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Mathematical Language

and Symbols
Mathematics in the Modern World
Introduction to Logic

• Logic is the science of correct reasoning.


• Logic allows us to determine the validity of
arguments in and out of mathematics.
• Illustrates the importance of precision and
conciseness of the language of mathematics.
Statement
A statement is a declarative sentence that is either
true (T) or false (F) but NOT both.

Example: Identify whether the following if it is a


statement or not a statement.
1. 9 is a prime number
2. 4 + 6 = 10
3. 𝑥 + 𝑦 > 3
4. 10 < −4
5. 𝑥 = 10
Simple and Compound statements

1. A simple statement is a statement that conveys a


single idea.
2. A compound statement is a statement that
conveys two or more ideas.

• Use words/phrases such as “and”, “or”, “if-then”


and “if and only if” to create a compound
statements.
Let P and Q be simple statements.

Statement Symbols Type

not P ~𝑷 Negation

P and Q 𝑷∧𝑸 Conjunction

P or Q 𝑷 ∨𝑸 Disjunction

If P, then Q 𝑷⟶𝑸 Conditional

P if and only if Q 𝑷⟷𝑸 Biconditional


Truth value and truth table

• The truth value of a simple statement is either


true (T) or false (F).
• The truth value of a compound statement
depends on the truth values of its simple
statements and connectives.
• A truth table is a table that shows the truth
value of a compound statement for all possible
truth values of its simple statements.
Negation
Say P is a statement.
• The negation of P means not 𝑃 and is denoted
by ~𝑷.
• If the statement is false, its negation is true.
• If the statement is true, its negation is false.
• The negation of the negation of a statement is
the original statement
P ~𝑷
F T
T F
Example: Consider the following simple statements.
Write the following in compound statements in symbolic form.
P: Today is Friday.
Q: It is raining.
R: I am going to a movie
S: I am not going to the basketball game.
1. It is not raining.
2. I am going to the basketball game.
3. It is raining or I am going to a movie.
4. Today is not Friday and I am not going to the basketball
game.
5. I am going to a basketball game or I am going to a movie.
6. If it is raining, then I am going to a movie.
7. I am not going to the basketball game if and only if it is
raining.
8. I am going to the basketball game and I am not going to a
movie.
9. If today is Friday, then I am not going to a movie.
10. I am not going to a movie if and only if it is raining.
Compound Statements and Grouping Symbols

• Given a compound statement in symbolic form,


parentheses are used to indicate which simple
statements are grouped together.

Examples:
1. 𝑃 ∧ 𝑄 ∨ ~𝑅
2. 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄 ∨ 𝑅
3. 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄 ⟶ 𝑃 ∨ ~𝑄
Compound Statements and Grouping Symbols

• Given a compound statement written in English,


comma is used to indicate which simple
statements are grouped together.

Examples:
1. 𝑃, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑄 𝑜𝑟 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑅
2. 𝑃 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑄, 𝑜𝑟 𝑅
3. 𝐼𝑓 𝑃 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑄, 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑅 𝑜𝑟 𝑆.
4. 𝑃 𝑜𝑟 𝑄, 𝑖𝑓 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑜𝑛𝑙𝑦 𝑖𝑓 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑅
Conjunction and Disjunction
Say P and Q be statements.
• The conjuction denoted by 𝑷 ∧ 𝑸 is TRUE if and
only if BOTH P and Q are true.
• The disjuction denoted by 𝑷 ∨ 𝑸 is TRUE if and
only if P is TRUE, Q is TRUE, or BOTH P and Q
are true.
Exercise: Determine the truth value of the
compound statement given that
P is FALSE, Q is TRUE and R is TRUE.
1. 𝑃 ∨ ~𝑄 ∨ 𝑅
2. 𝑃 ∧ 𝑄 ∨ ~𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄
3. ~ 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄 ∨ 𝑅 ∧ 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑅
4. 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄 ∨ ~𝑅 ∧ 𝑄 ∧ 𝑅
5. 𝑃 ∧ 𝑄 ∧ 𝑅 ∨ [𝑃 ∨ (𝑄 ∧ ~𝑅)]
Recall:
A truth table is a table that shows the truth value of
a compound statement for all possible truth values
of its simple statements.

Now, our goal is to construct a truth table for a


statement that involves negation, conjunction or
disjunction.

If the given statement involves only two simple


statements, then start with four rows called the
standard truth table form.
Construct a truth table for:

1. 𝑃 ∧ ~(𝑄 ∨ 𝑅)
2.~ ~𝑃 ∨ 𝑄 ∨ 𝑄
3. 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄 ∨ ~𝑃 ∨ 𝑄
4. ~𝑃 ∧ 𝑅 ∨ 𝑄 ∧ ~𝑅
Alternative Method for Truth Tables
1. If the given statement has n simple statements, then start with a
standard form that has 2𝑛 rows. Enter the truth values for each
simple statement and their negations.
2. Use the truth values for each simple statement and their negations to
enter the truth values under each connective within a pair of
grouping symbols—parentheses ( ), brackets [ ], braces { }.
3. If some grouping symbols are nested inside other grouping symbols,
then work from the inside out.
4. In any situation in which grouping symbols have not been used, then
we use the following order of precedence agreement. First assign
truth values to negations from left to right, followed by conjunctions
from left to right, followed by disjunctions from left to right,
followed by conditionals from left to right, and finally by
biconditionals from left to right.
5. The truth values that are entered into the column under the
connective for which truth values are assigned last form the truth
table for the given statement.
Construct a truth table for using the
alternative method:

1. 𝑃 ∧ ~(𝑄 ∨ 𝑅)
2.~ ~𝑃 ∨ 𝑄 ∨ 𝑄
3. 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄 ∨ ~𝑃 ∨ 𝑄
4. ~𝑃 ∧ 𝑅 ∨ 𝑄 ∧ ~𝑅
• Two statements are equivalent if they both
have the same truth value for all possible
truth values of their simple statements.

Examples:
1. Show that ~𝑃 ∧ ~𝑄 and ~ 𝑃 ∨ 𝑄 .
• A tautology is a statement that is always true.

• A self-contradiction is a statement that is


always false.

Examples:
1. Show that 𝑃 ∨ ~𝑃 ∨ 𝑄 is a tautology.
2. Show that 𝑃 ∧ ~𝑃 ∧ 𝑄 is a self-contradiction.
Conditional statements
Say P and Q are statement.
• The proposition 𝑃 ⟶ 𝑄 (If P then Q / P implies Q) is called a
conditional statement (implication).
• P is called the antecedent (hypothesis) and Q is called the
consequent (conclusion).
• The conditional is FALSE only if the antecedent P is true and
the consequent Q is false. It is true in all other cases.
P Q 𝑃⟶𝑄
F F
F T
T F
T T
Conditional statements

Construct a truth table for

[𝑃 ∧ (𝑃 → 𝑄)] → 𝑄.
Conditional statements
Say P and Q are propositions. Given the impication 𝑃 → 𝑄,
 its inverse is ~𝑃 → ~𝑄,
 the converse is 𝑄 → 𝑃,
 its contrapositive is ~𝑄 → ~𝑃

P Q 𝑃→𝑄 ~𝑃 → ~𝑄 𝑄→𝑃 ~𝑄 → ~𝑃
F F
F T
T F
T T
Example:
Inverse, Converse and Contrapositive
Say P and Q are propositions. Given the impication 𝑃 → 𝑄,
 its inverse is ~𝑃 → ~𝑄,
 the converse is 𝑄 → 𝑃,
 its contrapositive is ~𝑄 → ~𝑃

Give the inverse, converse and contrapositive of the following


implication:
1. If this book is interesting, then I am staying at home.
2. If you are more than 60 years old, then you are entitled to a
senior citizen’s card.
Biconditional statement
Say P and Q are statements.
The statement 𝑃 ⟷ 𝑄 (P if and only Q) is called a biconditional
statement.
It is equivalent to (𝑃 → 𝑄) ∧ (𝑄 → 𝑃)

P Q 𝑃→𝑄 𝑄→𝑃 𝑃↔𝑄


F F
F T
T F
T T