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EQUILIBRIUM -SL

1. The equilibrium between nitrogen dioxide, NO2, and dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, is shown below.

2NO2(g) N2O4(g) Kc = 0.01

What happens when the volume of a mixture at equilibrium is decreased at a constant temperature?

I. The value of Kc increases [ NO 2 ]

II. More N2O4 is formed III. The ratio of [ N 2 O 4 ] decreases

A. I and II only C. II and III only

B. I and III only D. I, II and III(Total 1 mark)

. Which statement about chemical equilibria implies they are dynamic?

A. The position of equilibrium constantly changes.

B. The rates of forward and backward reactions change.

C. The reactants and products continue to react.

D. The concentrations of the reactants and products continue to change.

(Total 1 mark)
3. Methanol may be produced by the exothermic reaction of carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas.
O
CO(g) + 2H2(g) CH3OH(g) ∆H = –103 kJ

(a) State the equilibrium constant expression, Kc, for the production of methanol.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

(1)
(b) State and explain the effect of changing the following conditions on the amount of methanol present at
equilibrium:

(i) increasing the temperature of the reaction at constant pressure.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

(2)
(ii) increasing the pressure of the reaction at constant temperature.

...........................................................................................................................

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(2)
(c) The conditions used in industry during the production of methanol are a temperature of 450 °C and
pressure of up to 220 atm. Explain why these conditions are used rather than those that could give an even
greater amount of methanol.

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......................................................................................................................................

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(2)
(d) A catalyst of copper mixed with zinc oxide and alumina is used in industry for this production of methanol.
Explain the function of the catalyst.

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(1)

(Total 8 marks)
–5
4. For the following reaction Kc = 1.0 × 10 at 30 °C.

2NOCl(g) 2NO(g) + Cl2(g)

Which relationship is correct at equilibrium at this temperature?

A. The concentration of NO equals the concentration of NOCl.

B. The concentration of NOCl is double the concentration of Cl 2.

C. The concentration of NOCl is much greater than the concentration of Cl 2.

D. The concentration of NO is much greater than the concentration of NOCl.

(Total 1 mark)
5. The reaction below represents the Haber process for the industrial production of ammonia.
O
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) ∆H = –92 kJ

The optimum conditions of temperature and pressure are chosen as a compromise between those that favour a
high yield of ammonia and those that favour a fast rate of production. Economic considerations are also
important.

Which statement is correct?

A. A higher temperature would ensure higher yield and a faster rate.

B. A lower pressure would ensure a higher yield at a lower cost.

C. A lower temperature would ensure a higher yield and a faster rate.

D. A higher pressure would ensure a higher yield at a higher cost.

(Total 1 mark)
6. An example of a homogeneous reversible reaction is the reaction between hydrogen and iodine.

H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g)

(i) Outline the characteristics of a homogeneous chemical system that is in a state of equilibrium.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

(2)
(ii) Deduce the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kc.

......................................................................................................................................

(1)
(iii) Predict what would happen to the position of equilibrium and the value of Kc if the pressure is increased
from 1 atm to 2 atm.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

(2)
(iv) The value of Kc at 500 K is 160 and the value of Kc at 700 K is 54. Deduce what this information tells us
about the enthalpy change of the forward reaction.

......................................................................................................................................

(1)
(v) The reaction can be catalysed by adding platinum metal. State and explain what effect the addition of
platinum would have on the value of the equilibrium constant.

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(Total 8 marks)
7. Which statement is correct for a crystal of iron(II) sulfate in a state of equilibrium with a saturated solution of
iron(II) sulfate?

A. The colour of the solution darkens as the crystal continues to dissolve.

B. The concentration of the iron(II) sulfate solution increases as the water evaporates.

C. The shape of the iron(II) sulfate crystal does not change.

D. The colour of the solution does not change but the shape of the crystal may change.

(Total 1 mark)
8. (i) A state of equilibrium can exist when a piece of copper metal is placed in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
Outline the characteristics of a chemical system in dynamic equilibrium.

(2)
(ii) For an exothermic reaction state how an increase in temperature would affect both Kc and the position of
equilibrium.

(2)
(Total 4 marks)
9. Consider the equilibrium between methanol, CH3OH(l), and methanol vapour, CH3OH(g).

CH3OH(l) CH3OH(g)

What happens to the position of equilibrium and the value of Kc as the temperature decreases?

Position of equilibrium Value of Kc


A. shifts to the left decreases
B. shifts to the left increases
C. shifts to the right decreases
D. shifts to the right increases
(Total 1 mark)
10. What is the equilibrium constant expression, Kc, for the following reaction?

N2O4(g) 2NO2(g)

[NO2 ] [NO 2 ]
2
A. Kc = [N 2 O 4 ] C. Kc = [N 2 O 4 ]

[NO 2 ] 2 D. Kc = [NO2][N2O4]
2

B. Kc = [N 2 O 4 ]

(Total 1 mark)
11. Consider the endothermic reaction below.

5CO(g) + I2O5(g) 5CO2(g) + I2(g)

According to Le Chatelier’s principle, which change would result in an increase in the amount of CO 2?

A. Increasing the temperature C. Increasing the pressure

B. Decreasing the temperature D. Decreasing the pressure

(Total 1 mark)
12. In carbonated drinks containing dissolved carbon dioxide under high pressure, the following dynamic equilibrium
exists.

CO2(aq) CO2(g)

Describe the effect of opening a carbonated drink container and outline how this equilibrium is affected.

(Total 2 marks)
13. The Haber process enables the large-scale production of ammonia needed to make fertilizers.

The equation for the Haber process is given below.

N2(g) + 3H2 2NH3(g)

The percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture varies with temperature.

(i) Use the graph to deduce whether the forward reaction is exothermic or endothermic and explain your
choice.

(2)
(ii) State and explain the effect of increasing the pressure on the yield of ammonia.

(2)
(iii) Explain the effect of increasing the temperature on the rate of reaction.

(2)
(Total 6 marks)
14. What is the effect of an increase of temperature on the yield and the equilibrium constant for the following
reaction?
O
2H2(g) + CO(g) CH3OH(l) ∆H = –128 kJ

Yield Equilibrium
constant
A. Increases Increases
B. Increases Decreases
C. Decreases Increases
D. Decreases Decreases
(Total 1 mark)

15. Consider the following equilibrium reaction.


o
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ∆H = –197 kJ

Which change in conditions will increase the amount of SO3 present when equilibrium is re-established?

A. Decreasing the concentration of SO2

B. Increasing the volume

C. Decreasing the temperature

D. Adding a catalyst

(Total 1 mark)
16. Biodiesel makes use of plants’ ability to fix atmospheric carbon by photosynthesis.
Many companies and individuals are now using biodiesel as a fuel in order to reduce their carbon footprint.
Biodiesel can be synthesized from vegetable oil according to the following reaction.

(a) Identify the organic functional group present in both vegetable oil and biodiesel.

......................................................................................................................................

(1)
(b) For part of her extended essay investigation into the efficiency of the process, a student reacted a pure
sample of a vegetable oil (where R = C17H33) with methanol.
The raw data recorded for the reaction is below.

Mass of oil = 1013.0 g


Mass of methanol = 200.0 g
Mass of sodium hydroxide = 3.5 g
Mass of biodiesel produced = 811.0 g

The relative molecular mass of the oil used by the student is 885.6. Calculate the amount (in moles) of the
oil and the methanol used, and hence the amount (in moles) of excess methanol.

......................................................................................................................................

(3)
(c) The reversible arrows in the equation indicate that the production of biodiesel is an equilibrium process.

(i) State what is meant by the term dynamic equilibrium.


...........................................................................................................................

(1)
(ii) Using the abbreviations [vegetable oil], [methanol], [glycerol] and [biodiesel] deduce the equilibrium
constant expression (Kc) for this reaction.

(1)
(iii) Suggest a reason why excess methanol is used in this process.

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(1)
(iv) State and explain the effect that the addition of the sodium hydroxide catalyst will have on the
position of equilibrium.

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(2)
(d) The reactants had to be stirred vigorously because they formed two distinct layers in the reaction vessel.
Explain why they form two distinct layers and why stirring increases the rate of reaction.

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(2)
(e) Calculate the percentage yield of biodiesel obtained in this process.

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(2)
(f) When biodiesel is combusted it produces carbon dioxide. Explain why the use of biodiesel as a fuel does
not significantly contribute to global warming.

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(1)

(Total 14 marks)
17. Consider the following reversible reaction.

2– 2– +
Cr2O7 (aq) + H2O(l) 2CrO4 (aq) + 2H (aq)

+
What will happen to the position of equilibrium and the value of Kc when more H ions are added at constant
temperature?

Position of equilibrium Value of Kc


A. shifts to the left decreases
B. shifts to the right increases
C. shifts to the right does not change
D. shifts to the left does not change
(Total 1 mark)
18. What effect will an increase in temperature have on the Kc value and the position of equilibrium in the following
reaction?

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) ΔH = –92 kJ


Kc Equilibrium position
A. increases shifts to the right
B. decreases shifts to the left
C. increases shifts to the left
D. decreases shifts to the right
(Total 1 mark)
19. Which statement is always correct for a chemical reaction at equilibrium?

A. The rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.

B. The amounts of reactants and products are equal.

C. The concentration of the reactants and products are constantly changing.

D. The forward reaction occurs to a greater extent than the reverse reaction.(Total 1 mark)

20. Consider the following equilibrium.

o –1
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g) ΔH = –198 kJ mol

(i) Deduce the equilibrium constant expression, Kc, for the reaction.

(1)
(ii) State and explain the effect of increasing the temperature on the yield of sulfur trioxide.

(2)
(iii) State the effect of a catalyst on the value of Kc.

(1)
(iv) State and explain the effect of a catalyst on the position of equilibrium.(2)

(Total 6 marks)
21. An increase in temperature increases the amount of chlorine present in the following equilibrium.

PCl5(s) PCl3(l) + Cl2(g)

What is the best explanation for this?

A. The higher temperature increases the rate of the forward reaction only.

B. The higher temperature increases the rate of the reverse reaction only.

C. The higher temperature increases the rate of both reactions but the forward reaction is affected more than
the reverse.

D. The higher temperature increases the rate of both reactions but the reverse reaction is affected more than
the forward.

(Total 1 mark)

22. What will happen when at a constant temperature, more iodide ions, I , are added to the equilibrium below?
– –
I2(s) + I (aq) I3 (aq)

A. The amount of solid iodine decreases and the equilibrium constant increases.

B. The amount of solid iodine decreases and the equilibrium constant remains unchanged.

C. The amount of solid iodine increases and the equilibrium constant decreases.

D. The amount of solid iodine increases and the equilibrium constant remains unchanged.(Total 1 mark)
3
23. Consider the following reaction taking place at 375 °C in a 1.00 dm closed container.
O
Cl2(g) + SO2(g) SO2Cl2(g) ∆H = –84.5 kJ

(i) Deduce the equilibrium constant expression, Kc, for the reaction.(1)

(ii) If the temperature of the reaction is changed to 300 °C, predict, stating a reason in each case, whether the
equilibrium concentration of SO2Cl2 and the value of Kc will increase or decrease.(3)

3
(iii) If the volume of the container is changed to 1.50 dm , predict, stating a reason in each case, how this will
affect the equilibrium concentration of SO2Cl2 and the value of Kc.(3)

(iv) Suggest, stating a reason, how the addition of a catalyst at constant pressure and temperature will affect the
equilibrium concentration of SO2Cl2.(2)

(Total 9 marks)
24. The sequence of diagrams represents the system as time passes for a gas phase reaction in which reactant X is
converted to product Y.

D ia g ra m 1 D ia g ra m 2 D ia g ra m D ia g ra m 4
t = 7 second s t = 5 m in u te s t = 1 0 m in u te s t = 5 days

T im e , t
X =

Y =

Which statement is correct?

A. At t = 5 days the rate of the forward reaction is greater than the rate of the backward reaction.

B. At t = 7 seconds the reaction has reached completion.

C. At t = 10 minutes the system has reached a state of equilibrium.

D. At t = 5 days the rate of the forward reaction is less than the rate of the backward reaction.

(Total 1 mark)
25. What changes occur when the temperature is increased in the following reaction at equilibrium?

ο –1
Br2(g) + Cl2(g) 2BrCl(g) ∆H = +14 kJ mol

Position of equilibrium Value of equilibrium constant


A. Shifts towards the reactants Decreases
B. Shifts towards the reactants Increases
C. Shifts towards the products Decreases
D. Shifts towards the products Increases
(Total 1 mark)
26. The diagrams below represent equilibrium mixtures for the reaction Y + X 2 XY + X at 350 K and 550 K
respectively. Deduce and explain whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic.
X = 350 K 550 K

Y =

(Total 2 marks)
27. The equation for the main reaction in the Haber process is:

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) ∆H is negative

(i) Determine the equilibrium constant expression for this reaction.(1)

(ii) State and explain the effect on the equilibrium yield of ammonia with increasing the pressure and the
temperature.(4)

(iii) In practice, typical conditions used in the Haber process involve a temperature of 500 °C and a pressure of
200 atm. Explain why these conditions are used rather than those that give the highest yield.(2)
3 3
(iv) At a certain temperature and pressure, 1.1 dm of N2(g) reacts with 3.3 dm of H2(g). Calculate the volume
of NH3(g), that will be produced.(1)

(v) Suggest why this reaction is important for humanity.(1)

(vi) A chemist claims to have developed a new catalyst for the Haber process, which increases the yield of
ammonia. State the catalyst normally used for the Haber process, and comment on the claim made by this
chemist.(2) (Total 11 marks)

MARKSCHEME
1. C[1] 2. C[1]
[CH 3 OH]
2
3. (a) (Kc =) [CO][H 2 ] ; 1
Do not award mark if incorrect brackets are used or brackets are missing.
(b) (i) amount (of methanol)/product decreases / less methanol;
(forward reaction) exothermic / reverse reaction endothermic / OWTTE; 2
(ii) amount (of methanol)/product increases / more methanol;
3 gas molecules/mol → 1 / decrease in volume / fewer gas
molecules on right hand side/products / more gas molecules
on left hand side/reactants; 2
(c) high pressure expensive / greater cost of operating at high pressure;
lower temperature – lower (reaction) rate; 2
(d) increases rate of forward and reverse reactions (equally) / lowers
activation energy/Ea (of both the forward and reverse reaction
equally) / provides alternative path with lower activation energy/Ea; 1
Accept reactants adsorb onto the catalyst surface and bonds
weaken resulting in a decrease in the activation energy.
[8]
4. C[1] 5. D[1]
6. (i) reactants and products in same phase/state;
rate of forward reaction = rate of reverse reaction;
concentrations of reactants and products remain constant /
macroscopic properties remain constant; 2 max
Do not accept concentrations are equal.
[HI 2 ]
(ii) (K ) = [H 2 ][I 2 ] ;
c 1
(iii) no change to position of equilibrium;
no change to value of Kc; 2
(iv) the reaction is exothermic/heat is given out/∆H is negative; 1
(v) no effect (on the value of the equilibrium constant);
as it speeds up forward and reverse reaction / concentrations
of reactants and products do not change / position of equilibrium
does not change / no change in yield; 2[8]
7. D[1]
8. (i) macroscopic properties remain constant / concentrations remain
constant / no change to copper solution seen;
rate of reverse/backwards reaction = rate of forward reaction; 2
(ii) Kc decreases;
position of equilibrium shifts to left; 2[4]
9. A[1] 10. B[1] 11. A1]
12. CO2(g) /gas escapes / (gas) pressure / [CO2] (above liquid) decreases / bubbles (of
CO2 gas) form in the liquid;
equilibrium shifts to the right (to replace the lost CO2 gas); 2[2]
13. (i) exothermic;
Accept either of the following for the second mark.
increasing temperature favours endothermic/reverse reaction;
as yield decreases with increasing temperature; 2 max
(ii) yield increases / equilibrium moves to the right / more ammonia;
increase in pressure favours the reaction which has fewer
moles of gaseous products; 2
(iii) (rate increases because) increase in frequency (of collisions);
increase in energy (of collisions);
more colliding molecules with E ≥ Ea; 2 max [6]
14. D 15. C
[1]
[1]
16. (a) ester; 1
1013.0
(b) amount of oil = 885.6 = 1.144 mol;
200.0
amount of methanol = 32.05 = 6.240 mol;
since three mol of methanol react with one mol of vegetable oil the
amount of excess methanol = 6.204 – (3 × 1.144) = 2.808 mol; 3
(c) (i) rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction /
forward and reverse reactions occur and the concentrations of the
reactants and products do not change / OWTTE; 1
[glycerol] [biodiesel] 3
3
(ii) Kc = [ vegetableoil] [methanol] ; 1
(iii) to move the position of equilibrium to the right/product side /
increase the yield of biodiesel; 1
(iv) no effect (on position of equilibrium);
increases the rate of the forward and the reverse reactions equally
(so equilibrium reached quicker) / it lowers Ea for both the
forward and reverse reactions by the same amount / OWTTE;
No ECF for explanation. 2
(d) vegetable oil is mainly non-polar and methanol is polar / OWTTE;
stirring brings them into more contact with each other / increase the
frequency of collisions / OWTTE;
Do not allow simply mixing. 2
(e) (relative molecular mass of biodiesel, C9H36O2 = 296.55)
maximum yield of biodiesel = 3.432 mol / 1018 g;
811.0
percentage yield = 1018 × 100 = 79.67 %;
Allow 80 % for percentage yield. 2
(f) the carbon dioxide was absorbed by plants initially so there is no net
increase / vegetable oil is not a fossil fuel / vegetable oil is formed
from (atmospheric) carbon dioxide / OWTTE; 1 [14]
17. D[1] 18. B[1] 19. A[1]
2 2
20. (i) (Kc =) [SO3] /[O2] [SO2] ; 1
(ii) yield (of SO3) decreases;
forward reaction is exothermic / reverse/backwards reaction is endothermic /
equilibrium shifts to absorb (some of) the heat;
Do not accept exothermic reaction or Le Chatelier’s Principle.
Do not allow ECF. 2
(iii) no effect; 1
(iv) no effect;
the rates of both the forward and reverse reactions increase equally; 2
[6]
21. C 22. B
[1]
[1]
[SO 2 Cl 2 ]
23. (i) (Kc) = [Cl 2 ][SO 2 ] ;
Ignore state symbols.
Square brackets [ ] required for the equilibrium expression. 1
(ii) value of Kc increases;
[SO2Cl2] increases;
decrease in temperature favours (forward) reaction which is exothermic;
Do not allow ECF. 3
(iii) no effect on the value of Kc / depends only on temperature;
[SO2Cl2] decreases;
increase in volume favours the reverse reaction which has more
gaseous moles;
Do not allow ECF. 3
(iv) no effect;
catalyst increases the rate of forward and reverse reactions (equally) /
catalyst decreases activation energies (equally); 2
[9] [1]
24. C 25. D
[1]
26. less product is present at higher temperatures;
Therefore the forward reaction is exothermic; 2[2]
[NH 3 ] 2
[N 2 ][H 2 ]3
27. (i) (Kc =) (ignore units); 1
(ii) Increasing the pressure:
Yield increases / equilibrium moves to the right / more ammonia;
4 gas molecules → 2 / decrease in volume / fewer gas molecules
on right hand side;
Increasing the temperature:
Yield decreases / equilibrium moves to the left / less ammonia;
Exothermic reaction / OWTTE; 4
(iii) Higher temperature increases rate;
Lower pressure is less expensive / lower cost of operating at low
pressure / reinforced pipes not needed; 2
Do not award a mark just for the word “compromise”.
3
(iv) 2.2 (dm ); 1
Penalize incorrect units.
(v) Fertilizers / increasing crop yields;
Production of explosives for mining; 1 max
(vi) Fe/iron;
Allow magnetite/iron oxide.
Claim is not valid since catalysts do not alter the yield/position
of equilibrium / only increase the rate of reaction; 2
[11]