You are on page 1of 4


 Collective term referring to forms of communication able to reach broad areas of a population on a large scale.
 Media are platforms through which communication are passed from one person to another, or from one place to

**Media platforms include Newspapers, Television, Radio, and Pamphlet. Mass media is focus on reaching out to
large numbers of people at the same time at different locations.**

Forms of Media (broad categories):

 Print
 Broadcast
 Internet

There are four major types of media, namely;

 Traditional Media - Traditional media of passing information and communication is an approach based on the
use of traditional devices, such as talking drums, flutes, town criers, etc. to deliver information and
communicate among the people of a particular locality.
 Print Media - The print media are approach of dissemination of information and communication through
hard-wares like; newspaper, hand-bills, beam-board, pamphlet, books, magazines, journals, newsletters,
novel, etc.,
 Electronic Media - methods of disseminating information and communication through electronic devices,
such as television, radio, computers, microphone, megaphone, etc. from one person to another person, or
from one place to another place.
 Social Media - Social media is the newest approach in dissemination of information and communication
through electronic social platform like Yahoo, Google, Twitter, Youtube, Facebook, Instagram, etc.


 A media explosion often follows the fall of dictatorships. After Ferdinand Marcos was toppled in 1986, scores of
new newspapers and radio stations sprang up in the Philippines, as citizens basked in the novelty of a free press.
 The importance of access to information was graphically illustrated in 1983, when Ninoy Aquino was assassinated
on his return from exile in the U.S.A. Even before the new media existed, alternative sources of information were
available such as an underground press (eg. Mr & Ms), radio station (Veritas,), street theatre (Legasto, 1994) and
informal sources circulating rumors, gossip and jokes. But these alternative media mainly relied on top-down
circulation of information rather than the person-to-person character of the new media.
 Ordinary Filipinos may have had political opinions in the past but they generally communicated these only to a
limited network of kin, friends and associates. Presently, people text, use e-groups, YouTube, blogs and social
networking sites such as Facebook, to air personal views much more widely.
 EDSA 2 was also clearly a media event. The impeachment trial of President Estrada was widely followed in all
media, especially on television. The crowds that gathered when the trial was aborted used texting as a mode of
soliciting protestors. While some scholars (Rafael, 2003) have claimed that texting played a major role, others
(Pertierra,, 2002) dispute its centrality but concede that the new media was an important element in soliciting
the crowd. The removal of President Estrada in EDSA 2 is described as a coup d’text.

 The media have a unique power in any political system. This power stems both from their role as key sources of
information about cultures, people, and events on a regular basis and their multiple functions in politics.
 The Mass Media are often referred to as the fourth branch of government because of the power they wield and
the oversight function they exercise.


 The importance of media is enormous for politics at different levels of its activities. It stimulates citizen
engagement in politics; these include political parties’ membership registration, voters’ registration, elections and
electoral campaigns, electorates’ management, are among the major political activities. Journalists perform a duty
in ensuring that masses are well informed about the truth state of issues in governance.
 Moreover, the media provides platform for check and balance for governance. Due to rapid development in mass
media in the past, such as radio, TV, satellite and Internet services, helps in development in political dispensation.
This case ensures that political activities are embraced by wider audience.
 The boom in media services has also allowed various organizations from all over the political sphere to effectively
reach their target audiences.
 The media also serve as a conduit between governors and the governed and as an arena for public debate that
leads to more intelligent policy- and decision-making.


 The media’s power relies on the relationship between media and policymakers. The influence of the media is
much more pervasive now than it was some decades ago, and their role in politics has become a major topic of
discussion and controversy in recent years.
 With the complexity of societies, speed of events, and enormous diversity of information and news, as well as the
limited ability of audiences to follow up on information, the media have the power to formulate our understanding
of the world and affect our behaviors.


 Media freedom and responsibility

–The responsibility of the media is to report issues without fear nor favor
–The problem is that media freedom is often taken to the extreme
 Sensationalism
 Bias
 “Race to the bottom”
 Weak libel and slander laws

 Media as Kingmaker

–Media is a potent catalyst for change

–It shapes and is shaped by public opinion
–However, the media has also been used as means of political advancement
 Celebrity politics
 Veiled political campaigns
 Effective training and journalism

–In terms of skills, many members of the media have poor journalistic training
–Depth and accuracy of media stories leave much to be desired
–Journalistic ethics have also suffered and the corruption of the media remains a pressing issue

 Proprietary intervention

–As enterprises, media companies are natural monopolies

–Media owners have used their companies as instruments to promote their business interests
 Killing potentially damaging stories
 Interference in editorial policy
 Use of the media for political influence

 More importantly, what both EDSAs shared was the centrality of media. While EDSA preceded the new media, its
extensive cover both in the local and global press made it a major media event. The turning points in EDSA were
all media inspired, from the live broadcast of the battle over a major television station, to the abrupt cut-off of
Marcos’ presidential speech.
 The common practice of embedded journalists, as against the earlier war correspondents, situates media as a
weapon of war.
 While radio is probably the most extensive source of information for most Filipinos, television has become the
main source of entertainment. Most television programs are in Filipino although regional stations also broadcast
in their vernaculars. Television receives by far the greatest source of advertising income. According to Asian Media
Barometer in 2011 television got (76 per cent) radio (18 per cent) and print media only (4.7 per cent) of advertising
income. But these figures do not necessarily reflect the political significance of these media. Generally, the print
media is the most influential nationally and radio plays an important role locally. While television provides regular
newscasts and current affairs programs, its main role is in providing entertainment, except during critical periods
such as national disasters or political crises where its evocative imagery is most compelling.
 As studies of media effects have demonstrated, the media wield an enormous influence on the audiences’
attitudes, opinions, and behaviors The media help correlate our response to the challenges and opportunities in
society to reach consensus on actions and to transmit the culture of our society to new members. Also,
 The characteristics and values of a particular political system are usually reflected in its media practices and
contents; the state usually plays a vital role in affecting these contents. In some cases, governments can define
the amount and nature of the news that may be rejected or accepted for dissemination. In others, the media
contents are direct responses to government policies and practices. While these are only examples of how the
media-politics relationship can affect the media contents, numerous scenarios exist as a result of the interactive
media-politics relationship that differs according to the various media systems (liberal, authoritarian,
developmental, etc.) and political environments (democratic, dictatorship, communist, etc.).
 The media shape public opinion, but they are in turn influenced and manipulated by different interest groups in
society. The media can promote democracy by among other things, educating voters, protecting human rights,
promoting tolerance among various social groups, and ensuring that governments are transparent and
accountable. The media, however, can play antidemocratic roles as well. They can sow fear, division and violence.
Instead of promoting democracy, they can contribute to democratic decay.
 The media’s key role in democratic governance has been recognized since the late 17th century, and remains a
fundamental principle of modern-day democratic theory and practice.
 Their political consequences, however, remain undefined. Access to wider sources of information may be
necessary but not sufficient to bring about political change.