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O-Engineers

12th issue, July 2018


Learning and Guiding

Engineer of the Month-


FR Khan-Page-42
Editorial
Note

With limited resources, our


team completed the first year of
publication, from 1st edition to
this present edition of magazine
we received lot of positive and
negative feedback.
We took positive feedback seriously and negative ones more
seriously, Our policy is to not hide any area of improvement
from our readers that is why you saw the publication of
negative feedback also in our magazine. We always believe
in improvement and innovation but not in stagnated
globalization, we are trying to promote the knowledge
sharing without materialistic benefits, anyone can say that
without revenue generation how our magazine can survive
till 12th edition, our response is simple that when we started
this magazine our main motto is to spread the knowledge
and give proper representation to the engineers who want to
share our motto of learning and guiding, we want to thanks
Mr. Rana Irfan Akhter, Mr. Marco Branchi, MR. Raza
Hussain, Mr. Noman , Mr. Naveed Ahmed Unar and all our
writers, these writers are our leader on this path of learning,
hope we will continue this journey for long.
Feedback

Please rename your magazine as "O-Electrical Engineer"


(Inam Ather)
Team O-Engineers: Dear Inam, Thank you for suggestion
and we understand the issue you raise , we are working on it
to includes other engineering articles in next editions

Horrible boss section is good addition (Abdul Hayee khan)

i like Chaos in room article, please add similar articles in


magazine (Rayed Altaf)

Is Mr. Mubarak no more part of O-Engineers?


(Shahid ali)
Team O-Engineers: Mr. Mubarak's articles will be part of
our forthcoming editions

Why Irfan akhter is using your forum to promote his PEC


election campaign ? ( Syed Habib Mohammad )
Team O-Engineers: We did not find any such activity or
hint, it may be some misconfusion, Mr. Irfan is senior most
and respectable engineer and contributor to our magazine.
Cont

Project Management for


Engineers Part-1
Page-1

Horrible Bosses Part-2


Page-12

AC motors for Maintenance


and Protection Engineers
Part-1
Page-14
tents

Electrical Safety
Trades
Page-19

Solar Mobile Hub


Page-29

Engineer of the Month


Page-32

Books of the Month


Page-34
Project Management for
Engineers-Part-1
Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid

Project under study: Electromechanical Relay


Panel Replacement Project at XYZ Electric
Before moving further Electrical Engineer need to
understand what is Project?
Project is define as “‘a unique set of coordinated activities,
with definite starting and finishing points,
Undertaken by an individual or organization to meet
specific objectives within defined schedule, cost and
performance parameters.’”
So if we are working in maintenance department and we
have a job to continue power supply of particular area, we
can say it is not project, why
· It is coordinated activities but not unique, why not
unique? “Engineer and involved team need to follow
standard procedures of organization and not allowed
to think out of box, yes in some scenarios out of box
thinking is allowed but again it is under the umbrella of
organizational approvals for example during task if engineer
found overloading of transformer and he suggest to shift
load to nearby transformer, he need to get approval of such
act from business department, and why this approval is
necessary? Because business department have to readjust
cost center of related maintenance and billing units of load
area”
1
· Although starting is define but No finishing dates
mention, as main objective of this task is continuity,
continuity is something in engineering we called operations
· Cost parameter is link with continuity of power supply,
and will be adjusted in annual cost center of involved
department, which help in cost management
· Performance is not only limited to this task of
continuity of power supply , but it may be a part of our
annual appraisal, and again this parting is depend on other
task allotted to involved engineer and his team

Now let us transform this operational job into project, I am


in maintenance department and I have allotted project to
reduce power supply shortages in particular area within 3
months and budget allotted for this project is $UYZ million.
· It is unique set of coordinated activities, I need to
coordinate with my team, 3rd party service providers
i.e. consultant or designer, consumers, my client’s
representative, other utilities, distributed generation
companies or owners, local law and order authorities etc.
· I have to complete this project within 3 months after
commencement of work, so starting and finishing point is
mentioned and highlighted
· Budget is defined and I am bound to execute my
project within this budget, remember we need to include
our overhead costs in our commercial offers to clients,
Overhead budget can be prepared as per budget baseline
studies.

2
· My performance is totally defined in the successful
execution of project, performance criteria may be defined
be timely execution, cost management, safe work execution
and quality work execution.

Why we need project management in our engineering


fields?
The answer is that project management is essentially
management of change while running a functional or
ongoing business is managing a continuum or ‘business-as-
usual’

Now the question is what is Management of Change?


Management of change is a systematic way to deal with
change within an organization in order to effectively deal
with the change and to capitalize on change opportunities.
Change management includes adapting to the change,
controlling the change and affecting new change.
Management of change requires an organization to take a
proactive approach to change.

Now question is that, can I adopt project management


system in one cable manufacturing factory, I thought
personally it will go bit complex, if I enforce my shift
manager to be responsible for complete cable lot of
particular client, and then transfer him to another cable lot
project once previous one completed, as it is not just that we
will ask him a question about 24 hours production while he
is serving 8 hour official duty, yes he is responsible for his/
her shift. Although provision is there to implement shift
wise project management again it is bit complicated and
away from smart management.
3
We can say after analyzing that any new project is
producing change within an organization

Change can be
· New position i.e. appointment of project manager
and his team or Transfer of Engineer with the team in new
project
· Allotment of resources from existing resources
· New resources acquiring if the organization doesn’t
have required resources in an organization
· Etc.

When an organization has project management structure in


place, they can manage these changes with success.

Now our awarded project is

Electromechanical Relay Panel Replacement Project at XYZ


Electric
Duration is 1 week
Cost is $ 5000
Now analyze it

Is this project time bound?


Yes, client give us a 1 week time to complete

Is this project cost bound?


Yes we quoted under cost $5000

Is scope well defined?


A core requirement of the project is defined

4
Business case
Now the issue is that how management of project team will
be convinced to take Project?
For that purpose, management/project team have to
develop a business case
Please remember “The document which defines and sets
the advantages and parameters of any project is called the
business case”

Who can develop business case?


· Client or
· Sponsor or
· Business development manager

5
Business case main points

The business case is all about why, who, what and how

Let’s make our business case on our understudy project

Please remember contractor-PPN of this project is


1 Owner (General Manager)
21 employee company

The organizational chart is given below

6
Business development manager developed a business case
in this project

Business case- Electromechanical Relay Panel Replacement


Project at XYZ Electric

“Why is this project required”?

The organization has all capabilities to execute this project,


the duration is short, it means resources allocation is
for the very short time interval and also return on this
resource investment is very much profitable. The project is
totally unique to the organization and it also enriches the
company’s experience profile.

“What are we trying to achieve”?

· Profit

· Experience

· Market Sustainability

· Leads to other projects with the same client

· Good customer relationship

“What are the deliverables?”

· Panel Replacement Report

· Working IEDs Panel


7
· Flow Study document

“What is the anticipated cost?”

· $2500+Overhead($750)

“How long will it take to complete?”

· 6 days + 1day(Documentation and Handover)

“What quality standards must be achieved?”

· ISO 9001:2015

“What are the performance criteria?”

· Timely completion

· Execution with minimum overhead cost

· Positive Customer Feedback

· Complete Obligation of Safety and Quality standards

· Complete Project Documentations

· Complete Safety and Quality Documentations

“What are Key Performance Indicators (KPI)?”

· Timely completion
8
· Execution with minimum overhead cost

· Quality work

· Zero incident/accident/causality

“What are the main risks?”

· Delay due to shut down arrangement or shutdown


delay

· Raise in overhead cost due to technical reasons

· Safety risk high due to the involvement of welding

“What are success criteria?”

· Handing over of project to the client with complete


commitments (i.e. documents related to SAT, Quality, Safety
etc.)

“Who are the main stakeholders?”

· Client-XYZ Electric (Direct)

· Contractor-PPN(Direct)

· Local consumers (Direct)

· law enforcement authorities (indirect)

9
· Power Regulatory authorities (indirect)

· Distributed Generation Plants(if any)(indirect)

“Investment Appraisal”

It includes cost/benefit analysis, in cost/benefit analysis


following will be discussed

· Return on Investment (ROI)

· Net Present Value (NPV)

· Payback (PB)

1. Return on investment

Usually, ROI is calculated annually,

ROI = (No: of Years * Return per year) – (total investment)


/ No: of years

For example, If a project investment is $10 000, and gives a


return of $2000 per year over 6 years, then ROI is
= (6*2000) – 10000/6 = $ 333.33

But here project is of 7 days duration, our quotation is


$3250, our “invoice or cash receiving for project” duration
is 10 days ($500/Day) after project handover, so ROI is

= (10*500)-3250/10= $175
10
Usually, ROI is in percentage,
ROI% = (175/3250)*100 = 5.384%

2. Net Present Value


If company invest $3250 in this project, with an expected
profit of $1750, means (5000-3250)*100/3250=53.846%
is profit on this project. So the net present value of this
investment is
NPV = 3250*1.53846=$5000
For next similar project (same duration), it will be
NPV=3250*1.53846*1.53846=$7692.29
For next similar project (same duration), it will be
NPV=3250*1.53846*1.53846*1.53846=$11834.284
Means the NPV of $11834.284 is $5000, this technique help
in defining discount package to the client.

It also will play a major part in quotation stage,


the contractor can quote $11834.284 and also in
the same quote we define discount of (11834.284-
5000/11.834.284)*100=57.7498%, but it is only advisable in
case (you can count this as calculated risk) when there is the
possibility of more than 2 similar projects.

3. Payback
Payback is the period of time it takes to recover the capital
outlay of the project, having taken into account all the
operating and overhead costs during this period. Usually,
this is based on the undiscounted cash flow.

In this project, payback of $3250 is 7days of execution + 10


days.
Continued........
11
Out of Control
"My boss specialization is
his anger, he always searches
for someone to blame on
Horrible issues, most of these issues
Bosses Part-2 are not relevant to the
assigned tasks," Said Ali.
Ali is site engineer in one
Engr. Alina Mumtaz
multinational company,
as per ali his boss is "out
of control" type, during
assigned task his boss is not
so much fond of allotment of agreed approved resources
to project team, but when some issue or flaw raised due to
unavailability of resource he went out of control and put all
blame on his subordinate
"No one like him," Said ali

Sweet Poison
Khan is Manager Engineering, " Our old boss was sweetest
man on earth in front of us, always guided us to achieve
goals,but working under him for 3 years i found I did not
get any promotion or good appraisal rating, when we asked
him about the promotion he always said after this project
we will ensure your referral for promotion and good salary
raise, please Durrani be supportive"
Durrani said "I believed him", but when our boss was fired
and we got new boss, on 3rd day of his joining i talked
him about issue of my promotion and salary raise, what he
told me is enough for upset me, as per our new boss my
performance always reported average in front of board of
12
director and old boss told board that I need continuous
monitoring and he is providing close monitoring to resolve
issues raised due to my incompetence"
Khan "he stalled my career, I advised all workers to keep
in touch with Human resource officer and never rely on
your immediate bosses, they can be ruined your career and
violate your rights"

Heir Boss
Adil tell "New boss is a son of our retired boss and it is the
only quality he has", Adil is senior sales engineer, As per
Adil " Heir boss is yet not ready to take a decision on critical
issues and believe me if this condition persists we may
enter into turmoil state soon, a lot of subordinate workers
openly expressed this in front of me that they are searching
for other options, Sales strategy meetings now are bore,
Meetings were energetic at time of retired boss, because
baby boy is not ready to take charge,now we understood
not all American returned graduates are good bosses, hope
board of directors will get understand soon or else we will
lose market share and position"

Continued....

Note: Please note, we are publishing this series of articles


and we do not intend to disrespect Boss fraternity, we
include this series in our publication because Team
O-Engineers do not want to disregard or exclude any
faction/Component of Corporate Engineering world

13
AC Motor for Motors are everywhere
Maintenance • Fans
and Protection • Compressors
• Cranes
Engineers-Part-1 • Pumps
• Etc.
Means it is necessary for us to
spend affordable and luxurious
Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid life with the help of motors,one
aspect is unavoidable that either
we are industrialist or farm worker or resident of housing
colony we need motors. But for long-term usage, we
also want to secure or protect our purchased (high cost)
motors. If we are industrialist we not only need to take care
of our motor also, but also security of network at which
our motors/industrial system is connected, as Arjit and
Jakov Vico informed us in their paper “motor protection
principles” that motor failure rate is around 3% to 4 %,
but this rate will be around 12% in industrial sectors like
“mining, pulp, and paper industries”.
Failures means, Maintenance engineer need to repair or
remove or replace affected motors. This means expenditure,
and we called this expenditure a “Failure Rate Cost”,
Maintenance Engineers divided “Failure Rate Cost” in three
categories
• Electrical Failures (around 33%)
• Mechanical Failures (around 33%)
• Environmental Failures (around 33%)
If I think like factory manager/business owner then this
Failure means outage and outage means loss of production
14
in industry, which ultimately causes reputation loss and
financial loss. We can reduce the outage impact by proper
protection scheme designing of motors.
If we analyze the reason for failures, it is most of the time
due to overheating of motors.

ACTION LINE IS LIKE,

• Overheating in motor

• Thermal stress develop due to overheating

• Failure occurs at bushing/rotor/stator/bearing/Shaft/frame

If we describe in terms of risks, overheating can possess two


main risks
Insulation damage at the stator
Meltdown or deforming of rotor conductors
Before moving forward we need to understand the concept
of rotor and stator limited motors. I defined it like “motors
running 1800rpm or slower are rotor limited” We can say
that Overheating is caused due to a lengthy stall time of
motor (in case of rotor limited motor). Now, what is that
stall time? Motor stalling means that the electric motor has
more load on it than it is designed for and it can no longer
supply enough torque to keep it spinning. In general, this
could happen at all types of motors. The main thing is
when the load torque has increased more and more (which
is above the character of the main torque of the motor)
so-called "overload region" where the motor develops its
maximum torque. At this point, if the load torque is further
increased the speed will automatically be reduced and
15
this procedure is called 'stalling'. Now I am saying when
allowed stall time pass and rotor limited motor is still in a
state of stalling, then this state will cause overheating, and
due to this overheating, we have thermal stress in our motor
and due to this thermal stress we will have meltdown or
deformation in our motor’s rotor conductors. How will I be
alarmed when there is not allowable stalling in the motor?
Stalling may be electrical or mechanical. In electrical
stalling, phenomena can be observed by • Vibration •
Humming sound In Mechanical stalling, phenomena can be
observed by • Driven device or rotor unable to move or not
seem to be in motion Let discuss overheating case in terms
of insulation degradation, see below mention figure

Look in A-Class, when temperature increase by 10°C


(means the temperature is now115°C due to overheating,
you can observe the Percentage of life of A-Class motor is
reduced up to 50%. Similar to all other Classes of motors
as shown in figure mention above. Our discussion so far is
related to maintenance or operation engineer, but failure or
faults of motors are not limited to overheating only but
16
there are another type of faults also, like Internal faults
Operating or External Faults Internal Faults includes
Ground Faults Intra-winding Faults (i.e. faults between
windings) Inter turns Faults External or operating faults
includes Under voltage Faults Asymmetrical loading Faults
Phase Faults on the motor feeder Ground Faults on the
motor feeder Faults due to Overloading during motor
starting Faults due to Overloading during motor running
Now as a protection engineer, we need to secure our
motor from these internal and external faults, now we start
working on motor protection.

Overvoltage protection of Motor: Before starting this


discussion “What happens when our motor expose to Over
Voltages”, I need to understand what is the slip? Slip can be
defined as the difference between the flux speed (Ns) and
the rotor speed (N). The speed of the rotor of an induction
motor is always less than its synchronous speed. Ok,

17
now from this figure,
we can see “C” is our
magnetization current,
and our motor current is
comprised of load current
and magnetization
current, magnetization
current is always desired
to be low, but if it
increases in our motor,
our load current definitely decreased which is never desired by an
electrical engineer or utility or industrialist. Please note if magnetization
current increases then our core loses reduces and if our load current
decreases then motor’s copper losses reduces. After this all discussion
we understood what happens when our motor exposes to Overvoltage,
in addition, we need to understand one more thing in terms of the
design of motors. Designers always aim to could cause saturation of
air gap flux leading motor heating, and this motor heating increases
overall loose, less efficiency, higher dielectric stress on motor insulation
and higher operating temperature of the machine. Now we understood
the harmful effect of overvoltages, as protection engineers we need to
keep in mind the overvoltage protection as part of motor protection
scheme while designing Protection scheme of motor, it is recommended
to set overvoltage element as 110% of nameplate voltage data, but
this is alterable as per the system or utility or client requirement.
(Continued......)
18
Safety is the basic need of any
system in which human rsource
Electrical Safety and resources are involve, we
Trades will define basic concepts of
safety trades in this article.

Engr. Suhail Hasan Awan Electrocution:


Electrocution is the third leading
cause of work-related deaths
among site workers, after motor vehicle deaths and
workplace homicide. Electrocution is the cause of 12% of all
workplace deaths among young workers.

There are four main types of electrical injuries


1. electrocution (death due to electrical shock)
2. Electrical shock
3. Burns
4. Falls/Trips

19
Burns Caused by Electricity:

The most common shock-related, nonfatal injury is a burn.


Burns caused by electricity may be of three types: electrical
burns, arc burns, and thermal contact burns. Electrical
burns can result when a person touches electrical wiring or
equipment that is used or maintained improperly

20
Electrical Fires:

A(think: Ashes) = paper, wood, etc.


B(think: Barrel) = flammable liquids
C(think: Circuits) = electrical fires

What Should I Do If a Co-Worker IsShocked or Burned by


Electricity?

1. Do not touch the victim yourself if he is still in contact


with an electrical circuit!
2. Do not leave the victim unless there is absolutely no other
option
3. You should stay with the victim while Emergency
Medical Services (EMS) is contacted. The caller should
come back to you afterward to verify that the call was made.
Once you know that electrical current is no longer flowing
through the victim, call out to the victim to see if he is
conscious (awake). If the victim is conscious,tell the victim
not to move. It is possible for a shock victim to be seriously
injured but not realize it. Quickly examine the victim for
signs of major bleeding. If there is a lot of bleeding, place a
cloth (such as a handkerchief or bandanna) over the wound
and apply pressure. If the wound is in an arm or leg and
keeps bleeding a lot, gently elevate the injured area while
keeping the pressure on the wound. Keep the victim warm
and talk to him or her until help arrives.
4. If the victim is unconscious, check for signs of breathing.
While you do this, move the victim as little as possible. If
the victim is not breathing, someone trained in CPR should
begin artificial breathing, then check to see if the victim has
a pulse. Quick action is essential! To be effective, CPR must
21
be performed within 4 minutes of the shock.

Safety model

Please follow below mention sequence


1. Recognize
2. Evaluate
3. Control hazards

If you do not recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you


may be injured or killed by the electricity itself, electrical
fires, or falls. If you use the safety model to recognize,
evaluate, and control hazards, you are much safer.

1. Recognize hazards

The first part of the safety model is recognizing the hazards


around you. Only then can you avoid or control the hazards.
It is best to discuss and plan hazard recognition tasks with
your co-workers. Sometimes we take risks ourselves, but
when we are responsible for others, we are more careful.
Sometimes others see hazards that we overlook. Of course,
it is possible to be talked out of our concerns

2. Evaluate hazards

When evaluating hazards, it is best to identify all possible


hazards first, then evaluate the risk of injury from each
hazard. Do not assume the risk is low until you evaluate
the hazard. It is dangerous to overlook hazards. Job sites
are especially dangerous because they are always changing.
Many people are working on different tasks.
22
Job sites are frequently exposed to bad weather. A
reasonable place to work on a bright, sunny day might be
very hazardous in the rain.
The risks in your work environment need to be evaluated
all the time. Then, whatever hazards are present need to be
controlled.

3. Control hazards

Once electrical hazards have been recognized and


evaluated, they must be controlled. You control electrical
hazards in two main ways:
(1) create a safe work environment
2) use safe work practices. Controlling electrical hazards (as
well as other hazards) reduces the risk of injury or death.

Safety Model Stage 1—

Recognizing Hazards
How Do You Recognize Hazards?
The first step toward protecting yourself is recognizing the
many hazards you face on the job. To do this, you must
know which situations can place you in danger. Knowing
where to look helps you to recognize hazards.
a) Inadequate wiring is dangerous.
b) Exposed electrical parts are dangerous.
c) Overhead power lines are dangerous.
d) Wires with bad insulation can give you a shock.
e) Electrical systems and tools that are not grounded or
double-insulated are dangerous.
f) Overloaded circuits are dangerous.
g) Damaged power tools and equipment are electrical hazards.
23
h) Using the wrong PPE is dangerous.
i) Using the wrong tool is dangerous.
j) Some on-site chemicals are harmful.
k) Defective ladders and scaffolding are dangerous.
l) Ladders that conduct electricity are dangerous.
m) Electrical hazards can be made worse if the worker,
location, or equipment is wet.

Safety Model Stage 2—

Evaluating Hazards
How Do You Evaluate Your Risk?
After you recognize a hazard, your next step is to evaluate
your risk from the hazard. Obviously, exposed wires should
be recognized as a hazard. If the exposed wires are 15 feet
off the ground, your risk is low. However, if you are going
to be working on a roof near those same wires, your risk
is high. The risk of shock is greater if you will be carrying
metal conduit that could touch the exposed wires. You
must constantly evaluate your risk.
a)Tripped circuit breakers and blown fuses show that too
much current is flowing in a circuit. This condition could
be due to several factors, such as malfunctioning equipment
or a short between conductors. You need to determine the
cause in order to control the hazard.
b)An electrical tool, appliance, wire, or connection that
feels warm may indicate too much current in the circuit
or equipment. You need to evaluate the situation and
determine your risk.
c)An extension cord that feels warm may indicate too much
current for the wire size of the cord. You must decide when
action needs to be taken.
24
d)A cable, fuse box, or junction box that feels warm may
indicate too much current in the circuits.
e) A burning odor may indicate overheated insulation.

Safety Model Stage 3—

Controlling Hazards:
Safe Work Environment
How Do You Control Hazards?
In order to control hazards, you must first create a safe work
environment,
then work in a safe manner.
You need to guard against contact with electrical voltages
and control electrical currents in order to create a safe work
environment.
Make your environment safer by doing the following:
a) Treat all conductors—even “de-energized” ones—as if
they are energized until they are locked out and tagged(DB
hang).
b) Lockout and tag out switches.
c) Prevent overloaded wiring by using the right size and
type of wire.
d)Prevent exposure to live electrical parts by isolating them.
e) Prevent exposure to live wires and parts by using
insulation.
f) Prevent shocking currents from electrical systems and
tools by
grounding them.
g) Prevent too much current in circuits by using overcurrent
protection devices.

Now we are discussing one case study


25
Case study:

On 16th November 2012, at about 1130 hrs, an  OPN gang


was dispatched for providing shutdown for rectification of
HT fault(re-sagging and repositioning of HT conductor
on pin insulator). After Shut off a feeder from respective
Grid Station, HT supervisor removed HT jumpers with
short & ground on the nearest shackle point and gave
isolation clearance to the OPN center. At about 1515 hrs, a
mains maintenance gang (deceased – LMO & 2  S.Sk L/M)
of VIBC ABC reached the site and started rectification
work. At about 1815 hrs, deceased in complete PPEs had
re-sagged two of the HT conductors and while re-sagging
the third conductor, he received an electric shock on his
right elbow through return current of PMT. He was rushed
to the nearby hospital and then to JPMC where he was
pronounced ‘dead on arrival’ due to electric current.

Findings:

The deceased was LMO (Company permanent employee);


48 years old, and had an experience of 23 years in the
company.
At about 1130 hrs, HT OPN gang reached the site of work.
After putting ‘off ’ feeder, supervisor removed HT jumpers
from the nearest shackle point along with short & ground
on the incoming side Supervisor neither opened HT links of
PMT”s nor short & grounded other HT sides hence leaving
a chance for return current through stated PMTs, at about
1515 hrs, mains maintenance gang comprising of LMO -
(deceased) & 2 S. Sk. L/M reached the site of work.
Deceased, in complete PPEs/SPEs, started the rectification
26
work without putting off LT breaker of both PMTs.
Also, one of the two outgoing DBs of one PMT was neither
isolated nor short & grounded hence leaving a chance for
return current; same was witnessed by the area people.
The area was Kunda infested.
Deceased re-sagged two of the HT conductors and while re-
sagging the third one on the PMT, his right elbow touched
the conductor and got electrocuted by the return current
from the same PMT.
Deceased hanged on the anti per chant bracket at the
PMT for around 20 minutes as return current was flowing
through his body
 Afterward, HT links at the PMT were detached for
breaking return current path and deceased was brought
down by disengaging the Full Body Harness Belt; also
witnessed by area people.
The victim was rushed to nearby Govt. Hospital and then
shifted to JPMC where he was pronounced ‘dead on arrival’
Current entry mark has been established on the right elbow
while the exit mark has been identified on the right thigh.
No tripping was recorded at the grid station which further
confirms that the deceased got electrocuted by return
current.
Deceased leaves behind 2 grown up sons and two daughters.

Accident Analysis:

A case of negligence by both HT supervisor and deceased,


in that, improper isolation at the PMT by the HT supervisor
and improper LT isolation (breaker not opened neither LT
side short & grounded) by the deceased resulted in the fatal
accident
27
Cause of Accident:

1. Improper Isolation:
In that, HT supervisor failed to isolate both PMTs through
DO cutout or short & ground PMT HT bushing
LT breakers were neither put ‘off ’ nor LT mains short &
grounded of both PMTs by the deceased

2. Human Factor:
Complacency/overconfidence shown by the deceased as
he failed to gauge the kunda infested surroundings and
ensure no possibility of return current by isolating, short &
grounding LT mains 

Recommendations by Safety Investigation


Team:

Strict disciplinary action be taken against  OPN supervisor


for violating clause # 5 of line isolation SOP
10 safety marks of  GM/DGM/Manager - HT and GM /
DGM / Manager (VIBC) be deducted from APA-2012 for
not ensuring proper implementation of Line Isolation SOP;
this is the second fatal accident in last 4 months in the same
area.
The accident be counted against Region in the award of
SLA-2012
Mechanism be devised in each V/IBC for ensuring proper
isolation in main maintenance tasks

28
Country is the Netherlands,
combined effort is of 8
companies, result is 5.52
Solar Mobile KWp (please remember Solar
electricity systems are given a
Hub rating in kilowatts peak (kWp).
This is essentially the rate at
which it generates energy at
Engr. Qazi Arsalan Hamid
peak performance for example
at noon on a sunny day) of free
electrical energy, and this solar
panel can charge three E-bikes
simultaneously. PV panels are installed on rooftop (area
covered by these PV panels are 35.28 square meters) with
south facing, this south position is favorable azimuth
(Azimuth and elevation are the two coordinates that define
the position of a celestial body (sun, moon) in the sky
as viewed from a particular location at a particular time
please see given figure for understanding of this concept of
Azimuth.) of Netherlands.

29
The tilt angle of PV panel is 15 degree. Planner of this
project kept this point in mind that location of the project
must not have nearby tall buildings. Project Owners also
installed a waterproof TV screen, why? The answer is
advertisements, remember there is no free lunch in the
world, everything has cost even free electrical energy is
charge via advertisement.

The PV panels details are mention below

With Tv screen and automatic Doors, they installed

• AC sockets
• Security Camera
• Energy meter
• Tube lights

PV panel is connected to Maximum Power Point Tracking


(Maximum Power Point Tracking or MPPT is an algorithm
that included in charge controllers used for extracting
maximum available power from PV module under certain
conditions. The voltage at which PV module can produce
maximum power is called 'maximum power point' (or peak
power voltage), MPPT installed here for the same purpose
to extract maximum DC power to satisfy connect AC
loads). The system has a battery bank of 48 V 220 Ah AGM
(Absorbent Glass Mat) lead-acid batteries (4 batteries),
these all are enclosed in one cabinet at the eastern side of
30
this SMH. Given below is a schematic representation of
SMH

They also connected one inverter of 3KWp, so same SMH


can act as distributed generator and can sell surplus power
to local grid, here they installed less capacity inverter of
3KWp, As per literature the connected inverted must be
equal to the nominal power of associated DC generator/PV
Panel, but here, in this case, it is lower than nominal power
because the design was proposed based on winter months
which have low irradiance days and thereby, maintaining
average performance throughout the year at a lower cost.
In addition to all this arrangement, the mandatory anti-
islanding protection is implemented as well .please note
Islanding refers to the condition of a DG generator that
continues to feed the circuit with power, even after power
from the electric utility grid has been cut off. Islanding can
pose a dangerous threat to utility workers, who may not
realize that a circuit is still "live" while attempting to work
on the line. Distributed generators must detect islanding
and immediately stop feeding the utility lines with power.
This is known as anti-islanding. This is state of art and
inspirational project
31
Engineer of the
Month

Fazlur Rahman Khan (3 April 1929 – 27 March 1982) was


a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer and architect,
who initiated important structural systems for skyscrapers.
Considered the "father of tubular designs" for high-rises,
Khan was also a pioneer in computer-aided design (CAD).
He was the designer of the Sears Tower, since renamed
Willis Tower, the tallest building in the world from 1973
until 1998, and the 100-story John Hancock Center.
Khan introduced design methods and concepts for efficient
use of material in building architecture. His first building
to employ the tube structure was the Chestnut De-Witt
apartment building.
In 1955, employed by the architectural firm Skidmore,
Owings & Merrill (SOM), he began working in Chicago.
He was made a partner in 1966 and became a naturalized
American citizen in 1967.During the 1960s and 1970s, he
became noted for his designs for Chicago's 100-story John
Hancock Center and 110-story Sears Tower, since renamed
Willis Tower, the tallest building in the world from 1973
until 1998.
He believed that engineers needed a broader perspective on
life, saying, "The technical man must not be lost in his own
32
technology; he must be able to appreciate life, and life is art,
drama, music, and most importantly, people."
Khan's personal papers, most of which were in his office at
the time of his death, are held by the Ryerson & Burnham
Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. The Fazlur Khan
Collection includes manuscripts, sketches, audio cassette
tapes, slides and other materials regarding his work.
Khan discovered that the rigid
steel frame structure that had
long dominated tall building
design was not the only system
fitting for tall buildings,
marking the start of a new era of
skyscraper construction.Khan's
central innovation in skyscraper
design and construction was
the idea of the "tube" structural
system for tall buildings,
including the framed tube,
trussed tube, and bundled tube
variants.
In the 1970s, engineers were just starting to use computer
structural analysis on a large scale. SOM was at the center of
these new developments, with undeniable contributions from
Khan. Graham and Khan lobbied SOM partners to purchase
a mainframe computer, a risky investment at a time, when
new technologies were just starting to form. The partners
agreed, and Khan began programming the system to calculate
structural engineering equations, and later, to develop
architectural drawings

33
Books of the
Month

Handbook of Networks in Power Systems


Energy has been an inevitable component of human lives
for decades. Recent rapid developments in the area require
analyzing energy systems not as independent components
but rather as connected interdependent networks. The
Handbook of Networks in Power Systems includes the state-
of-the-art developments that occurred in the power systems
networks, in particular, gas, electricity, liquid fuels, freight
networks, as well as their interactions. The book is separated
into two volumes with three sections, where one scientific
paper or more are included to cover most important areas
of networks in power systems. The first volume covers
topics arising in the electricity network, in particular,
electricity markets, smart grid, network expansion, as well
as risk management. The second volume presents problems
arising in gas networks such as scheduling and planning of
natural gas systems, pricing, as well as the optimal location
of gas supply units. In addition, the second volume covers
the topics of interactions between energy networks. Each
subject is identified following the activity on the domain
and the recognition of each subject as an area of research.
The scientific papers are authored by world specialists on
34
the domain and present either state-of-the-arts reviews or
scientific developments

Competitive Strategy: Options and Games

Corporate managers who face both


strategic uncertainty and market
uncertainty confront a classic
trade-off between commitment and
flexibility. They can stake a claim by
making a large capital investment
today, influencing their rivals'
behavior, or they can take a "wait
and see" approach to avoid adverse
market consequences tomorrow.
In Competitive Strategy,Benoit
Chevalier-Roignant and Lenos

describe an emerging paradigm that can quantify and


balance commitment and flexibility, "option games," by
which the decision-making approaches of real options and
game theory can be combined.
The authors first discuss prerequisite concepts and tools
from basic game theory, industrial organization, and
real options analysis, and then present the new approach
in discrete time and later in continuous time. Their
presentation of continuous-time option games is the first
systematic coverage of the topic and fills a significant gap in
the existing literature.Competitive Strategy provides a rigorous yet
pragmatic and intuitive approach to strategy formulation. It synthesizes
research in the areas of strategy, economics, and finance in a way that is
accessible to readers not necessarily expert in the various fields involved.

35
1 Year Completed

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