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Lesson 5: Directional Control Valves

Basic Hydraulic Systems

• Hydraulic Tank

• Hydraulic Fluids

• Hydraulic Pumps and Motors

• Pressure Control Valves

• Directional Control Valves

• Flow Control Valves

• Cylinders

Lesson 5: Directional Control Valves

Introduction

Directional control valves are used to direct oil into separate circuits of a hydraulic system. The maximum flow capacity and the pressure drop through the valve are the first considerations. Directional control valves may be interfaced with manual, hydraulic, pneumatic and electronic controls. These factors are mostly determined during the initial system design.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson the student will:

1. State the function of the manual spool type control valve, the rotary type control valve and the solenoid actuated control valve.

2. State the function of the simple check valve, the pilot operated check valve and the shuttle valve

3. Identify the ISO symbols for the various directional control valves.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-2

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Directional Control Valve

The directional control valve is use to direct the supply oil to the actuator in a hydraulic system.

The valve body is drilled, honed and sometime the bore is heat treated. The inlet and outlet ports are drilled and threaded. The valve spool is machined from high grade steel. Some valve spools are heat treated, ground to size and polished. Other valve spools are chrome plated, ground to size and polished. The valve body and valve spool are then mated in assembly to the design specifications. When assembled, the valve spool is the only part that moves.

VALVE BODY SPOOL GROOVE VALVE BORE SPOOL LANDS
VALVE BODY
SPOOL GROOVE
VALVE BORE
SPOOL LANDS

Fig. 3.5.1 Valve Spool

Valve Spool

The valve spool (Figure 3.5.1) consist of lands and groves. The spool lands block the oil flow through the valve body. The spool groves allow oil to flow around the spool and through the valve body.

The position of the spool when not activated is called the "normal" position.

When an "open center" valve is in the normal position, the supply oil flows through the valve and back to the tank. When a "close center" valve is in the normal position, the supply oil is blocked by the valve spool.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-3

Hydraulic Fundamentals

FROM FROM FROM CYLINDER CYLINDER PUMP HEAD END ROD END VALVE SPOOL LOAD CHECK VALVE
FROM
FROM
FROM
CYLINDER
CYLINDER
PUMP
HEAD END
ROD END
VALVE
SPOOL
LOAD
CHECK
VALVE
TO
TO
TANK
TANK

TO TANK

VALVE

BODY

Fig. 3.5.2 Directional Control Valve in HOLD

Open Center Directional Control Valve in HOLD Position

Figure 3.5.2 shows a cutaway diagram of a typical open center directional control valve in the HOLD position.

In the HOLD position, the pump oil flows into the valve body, around the valve spool and returns to the tank. The pump oil also flows to the load check valve. The passage behind the load check is filled with blocked oil. The blocked oil and the load check valve spring keep the load check valve closed. The valve spool also blocks the oil in the line to the rod end and the head end of the cylinder.

FROM FROM FROM CYLINDER CYLINDER PUMP HEAD END ROD END VALVE SPOOL LOAD CHECK VALVE
FROM
FROM
FROM
CYLINDER
CYLINDER
PUMP
HEAD END
ROD END
VALVE
SPOOL
LOAD
CHECK
VALVE
TO
TO
TANK
TANK

TO TANK

VALVE

BODY

Fig. 3.5.3 Directional Control Valve RAISED

Open Center Directional Control Valve in RAISE Position

Figure 3.5.3, shows the valve spool at the instant the spool is moved to the RAISE position.

When the valve spool is moved to the RAISE position, the valve spool blocks the pump oil flow to the tank. However, pump oil flow is open to the load check valve. The valve spool also connects the cylinder head end to the oil behind the load check valve and the cylinder rod end to the tank passage. The load check valve prevents .

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-4

Hydraulic Fundamentals

the oil in the head end of the cylinder from flowing into the pump oil passage. The blocked pump oil flow causes an increase in the oil pressure

FROM FROM FROM CYLINDER CYLINDER PUMP HEAD END ROD END VALVE SPOOL LOAD CHECK VALVE
FROM
FROM
FROM
CYLINDER
CYLINDER
PUMP
HEAD END
ROD END
VALVE
SPOOL
LOAD
CHECK
VALVE
TO
TO
TANK
TANK

TO TANK

Fig. 3.5.4 Raise Position

VALVE

BODY

Open Center Directional Control Valve, RAISE Position

In Figure 3.5.4, the increase in pump oil pressure overcomes the pressure behind the load check valve (unseats the load check valve). The pump oil flows pass the load check valve and around the valve spool to the head end of the cylinder.

The oil in the rod end of the cylinder flows pass the valve spool to the tank.

end of the cylinder flows pass the valve spool to the tank. ONE POSITION TWO THREE

ONE

POSITION

TWO THREE POSITION POSITION
TWO
THREE
POSITION
POSITION

Fig. 3.5.5 ISO Symbols

Directional Control Valve ISO Symbols

Basic Envelope

The basic valve ISO symbol in Figure 3.5.5 consists of one or more basic envelopes. The number of envelopes used represents the number of positions that the valve can be shifted.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-5

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Unit 3 Lesson 5 3-5-5 Hydraulic Fundamentals TWO-WAY THREE-WAY Fig. 3.5.6 Valve Port FOUR-WAY SIX-WAY Valve

TWO-WAY

THREE-WAY

Fig. 3.5.6 Valve Port

FOUR-WAY

SIX-WAY

Valve Port

Shown in Figure 3.5.6 are the valve ports for attaching working lines. A valve with two ports is commonly referred to as a two-way valve. This is not to be confused with a two-position valve shown in Figure 3.5.5. Valves may have as many positions and ports as needed. However, most valve positions are in the range of one to three and valve ports in the range of two to six.

of one to three and valve ports in the range of two to six. FLOW IN

FLOW IN

FLOW IN

PARALLEL

CROSS

FLOW

ONE

EITHER

FLOW

FLOW

BLOCKED

DIRECTION

DIRECTION

Fig. 3.5.7 Flow Path

Flow Path

In Figure 3.5.7, the lines and arrows inside the envelopes are used basically to represent the flow paths and directions between ports.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-6

Hydraulic Fundamentals

CLOSED CENTER

TANDEM CENTER (CATERPILLAR OPEN CENTER)

OPEN CENTER

A B

TANDEM CENTER (CATERPILLAR OPEN CENTER) OPEN CENTER A B P T A B P T A

P T

A B

CENTER (CATERPILLAR OPEN CENTER) OPEN CENTER A B P T A B P T A B

P T

A B

(CATERPILLAR OPEN CENTER) OPEN CENTER A B P T A B P T A B P

P T

Fig. 3.5.8 Three Position Valve

Three Position Valve

Figure 3.5.8 shows three ISO symbols of the three position valve. In the three position valve, the center position is the NEUTRAL or HOLD position. When the valve is not doing work, the valve is placed in the HOLD position.

Depending on the design of the spool, the center position serves several purposes.

The ISO symbol at the top represents a closed center valve. When in the HOLD position, the close center spool blocks all oil flow.

The ISO symbol in the middle represents a tandem center valve. When in the HOLD position, the tandem center valve blocks oil flow at A and B but connects the pump to the tank.

The ISO symbol on the bottom represents an open center valve. When in the HOLD position, the open center valve connects all ports to the tank.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-7

Hydraulic Fundamentals

TO TANK LOWER CHECK VALVE TO CYLINDER ROD END TO CYLINDER HEAD END FROM TO
TO
TANK
LOWER
CHECK
VALVE
TO CYLINDER ROD END
TO CYLINDER HEAD END
FROM
TO TANK
PUMP
RAISE
MANUAL CONTROL

Fig. 3.5.9 Six Way Valve

Three Position, Six Way, Open Center, Manual Controlled Valve

Figure 3.5.9, shows a three position, six way, open center, manual controlled valve in the HOLD position. The pump oil flows around the valve spool to the tank. The oil in the cylinder is blocked at the control valve spool.

FROM

PUMP

PILOT OIL

TO TANK LOWER CHECK VALVE RAISE PILOT CONTROL
TO
TANK
LOWER
CHECK
VALVE
RAISE
PILOT CONTROL

PILOT OIL

Fig. 3.5.10 Six Way Valve

Six Way Valve

TO CYLINDER ROD END

TO CYLINDER HEAD END

TO TANK

Three Position, Six Way, Close Center, Pilot Controlled Valve

Figure 3.5.10 shows a three position, six way, close center, pilot controlled valve. In the HOLD position, all oil flow is blocked at the control valve spool.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-8

Hydraulic Fundamentals

SOLENOID MANUAL PUSHBUTTON PEDAL ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR SPRING PUSH-PULL LEVER AIR OIL ACTUATOR
SOLENOID
MANUAL
PUSHBUTTON
PEDAL
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
SPRING
PUSH-PULL LEVER
AIR
OIL
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
MECHANICAL
DETENTED
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR

Fig. 3.5.11 Directional Control Valve Actuator

Directional Control Valve Actuator

Figure 3.5.11 shows the ISO symbols for various directional control valve actuators.

ROD END ROD END TO TANK TO TANK PORT PORT PORT PORT VALVE VALVE BODY
ROD END
ROD END
TO TANK
TO TANK
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
VALVE
VALVE
BODY
BODY
CHANNELS
PLUG
PLUG
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
FROM PUMP
HEAD END
FROM PUMP
HEAD END
Fig. 3.5.12 Rotary Valve
CHANNELS

Rotary Valve

The rotary valve (Figure 3.5.12) consists of a round stem with passages or channels. The channels in the stem connect with the ports in the valve body. Instead of shifting to the right or to the left, the valve rotates.

In the diagram on the left, the valve connects the pump to the rod end of the cylinder. The oil in head end flows to the tank. When the valve is rotated 90 degrees, the pump is connected to the head end and the oil in the rod end flows to the tank.

The rotary valve shown is a four-way valve. However, rotary valves may also be two-way or three-way. The rotary valve is used in low pressure operations.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: At this time, perform Lab 3.5.1

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-9

Hydraulic Fundamentals

TO IMPLEMENT FROM TO PUMP PUMP
TO
IMPLEMENT
FROM
TO
PUMP
PUMP

Fig. 3.5.13 Check Valve

FROM

IMPLEMENT

Check Valve

The purpose of a check valve is to readily permit oil flow in one direction, but prevent (check) oil flow in the opposite direction. The check valve is sometimes called a "one way" check valve.

Most check valves consist of a spring and a tapered seat valve as in Figure 3.5.13 above. However, a round ball is sometimes used instead of the tapered seat valve. In some circuits, the check valve may be free floating (has no spring).

In the valve on the left, when the pump oil pressure overcomes the oil pressure in back of the check valve plus the check valve slight spring force, the check valve opens and allows the oil to flow to the implement.

In the valve on the right, when the pressure of the pump oil is less than the oil pressure in the implement, the check valve closes and prevents implement oil flow back through the valve.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-10

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Pilot Operated Check Valve

The pilot operated check valve differs from the simple check valve in that the pilot operated check valve allows oil flow through the valve in the reverse direction.

TO PILOT VALVE PILOT ROD OIL CHAMBER VALVE CYLINDER PILOT OIL CHECK VALVE
TO
PILOT VALVE
PILOT
ROD
OIL CHAMBER
VALVE
CYLINDER
PILOT
OIL
CHECK VALVE

FROM CONTROL

VALVE

Fig. 3.5.14 Forward Flow

Forward Flow

Figure 3.5.14 shows a pilot operated check valve. The pilot operated check valve consist of a check valve, a pilot valve and a rod. The pilot operated check valve allows free flow from the control valve to the cylinder.

FROM

PILOT VALVE PILOT ROD CYLINDER OIL CHAMBER VALVE PILOT OIL CHECK VALVE TO CONTROL
PILOT VALVE
PILOT
ROD
CYLINDER
OIL CHAMBER
VALVE
PILOT
OIL
CHECK VALVE
TO CONTROL

VALVE

Fig. 3.5.15 Flow Blocked

Flow Blocked

When oil flow from the control valve cease, the check valve seats as shown on the right of Figure 3.5.15. The oil flow from the cylinder to the control valve is blocked at the check valve.

The pilot operated check valve is most often used in operations where load drift is a problem. The pilot operated check valve allows load drift to be held to a very close tolerance.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-11

Hydraulic Fundamentals

FROM

PILOT VALVE PILOT ROD CYLINDER OIL CHAMBER VALVE PILOT OIL CHECK VALVE TO CONTROL
PILOT VALVE
PILOT
ROD
CYLINDER
OIL CHAMBER
VALVE
PILOT
OIL
CHECK VALVE
TO CONTROL

VALVE

Fig. 3.5.16 Reverse Flow

Reverse Flow

The valve in Figure 3.5.16, shows oil flow from the cylinder to the control valve.

When flow is required, pilot oil is sent to the pilot valve oil chamber. Pilot oil pressure moves the pilot valve and rod to the right and unseats the check valve. The cylinder oil flows through the check valve to the control valve and then to the tank.

The pressure ratio between the load pressure and the pilot pressure is designed into the valve. The valve used on the Explorer training unit has a pressure ratio of 3:1. The pressure needed to open the check valve is equal to one-third of the load pressure. A load pressure of 4134 kPa (600 psi) requires a pilot pressure of 1378 kPa (200 psi) to open the check valve.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-12

Hydraulic Fundamentals

A B
A
B

CHECK VALVE (OPEN)

CHECK VALVE (CLOSED)

CIRCUIT 1 CIRCUIT 2 C CIRCUIT 3
CIRCUIT 1
CIRCUIT 2
C
CIRCUIT 3

SHUTTLE VALVE (RESOLVER VALVE)

PILOT D
PILOT
D

PILOT OPERATED

CHECK VALVE

Fig. 3.5.17 Check Valve ISO Symbols

Check Valve ISO Symbols

In Figure 3.5.17, symbols A and B represents the simple check valve in the OPEN and CLOSE positions.

Symbol C represent the shuttle valve. The shuttle (resolver) valve allows two separate circuits to supply oil to a third circuit while keeping the two separate circuits isolated from each other.

Symbol D represents the pilot operated check valve.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-13

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Unit 3 Lesson 5 3-5-13 Hydraulic Fundamentals TANK OIL FROM TO CYLINDER CYLINDERS TANK OIL Fig.

TANK OIL

FROM TO CYLINDER CYLINDERS TANK OIL
FROM
TO
CYLINDER
CYLINDERS
TANK OIL

Fig. 3.5.18 Make-up Valve

Make-up Valve

The make-up valve in Figure 3.5.18, looks similar to the check valve. The makeup valve is normally positioned in the circuit between the implement and the tank. During normal operations, the pump or cylinder oil fills the area behind the make-up valve. The pressure in the cylinder keeps the valve CLOSED. When the cylinder pressure is approximately 14 kPa (2 psi) lower than the tank pressure, the make- up valve will OPEN. The tank oil bypasses the pump and flows directly through the make-up valve to the cylinder.

The make-up valve is used to prevent cavitation. For example, when a loader bucket is RAISED and the operator moves the control to the FULLY LOWER position, the gravitational force on the bucket is transmitted through the cylinder piston to the return oil. The increased pressure on the return oil increases the flow from the cylinder. When the cylinder piston displaces the return oil faster than the pump can send oil to displace the piston, a vacuum is formed in the cylinder and lines. A vacuum can cause the cylinder and lines to cavitate. When the pressure in the cylinder and lines decreases to 14 kPa (2 psi) less than tank pressure, the make-up valve opens and allows tank oil to flow through the make-up valve to the lines and cylinder. This procedure prevents cavitation in the cylinder and lines.

Makeup Valve ISO Symbol

The operation (function) of the make-up valve and the check valve is the same. Therefore, the ISO symbol for the make-up valve is the same as the ISO symbol for the check valve.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: At this time, perform Lab 3.5.2 and Lab

3.5.3

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-14

Hydraulic Fundamentals

SOLENOID ACTUATED CONTROL VALVES

Solenoid Actuator

In a solenoid actuator, an electro-magnetic field moves an armature which moves a push pin. The push pin moves the valve spool.

The two most popular solenoid actuators are the air gap and the wet armature.

ELECTRO-MAGNETIC

FIELD COVER MANUAL OVERRIDE PUSH PIN ARMATURE COIL
FIELD
COVER
MANUAL
OVERRIDE
PUSH
PIN
ARMATURE
COIL

Fig. 3.5.19 Air Gap Solenoid

Air Gap Solenoid

An air gap solenoid is shown in Figure 3.5.19. When the coil is energized, an electro-magnetic field is created. Such a field develops whenever electricity flows through a wire. When the wire is straight, the field is relatively weak. When the wire is wound into a coil, the electro-magnetic field becomes much stronger. The field takes a circular shape around the coil. The higher the number of turns in the coil, the stronger the field.

When the flow of electricity through the coil remains constant, the electro-magnetic field acts very much like the field of a permanent bar magnet. The electro-magnetic field attracts the armature. The armature moves a push pin and the push pin moves the valve spool in the control valve.

The air gap solenoid is protected by a cover. The air gap solenoid also has a "manual override" feature. The manual override allows the valve to be activated when the solenoid is defective or disabled. A small metal pin is located in the cover. The pin is positioned directly in line with the armature. When the pin is pushed into the cover, the pin mechanically moves the armature. The armature moves the push pin which shifts the spool.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-15

Hydraulic Fundamentals

TUBE PUSH PIN HYDRAULIC MANUAL FLUID OVERRIDE FRAME ARMATURE COIL
TUBE
PUSH PIN
HYDRAULIC
MANUAL
FLUID
OVERRIDE
FRAME
ARMATURE
COIL

Fig. 3.5.20 Wet Armature Solenoid

Wet Armature Solenoid

The wet armature solenoid (Figure 3.5.20) is a relatively new arrival on the hydraulic scene.

The wet armature solenoid consist of a rectangular frame, coil, tube, armature, push pin and manual override. The coil and rectangular frame is encapsulated in plastic. The tube fits into a hole that runs through the coil center and two sides of the frame. The armature is housed within the tube and is bathed with hydraulic fluid from the directional valve. The hydraulic fluid is a better conductor of the electro-magnetic field than air. Therefore, the wet armature solenoid works with greater force than the air gap solenoid.

When the coil is energized, an electro-magnetic field is created. The

electro-magnetic field moves the armature.

push pin and the push pin moves the valve spool in the control valve.

In the wet armature solenoid, the manual override is located on the end of the tube which houses the armature and the push pin. The manual override is used to check movement of the directional valve spool. If the solenoid fails because the spool jammed, the spool movement can be checked by pushing in the manual override. The manual override may also be used to cycle the actuator without energizing the complete electrical control system.

The armature moves a

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-16

Hydraulic Fundamentals

A B T A P B
A B
T
A
P
B

P

T

Fig. 3.5.21 Two Position 4-Way Directional Control Valve

Solenoid Controlled, Spring Offset, Pilot Operated, Two Position, 4-way Directional Control Valve

Figure 3.5.21, shows a Solenoid Controlled, Spring Offset, Pilot Operated, Two Position, 4-way Directional Control Valve.

The solenoid controlled, spring offset, pilot operated, two position, directional control valve is not frequently equipped with two solenoids. The second solenoid is considered an unnecessary expense and an additional solenoid to worry about in the system.

The solenoid is used to shift the pilot valve spool. The pilot valve spool is returned to its original position by a spring. When a system is designed for large oil flow, a large directional valve is required. A substantial force is needed to shift the large valve spool. The solenoid needed to generate that amount of force would be quite large. In valves of this type, a small solenoid controlled pilot valve is positioned on top of the larger main valve spool. When shifting is required, pressurized oil flows from the small solenoid controlled pilot valve to either side of the larger valve spool.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-17

Hydraulic Fundamentals

SOLENOID CONTROLLED

SOLENOID PILOT VALVE SOLENOID A B P T T A P B
SOLENOID
PILOT VALVE
SOLENOID
A
B
P
T
T
A
P
B

Fig. 3.5.22 Three Position 4-way Directional Control Valve

Solenoid Controlled, Pilot Operated, Three Position, 4-way Directional Control Valve

Figure 3.5.22 shows a Solenoid Controlled, Pilot Operated, Three Position, 4-way Directional Control Valve.

The pilot valve is controlled by two solenoid valves. The pilot valve also has a spring located at each end of the valve spool. When neither solenoid is energized, the pilot valve spool springs hold the pilot valve spool in the CENTER position. When the pilot valve is in the CENTER position, pilot oil flow to the larger control valve is blocked. The springs in the three position directional control valve return the control spool to the center position.

Spring centering is the most common means of centering a directional control valve spool. The directional control valve has a spring located at each end of the valve spool. When pilot oil pressure is applied to either end of the directional valve spool, the valve spool moves and compresses the spring on the opposite end. When the pilot oil pressure is removed, the spring returns the directional control spool to the center position.

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-18

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Solenoid Failure

Most solenoid actuator failures occur when valves are stuck. The stuck valve spool prevents the armature from closing properly. The most likely cause of a stuck valve spool is contamination. Contaminant such as silt, metal chips, and other particles may become lodged between the spool and bore causing the spool to stick. Also, oxidized oil particles can create a gooey varnish which clogs the clearance between the spool and bore walls and cause the spool to stick to the bore. Silt, metal chips, and other contaminating particles can be removed by installing a filter. The varnish build-up can be removed by washing the valve in lacquer thinner. The proper oil and filter change intervals can help to eliminate most of this type problems.

When the valve is stuck and the solenoid is energized, the solenoid coil receives a constant high flow of current that generates excessive heat. The solenoid is not designed to dissipate the excessive heat and the coil burns out. Overheating problems most often occur during periods of high ambient (environmental) temperatures, or system low voltage.

Problems with solenoid failure due to high ambient temperatures may be controlled by increasing the air flow across the solenoid. The temperature of the hydraulic oil can be lowered to allow more heat to be drawn from the solenoid through the hydraulic system. Sometimes, a different valve design may be required when operating during very hot weather. Some arrangement must be made to allow the system to operate at a lower temperature.

When the voltage to the coil is too low, the electro-magnetic field is not sufficiently strong to attract the armature. Just as when the spool is stuck, the current continues flowing through the coil. The constant flow of current generates the excessive heat.

Other factors also affect the proper operation and life expectancy of the solenoid actuator. The solenoid actuator may fail when cycled excessively, when short-circuited, or when operated with an incorrect electrical supply (wrong frequency, wrong voltage).

Unit 3

Lesson 5

3-5-19

Hydraulic Fundamentals

A B P T
A
B
P
T

Fig. 3.5.23 Two Position, 4-way Pilot Valve

Spring Offset, Solenoid Controlled, Two Position, 4-Way Pilot Valve

In the ISO symbol in Figure 3.5.23, the spring offset pilot valve is

shown in its normal position. The pump oil flows to A and the oil in

B flows to the tank.

When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves the valve against the spring. The pump oil then flows to B and the oil in A flows to the tank.

A B

oil then flows to B and the oil in A flows to the tank. A B

P T

Fig. 3.5.24 Three Position, 4-way Control Valve

Solenoid Controlled Pilot Operated, Spring Centered, Three Position, 4-Way, Closed-Centered Control Valve

In the ISO symbol in Figure 3.5.24, the solenoid controlled pilot

operated, spring centered, three position, 4-way, closed-centered control valve is shown in its normal position. All four ways are blocked at the valve. When the solenoid on the right is energized, the pump oil flows to B and the oil in A flows to the tank. When the solenoid on the left is energized, the pump oil flows to A and the oil

in B flows to the tank.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: At this time, perform Lab 3.5.4

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.1

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

ROD END HEAD END GAUGE GAUGE SYSTEM PRESSURE GAUGE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE A BACKUP
ROD END
HEAD END
GAUGE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
A
BACKUP
P
RELIEF
VALVE
1
1
T
B
PUMP
CYLINDER
MANUAL
DIRECTIONAL
CONTROL VALVE
TANK

Fig. 3.5.25 Circuit

Instructor Copy: Lab 3.5.1

LAB 3.5.1: DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

Purpose

To install and operate a directional control valve in a simple circuit.

Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1.

Mount the manual valve to the horizontal component mounting rack.

To mount the valve, first loosen the wing nuts about half way. Slide the carriage bolts into the grooves on the mounting rack. Move the valve to where you can operate the lever comfortably. Tighten the wing nuts so that the valve is securely in place.

2.

Construct the circuit in Figure 3.5.25.

4.

Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi).

3.

Turn ON the training unit.

5.

With the control lever in the NEUTRAL position, read the pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge: approximately 517 kPa - 689 kPa (75 psi - 110 psi) (line resistances)

Rod End pressure gauge: 0 kPa (0 psi)

Head End pressure gauge: 0 kPa (0 psi)

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.1

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

LAB 3.5.1: DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE (continued)

6. Retract the cylinder rod until the rod stops moving. Continue to hold the control lever in the retract position and read the pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge: 5856 kPa(850 psi)

Rod End pressure gauge: 5856 kPa(850 psi)

Head End pressure gauge: 0 kPa (0 psi)

7. Extend the cylinder rod until the rod stops moving. Continue to hold the control lever in the rod extend position and read pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge: 5856 kPa(850 psi)

Rod End pressure gauge: 0 kPa (0 psi)

Head End pressure gauge: 5856 kPa(850 psi)

8. State the differences in the three sets of readings.

The readings in Step 5 shows the valve in its neutral position with the pump port connected to the tank. The resistances shown is the resistances of the line and control valve. Ports A and B are blocked. Ports A and B have not been pressurized.

The readings in Step 6 shows the cylinder fully retracted. The oil flow into the cylinder is blocked at piston. The oil pressure has increased and opened the system relief valve. Ports P and A are connected and the pressures are equal. Port B is connected to the tank.

The readings in Step 7 shows the cylinder fully extended. The oil flow into the cylinder is blocked at the piston. The oil pressure has increased and opened the system relief valve. Ports P and B are connected and the pressures are equal. Port A is connected to the tank.

9. Turn OFF the training unit and disconnect the hoses.

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.1

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

ROD END HEAD END GAUGE GAUGE SYSTEM PRESSURE GAUGE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE A BACKUP
ROD END
HEAD END
GAUGE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
A
BACKUP
P
RELIEF
VALVE
1
1
T
B
PUMP
CYLINDER
MANUAL
DIRECTIONAL
CONTROL VALVE
TANK

Fig. 3.5.25 Circuit

Student Copy: Lab 3.5.1

LAB 3.5.1: DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

Purpose

To install and operate a directional control valve in a simple circuit.

Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1.

Mount the manual valve to the horizontal component mounting rack.

To mount the valve, first loosen the wing nuts about half way. Slide the carriage bolts into the grooves on the mounting rack. Move the valve to where you can operate the lever comfortably. Tighten the wing nuts so that the valve is securely in place.

2.

Construct the circuit in Figure 3.5.25.

4.

Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi).

3.

Turn ON the training unit.

5.

With the control lever in the NEUTRAL position, read the pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge:

Rod End pressure gauge:

Head End pressure gauge:

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.1

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

LAB 3.5.1: DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE (continued)

6. Retract the cylinder rod until the rod stops moving. Continue to hold the control lever in the retract position and read the pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge:

Rod End pressure gauge:

Head End pressure gauge:

7. Extend the cylinder rod until the rod stops moving. Continue to hold the control lever in the rod extend position and read pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge:

Rod End pressure gauge:

Head End pressure gauge:

8. State the differences in the three sets of readings.

9. Turn OFF the training unit and disconnect the hoses.

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.2

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

SYSTEM PRESSURE 2 1 GAUGE SIMPLE CHECK VALVE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE BACKUP RELIEF FLOW
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
2
1
GAUGE
SIMPLE CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK

Fig. 3.5.26 Circuit

LAB 3.5.2: CHECK VALVE

Purpose

To install and operate a check valve in a simple circuit. Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1. Construct the circuit given in Figure 3.5.26.

Instructor Copy: Lab 3.5.2

2. Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi).

3. Turn ON the training unit.

4. Read the system pressure gauge and the flow meter (Reading 1).

5. Record the pressure and flow in the chart in Figure 3.5.27.

READINGS

PRESSURE GAUGE

FLOW METER

1

517 kPa - 689 kPa (75 psi - 100 psi)

0.9 GPM

2

5856 kPa (850 psi)

0 GPM

Lab. 3.5.27

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.2

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

SYSTEM PRESSURE 1 2 GAUGE SIMPLE CHECK VALVE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE BACKUP RELIEF FLOW
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
1
2
GAUGE
SIMPLE CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK

Fig. 3.5.28 Circuit

LAB 3.5.2: CHECK VALVE (continued)

7.

Reverse the check valve as in Figure 3.5.28.

8.

Turn ON the training unit.

9.

Read the system pressure gauge and the flow meter (Reading 2).

10.

Record the pressure and flow in the chart in Figure 3.5.27.

11.

Turn OFF the training unit and disconnect the hoses.

Explain the difference between reading 1 and reading 2.

The pressure in reading 1 shows the resistances to the 0.9 gpm flow through the lines, check valve and flow meter. The pressure in reading 2 shows that the system relief valve is open and there is no flow through the lines, check valve and flow meter.

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.2

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

SYSTEM PRESSURE 2 1 GAUGE SIMPLE CHECK VALVE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE BACKUP RELIEF FLOW
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
2
1
GAUGE
SIMPLE CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK

Fig. 3.5.26 Circuit

LAB 3.5.2: CHECK VALVE

Purpose

To install and operate a check valve in a simple circuit. Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1. Construct the circuit given in Figure 3.5.26.

Student Copy: Lab 3.5.2

2. Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi).

3. Turn ON the training unit.

4. Read the system pressure gauge and the flow meter (Reading 1).

5. Record the pressure and flow in the chart in Figure 3.5.27.

READINGS

PRESSURE GAUGE

FLOW METER

1

   

2

   

Fig. 3.5.27

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.2

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

SYSTEM PRESSURE 1 2 GAUGE SIMPLE CHECK VALVE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE BACKUP RELIEF FLOW
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
1
2
GAUGE
SIMPLE CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK

Fig. 3.5.28 Circuit

LAB 3.5.2: CHECK VALVE (continued)

7.

Reverse the check valve as in Figure 3.5.28.

8.

Turn ON the training unit.

9.

Read the system pressure gauge and the flow meter (Reading 2).

10.

Record the pressure and flow in the chart in Figure 3.5.27.

11.

Turn OFF the training unit and disconnect the hoses.

Explain the difference between reading 1 and reading 2.

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.3

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

3 SYSTEM PRESSURE 1 2 GAUGE PILOT CHECK VALVE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE BACKUP RELIEF
3
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
1
2
GAUGE
PILOT CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK

Fig. 3.5.29 Circuit

Instructor Copy: Lab 3.5.3

LAB 3.5.3: PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE CIRCUIT

Purpose

To install and operate a pilot operated check valve in a simple circuit. Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1. Construct the circuit shown in Figure 3.5.29

2. Turn ON the training unit.

3. Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi).

4. Read the pressure gauge and flow meter (Reading 1).

5. Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

READING

FLOW RATE

SYSTEM

 

OPENING

PRESSURE

PRESSURE

1

 

0

GPM

5856

kPa (850 psi)

2

 

0.9

GPM

 

2067

kPa (300 psi)

930 kPa (135 psi)

3

 

0

GPM

4134

kPa (600 psi)

520 kPa (75 psi)

4

 

0.9

GPM

 

4134

kPa (600 psi)

1520 kPa (220 psi)

Fig. 3.5.30 Chart

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.3

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

OPENING PRESSURE 3 2 1 PRESSURE 3 SYSTEM REDUCING PRESSURE VALVE 1 2 GAUGE PILOT
OPENING
PRESSURE
3
2
1
PRESSURE
3
SYSTEM
REDUCING
PRESSURE
VALVE
1
2
GAUGE
PILOT CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK
Fig. 3.5.31 Circuit

LAB 3.5.3: PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE CIRCUIT (Continued)

7.

Reconstruct the circuit as shown in Figure 3.5.31.

8.

Turn the adjustment on the pressure reducing valve fully counter-clock wise.

9.

Turn ON the training unit.

10.

Set system pressure to 2067 kPa (300 psi).

11.

Slowly turn the adjustment on the pressure reducing valve clockwise until flow is seen through the flow meter.

12.

Read the pressure gauges and the flow meter (Reading 2).

13.

Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

14.

Turn OFF the training unit for two minutes.

15.

Turn the pressure reducing valve adjustment one turn counter-clockwise.

16.

Turn ON the training unit.

17.

Adjust the system pressure to 4134 kPa (600 psi).

18.

Read the pressure gauges and the flow meter (Reading 3).

19.

Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

20.

Slowly turn the adjustment on the pressure reducing valve clockwise until flow is seen through the flow meter.

21.

Read the pressure gauges and the flow meter (Reading 4).

22.

Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.3

- 3 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

LAB 3.5.3: PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE CIRCUIT (Continued)

Questions:

1. Does the pilot operated check valve opening pressure equal to approximately one third the system pressure?

X

Yes

No

2. Explain the difference between the non-pilot check valve and the pilot check valve.

The non-pilot check valve allows free flow in one direction while blocking all flow in the opposite direction.

The pilot check valve allows free flow in one direction. Also, under select conditions, a third port is used to open the check valve and allow flow in the opposite direction.

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.3

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

3 SYSTEM PRESSURE 1 2 GAUGE PILOT CHECK VALVE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE BACKUP RELIEF
3
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
1
2
GAUGE
PILOT CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK

Fig. 3.5.29 Circuit

Student Copy: Lab 3.5.3

LAB 3.5.3: PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE CIRCUIT

Purpose

To install and operate a pilot operated check valve in a simple circuit. Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1. Construct the circuit shown in Figure 3.5.29

2. Turn ON the training unit.

3. Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi).

4. Read the pressure gauge and flow meter (Reading 1).

5. Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

READING

FLOW RATE

SYSTEM

OPENING

PRESSURE

PRESSURE

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

Fig. 3.5.30 Chart

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.3

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

OPENING PRESSURE 3 2 1 PRESSURE 3 SYSTEM REDUCING PRESSURE VALVE 1 2 GAUGE PILOT
OPENING
PRESSURE
3
2
1
PRESSURE
3
SYSTEM
REDUCING
PRESSURE
VALVE
1
2
GAUGE
PILOT CHECK
VALVE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
BACKUP
RELIEF
FLOW
VALVE
1
1
METER
PUMP
TANK
Fig. 3.5.31 Circuit

LAB 3.5.3: PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE CIRCUIT (Continued)

7.

Reconstruct the circuit as shown in Figure 3.5.31.

8.

Turn the adjustment on the pressure reducing valve fully counter-clock wise.

9.

Turn ON the training unit.

10.

Set system pressure to 2067 kPa (300 psi).

11.

Slowly turn the adjustment on the pressure reducing valve clockwise until flow is seen through the flow meter.

12.

Read the pressure gauges and the flow meter (Reading 2).

13.

Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

14.

Turn OFF the training unit for two minutes.

15.

Turn the pressure reducing valve adjustment one turn counter-clockwise.

16.

Turn ON the training unit.

17.

Adjust the system pressure to 4134 kPa (600 psi).

18.

Read the pressure gauges and the flow meter (Reading 3).

19.

Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

20.

Slowly turn the adjustment on the pressure reducing valve clockwise until flow is seen through the flow meter.

21.

Read the pressure gauges and the flow meter (Reading 4).

22.

Record the information on the chart in Figure 3.5.30.

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.3

- 3 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

LAB 3.5.3: PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE CIRCUIT (continued)

Questions:

1. Does the pilot check valve opening pressure equal to approximately one third the system pressure?

Yes

No

2. Explain the difference between the non-pilot check valve and the pilot check valve.

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.4

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name ROD END HEAD END GAUGE GAUGE SYSTEM PRESSURE GAUGE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE P
Name
ROD END
HEAD END
GAUGE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
P
A
BACKUP
RELIEF
VALVE
1
1
T
B
PUMP
CYLINDER
SOLENOID
CONTROL
VALVE
TANK

Fig. 3.5.32 Circuit

Instructor Copy: Lab 3.5.4

LAB 3.5.4 SOLENOID ACTUATED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

Purpose

To install and operate a solenoid actuated directional control valve in a simple circuit.

Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1. Construct the circuit in Figure 3.5.32.

2. Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi)

3. Turn ON the training unit.

4. With the control valve in the NEUTRAL position, read the pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge: 5856 kPa (850 psi)

Rod End pressure gauge: 0 PSI

Head End pressure gauge: 0 PSI

5. Depress and hold the switch to retract the cylinder rod. Read the pressure gauge and record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge: 5856 kPa (850 psi)

Rod End pressure gauge: 5856 kPa (850 psi)

Head End pressure gauge: 0 PSI

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Lab 3.5.4

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

LAB 3.5.4 SOLENOID ACTUATED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE (continued)

6. Depress and hold the switch to extend the cylinder rod. Read the pressure gauges and record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge: 5856 kPa (850 psi)

Rod End pressure gauge: 0 PSI

Head End pressure gauge: 5856 kPa (850 psi)

7. Disconnect the pump electrical power supply and move the solenoid actuated control valve to reduce the pressure in the hoses.

8. Turn OFF the training unit and connect the pump electrical power supply. Disconnect the hoses.

Questions:

1. State the differences in the three sets of readings.

The readings in Step 4 shows the valve in its neutral position with all ports blocked. The pump oil is flowing across the relief valve. Ports A and B have not been pressurized.

The readings in Step 5 shows the cylinder fully retracted. The oil flow into the cylinder is blocked at the piston. The oil pressure has increased and opened the system relief valve. Ports P and A are connected and the pressures are equal. Port B is connected to the tank.

The readings in Step 6 shows the cylinder fully extended. The oil flow into the cylinder is blocked at the piston. The oil pressure has increased and opened the system relief valve. Ports P and B are connected and the pressures are equal. Port A is connected to the tank.

2. What happens inside the valve when the rod extending solenoid is activated?

When the solenoid is activated, an electromagnetic field is created around the coil. This field attracts the armature which is connected to the push rod. The push rod moves the valve spool to a new position. The valve compresses the spring at the opposite end of the spool. The position of the spool determines the path of oil flow. When the rod is extended, pump flow is directed to port B during solenoid activation. The oil from port A is simultaneously returned to the tank.

3. What happens inside the valve when both solenoids are deactivated?

When both solenoids are deactivated, the electromagnetic field collapse around the coil. The spring, on the opposite end of the spool, moves the spool to the NEUTRAL position. The spool moves the push rod and armature back to the starting position.

4. How could you tell the valve spool moved without looking at the gauges?

There is an indicator light on the solenoid valve electrical connection which illuminates when the solenoid is activated. You can also hear the solenoid armature close and the valve spool move.

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.4

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name ROD END HEAD END GAUGE GAUGE SYSTEM PRESSURE GAUGE SYSTEM 2 RELIEF VALVE P
Name
ROD END
HEAD END
GAUGE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
PRESSURE
GAUGE
SYSTEM
2
RELIEF
VALVE
P
A
BACKUP
RELIEF
VALVE
1
1
T
B
PUMP
CYLINDER
SOLENOID
CONTROL
VALVE
TANK

Fig. 3.5.32 Circuit

Student Copy: Lab 3.5.4

LAB 3.5.4 SOLENOID ACTUATED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

Purpose

To install and operate a solenoid actuated control valve in a simple circuit.

Materials needed

1. Basic Hydraulic Training Unit

Procedure

1. Construct the circuit in Figure 3.5.32.

2. Adjust system pressure to 5856 kPa (850 psi)

3. Turn ON the training unit.

4. With the control valve in the NEUTRAL position, read the pressure gauges. Record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge:

Rod End pressure gauge:

Head End pressure gauge:

5. Depress and hold the switch to retract the cylinder rod. Read the pressure gauge and record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge:

Rod End pressure gauge:

Head End pressure gauge:

Unit 3 Student Copy Lab 3.5.4

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

LAB 3.5.4 SOLENOID ACTUATED DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE (continued)

6. Depress and hold the switch to extend the cylinder rod. Read the pressure gauges and record the pressure readings below.

System pressure gauge:

Rod End pressure gauge:

Head End pressure gauge:

7. Disconnect the pump electrical power supply and move the solenoid actuated control valve to reduce the pressure in the hoses.

8. Turn OFF the training unit and connect the pump electrical power supply. Disconnect the hoses.

Questions:

1. State the differences in the three sets of readings.

2. What happens inside the valve when the rod extending solenoid is activated?

3. What happens inside the valve when both solenoids are deactivated?

4. How could you tell the valve spool moved without looking at the gauges?

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ

1. List two considerations when choosing a directional control valve.

Maximum flow capacity

Pressure drop through the valve

2. Name the part of a directional control valve that moves.

The valve spool

Fill in the blanks

Instructor Copy: Quiz 3.5.1

3. The spool lands block the flow of oil through the valve body.

4. The spool groves allows oil to flow around the spool and through the valve body.

5. In the basic valve ISO symbol, the number of envelopes represent the number of positions that the valve can be shifted.

6. When in the normal position, the supply oil flows through the valve and back to tank. The valve is an open center valve.

7. When in the normal position, the supply oil flows through the valve is blocked. The valve is a close center valve.

8. In the basic valve ISO symbol, the lines and arrows inside the envelopes are used basically to represent the flow path and direction between ports.

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued)

9. Write the correct name below each symbol.

SOLENOID MANUAL PUSHBUTTON PEDAL ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR SPRING PUSH-PULL LEVER AIR OIL ACTUATOR
SOLENOID
MANUAL
PUSHBUTTON
PEDAL
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
SPRING
PUSH-PULL LEVER
AIR
OIL
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
LEVER AIR OIL ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR MECHANICAL DETENTED ACTUATOR ACTUATOR 10. Draw a
LEVER AIR OIL ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR ACTUATOR MECHANICAL DETENTED ACTUATOR ACTUATOR 10. Draw a

MECHANICAL

DETENTED

ACTUATOR

ACTUATOR

10. Draw a lever operated, spring centered, three-position, 4-way, open center, directional control valve.

4-way, open center, directional control valve. 11. What is the purpose for having a manual override

11. What is the purpose for having a manual override on a solenoid actuator?

The manual override on a solenoid actuated valve allows the valve to be actuated when the solenoid is defective or disabled.

12. Describe how a solenoid actuator is used on a 2-position valve.

A single solenoid is used on a 2-position valve to move the spool from normal position to actuated position. Typically a spring is used to return the spool to its normal position.

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 3 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued)

13. Name three conditions that may cause solenoid overheating.

Stuck valves

High ambient temperatures

Low system voltage

14. Describe the operation of a check valve.

The check valve (consisting of a ball or poppet held in place with a light spring) is installed in series with the oil flow through the circuit. The check valve offers a restriction to oil flow which causes a slight pressure to develop against the check valve. When the force of the oil pressure against the valve surface area overcomes the valve spring force and any oil pressure that may be behind the valve, the check valve is moved off its seat. The oil flows through the check valve to the remaining circuit.

When the oil flow is reversed, the force is removed from against the check valve spring. The spring closes the valve and blocks oil flow. The increase in force from the pressure caused by the blocked oil flow is added to the spring force and keeps the check valve seated.

The check valve allows oil to flow in one direction and blocks oil flow in the opposite direction.

15. What happens in a circuit when the check valve is installed backwards?

The valve allows flow when the flow is supposed to be blocked and blocks flow when the flow is supposed to flow freely.

16. In what way does a pilot operated check valve differ from a simple check valve.

The pilot operated check valve differs from the simple check valve in that the pilot operated check valve allows oil to flow in the reverse direction through the valve.

17. What are pilot ratio and pilot pressure?

Pilot ratio is the ratio between the line pressure behind the check valve and the pilot pressure required to open the check valve. A 3:1 pilot ratio is typical of most piloted check valves.

Pilot pressure is the supply pressure fed to the pilot port of the valve. The pilot pressure is used to open the check valve to reverse oil flow.

Unit 3 Instructor Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 4 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued)

Fundamentals DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued) CIRCUIT 1 CIRCUIT 2 CIRCUIT 3 18. In the shuttle

CIRCUIT 1

CIRCUIT 2

CIRCUIT 3

18. In the shuttle (resolver) valve symbol above, oil may flow:

A. From circuit 1 to circuit 2D. A and B

B. From circuit 2 to circuit 3

C. From circuit 1 to circuit 3

E.

B and C

19. Identify and write the name of the spool valve part in the space provided.

VALVE BORE SPOOL GROOVE SPOOL LANDS
VALVE BORE
SPOOL GROOVE
SPOOL LANDS

20. When the load pressure to pilot pressure ratio is 3:1, what is the minimum pressure required to open the check valve below.

VALVE BORE SPOOL GROOVE SPOOL LANDS
VALVE BORE
SPOOL GROOVE
SPOOL LANDS

Unit 3 Student Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 1 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

Name

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ

1. List two considerations when choosing a directional control valve.

2. Name the part of a directional control valve that moves.

Student Copy: Quiz 3.5.1

3. The

block the flow of oil through the valve body.

4. The

allows oil to flow around the spool and through the valve body.

5. In the basic valve ISO symbol, the number of envelopes represent the number of the valve can be shifted.

that

6. When in the normal position, the supply oil flows through the valve and back to tank. The

valve is an

.

7. When in the normal position, the supply oil flows through the valve is blocked. The valve is .

a

8. In the basic valve ISO symbol, the lines and arrows inside the envelopes are used basically to represent the

.

Unit 3 Student Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 2 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued)

9. Write the correct name below each symbol.

(continued) 9. Write the correct name below each symbol. 10. Draw a lever operated, spring centered,

10. Draw a lever operated, spring centered, three-position, 4-way, open center, directional control valve.

1. What is the purpose for having a manual override on a solenoid actuator?

12. Describe how a solenoid actuator is used on a 2-position valve.

Unit 3 Student Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 3 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued)

13. Name three conditions that may cause solenoid overheating.

14. Describe the operation of a check valve.

15. What happens in a circuit when the check valve is installed backwards?

16. In what way does a pilot operated check valve differ from a simple check valve.

17. What are pilot ratio and pilot pressure?

Unit 3 Student Copy Quiz 3.5.1

- 4 -

Hydraulic Fundamentals

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued)

Fundamentals DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE QUIZ (continued) CIRCUIT 1 CIRCUIT 2 CIRCUIT 3 18. In the shuttle

CIRCUIT 1

CIRCUIT 2

CIRCUIT 3

18. In the shuttle valve (resolver) symbol above, oil may flow:

A. From circuit 1 to circuit 2D. A and B

B. From circuit 2 to circuit 3

B and C

C. From circuit 1 to circuit 3

E.

19. Identify and write the name of the spool valve part in the space provided.

the name of the spool valve part in the space provided. 20. When the load pressure

20. When the load pressure to pilot pressure ratio is 3:1, what is the minimum pressure required to open the check valve below.

FROM 6200 kPa CYLINDER (900 psi) PILOT OIL
FROM
6200 kPa
CYLINDER
(900 psi)
PILOT
OIL

TO CONTROL

VALVE