source parameters derived in
this study. Also the results show that coefficients developed from vertical components are not applicable
for horizontal components. Developed parameters kappa and quality factor are very well comparable with
existing relationships from the literature. These parameters developed considered large data set from USA
and Canada so it can be used for a wide intra-plate region.
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 1/17
Author Proof

1 Determination of Anelastic Attenuation


2 Factor (Q) and Decay Factor

F
3 (K) from Ground Motion Records
of the Intra-plate Region

OO
4

5 Neelima Satyam, Shambhavi Dub, Raj Banerjee,


6 Srijit Bandyopadhyay, G. R. Reddy, Suzette Payne
7 and Justin Coleman

PR
8 Abstract Attenuation of seismic waves in the frequency domain for near- and AQ1

9 far-source sites is the key parameter for inferring source properties, simulating
10 ground motions and hazard analysis. The seismic devastation is directly related to
11 the attenuation characteristics of the medium and the amount of seismic energy
12

13
D
released during an earthquake. Based on the detailed literature review, it is observed
that studies have been done worldwide to understand the attenuation characteristics
by estimating frequency-dependent shear-wave attenuation factor (Q) for inter-plate
TE
14

15 region but very limited studies have focused on intra-plate region. This research
16 paper focuses primarily on the determination of kappa factor (j) and quality factor
17 (Q) for intra-plate region as this region has scarcity of observed ground motion data
18 sets. Around 105 recorded ground motions were collected from Canada and USA,
monitored by Idaho National Laboratory, USA, during 2005–2015. This data is
EC

19 AQ2

20 used to determine the farfield source geometric attenuation, kappa factor and
21 inelastic attenuation of Q-value. An attenuation model of Fourier spectral ampli-
22 tudes for a shear window for both horizontal and vertical components is also
23 determined. Stochastic simulation of the ground motion records using EXSIM was
R

N. Satyam (&)
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Indore, Indore, India
OR

e-mail: neelima.satyam@gmail.com
S. Dub
Earthquake Engineering Research Centre, IIIT Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India
R. Banerjee  S. Bandyopadhyay
Reactor Safety Division, Department of Atomic Energy, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai, India
C

G. R. Reddy
Department of Atomic Energy, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India
UN

S. Payne
Seismologist, Seismic Research Group, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, USA
J. Coleman
Lead, Seismic Research Group, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, USA

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018 1


A. M. Krishna et al. (eds.), Geotechnics for Natural and Engineered Sustainable
Technologies, Developments in Geotechnical Engineering,
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7721-0_21
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 2/17

2 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

24 carried out and very well comparable with the recorded ground motion data. It is
25 also observed that spectral analysis of the ground motions shows a reliable match
26 between the simulated and recorded spectra which supports the validity of the

F
27 source parameters derived in this study. Also the results show that coefficients
28 developed from vertical components are not applicable for horizontal components.

OO
29 Developed parameters kappa and quality factor are very well comparable with
30 existing relationships from the literature. These parameters developed considered
32
31 large data set from USA and Canada so it can be used for a wide intra-plate region. AQ3

PR
33 1 Introduction

34 Majority of earthquakes result from recurrent accumulation and release of strain at AQ4

35 contacts between distinctive moving plates. The theory of plate tectonic movement
36 does not readily account for earthquakes located at interiors of oceanic and conti-
37 nental plates. Such intra-plate earthquakes present fundamental challenges in
38

39
D
understanding accumulation of strain and the associated seismic potential and
hazard. Large areas of Australia, North America, Asia and Europe experience
intra-plate earthquakes, some of which are catastrophically large. The seismic risk
TE
40

41 because of intra-plate earthquakes especially for important structures like high-rise


42 buildings, bridges, natural gas storage tanks, nuclear power plants has been a
43 critical concern. The 2011 Tohuku earthquake with Mw of 9.0 struck off Japan’s
44 north-eastern shore which is considered as the most powerful earthquake ever
EC

45 recorded in Japan, generating gigantic tsunami waves widespread across miles of


46 shoreline reaching 40 meters high. This event costs billions of dollars and thou-
47 sands of lives. One of the important concerns for reliable seismic hazard analysis is
48 the accurate prediction of ground motion at a site as a function of magnitude and
49 distance. This can be obtained by deriving ground motion prediction equation
(GMPE) using available large ground motion data sets. But availability of ground
R

50

51 motion prediction equations based on observed data is always questionable for a


52 region with scarcity of observed ground motion data such as intra-plate region.
OR

53 However in such a case, synthetic data generation by simulations based on regional


54 seismic parameters can be used as an alternative for deriving GMPEs. In this paper,
55 an attempt is made to find out the value of seismic source and site parameters by
56 analysing the dependence of earthquake peak ground acceleration including char-
57 acteristic of seismic source, path condition and local site effects. Further, these
parameters can be used to generate a ground motion prediction equation for the
C

58

59 region which provides peak ground velocity, peak ground acceleration and spectral
60 accelerations for a wide frequency range. AQ5
UN

61 In seismic response analysis of critical structures, acceleration time histories are AQ6

62 required as inputs. In most of intra-plate region, the recorded ground motions are
63 sparse; thus, synthetic acceleration time histories are utilized. This paper explains
64 the detailed procedure for estimating spectral decay factor (kappa: j) and attenu-
65 ation of seismic energy also known as quality factor (Q) for generating synthetic
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 3/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 3


Author Proof

66 ground motions. In this method, the characteristics of seismic source, path atten-
67 uation and local soil condition are well considered while generating synthetic
68 ground motions. From the extensive literature survey, it is found that these

F
69 parameters vary with each earthquake record though it is in intra-plate region.
70 Seismic time history data sets monitored by Idaho National Laboratory (INL),

OO
71 USA, were considered for the analysis. Based on the available strong motion data of
72 the region, epicentral distance and clear S-phase, path and source parameters were
73 analysed and a MATLAB code was developed for calculating the quality factor.
74 The outputs were further used for generating synthetic time histories for different
75 sites where sufficient data sets are not available. These results can further be used
76 for generating a ground motion prediction equation for intra-plate region.

PR
77 2 Literature Review

78 From the past research, it is clear that source and site parameters vary according to
79

80
D
the characteristics of seismic source, path attenuation and local soil condition. The
amplitude and shape of the Fourier amplitude spectrum of strong ground acceler-
ation data are found to be useful for numerous applications to earthquake engi-
TE
81

82 neering (McGuire 1978). A widely employed model by Brune (1970) relates the
83 coefficient of this x2 trend to the seismic moment, M0, and relates the corner
84 frequency (f0) where this x2 trend terminates to a stress drop parameter at the
85 source. Above the corner frequency, Trifunac (1976) and McGuire (1978) have
EC

86 carried out empirical regressions for the shape of the acceleration spectrum.
87 According to Hanks (1979, 1982), generally, the acceleration spectrum is flat above
88 the corner frequency up to a second corner frequency (fmax). Above fmax spectrum
89 starts decaying rapidly. The model developed by Anderson and Hough (1984) for
90 the origin of the spectral decay parameter envisions a frequency independent
contribution to the attenuation parameter Q which modifies the shape of source
R

91

92 displacement spectrum obeying an x−2 which possesses asymptotic behaviour at


93 high frequencies. The cut-off frequency, fmax, is an important parameter as it con-
OR

94 trols the peak ground acceleration (PGA). The shear wave energy is directly driven
95 by S-waves at a hypocentral distance (R) less than approximately 60 km (Burger
96 et al. 1987), whereas at distances between 200 and 1000 km, the dominant phase is
97 the Lg phase which consists of multiple postcritical reflections of S-waves trapped
98 within the crustal wave guide (Kennett 1986). Various seismologists (Burger et al. AQ7

1987; Frankel et al. 1990; Boatwright 1994; Hatzidimitrious 1995; Del Pezzo et al.
C

99

100 1995; Atkinson and Chen 1997; Zhao 2010) have studied these effects to envisage
101 the strong ground motion for various earthquake engineering purposes. The ground
UN

102 motion amplitudes of a region are affected by geometrical spreading which accounts
103 for diminution of wave amplitude caused by wave scattering, anelastic attenuation
104 which is characterized by Q wave transmission quality factor and scattering
105 attenuation. The geometric spreading factor (kappa: j) is found to be unaffected by
106 anelastic attenuation and scattering at short epicentral distances at lower frequency
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 4/17

4 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

107 level (Atkinson 2004). Geometric spreading is identified as independent of both


108 wave frequency and earthquake magnitude (Herrmann and Kijko 1983; Atkinson
109 and Mereu 1992; Atkinson and Boore 1995). The frequency independent bilinear

F
110 (Herrmann and Kijko 1983) and frequency independent trilinear form (Atkinson
111 and Mereu 1992; Atkinson and Boore 1995) are widely used.

OO
112 Attenuation is a petrophysical parameter sensitive to lithology and physical
113 properties like pressure, temperature, saturation with fluid, gas (Toksöz et al. 1979).
114 An estimate of attenuation provides an idea about characteristics of the medium.
115 The estimated value of quality factor, Q, was found to be frequency-dependent (Aki
116 and Chouet 1975; Aki 1980; Gupta et al. 1995; Mandal et al. 2001). Numerous
117 studies conducted globally relates attenuation characteristics by estimating Q based

PR
118 on P-waves (i.e. Qa), S-waves (i.e. Qb) and coda waves (i.e. Qc). Minimal work has
119 been carried out for intra-plate region to estimate attenuation properties of the
120 medium. Paul et al. (2003) estimated the frequency-dependent coda Q relationship
121 as (92 ± 4.73) f 1.0±0.023 by using single back scattering model proposed by Aki
122 and Chouet (1975). An effective algorithm for obtaining quality factor (Q) from
123 strong motion data has been described by Joshi et al. (2010) and calculated esti-
124

125
D
mated value of frequency-dependent quality factor Q as (112) f 0.97 for Garhwal
Himalaya (Joshi 2006) and the value of Q as (30) f 1.45 for Pithoragarh region of
Kumaon, Himalaya (Joshi 2010). Using source and path parameters, GMPEs have
TE
126

127 been derived successfully by some researchers in the past and are in use for
128 engineering purposes (Atkinson and Boore 1995; Toro et al. 1997).
EC

129 3 Tectonic and Seismicity Details of the Study Area

130 Compared to earthquakes near plate boundaries, intra-plate earthquakes are not well
131 understood, and the hazards associated with them may be difficult to quantify. In
this paper, study sites monitored by Idaho National Laboratory are located along the
R

132

133 Snake River Plain in south-eastern Idaho and towards western USA, which is
134 within the North American plate (Fig. 1). Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRPs) are
OR

135 the track of the Yellowstone hotspot. ESRP is located in the northern region of the
136 basin, and the study area considered falls under intra-plate region. The geological
137 map of INL region along with the local soil conditions is shown in Fig. 2. Also
138 geological details of the stations monitored by INL are shown in Table 1.
C

139 3.1 Location of Stations Monitored Earthquake


from 2005 to 2015
UN

140

141 The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) accumulated earthquake data for 40 years
142 (1972–2012). The paper focuses on earthquake activity from 2005 to 2015
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 5/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 5


Author Proof

F
OO
PR
Fig. 1 Location of the study region

Fig. 2 Geological map of


INL region along with the
D
local soil conditions (INLF—
TE
basalt rock with sedimentary
interbeds is 500 m thick;
NPRI—basalt rock with
sedimentary interbeds is
1100 m thick; at other stations
EC

thickness of basalt rock with


sedimentary interbeds is
unknown)
R
OR

143 surrounding Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) and near INL were considered for
144 the analysis. It discusses the earthquake activity that has occurred around the local AQ8

145 region and within 161 km of the INL and centred at 43° 39′ 00″N, 112° 47′ 00″W.
146 The recorded earthquakes from 2005 to 2008 and from 2013 to 2015 are shown in
C

147 Fig. 3a, b respectively.


148 INL has supported a seismic monitoring programme and has monitored seismic
149 activity on the Snake River Plain since 1972 which consists of 33 seismic stations
UN

150 classified as broadband, short period and single and three components. In this paper,
151 33 strong motion data measured both at the bedrock and on free field conditions
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 6/17

6 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

Table 1 Geological details of the stations and local site conditions


Station Latitude Latitude Longitude Longitude Elevation Local site conditions
N (D) N (M) W (D) W (M) (m)

F
ATRF 43 35.71 −112 58.34 1502 20 ft alluvium over
basalt rock

OO
INLF 43 39.25 −112 55.67 1476 Basalt rock
ITCF 43 34.3 −112 54.89 1490 Basalt rock
MFCF 43 35.79 −112 39.92 1583 Basalt rock
NRVF 43 37.24 −112 56.8 1489 Basalt rock
CNCI 43 55.7 −113 27.13 1896 Palaeozoic limestone
NPRI 43 35.85 −112 49.63 1513 Basalt rock

PR
COMI 43 27.71 −113 35.63 1890 Rhyolite
BCYI 44 18.65 −113 24.31 2194 Palaeozoic limestone
GRRI 42 56.28 −111 25.3 2207 Palaeozoic limestone
HWFI 43 55.54 −113 5.84 1743 Palaeozoic limestone
PTI 42 52.22 −112 22.21 1670 Cambrian limestone
SPCI 43 27 −112 38.22 1530 Basalt rock
TRAF 43 35.36 −112 57.86
D 1498 35 ft alluvium over
basalt rock
TE
NRFF 43 39.11 −112 55.2 1475 40 ft alluvium over
basalt rock
TANA 43 51.17 −112 42.95 1480 125 ft playa
sediments over
basalt rock
PBFF 43 33.56 −112 51.85 1517 Basalt rock
EC

RWMC 43 30.85 −113 2.87 1533 Basalt rock


RWME 43 29.51 −113 1.93 1543 Basalt rock
R

152 were considered for the analysis. The seismic data contains three components, two
153 horizontal and one vertical. Figure 4 shows the locations of the seismic stations
154 monitored.
OR

155 4 Estimation of Seismic Source Parameters

For the estimation of seismic source parameters, 22 recorded seismic events from 2005
C

156

157 to 2015 which are predominant because of normal faulting with magnitudes ranging
158 from 3.3 to 5.9 were considered for the analysis. The horizontal components in east and
UN

159 north direction and vertical components recorded at different stations with epicentral
160 distance ranging from 50 to 300 km are shown in Fig. 5. The strong motion data has
161 been filtered using bandpass Butterworth filter of fourth order with frequency range of
162 0.4 Hz (fc) to 25 Hz (fmax) Newmark (1965) and baseline corrected up to second order.
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 7/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 7


Author Proof

F
OO
PR
(a) 2005-2008 (b) 2013-2015

Fig. 3 Stations monitored by INL and earthquake occurrence map

D
TE
R EC
OR

Fig. 4 Seismic stations monitored by INL


C

163 Fast Fourier transform of all the strong motion data is plotted with log of
164 frequency at X-axis and log of spectrum at Y-axis (Fig. 6). Fourier amplitude
UN

165 spectrum of acceleration for the horizontal and vertical components of the station
166 accelerogram, INL, for all earthquake events (log-log axes) is calculated. The
167 procedure adopted to calculate the value of spectral decay factor (kappa: j) is
168 shown below at two stations (Fig. 7).
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 8/17

8 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

F
OO
PR
D
TE
R EC
OR

Fig. 5 Strong ground motion data sets at different stations for INL region
C

169 Table 2 shows the details of spectral decay factor kappa value calculated for all
170 the seismic events considered. An empirical relationship between kappa value and
epicentral distance was developed for stations in limestone site as shown below in
UN

171

172 Eq. (1) (Fig. 8).


Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 9/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 9


Author Proof

F
OO
PR
D
TE
R EC
OR

Fig. 6 Fast Fourier transform of strong motion data sets at different stations for INL site
C
UN
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 10/17

10 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

F
OO
PR
Fig. 7 Kappa factor at two different stations

173 y ¼ 0:0002759x þ 0:01456 ð1Þ


175

176

177 with the epicentral distance.


D
where x is the epicentral distance (Km) and y is the corresponding value of kappa: j
TE
178 It is clear that the zero distance kappa value for limestone site is 0.01456 which
179 gives good match with available literature. AQ9
EC

180 4.1 Q Factor as per Joshi et al. (2006)

181 The acceleration spectrum used to describe the frequency content of strong ground
182 motion at any place is the function of mainly source spectrum and path spectrum.
183 The source spectrum can be estimated by x-square model according to which there
R

184 is decay at the rate of x-square for high frequencies greater than corner frequency
185 fc. The source acceleration spectrum can be estimated from acceleration record after
186 correcting it with diminution function, which accounts for geometrical spreading
OR

187 and anelastic attenuation (Joshi et al. 2006). The algorithm to determine this
188 anelastic attenuation also known as quality factor (Q) has been adapted from Joshi
189 et al. (2006), and a MATLAB code is generated to calculate the value of
190 frequency-dependent quality factor. This study uses S-phase of baseline corrected
191 and filtered 105 strong motion data of different sites monitored by Idaho National
C

192 Laboratory, USA. The geometrical spreading factor term was considered as 1/R for
193 strong motion studies of worldwide earthquakes by Boore (1983), Atkinson and
194 Boore (1995), Joshi et al. (2001), Joshi and Midorikawa (2004) and Joshi (2006) for
UN

195 inter-plate as well as intra-plate earthquakes. As the spectral acceleration at a


196 particular station is considered to be dependent on the geometrical spreading term,
197 the value of this term has a direct influence on the obtained results. Therefore, the
198 use of the geometrical term other than 1/R needs to be validated before using any
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 11/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 11


Author Proof

Table 2 Calculated value of kappa factor (j) at different seismic stations for limestone site
Site Earthquake event Epicentre distance (km) Kappa value (j)
BCYI_HNE 25/03/2014 85.270 0.042

F
BCYI_HNE 03/05/2014 85.159 0.101
BCYI_HNE 30/03/2014 94.395 0.096

OO
BCYI_HNE 13/04/2014 85.594 0.076
BCYI_HNE 14/04/2014 85.635 0.089
BCYI_HNE 03/01/2015 81.091 0.030
BCYI_HNN 25/03/2014 85.271 0.037
BCYI_HNN 03/05/2014 85.159 0.049

PR
BCYI_HNN 13/04/2014 85.594 0.042
BCYI_HNN 14/04/2014 85.635 0.048
BCYI_HNN 03/01/2015 81.091 0.068
GRRI_HNE 11/11/2014 95.011 0.046
GRRI_HNE 03/01/2015 186.958 0.078
GRRI_HNN 11/11/2014 95.011 0.040
HWFI_HNE
HWFI_HNE
HWFI_HNE
25/03/2014
03/05/2014
23/12/2014
108.697
108.487
98.560
D 0.023
0.022
0.025
TE
HWFI_HNE 24/12/2014 97.363 0.023
HWFI_HNE 1/4/2015 (event 3) 99.694 0.023
HWFI_HNE 13/04/2014 109.301 0.036
HWFI_HNE 03/01/2015 99.167 0.034
EC

HWFI_HNE 1/4/2015 (event 1) 98.450 0.037


HWFI_HNE 1/4/2015 (event 2) 100.696 0.019
HWFI_HNN 25/03/2014 108.697 0.035
HWFI_HNN 03/05/2014 108.487 0.027
HWFI_HNN 23/12/2014 98.560 0.033
R

HWFI_HNN 24/12/2014 97.363 0.033


HWFI_HNN 1/4/2015 (event 3) 99.694 0.032
HWFI_HNN 30/03/2014 123.201 0.031
OR

HWFI_HNN 10/04/2014 108.697 0.032


HWFI_HNN 13/04/2014 109.301 0.042
HWFI_HNN 14/04/2014 109.377 0.043
HWFI_HNN 1/4/2015 (event 2) 100.696 0.036
CNCI_HNE 24/12/2014 97.192 0.059
C

CNCI_HNE 1/4/2015 (event 3) 99.515 0.044


CNCI_HNE 03/01/2015 98.989 0.063
CNCI_HNE 1/4/2015 (event 1) 98.275 0.075
UN

CNCI_HNE 1/4/2015 (event 2) 100.514 0.059


CNCI_HNN 24/12/2014 97.192 0.069
CNCI_HNN 1/4/2015 (event 3) 99.515 0.073
(continued)
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 12/17

12 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

Table 2 (continued)
Site Earthquake event Epicentre distance (km) Kappa value (j)
CNCI_HNN 03/01/2015 98.989 0.082

F
CNCI_HNN 1/4/2015 (event 1) 98.275 0.093
CNCI_HNN 1/4/2015 (event 2) 100.514 0.060

OO
Fig. 8 Relationship between
kappa (j) and epicentral
distance (R) for INL
limestone site

PR
199
D
data in a new region. In this study, geometrical spreading term has been considered
TE
200 as 1/R. The values of the parameters radiation factor Rhu and amplification due to
201 free surface FS are used as 0.55 and 2.0, respectively (Kramer 1996).
202 The value of frequency-dependent Q factor has been calculated using a
203 MATLAB code for all the strong ground motion data at different stations as shown
204 in Fig. 9, and an average value of Q factor has been obtained as Q(f) = 35f0.96 for
EC

205 INL intra-plate region. The values of Q obtained at all other stations are similar
206 because of similar tectonic and geological units. The relationship of
207 frequency-dependent quality factor is directly used for the simulation of strong
208 motion data at different magnitude and distance using various simulation tech-
209 niques. Calculated value of Q factor serves dual purpose of attenuation properties
R

210 for a region as well as used for generating ground motion prediction equation for
211 INL region which can further be used in analysis of important engineering
structures.
OR

212

213 Also the quality factor (Q) values calculated are validated with that of recorded
214 strong motion data using Fourier amplitude spectrum, and it is observed that there is
215 a reliable match between the two, which validates the calculated values of quality
216 factor (Q) and decay factor (kappa: j) as shown in Fig. 10.
C
UN
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 13/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 13


Author Proof

F
OO
PR
D
TE
R EC
OR

Fig. 9 Relationship between quality factor (Q) and frequency (f) for INL site

5 Simulation of Ground Motions Using EXSIM


C

217

218 The simulation of ground motion has been performed using EXSIM, a finite fault
UN

219 stochastic model developed by Atkinson (2005) and later modified by Boore 2009
220 which is specifically used for simulating higher frequency ground motions which is
221 of high interest to engineers (Boore 2009). This method is very useful for the
222 intra-plate regions where recording of motion from potentially damaging
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 14/17

14 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

F
OO
PR
Fig. 10 Validation of the results using estimated frequency-dependent average value of quality
factor (Q) for INL site

223 earthquakes is not available. One of main features of the method is that it distils the
224 various factors affecting ground motions (source, path and site) into simple func-
225 tional forms. Several methods available use stochastic representations of some or all
D
226 of the physical processes responsible for ground shaking (Papageorgiou and Aki
227 1983; Zeng et al. 1994). In this paper, shape of source spectral has been considered
TE
228 as S(f) = Sa(f) * Sb(f), and a model given by Frankel et al. (1996), which is a
229 x-square model, has been used to calculate the factors Sa and Sb, which are the
230 function of corner frequency. EXSIM is used and verified by many researchers like
231 Atkinson and Assatourians (2015), and results are comparable with that of the
232 average spectral amplitude for different range of magnitude and epicentral dis-
EC

233 tances. Source and path parameters are calculated for INL region using Fourier
234 amplitude spectrum, and these parameters are further used to simulate the ground
235 motion data varying from magnitude 3.3 to 5.9 and distance range between 50 and
236 300 km. The comparison of simulated ground motion generated using EXSIM with
237 available original strong ground motion data sets for INL sites are in good com-
R

238 parison as shown in Fig. 11 which also validates the computed values of source and
239 path parameters. AQ10
C OR
UN
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 15/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 15


Author Proof

F
OO
PR
D
TE
R EC
OR

Fig. 11 Generation of synthetic Fourier amplitude spectra using EXSIM


C

240 6 Conclusions

Around 105 strong motion records observed by INL sites in USA are studied and
UN

241

242 considered for estimation of anelastic attenuation factor or quality factor (Q) and
243 spectral decay factor (kappa: j) which falls under intra-plate region. Seismic
244 analysis has been carried out for this data, and following specific conclusions are
245 drawn from the present study:
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 16/17

16 N. Satyam et al.
Author Proof

246 • Corner frequency (fc) and cut-off frequency (fmax) are the important parameters
247 to calculate source and path amplitude spectrum, respectively.
248 • Spectral analysis of the ground motions shows a reliable match between the

F
249 simulated and recorded spectra which supports the validity of the source
250 parameters derived in this study.

OO
251 • Results show that coefficients developed from vertical components are not
252 applicable for horizontal components as horizontal components have predomi-
253 nant site amplification effects.
254 • Estimated value of spectral decay factor (kappa: j) and quality factor (Q) is very
255 well comparable with existing values from the literature.
256 • The relation of Q(f) = 35f0.96 obtained from calculations is valid for a wide

PR
257 frequency range of 0.2–25 Hz.
258 • This attenuation relationship developed considered large amount of data set
259 from USA, so it can be used for a wide intra-plate region.
260 • The value of calculated source and site factors can further be used to generate
261 synthetic ground motions using stochastic methods of simulation in the INL and
262 other intra-plate region.
D
TE
263 References

264 Anderson and Hough. (1984). A model for the shape of the fourier amplitude spectrum of
265 acceleration at high frequencies. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 74(5), 1969–
EC

266 1993.
267 Atkinson and Assatourians. (2015). Implementation and validation of EXSIM (a stochastic
268 finite-fault ground-motion simulation algorithm) on the SCEC broadband platform.
269 Seismological Research Letter, 86, 48–60.
270 Boore, D. M. (2003). Simulation of ground motion using the stochastic method. Pure and Applied
271 Geophysics, 160(2003), 635–676.
Boore, D. M. (2009). Comparing stochastic point-source and finite-source ground motion
R

272
273 simulations: SMSIM and EXSIM. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 74(5),
274 1969–1993.
275 Boore, D. M., & Atkinson, G. M. (1987). Stochastic prediction of ground motion and spectral
OR

276 response parameters at hard-rock sites in Eastern North America. Bulletin of the Seismological
277 Society of America, 77(2), 440–467.
278 Frankel, A., et al. (1996). National Seismic Hazard Maps: Documentation. U.S. Geological Survey
279 Open-File Report, pp. 96–532, 69 p.
280 Ghofrani, et al. (2013). Stochastic finite-fault simulations of the 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake.
281 Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 103(2B), 1307–1320.
C

282 Joshi, A. (2006). Use of acceleration spectra for determining the frequency-dependent attenuation
283 coefficient and source parameters. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 96(6),
284 2165–2180.
UN
Layout: T1_Standard Book ID: 454696_1_En Book ISBN: 978-981-10-7720-3
Chapter No.: 21 Date: 7-12-2017 Time: 10:38 am Page: 17/17

Determination of Anelastic Attenuation Factor (Q) … 17


Author Proof

285 Joshi, A. (2010). Use of strong-motion data for frequency-dependent shear wave attenuation
286 studies in the Pithoragarh Region of Kumaon Himalaya. ISET Journal of Earthquake
287 Technology, Paper No. 508, 47(1), March 2010, pp. 25–46.

F
288 Joshi, A., & Midorikawa, S. (2004). A simplified method for simulation of strong ground motion
289 using rupture model of the earthquake source. Journal of Seismology, 8(4), 467–484.
290 Joshi, A., Singh, S., & Giroti, K. (2001). The simulation of ground motions using envelope

OO
291 summations. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 158(5–6), 877–902.
292 Kramer, S. L. (1996). Geotechnical earthquake engineering. Pearson Education.
293 Newmark, N. M. (1965). Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments. Geotechnique, 15,
294 139–160. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1965.15.2.139.

PR
D
TE
R EC
C OR
UN
Author Proof

Author Query Form

F
123

OO
Book ID : 454696_1_En
Chapter No : 21
the language of science

Please ensure you fill out your response to the queries raised
below and return this form along with your corrections.

PR
Dear Author,
During the process of typesetting your chapter, the following queries have
arisen. Please check your typeset proof carefully against the queries listed
below and mark the necessary changes either directly on the proof/online
grid or in the ‘Author’s response’ area provided below D
TE
Query Refs. Details Required Author’s Response
AQ1 Please check and confirm if the author names and initials are correct.
AQ2 As chapter-wise Keywords are mandatory, please provide the keywords.
AQ3 Please check the clarity of the sentence ‘These parameters developed…
intra-plate region’.
AQ4 As the terms ‘intra plate’, ‘intra-plate’ and ‘intraplate’ are used inconsistently
EC

in the chapter with regard to hyphenation and capitalization, ‘intra-plate’ has


been followed throughout the chapter. Please check
AQ5 As the terms ‘Kappa factor’, ‘Quality Factor’ and ‘Spectral Decay Factor’are
used inconsistently with regard to capitalization in the chapter, ‘kappa
factor’, ‘quality factor’, and ‘spectral decay factor’ have been followed
throughout the chapter. Please check.
AQ6 Please check and confirm if the authors and their respective affiliations have
R

been correctly identified. Amend if necessary.


AQ7 Please check the usage of the terms ‘shear-wave’ and ‘crustal wave guide’ in
the chapter.
AQ8 Please check the clarity of the sentence ‘The paper focuses…for the
OR

analysis’.
AQ9 References ‘Papageorgiou and Aki (1983), Zeng et al. (1994), Atkinson
(2005), Boore (1983), Atkinson and Boore (1995), Joshi et al. (2006, 2010),
Toro et al. (1997), Paul et al. (2003), Aki and Chouet (1975), Aki (1980),
Gupta et al. (1995), Mandal et al. (2001), Toksöz et al. (1979), Atkinson and
Mereu (1992), Herrmann and Kijko (1983), Kennett (1986), Burger et al.
(1987), Frankel et al. (1990), Boatwright (1994), Hatzidimitrious (1995), Del
Pezzo et al. (1995), Atkinson and Chen (1997), Zhao (2010), Hanks (1979,
C

1982), Trifunac (1976), McGuire (1978), Brune (1970)’ are cited in the text
but not provided in the reference list. Please provide the respective
references in the list or delete these citations.
UN

AQ10 Please check the clarity of the sentence ‘The comparison of simulated…and
Path parameters’.